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Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 19(2)ago. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1337801


Los Flavivirus constituyen virus transmitidos por artrópodos, principalmente mosquitos. Pueden producir enfermedades en humanos y animales, también incluyen virus específicos de insectos que solo infectan y se replican en los insectos, no así en vertebrados. En Paraguay los virus dengue, fiebre amarilla y Zika fueron detectados en infecciones humanas, pero los estudios de flavivirus en mosquitos son aún escasos. Por ello, el objetivo del presente estudio fue implementar un sistema de detección de flavivirus en mosquitos en el IICS-UNA. Primero, se organizaron capacitaciones en colecta, preparación de pools y procesamiento por técnicas de RT-PCRs convencionales realizadas por expertos internacionales a profesionales locales (bioquímicos y biólogos). Además, se implementaron planillas de registro de datos y de control de transporte de muestras de los lugares de colectas hasta el IICS-UNA. Se prepararon en total 201 pools de 1 a 35 mosquitos cada uno agrupados por especie, localidad, entre otros criterios. Para asegurar la integridad del RNA extraído se realizó la detección de un control interno (Actina-1), siendo todos los pools positivos para el mismo, 91/201 pools fueron positivos para flavivirus. Se realizó la secuenciación de 19/91 pools positivos para flavivirus identificándose flavivirus de insectos (detectándose principalmente Culex Flavivirus, cell fusing agents Flavivirus y Kamiti river virus), evidenciando la elevada distribución de estos virus. Estos resultados demuestran que fue factible implementar el sistema de detección de flavivirus en mosquitos, lo cual podría contribuir a fortalecer la vigilancia y control de estas virosis, así como el conocimiento sobre la importancia ecológica de flavivirus de insectos

Flaviviruses are viruses transmitted by arthropods, mainly mosquitoes. They can cause diseases in humans and animals, they also include specific insect viruses that only infect and replicate in insects, not in vertebrates. In Paraguay, dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses were detected in human infections, but studies of flaviviruses in mosquitoes are still scarce. Therefore, the objective of the present study was the implementation of a flavivirus detection system in mosquitoes at IICS-UNA. First, trainings on collection, pool preparation and processing by conventional RT-PCR techniques were organized by international experts for local professionals (biochemists and biologists). In addition, data log sheets and sample transport control forms from the collection sites to the IICS were implemented. A total of 201 pools of 1 to 35 mosquitoes were prepared, each grouped by species, locality, among others. To ensure the integrity of the extracted RNA, an internal control (Actin-1) detection was performed, all pools being positive for it; 91/201 pools were positive for flaviviruses. The sequencing of 19/91 pools positive for flavivirus was carried out, identifying flavivirus in all cases of insects (mainly detecting Culex Flavivirus, cell fusing agents Flavivirus and Kamiti river virus), evidencing the high distribution of these viruses. These results demonstrate that it was feasible to implement the flavivirus detection system in mosquitoes, which could contribute to strengthen the detection, surveillance and control of these viruses, as well as, the knowledge about the ecological importance of insect flaviviruses

Animals , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flavivirus , Culicidae/virology , Paraguay
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 59-66, July. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283592


BACKGROUND: Many human genetic diseases arise from point mutations. These genetic diseases can theoretically be corrected through gene therapy. However, gene therapy in clinical application is still far from mature. Nearly half of the pathogenic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are caused by G:C>A:T or T:A>C:G base changes and the ideal approaches to correct these mutations are base editing. These CRISPR-Cas9-mediated base editing does not leave any footprint in genome and does not require donor DNA sequences for homologous recombination. These base editing methods have been successfully applied to cultured mammalian cells with high precision and efficiency, but BE4 has not been confirmed in mice. Animal models are important for dissecting pathogenic mechanism of human genetic diseases and testing of base correction efficacy in vivo. Cytidine base editor BE4 is a newly developed version of cytidine base editing system that converts cytidine (C) to uridine (U). RESULTS: In this study, BE4 system was tested in cells to inactivate GFP gene and in mice to introduce single-base substitution that would lead to a stop codon in tyrosinase gene. High percentage albino coat-colored mice were obtained from black coat-colored donor zygotes after pronuclei microinjection. Sequencing results showed that expected base changes were obtained with high precision and efficiency (56.25%). There are no off-targeting events identified in predicted potential off-target sites. CONCLUSIONS: Results confirm BE4 system can work in vivo with high precision and efficacy, and has great potentials in clinic to repair human genetic mutations.

