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1.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 91(2): 125-130, jul.-dic. 2023. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1551978

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D- aspartato (NMDAr), fue descrita por primera vez en 2005, y en 2007 Dalmau et al identificaron los anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA. Se estima que anualmente hay 1.5 casos por cada millón de habitantes con mayor frecuencia en mujeres jóvenes entre 15 a 25 años, puede presentarse como un síndrome paraneoplásico asociado a teratoma ovárico en un 37%. Descripción del caso clínico: Femenina de 17 años con antecedente de teratoma de ovario izquierdo de recién diagnóstico, una semana posterior a la resección quirúrgica presenta: alucinaciones auditivas, ideación de persecución, insomnio, anhedonia, agitación psicomotriz, alteraciones del habla, discinesias orofaciales y alteraciones en la marcha, de un mes de evolución. El electroencefalograma (EEG) reportó hallazgos de disfunción cortico-subcortical severa según reporte por clínica privada sin acceso al estudio. La Resonancia Magnética (IRM) cerebral y citoquímica de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) sin anormalidades. Ante sospecha clínica se inició tratamiento inmunosupresor con corticosteroides intravenosos y manejo sintomático antipsicótico, para agitación y ansiedad; inicialmente con midazolam en infusión y luego con olanzapina, risperidona y clonazepam; obteniendo una evolución clínica satisfactoria. Finalmente, se confirmó el diagnóstico al obtener un resultado positivo para IgG contra la subunidad N1 de glutamato (GluN1) del NMDAr. Conclusión: La encefalitis anti NMDAr es una condición rara y subdiagnosticada, puede confundirse con una enfermedad psiquiátrica primaria. Ante un primer episodio psicótico se debe hacer un interrogatorio y evaluación extensa, con la finalidad de descartar causas secundarias, como los trastornos autoinmunes con repercusiones neurológicas...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Paraneoplastic Syndromes/diagnosis , Teratoma/complications , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/diagnosis , N-Methylaspartate , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(1): 51-60, mar. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533919

ABSTRACT

Hay muchos factores implicados en la incidencia de la enfermedad de Alzheimer que, en combinación, terminan por impedir o dificultar las funciones neuronales normales. Actualmente, poco se conoce sobre la regulación del calcio, antes de la enfermedad y durante la misma. La inestabilidad interna de los niveles de calcio se asocia a un mayor riesgo vascular, condición prevalente en un gran número de individuos ya comprometidos por la enfermedad de Alzheimer. Esta revisión proporciona una reevaluación de los mecanismos moleculares de la ATPasa dependiente de Ca2+ del retículo sarcoendoplásmico (SERC-A) en la enfermedad y analiza los aspectos más destacados de la función de los canales de calcio dependientes de voltaje; de esta manera, se podrán abrir nuevas alternativas de tratamiento. Estos mecanismos de regulación son clínicamente relevantes, ya que se ha implicado la función irregular de SERC-A en diversas alteraciones de la función cerebral.


There are many factors involved in the incidence of Alzheimer's disease that, in combination, impede or hinder normal neuronal functions. Little is currently known about calcium regulation before and during the disease. Internal instability of calcium levels is associated with increased vascular risk, a prevalent condition in a high number of individuals already compromised by Alzheimer's disease. This review provides a reevaluation of the molecular mechanism of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERC-A) in the disease and discusses salient aspects of voltage-gated calcium channel function; in these way new alternatives could be open for its treatment. These regulation mechanisms are clinically relevant since the irregular functions of SERC+A has been implicated in pathologies of brain function.


Subject(s)
Calcium Metabolism Disorders , Alzheimer Disease , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Endoplasmic Reticulum
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008755

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of Suanzaoren Decoction on the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors(NMDAR) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptors(AMPAR) in the hippocampus and synaptic plasticity in rats with conditioned fear-induced anxiety. The effect of Suanzaoren Decoction on rat behaviors were evaluated through open field experiment, elevated plus maze experiment, and light/dark box experiment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to measure the levels of glutamate(Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA) in the rat hippocampus. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR(qRT-PCR) and Western blot were employed to assess the gene and protein expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the hippocampal region. Transmission electron microscopy was utilized to observe the changes in the ultrastructure of synaptic neurons in the hippocampal region. Long-term potentiation(LTP) detection technique was employed to record the changes in population spike(PS) amplitude in the hippocampal region of mice in each group. The behavioral results showed that compared with the model group, the Suanzaoren Decoction group effectively increased the number of entries into open arms, time spent in open arms, percentage of time spent in open arms out of total movement time, number of entries into open arms out of total entries into both arms(P<0.01), and significantly increased the time spent in the light box and the number of shuttle crossings(P<0.01). There was an increasing trend in the number of grid crossings, entries into the center grid, and time spent in the center grid, indicating a significant anxiolytic effect. ELISA results showed that compared with the model group, the Suanzaoren Decoction group exhibited significantly reduced levels of Glu, Glu/GABA ratio(P<0.01), and significantly increased levels of GABA(P<0.01) in the rat hippocampus. Furthermore, Suanzaoren Decoction significantly decreased the gene and protein expression of NMDAR(GluN2B and GluN2A) and AMPAR(GluA1 and GluA2) compared with the model group. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated improvements in synapses, neuronal cells, and organelles in the hippocampal region of the Suanzaoren Decoction group compared with the model group. LTP detection results showed a significant increase in the PS amplitude changes in the hippocampal region of Suanzaoren Decoction group from 5 to 35 min compared with the model group(P<0.05, P<0.01). In conclusion, Suanzaoren Decoction exhibits significant anxiolytic effects, which may be attributed to the reduction in NMDAR and AMPAR expression levels and the improvement of synaptic plasticity.


Subject(s)
Rats , Mice , Animals , Receptors, Ionotropic Glutamate/metabolism , Hippocampus , Neuronal Plasticity , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/genetics , Anxiety/genetics , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 881-892, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982411

ABSTRACT

Mutations in genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins (PSs) cause familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder strongly associated with aging. It is currently unknown whether and how AD risks affect early brain development, and to what extent subtle synaptic pathology may occur prior to overt hallmark AD pathology. Transgenic mutant APP/PS1 over-expression mouse lines are key tools for studying the molecular mechanisms of AD pathogenesis. Among these lines, the 5XFAD mice rapidly develop key features of AD pathology and have proven utility in studying amyloid plaque formation and amyloid β (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration. We reasoned that transgenic mutant APP/PS1 over-expression in 5XFAD mice may lead to neurodevelopmental defects in early cortical neurons, and performed detailed synaptic physiological characterization of layer 5 (L5) neurons from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 5XFAD and wild-type littermate controls. L5 PFC neurons from 5XFAD mice show early APP/Aβ immunolabeling. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording at an early post-weaning age (P22-30) revealed functional impairments; although 5XFAD PFC-L5 neurons exhibited similar membrane properties, they were intrinsically less excitable. In addition, these neurons received smaller amplitude and frequency of miniature excitatory synaptic inputs. These functional disturbances were further corroborated by decreased dendritic spine density and spine head volumes that indicated impaired synapse maturation. Slice biotinylation followed by Western blot analysis of PFC-L5 tissue revealed that 5XFAD mice showed reduced synaptic AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 and decreased synaptic NMDA receptor subunit GluN2A. Consistent with this, patch-clamp recording of the evoked L23>L5 synaptic responses revealed a reduced AMPA/NMDA receptor current ratio, and an increased level of AMPAR-lacking silent synapses. These results suggest that transgenic mutant forms of APP/PS1 overexpression in 5XFAD mice leads to early developmental defects of cortical circuits, which could contribute to the age-dependent synaptic pathology and neurodegeneration later in life.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Mice, Transgenic , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, AMPA/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 537-543, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007769