Animals , Mice , Adenosine Deaminase , Cytosine , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing/methods , Base Sequence , Blotting, Western , Models, Animal , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mutation
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 67-75, July. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283594


BACKGROUND: Adipogenesis and fibrogenesis can be considered as a competitive process in muscle, which may affect the intramuscular fat deposition. The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPb) plays an important role in adipogenesis, which is well-characterized in mice, but little known in bovine so far. RESULTS: In this study, real-time qPCR revealed that the level of C/EBPb was increased during the developmental stages of bovine and adipogenesis process of preadipocytes. Overexpression of C/EBPb promoted bovine fibroblast proliferation through mitotic clonal expansion (MCE), a necessary process for initiating adipogenesis, by significantly downregulating levels of p21 and p27 (p < 0.01). Also, the PPARc expression was inhibited during the MCE stage (p < 0.01). 31.28% of transfected fibroblasts adopted lipid-laden adipocyte morphology after 8 d. Real-time qPCR showed that C/EBPb activated the transcription of early stage adipogenesis markers C/EBPa and PPARc. Expression of ACCa, FASN, FABP4 and LPL was also significantly upregulated, while the expression of LEPR was weakened. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded C/EBPb can convert bovine fibroblasts into adipocytes without hormone induction by initiating the MCE process and promoting adipogenic genes expression, which may provide new insights into the potential functions of C/EBPb in regulating intramuscular fat deposition in beef cattle.

Cattle/metabolism , Adipocytes/metabolism , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Clone Cells , Cell Proliferation , Adipogenesis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mitosis , Muscles
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 8-16, May. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343314


BACKGROUND: Myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) such as MyoD, Myf6 and Myf5 play a vital role in the growth and development of muscles. Jeju Native Pig (JNP) is the top ranker in Korea amongst the indigenous livestock reared for meat purpose. Few studies covering transcript abundance of the MRFs and related to their co-expression with Pax7 in JNP have been conducted. Despite having better quality pork, JNP does not have a comparative growth rate with respect to western breeds. Therefore, the present study was designed with the objective to study the relative transcript levels of MRFs in the postnatal myogenesis of longissimus dorsi muscles in JNP and Berkshire breeds. RESULTS: Relative transcript levels were analyzed by qRT-PCR and blot expression analysis through Western blotting. Immunocytochemistry was performed to analyze their expressions at cellular levels. ToppCluster aided in the analysis of gene ontology of biological processes. The quantitative transcript levels of MyoD and Pax7 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in Berkshire than in JNP. Myotube formation was observed under the co-expression of MyoD and Pax7. ToppCluster helped in the understanding of the linking of biological processes of the MRFs with the different signaling pathways. MyBPH had significantly (P < 0.05) high transcript levels during the chosen age groups in JNP than Berkshire. CONCLUSIONS: The current study can be helpful in understanding the genetic basis for myogenesis in postnatal stage. Moreover, it can act as stepping stone for the identification of marker genes related to body growth and meat quality in JNP.

Animals , Swine , Myogenic Regulatory Factors/metabolism , Muscle Development/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Genetic Markers , Blotting, Western , Myogenic Regulatory Factors/genetics , PAX7 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gene Ontology , Pork Meat
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 40-49, May. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343322


BACKGROUND: Scavenger receptor class B (SRB) is a multifunctional protein in animals that participates in physiological processes, including recognition of a wide range of ligands. Astaxanthin is a major carotenoid found in shrimp. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin and SRB protein binding has not been reported. RESULTS: In the present study, a member of the SRB subfamily, named PmSRB, was identified from the transcriptome of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The open reading frame of PmSRB was 1557 bp in length and encoded 518 amino acids. The structure of PmSRB included a putative transmembrane structure at the N-terminal region and a CD36 domain. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that the CD36 domain were conserved. Phylogenetic analysis showed four separate branches (SRA, SRB, SRC, and croquemort) in the phylogenetic tree and that PmSRB was clustered with SRB of Eriocheir sinensis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the PmSRB gene was widely expressed in all tissues tested, with the highest expression level observed in the lymphoid organ and brain. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that PmSRB-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion proteins were predominantly localized in the cell membrane. The recombinant proteins of PmSRB showed binding activities against astaxanthin in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: PmSRB was identified and characterized in this study. It is firstly reported that PmSRB may take as an important mediator of astaxanthin uptake in shrimp.

Animals , Penaeidae , Receptors, Scavenger/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Blotting, Western , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Sequence Alignment , Xanthophylls , Receptors, Scavenger/isolation & purification , Receptors, Scavenger/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Transcriptome
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(1, cont.): e2403, jan-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1252764


O Whatman FTA-Card® é um papel-filtro quimicamente tratado, destinado à coleta, transporte, armazenamento de amostras para posterior extração de ácidos nucléicos. A tecnologia FTA-Card® é utilizada para manter estável DNA e RNA em temperatura ambiente, podendo ser utilizados para fixação de uma ampla variedade de material orgânico ou tecidos. Foram realizados testes para certificar sua eficiência na conservação do material a ser analisado com o intuito de eliminar a cadeia fria de conservação, agilizando o processo e diminuindo os custos da execução de exames moleculares associados ao diagnóstico de patologias. Foram testadas oito amostras de felinos na forma de sangue total e soro, para a extração utilizou-se o kit Magazorb RNA Total mini-prep kit (Promega®, EUA), para o diagnóstico foi utilizada a técnica de PCR em tempo real para amplificar o gene CI2 de mamíferos, a fim de visualizar a eficácia na conservação de ácidos nucleicos. A utilização desse método torna possível que o material biológico seja enviado por serviços de transporte postais, reduzindo os custos e viabilizando diagnósticos provenientes de áreas mais remotas.(AU)

Whatman FTA-Card® is a chemically treated filter paper intended for the collection, transport, and storage of samples for later extraction of nucleic acids. FTA-Card® technology is used to keep DNA and RNA stable at room temperature and can be used to fix a wide variety of organic material or tissues. Tests were carried out to certify its efficiency in the conservation of the material to be analyzed in order to eliminate the cold conservation chain, speeding up the process and decreasing the costs of performing molecular tests associated with the diagnosis of pathologies. By using this method, biological material can be sent by postal transport services, reducing costs and making diagnoses from more remote areas feasible. Samples of feline specimens were tested in the form of whole blood and serum, using the Magazorb RNA Total mini-prep kit (Promega®, USA) for the extraction. Diagnosis was performed using real-time PCR technique to amplify the mammalian CI2 gene in order to visualize the effectiveness in conserving nucleic acids.(AU)

Whatman FTA-Card® es un papel de filtro tratado químicamente, destinado a la recogida, transporte, almacenamiento de muestras para su posterior extracción de ácidos nucleicos. La tecnología FTA-Card® se usa para mantener el ADN y el ARN estables a la temperatura ambiente y se puede usar para la fijación de una amplia variedad de materiales o tejidos orgánicos. Se realizaron pruebas para certificar su eficiencia en la conservación del material a analizar con el fin de eliminar la cadena de frío de conservación, agilizando el proceso y reduciendo los costos de realización de pruebas moleculares asociadas al diagnóstico de patologías. Se analizaron ocho muestras felinas en forma de sangre total y suero, para la extracción se utilizó el mini-prep kit Magazorb RNA Total (Promega®, USA), para el diagnóstico se utilizó la técnica de PCR en tiempo real para amplificar el CI2 de mamífero gen, con el fin de visualizar la efectividad en la conservación de ácidos nucleicos. El uso de ese método permite el envío de material biológico por los servicios de transporte postal, lo que reduce los costes y permite realizar diagnósticos desde zonas más remotas.(AU)

Biocompatible Materials , DNA , Materials , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 53-58, Mar. 2021. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292393