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of glutamate and its ionotropic receptor agonists on the response to acute hypoxia in rat carotid body in vitro. Briefly, after SD rats were anesthetized and decapitated, the bilateral carotid bifurcations were rapidly isolated. Then bifurcation was placed into a recording chamber perfused with 95% O2-5% CO2 saturated Kreb's solution. The carotid body-sinus nerve complex was dissected, and the carotid sinus nerve discharge was recorded using a suction electrode. To detect the response of carotid body to acute hypoxia, the chamber was perfused with 5% O2-5% CO2-90% N2 saturated Kreb's solution for a period of 100 s at an interval of 15 min. To observe the effect of glutamate, ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonist AMPA or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist NMDA on the response to acute hypoxia in rat carotid body, the chamber was perfused with 5% O2-5% CO2-90% N2 saturated Kreb's solution containing the corresponding reagent. The results showed that glutamate (20 μmol/L), AMPA (5 μmol/L) or NMDA (10 μmol/L) inhibited the acute hypoxia-induced enhancement of carotid sinus nerve activity, and these inhibitory effects were dose-dependent. In summary, the activation of glutamate ionotropic receptors appears to exert an inhibitory effect on the response to acute hypoxia in carotid body of rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Glutamic Acid/pharmacology , alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid/pharmacology , N-Methylaspartate/pharmacology , Carotid Body , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Carbon Dioxide , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Receptors, AMPA , Hypoxia
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): e43-e48, feb 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353825

ABSTRACT

La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor N-metilD-aspartato es un proceso inmunomediado en el que autoanticuerpos se dirigen contra la subunidad GluN1 del receptor de glutamato del sistema nervioso central. Se caracteriza por la aparición aguda o subaguda de síntomas psiquiátricos, como confusión, pérdida de la memoria a corto plazo, cambios de conducta, catatonía, seguidos por manifestaciones neurológicas, tales como convulsiones, alteraciones del movimiento, disfunciones autonómicas, coma y depresión respiratoria. Es grave y potencialmente mortal. Su asociación con teratoma de ovario como síndrome paraneoplásico fue descrita en mujeres jóvenes. En la población pediátrica, es mucho menos frecuente y se reporta en comunicaciones de 1 o 2 pacientes y en series de pocos casos. Se presenta una paciente de 13 años con encefalitis paraneoplásica por anticuerpos contra el receptor N-metil-Daspartato, secundaria a un teratoma ovárico maduro.


The encephalitis due to antibodies against the N-methylD-aspartate receptor is a process immune-mediated in which antibodies are directed against the GluN1 subunit of the glutamate receptor in the central nervous system. It is characterized by an acute or subacute onset of psychiatric symptoms such as confusion, short-term memory loss, behavioral changes, catatonia followed by neurological manifestations such as seizures, movement disturbances, autonomic dysfunctions, coma, and respiratory depression. It is serious and life threatening. Its association with ovarian teratoma as a paraneoplastic syndrome was described in youngwomen. In the pediatric population it is much less frequent and is reported in publications of one or two patients and in series of few cases. We present a 13-year-old patient with encephalitis paraneoplastic due to antibodies against the N-methyl-Daspartate receptor, secondary to a mature ovarian teratoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Ovarian Neoplasms/complications , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnosis , Teratoma/complications , Teratoma/diagnosis , Encephalitis , Autoantibodies , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
7.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 841-856, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939846

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a common and severe brain disease affecting >65 million people worldwide. Recent studies have shown that kinesin superfamily motor protein 17 (KIF17) is expressed in neurons and is involved in regulating the dendrite-targeted transport of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B). However, the effect of KIF17 on epileptic seizures remains to be explored. We found that KIF17 was mainly expressed in neurons and that its expression was increased in epileptic brain tissue. In the kainic acid (KA)-induced epilepsy mouse model, KIF17 overexpression increased the severity of epileptic activity, whereas KIF17 knockdown had the opposite effect. In electrophysiological tests, KIF17 regulated excitatory synaptic transmission, potentially due to KIF17-mediated NR2B membrane expression. In addition, this report provides the first demonstration that KIF17 is modified by SUMOylation (SUMO, small ubiquitin-like modifier), which plays a vital role in the stabilization and maintenance of KIF17 in epilepsy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Epilepsy/metabolism , Kinesins/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Seizures/metabolism
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927859