BACKGROUND: Lycium barbarum (also called wolfberry), a famous Chinese traditional medicine and food ingredient, is well recognized for its significant role in preventing obesity; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its preventive effects on fat accumulation are not well understood yet. The aim of this study was to determine the effects and mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. MTT was used to detect the proliferation of 3T3-Ll preadipocytes. Oil red O staining and colorimetric analysis were used to detect cytosolic lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR) technology was used to detect peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor c (PPARc), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein a (C/EBPa), adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein (aP2), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression. RESULTS: The concentration of LBP from 25 to 200 lg/mL showed a tendency to inhibit the growth of preadipocytes at 24 h, and it inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In the preadipocytes treated with 200 lg/mL LBP, there were reduced lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, and its effect was opposite to that of rosiglitazone (ROS), which significantly reduced the PPARc, C/EBPa, aP2, FAS, and LPL mRNA expression of adipocytes. CONCLUSIONS: LBP exerts inhibitive effects on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreases the cytoplasm accumulation of lipid droplets during induced differentiation of preadipocytes toward mature cells. Above phenomenon might link to lowered expression of PPARc, C/EBPa, aP2, FAS, and LPL after LBP treatment. Thus, LBP could serve as a potential plant extract to treat human obesity or improve farm animal carcass quality via adjusting lipid metabolism.

Polysaccharides , Plant Extracts , Adipocytes , Lycium/chemistry , Cell Differentiation , 3T3-L1 Cells , Cell Proliferation , Adipogenesis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 34-41, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291638


BACKGROUND: This work studied how the exposure to an unusual substrate forced a change in microbial populations during anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production, with freshwater sediment used as an inoculum. RESULTS: The microbial associations almost completely (99.9%) utilized the glycerol contained in crude glycerol 6 g L 1 within four days, releasing gases, organic acids (acetic, butyric) and alcohols (ethanol, n-butanol) under anaerobic conditions. In comparison with control medium without glycerol, adding crude glycerol to the medium increased the amount of ethanol and n-butanol production and it was not significantly affected by incubation temperature (28 C or 37 C), nor incubation time (4 or 8 d), but it resulted in reduced amount of butyric acid. Higher volume of gas was produced at 37 C despite the fact that the overall bacterial count was smaller than the one measured at 20 C. Main microbial phyla of the inoculum were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. During fermentation, significant changes were observed and Firmicutes, especially Clostridium spp., began to dominate, and the number of Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria decreased accordingly. Concentration of Archaea decreased, especially in medium with crude glycerol. These changes were confirmed both by culturing and culture-independent (concentration of 16S rDNA) methods. CONCLUSIONS: Crude glycerol led to the adaptation of freshwater sediment microbial populations to this substrate. Changes of microbial community were a result of a community adaptation to a new source of carbon.

Bacteria/isolation & purification , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Fresh Water/microbiology , Glycerol/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , Adaptation, Biological , Biofuels , Fermentation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Anaerobiosis
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1253408


Background Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) infection after kidney transplantation (KT) is associated with high mortality. Methods We analysed an outbreak of infection/colonization with IMP-1-producing CRPA on a KT ward, conducting a case-control study. Cases were identified through routine surveillance culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for carbapenemase performed directly from rectal swab samples. Controls were randomly selected from patients hospitalized on the same ward during the same period, at a ratio of 3:1. Strain clonality was analysed through pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and whole-genome sequencing was performed for additional strain characterization. Results CRPA was identified in 37 patients, in 51.4% through surveillance cultures and in 49.6% through clinical cultures. The median persistence of culture positivity was 42.5 days. Thirteen patients (35.1%) presented a total of 15 infections, of which 7 (46.7%) were in the urinary tract, among those, 30-day mortality rate was 46.2%. PFGE analysis showed that all of the strains shared the same pulsotype. Multilocus sequence typing analysis identified the sequence type as ST446. Risk factors for CRPA acquisition were hospital stay > 10 days, re-transplantation, urological surgical re-intervention after KT, use of carbapenem or ciprofloxacin in the last three months and low median lymphocyte count in the last three months. Conclusions KT recipients remain colonised by CRPA for long periods and could be a source of nosocomial outbreaks. In addition, a high proportion of such patients develop infection. During an outbreak, urine culture should be added to the screening protocol for KT recipients.

Ciprofloxacin , Mortality , Culture , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1255156


The gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19 is the reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay, which searches for SARS­CoV-2 target genes in nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) samples, and its performance depends on the quantity and quality of the RNA input. This study compared the performance and cost-effectiveness of three different kits/reagents for RNA extraction used in COVID-19 diagnosis in Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 300 NP/OP samples belonging to suspected cases of COVID-19 stored in a biorepository were randomly selected, and RNA was extracted using (i) automated extraction (Loccus, Extracta Kit FAST), (ii) manual extraction (BioGene Kit, Bioclin, Quibasa), and (iii) quick extraction methods (Lucigen, Quick DNA Extract Kit). Next, the samples were tested using RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 with the Allplex 2019-nCoV modified assay and the Charité-Berlin protocol. All assays/kits were used according to the manufacturer's instructions. For the Allplex kit, the sensitivity in detecting SARS-CoV-2 with previously extracted RNA by different procedures was 100.0% for Loccus, 100.0% for BioGene and 91.9% for Quick. Using the Charité-Berlin protocol, the sensitivities were 81.4% for Loccus, 81.2% for BioGene and 60.7% for Quick. The least sensitive target gene and the gene most affected by RNA extraction procedures was the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (Charité-Berlin protocol). No false-positive SARS-CoV-2 results were detected using RNA obtained from any of the different protocols. In conclusion, Loccus and BioGene RNA extractions were efficient for RT-qPCR assays, and although the BioGene procedure is less expensive, Loccus is the best choice because it allows the rapid handling of hundreds or thousands of samples, a desirable feature during pandemics. Although less sensitive, the Quick extraction is useful during outbreaks coupled with the Allplex amplification kit for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (κ = 0.925).

Disease Outbreaks , Costs and Cost Analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Indicators and Reagents
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210085, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287339


BACKGROUND The high demand for adequate material for the gold standard reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)-based diagnosis imposed by the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, combined with the inherent contamination risks for healthcare workers during nasopharyngeal swab (NP) sample collection and the discomfort it causes patients, brought the need to identify alternative specimens suitable for the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). OBJECTIVES The aim of this work was to compare saliva and gingival fluid swabs to NP swabs as specimens for RT-qPCR-based SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. METHODS We compared gingival fluid swabs (n = 158) and saliva (n = 207) to the rayon-tipped NP swabs obtained from mild-symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects as specimens for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 detection. FINDINGS When compared to NP swabs, gingival fluid swabs had a concordance rate of 15.4% among positive samples, zero among inconclusive, and 100% among negative ones. For saliva samples, the concordance rate was 67.6% among positive samples, 42.9% among inconclusive, and 96.8% among negative ones. However, the concordance rate between saliva and NP swabs was higher (96.9%) within samples with lower cycle threshold (Ct) values (Ct > 10 ≤ 25). MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our data suggests that whereas gingival fluid swabs are not substitutes for NP swabs, saliva might be considered whenever NP swabs are not available or recommended.

Humans , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Saliva , Specimen Handling , Nasopharynx , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200443, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154874


BACKGROUND The coronaviruses (CoVs) called the attention of the world for causing outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV), in Asia in 2002-03, and respiratory disease in the Middle East (MERS-CoV), in 2012. In December 2019, yet again a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) first identified in Wuhan, China, was associated with a severe respiratory infection, known today as COVID-19. This new virus quickly spread throughout China and 30 additional countries. As result, the World Health Organization (WHO) elevated the status of the COVID-19 outbreak from emergency of international concern to pandemic on March 11, 2020. The impact of COVID-19 on public health and economy fueled a worldwide race to approve therapeutic and prophylactic agents, but so far, there are no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines available. In current scenario, the development of in vitro systems for viral mass production and for testing antiviral and vaccine candidates proves to be an urgent matter. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is study the biology of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero-E6 cells at the ultrastructural level. METHODS In this study, we documented, by transmission electron microscopy and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the infection of Vero-E6 cells with SARS-CoV-2 samples isolated from Brazilian patients. FINDINGS The infected cells presented cytopathic effects and SARS-CoV-2 particles were observed attached to the cell surface and inside cytoplasmic vesicles. The entry of the virus into cells occurred through the endocytic pathway or by fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane. Assembled nucleocapsids were verified inside rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns (RER). Viral maturation seemed to occur by budding of viral particles from the RER into smooth membrane vesicles. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Therefore, the susceptibility of Vero-E6 cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the viral pathway inside the cells were demonstrated by ultrastructural analysis.