ABSTRACT

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR),an important ionic glutamate receptor and a ligand and voltage-gated ion channel characterized by complex composition and functions and wide distribution,plays a key role in the pathological and physiological process of diseases or stress states.NMDAR can mediate apoptosis through different pathways such as mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum damage,production of reactive oxygen species and peroxynitrite,and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and calpain.This paper reviews the structure,distribution,and biological characteristics of NMDAR and the mechanisms of NMDAR-mediated apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Signal Transduction
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1149-1158, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927770

ABSTRACT

The α2δ-1 protein coded by Cacna2d1 is dramatically up-regulated in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and spinal dorsal horn following sensory nerve injury in various animal models of neuropathic pain. Cacna2d1 overexpression potentiates presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons to cause pain hypersensitivity. The α2δ-1-NMDAR interaction promotes surface trafficking and synaptic targeting of NMDARs in neuropathic pain caused by chemotherapeutic agents and peripheral nerve injury, as well as in other pathological conditions such as in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) with neurogenic hypertension and in the brain with ischemic stroke. The lentiviral transfection method was used to construct a human embryonic kidney HEK293T cell line that could stably express α2δ-1-NMDAR complex. A stably transfected cell line was observed by florescence microscope, and identified by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. The results showed that the HEK293T cell line was successfully transfected and the genes could be stably expressed. Subsequently, the transfected cell line was successfully developed into a target drug screening system using patch clamp techniques. It provides a promising cell model for further research on the interaction mechanism of α2δ-1-NMDAR complex and drug screening for chronic pain and related diseases with low side effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Drug Discovery , HEK293 Cells , Neuralgia/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/genetics
10.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 342-358, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929097

ABSTRACT

Central sensitization is essential in maintaining chronic pain induced by chronic pancreatitis (CP), but cortical modulation of painful CP remains elusive. Here, we examined the role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the pathogenesis of abdominal hyperalgesia in a rat model of CP induced by intraductal administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). TNBS treatment resulted in long-term abdominal hyperalgesia and anxiety in rats. Morphological data indicated that painful CP induced a significant increase in FOS-expressing neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and ACC, and some FOS-expressing neurons in the NTS projected to the ACC. In addition, a larger portion of ascending fibers from the NTS innervated pyramidal neurons, the neural subpopulation primarily expressing FOS under the condition of painful CP, rather than GABAergic neurons within the ACC. CP rats showed increased expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 1, and increased membrane trafficking and phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunit NR2B and the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluR1 within the ACC. Microinjection of NMDAR and AMPAR antagonists into the ACC to block excitatory synaptic transmission significantly attenuated abdominal hyperalgesia in CP rats, which was similar to the analgesic effect of endomorphins injected into the ACC. Specifically inhibiting the excitability of ACC pyramidal cells via chemogenetics reduced both hyperalgesia and comorbid anxiety, whereas activating these neurons via optogenetics failed to aggravate hyperalgesia and anxiety in CP rats. Taken together, these findings provide neurocircuit, biochemical, and behavioral evidence for involvement of the ACC in hyperalgesia and anxiety in CP rats, as well as novel insights into the cortical modulation of painful CP, and highlights the ACC as a potential target for neuromodulatory interventions in the treatment of painful CP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anxiety/etiology , Chronic Pain/etiology , GABAergic Neurons , Gyrus Cinguli/metabolism , Hyperalgesia/metabolism , Pancreatitis, Chronic/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid/toxicity
11.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 213-218, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928528