Humans , Animals , Vero Cells/virology , Cytoplasmic Vesicles/virology , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Nucleocapsid , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Endocytosis , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Virus Internalization , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200118, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | ID: biblio-1154768


The early symptoms of leptospirosis and dengue fever are difficult to distinguish and can cause diagnostic confusion. Due to the large dengue epidemics that has occurred in Brazil in recent years, it is possible that cases of leptospirosis were unreported. Therefore, we performed a retrospective study to detect leptospirosis in patients who were tested for dengue, but whose laboratory diagnoses were negative. Methods: Sera samples from 2,017 patients from 48 cities located in the central region of São Paulo state, Brazil, were studied. All samples were subjected to the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), 305 of which were taken from patients five days or less since the onset of symptoms, and were additionally subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The overall prevalence of leptospirosis cases was 21 (1.04%), with 20 through MAT (18 for Icterohaemorrhagiae and two for the Cynopteri serogroup) and one through PCR (amplicon sequencing compatible with Leptospira interrogans). According to previously established criteria, eight cases of leptospirosis were classified as "confirmed" and 13 as "probable". The Brazilian notification system for health surveillance had no records for 16 patients positive for leptospirosis and, thus, they were considered unreported cases. Statistical analyses revealed that the prevalence of leptospirosis was higher in men (1.56%) than in women (0.56%), and the mean age was higher in positive patients (43.7 years) than in negative ones (32.3 years). Conclusion: The results indicated that patients suspected of dengue fever had evidence of leptospirosis or Leptospira infection, and most of these cases were unreported in the Brazilian notification system. The high burden of dengue may contribute to the misdiagnosis of leptospirosis, and health professionals should increase their awareness of leptospirosis as an important differential diagnosis of patients with suspicion of dengue.(AU)

Humans , Dengue/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Health Surveillance , Agglutination Tests
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06645, 2021. graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1279538


Staphylococcus spp. plays a significant role in the etiology of bovine mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus is considered the most important species due to the high prevalence and the difficulty of in vivo treatment that is related to the expression of virulence factors and biofilm formation. This study aimed to detect the phenotypic expression of the biofilm formation in 20 S. aureus isolated from bovine mastitis and to evaluate the expression and regulation of genes involved in its production. MALDI-TOF and phenogenotypic identification assays were performed to characterize the isolates. The phenotypic biofilm production and the presence of icaA and icaD and bap genes were evaluated. The Agr system was typified (agr I, agr II, agr III and agr IV) and its regulator (agr RNAIII) was detected. Furtherly, Real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed at chosen times to quantify the expression of icaA, icaD and hld genes in three selected isolates. All 20 strains were biofilm producers and most presented icaA and icaD genes. Only one isolate presented the bap gene. The agr gene type II showed a prevalence of 70%. Transcriptional analysis revealed increased expression of ica genes at eight hours of growth. These results confirm that polysaccharides production mediated by the icaADBC operon genes is an essential mechanism to the biofilm formation and contributes to the early stages of bacterial growth.(AU)

Staphylococcus spp. desempenham um papel significativo na etiologia da mastite bovina. Staphylococcus aureus é considerada a espécie mais importante devido a alta prevalência e a dificuldade de tratamento in vivo que está relacionado à expressão dos fatores de virulência e formação de biofilme. Este estudo teve como objetivo detectar a expressão fenotípica da formação de biofilme em 20 cepas de S. aureus isoladas de mastite bovina e avaliar a expressão e regulação de genes envolvidos em sua produção. MALDI-TOF e ensaios de identificação fenogenotípica foram realizados para caracterizar os isolados. A produção fenotípica de biofilme e a presença dos genes icaA, icaD e bap foram avaliadas. O sistema Agr foi tipificado (agr I, agr II, agr III e agr IV) e seu regulador (agr RNAIII) foi detectado. Além disso, a PCR em tempo real (qPCR) foi realizada nos tempos determinados para quantificar a expressão dos genes icaA, icaD e hld em três isolados selecionados. Todas as 20 linhagens foram produtoras de biofilme e a maioria apresentava os genes icaA e icaD. Apenas um isolado apresentou o gene bap. O gene agr do tipo II mostrou uma prevalência de 70%. A análise transcricional revelou aumento da expressão de genes ica às oito horas de crescimento. Estes resultados confirmam que a produção de polissacarídeos mediada pelos genes do operon icaADBC é um mecanismo essencial para a formação do biofilme e contribui para os estágios iniciais do crescimento bacteriano.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Staphylococcus aureus , Biofilms , Genes , Mastitis, Bovine , Virulence Factors , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06840, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1279532


Avian influenza viruses (AIVs), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), West Nile virus (WNV), adenovirus (AV) and herpesvirus (HV) play an important role in the health of human and animal populations. However, knowledge of the prevalence of these viruses in wild birds is restricted to some groups (e.g. shorebirds) or regions worldwide. Information on grassland birds of South America, which is essential for their conservation, is scarce. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate occurrences of AIV, NDV, WNV, AV and HV for the first time in a bird community of a unique protected area in southern Brazil, which is home for the critically endangered yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata), and captive yellow cardinals from fauna maintainers of the Brazilian Captive Program of the Yellow Cardinal. Passerine species of wild life were caught, identified and samples (swabs) were collected from the oropharynx and cloaca of 64 passerines of 26 species (including 3 yellow cardinals) and 30 yellow cardinals of captive, for molecular diagnosis. The samples were subjected to RNA and DNA extraction and the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for AIV, NDV and WNV and nested PCR for AV and HV. One yellow cardinal of captive presented a positive result for AV, this result is important for planning, managing natural attributes and making decisions in relation to integrated conservation of threatened species. This is the first report of AV in yellow cardinal and epidemiological investigation of viruses in wild passerines of the Pampa biome, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.(AU)

Os vírus da gripe aviária (VGA), vírus da doença de Newcastle (VDN), vírus do Nilo Ocidental (VNO), adenovírus (AV) e herpesvírus (HV) desempenham um papel importante na saúde das populações humana e animal. No entanto, o conhecimento da prevalência desses vírus em aves selvagens é restrito a alguns grupos (por exemplo, aves limícolas) ou regiões em todo o mundo. As informações sobre as aves campestres da América do Sul, essenciais para a sua conservação, são escassas. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram avaliar a ocorrência de VGA, VDN, VNO, AV e HV pela primeira vez em uma comunidade de aves de uma área única protegida no Sul do Brasil, que abriga o cardeal-amarelo (Gubernatrix cristata) criticamente ameaçado de extinção e em cardeais-amarelos de cativeiro dos mantenedores de fauna do Programa Brasileiro de Cativeiro do Cardeal-amarelo. Espécies de passeriformes silvestres foram capturadas, identificadas e amostras (swabs) foram coletadas da orofaringe e cloaca de 64 passeriformes de 26 espécies (incluindo 3 cardeais-amarelos) e 30 cardeais-amarelos de cativeiro, para diagnóstico molecular. As amostras foram submetidas à extração de RNA e DNA e à reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real (RT-PCR) para VGA, VDN e VNO e nested PCR para AV e HV. Um cardeal-amarelo de cativeiro apresentou resultado positivo para AV, este resultado é importante para o planejamento, manejo dos atributos naturais e tomada de decisões em relação à conservação integrada de espécies ameaçadas. Este é o primeiro relato de AV em cardeal-amarelo e de investigação epidemiológica de vírus em passeriformes silvestres do bioma Pampa, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.(AU)

Animals , West Nile virus , Birds/virology , Newcastle disease virus , Endangered Species , Passeriformes/virology , Influenza in Birds , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06903, 2021. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1346695


Goose parvovirus (GPV), also called Derzsy's disease, is a viral pathogen that causes high morbidity and mortality in goslings and ducklings. In this study, we perform the molecular characterization of the GPV in Turkey. The definition of similarity to the world of GPV isolates in Turkey and construction of a phylogenetic tree was aimed. For this purpose, the presence of GPV in the liver, spleen, and intestine tissues of nine goslings with symptoms such as dysphagia, bilateral ocular swelling, eye discharge, diarrhea, and fatigue were investigated by real-time PCR method and all samples were detected as positive. According to the data obtained by molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis of GPV has been presented in Turkey. As a result of this study, it was determined that the GPVs available in Turkey are virulent strains.(AU)

O parvovírus do ganso (GPV), também chamado de doença de Derzsy, é um patógeno viral que causa alta morbidade e mortalidade em gansos e patinhos. Neste estudo, objetivou-se a determinação da caracterização molecular do GPV na Turquia, a definição da similaridade com o mundo dos isolados de GPV na Turquia e a construção de uma árvore filogenética. Para tanto, a presença de GPV no fígado, baço e tecidos do intestino de nove gansos com sintomas como disfagia, edema ocular bilateral, secreção ocular, diarreia e fadiga foram investigados pelo método de PCR em tempo real e todas as amostras foram detectadas tão positivo. À luz dos dados obtidos por caracterização molecular, a análise filogenética do GPV foi apresentada na Turquia. Como resultado deste estudo, foi determinado que os GPVs disponíveis na Turquia são cepas virulentas.(AU)