ABSTRACT

Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP)-induced persistent inflammatory immune response can significantly upregulate the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). However, the mechanism has not yet been elucidated. Herein, we screened out the target prostate-derived inflammation cytokines (PDICs) by comparing the inflammatory cytokine levels in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between EAP rats and their controls. After identifying the target PDIC, qualified males in initial copulatory behavior testing (CBT) were subjected to implanting tubes onto bilateral PVN. Next, they were randomly divided into four subgroups (EAP-1, EAP-2, Control-1, and Control-2). After 1-week recovery, EAP-1 rats were microinjected with the target PDIC inhibitor, Control-1 rats were microinjected with the target PDIC, while the EAP-2 and Control-2 subgroups were only treated with the same amount of artificial CSF (aCSF). Results showed that only interleukin-1β(IL-1β) had significantly increased mRNA-expression in the prostate of EAP rats compared to the controls (P < 0.001) and significantly higher protein concentrations in both the serum (P = 0.001) and CSF (P < 0.001) of the EAP groups compared to the Control groups. Therefore, IL-1β was identified as the target PDIC which crosses the blood-brain barrier, thereby influencing the central nervous system. Moreover, the EAP-1 subgroup displayed a gradually prolonged ejaculation latency (EL) in the last three CBTs (all P < 0.01) and a significantly lower expression of NMDA NR1 subunit in the PVN (P = 0.043) compared to the respective control groups after a 10-day central administration of IL-1β inhibitors. However, the Control-1 subgroup showed a gradually shortened EL (P < 0.01) and a significantly higher NR1 expression (P = 0.004) after homochronous IL-1β administration. Therefore, we identified IL-1β as the primary PDIC which shortens EL in EAP rats. However, further studies should be conducted to elucidate the specific molecular mechanisms through which IL-1β upregulates NMDA expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Ejaculation/physiology , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , N-Methylaspartate/metabolism , Prostate/metabolism , Prostatitis/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism
12.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 112 p. graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397184

ABSTRACT

A Doença de Huntington (Huntington's disease - HD) trata-se de uma patologia neurodegenerativa hereditária caracteriza por meio da expressão das proteínas huntingtinas mutantes (mHtt), das mortes dos neurônios espinhais médios (medium spiny neurons MSNs) GABAérgicos D2-positivos do striatum e da hipercinesia. Uma hipótese se refere à função das mHtts de potencializarem os efeitos excitotóxicos das estimulações dos receptores de NMDA (NMDAR) por meio da inibição da succinato desidrogenase, resultando em desequilibrio das [Ca2+]i, estresse oxidativo e apoptose. A adenosina agonista dos receptores purinérgicos P1 tem sido descrita por conta das suas funções neuroprotetoras e neuromodulatórias. Assim, estabelecemos dois modelos in vitro da HD fundamentados nas neurodiferenciações das linhagens murinas de célula-tronco embrionárias E14-TG2a e progenitoras neurais do hipocampo HT-22; seguidas pelos tratamentos com ácido quinolínico (QA) agonista seletivo dos NMDARs , na ausência e na presença do ácido 3-nitropropiônico (3-NP) inibidor irreversível da succinato desidrogenase. Estes modelos foram utilizados nas avaliações das funções neuroprotetoras da adenosina. Os neurônios pós-mitóticos das culturas de E14-TG2a diferenciadas foram caracterizados conforme os MSNs GABAérgicos do striatum; enquanto os neurônios HT-22 diferenciados foram caracterizados de modo inespecífico. Metodologia: imunofluorescência (microscopia e citometria); PCR em tempo real; análise das variações dos potenciais das membranas plasmáticas e das variações transientes das [Ca2+]i por microfluorimetria; e quantificações das reduções do AlamarBlue® (% de sobrevida celular) e das atividades extracelulares de LDH (U/L) (necrose) por espectrometria. Avaliamos a capacidade do 3-NP de potencializar os efeitos excitotóxicos do QA comparando dois grupos de neurônios HT-22 diferenciados: QA 8mM (EC50) (controle); e 3-NP 5mM/QA 8mM. Avaliarmos o potencial neuroprotetor da adenosina comparando quatro grupos de neurônios HT-22 diferenciados: QA 8mM; adenosina 250µM/QA 8mM; 3-NP 5mM/QA 8mM; 3-NP 5mM/adenosina 250µM/QA 8mM. Os neurônios pós-mitóticos derivados das E14TG2a foram classificados como MSNsGABAérgicos do striatum integrantes de uma cultura neuronal heterogênea semelhante às conexões nigroestriatais, corticoestriatais, striatonigral e striatopallidal. Os neurônios HT-22 diferenciados perfaziam uma cultura neuronal heterogênea, não totalmente madura, composta por neurônios glutamatérgicos, dopaminérgicos, colinérgicos e GABAérgicos. Os neurônios HT-22 diferenciados 3-NP 5mM apresentaram menores % de sobrevida celular após os tratamentos com QA 8mM por 24h (p<0.05); e maiores amplitudes das variações das [Ca2+]i dependentes do QA 8mM (p<0.05) (cinética 6 minutos). Por outro lado, os neurônios HT-22 diferenciados pré- tratados com 3-NP 5mM apresentaram menores atividades extracelulares de LDH após o tratamento com QA 8mM por 24h menor proporção de necrose. Os pré-tratamentos com adenosina 250µM indicaram uma tendência dos efeitos neuroprotetores (p>0.05) maiores % de sobrevida celular; menores atividades extracelulares de LDH; e menores amplitudes das variações transientes das [Ca2+]i. Em conjunto, nossos resultados indicam que a inibição da succinato desidrogenase potencializa os efeitos excitotóxicos dos NMDARs por meio da alteração das [Ca2+]i e, provavelmente, dos mecanismos de morte celular; enquanto a adenosina apenas tendeu à neuroproteção


Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative pathology characterized by mutant huntingtin proteins (mHtt) expression, striatum D2-positive GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) cell death and hyperkinetic motor symptoms development. One hypothesis refers to the principle that mHtt potentiates the excitotoxic effects of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) stimulation by the inhibition of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase, resulting in [Ca2+]i imbalance, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Adenosine P1 purinergic receptor agonist is related to neuroprotective and neuromodulatory functions. Thus, we established two in vitro HD models based on the neurodifferentiation of murine embryonic stem cell lines E14-TG2a and hippocampal neuroprogenitor cell line HT-22 followed by treatment with quinolinic acid (QA) selective agonist of NMDARs , in the absence and in the presence of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase. These models were used to assess the neuroprotective functions of adenosine. Post-mitotic neurons from differentiated E14-TG2a cultures were characterized according to striatum's GABAergic MSNs; while the differentiated HT-22 neurons were characterized in a non-specific way. Methodology included immunofluorescence (microscopy and cytometry); real-time PCR; analysis of variations in the plasma membrane potentials and of transient variations in the [Ca2+]i by microfluorimetry; and quantification of AlamarBlue® reductions (% cell survival) and of extracellular LDH activity (U/L) (necrosis) by spectrometry. We evaluated the ability of 3-NP to potentiate the excitotoxic effects of QA by comparing two groups of differentiated HT-22 neurons: 8mM QA (control); and 5mM 3-NP/8mM QA. We evaluated the neuroprotective potential of adenosine comparing four groups of differentiated HT-22 neurons: QA 8mM; 250µM adenosine/8mM QA; 5mM 3-NP/8mM QA; 5mM 3-NP/250µM adenosine/8mM QA. Postmitotic neurons derived from E14TG2a were classified as striatums GABAergic MSNs that are part of a heterogeneous neuronal culture similar to nigrostriatal, corticostriatal, striatonigral, and striatopallidal connections. Differentiated HT-22 neurons consisted of a heterogeneous neuronal culture and not fully mature glutamatergic,dopaminergic, cholinergic and GABAergic neurons. Differentiated HT-22 neurons following 5mM 3-NP treatment showed lower % cell survival after treatments with 8mM QA for 24h (p<0.05); and higher amplitudes of the variations of [Ca2+]i induced by 8mM QA (p<0.05) (kinetics 6 minutes). On the other hand, differentiated HT-22 neurons 5mM 3-NP showed lower extracellular LDH activities after treatment with 8mM QA for 24h indicating a lower proportion of necrotic cells. Pretreatments with 250µM adenosine indicated a trend towards neuroprotective effects, such as higher percentages of cell survival; lower extracellular LDH activities; and lower amplitudes of transient variations of [Ca2+]i. Taken together, our results indicate that succinate dehydrogenase inhibition potentiated the excitotoxic effects of NMDARs by altering [Ca2+]i and, probably, cell death mechanisms, while adenosine only to neuroprotection