Animals , Phylogeny , Spleen , Parvovirus , Geese , Liver , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Molecular Biology
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13(Suplemento COVID-19): 1-4, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1247637


La detección de genoma viral mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcripción inversa en tiempo real (rRTPCR) para detectar virus SARS CoV-2, se considera como referencia para la definición de caso de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) confirmado por laboratorio. Sin embargo, no es lo mismo detectar genoma viral que diagnosticar una enfermedad, y la sensibilidad de detección de la técnica puede exceder la significancia clínica. En microbiología, la jerarquización de un resultado positivo depende de factores como el contexto clínico y epidemiológico, el sitio de toma de muestra y, en muchos casos, la cuantificación del patógeno. Un parámetro fundamental de la rRT-PCR es el ciclo umbral. De su interpretación depende la clasificación de una persona como caso confirmado. Por otro lado, los valores predictivos de una prueba varían según la prevalencia de la patología buscada. Dado que las pruebas positivas obtenidas en diferentes escenarios se consideran de manera equivalente como casos confirmados, con independencia de los signos y síntomas, puede haberse producido una sobrestimación de los casos reales de COVID-19, principalmente en función de testeos realizados en población general. Es fundamental el entrenamiento del personal y la realización de controles de calidad en los laboratorios de diagnóstico, así como definir niveles de corte de ciclo umbral predictivos de infectividad en centros de referencia para minimizar el impacto de resultados falsos en la sociedad

Predictive Value of Tests , Coronavirus Infections , False Positive Reactions , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Betacoronavirus
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200002, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345484


Abstract Terephthalic acid is extensively used as an important raw material in polyester fibers, as well as the production of polyethylene terephthalate bottles and textile industries. Especially, in the petrochemical industry, toxic chemicals are released to the atmosphere during the production of polyethylene terephthalate, unless the wastewater treatment is carried out. It's a well-known fact that chemicals have serious side effects on human health, so manufacturing companies should not dispose of such harmful chemicals without treatment. Biodegradation is an effective option for eco-friendly degradation of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are everywhere in environment and can utilize these chemicals as sources of carbon and energy. In the present study, aerobic bacterial strains T1, T4, T5, and TK were isolated from activated sludge and crude oil deposits of a petrochemical company in Turkey. The strains were identified to be Pseudomonas sp., Chryseobacterium sp., Burkholderia sp., and Arthrobacter sp. according to morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. The strains were able to degrade about 100% of 100 mg/L terephthalic acid within, respectively, 8, 67, 52, 24 hour as sole carbon and energy source. Therefore, these isolates can be effectively used for degradation of terephthalic acid contaminated sites. In addition to this, a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) was used to test the biodegradation capabilities of the isolates in the activated sludge system. Throughout the biodegradation, bacterial existence and numbers were monitored using designed primer-probe sets in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Biodegradation, Environmental , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Polyethylene Terephthalates/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Ghana Med. J. (Online) ; 55(2): 51-55, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1337568


The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is an important subject for global health. Ghana experienced lowmoderate transmission of the disease when the first case was detected in March 12, 2020 until the middle of July when the number of cases begun to drop. By August 24, 2020, the country's total number of confirmed cases stood at 43,622, with 263 deaths. By the same time, the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR) of the University of Ghana, the primary testing centre for COVID-19, had tested 285,501 with 28,878 confirmed cases. Due to database gaps, there were initial challenges with timely reporting and feedback to stakeholders during the peak surveillance period. The gaps resulted from mismatches between samples and their accompanying case investigation forms, samples without case investigation forms and vice versa, huge data entry requirements, and delayed test results. However, a revamp in data management procedures, and systems helped to improve the turnaround time for reporting results to all interested parties and partners. Additionally, inconsistencies such as multiple entries and discrepant patient-sample information were resolved by introducing a barcoding electronic capture system. Here, we describe the main challenges with COVID-19 data management and analysis in the laboratory and recommend measures for improvement

Humans , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Data Management , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ghana