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/methods , Quinolinic Acid/adverse effects , Huntington Disease/pathology , Models, Anatomic , Spectrum Analysis/methods , Adenosine/agonists , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Absenteeism , Purinergic Agonists/adverse effects
13.
Rev. enferm. neurol ; 20(3): 220-230, sep.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372943

ABSTRACT

Introducción: este caso describe el abordaje y aplicación de intervenciones especializadas de enfermería en una mujer de 49 años con encefalitis autoinmune teniendo como base el modelo de Dorothea Orem. Objetivo: identificar los requisitos universales alterados en la persona para restablecerlos mediante acciones de cuidado. Material y métodos: tras la selección de la persona y autorización del cuidador primario se aplicó un instrumento de valoración que permitió realizar diagnósticos utilizando el formato PESS, planeación y ejecución de intervenciones de enfermería, así como evaluación de cada una, por último, la elaboración de un plan de alta. Descripción del caso clínico: mujer de 49 años presentó súbitamente cefalea, alteración del lenguaje, agitación, inatención y labilidad emocional, punción lumbar arrojó leve proceso inflamatorio, descartando etiología vascular e infecciosa sospechando de autoinmunidad. Relevancia: analizar diferentes situaciones clínicas permitiendo plantear soluciones y estrategias para la mejora en el cuidado enfermero. Resultados y conclusiones: resultados satisfactorios, la evolución fue poco a poco, con grandes cambios que le permitieron ser funcional en las actividades de la vida diaria; ahora, a un año de su enfermedad a pesar del deterioro cognitivo puede deambular y alimentarse por sí misma.


Introduction: This case study describes the approach and application of specialized nursing interventions applied to a 49-year-old woman with autoimmune encephalitis based on the Dorothea Orem model. Objective: Identify the universal requirements altered in the person to restore them through care actions. Methodology: After the selection of the person and authorization of the primary caregiver, an assessment instrument was applied that allowed diagnoses to be made using the PESS format, planning and execution of nursing interventions, as well as the evaluation of each one, ending with the elaboration of a high plan. Description of the clinical case: a 49-year-old woman who suddenly presented headache, language alteration, agitation, inattention and emotional lability, lumbar puncture showed a mild inflammatory process, ruling out vascular and infectious etiology, suspecting autoimmunity. Relevance: The case study analyzes different clinical situations allowing solutions and strategies to be proposed to improve nursing care. Results and conclusions: The results were satisfactory, the evolution of the person was slow but with great changes that allowed her to be functional in the activities of daily life, currently one year after his illness, despite the cognitive deterioration, she can walk and feed herself by herself.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Nursing Care , Plasmapheresis , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Encephalitis , Immunotherapy , Antibodies
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(3): 1085-1094, mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153818

ABSTRACT

Abstract We investigated the feasibility of including plasma anti-NMDAR antibody screening in the assessment of first-episode psychosis patients in an early intervention programme in the Southern hemisphere. Anti-NMDAR IgG antibodies were assessed by ELISA in 166 patients (64.0% men), 166 matched population-based controls and 76 patients' siblings (30.3% men). Fisher's exact test and ANOVA were performed. Positive anti-NMDAR antibody patients were more often observed in bipolar disorder (10.0%) than schizophrenia (2.4%) or psychotic depression (3.1%), although no significant differences were observed. Our results are not conclusive regarding the inclusion of plasma anti-NMDAR IgG antibodies in differential diagnostic protocols for psychosis.


Resumo Nós investigamos a viabilidade de incluir a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-NMDAR na avaliação de pacientes em primeiro episódio psicótico em um programa de intervenção precoce no Hemisfério Sul. Anticorpos IgG anti-NMDAR foram avaliados por ELISA em 166 pacientes (64,0% homens), 166 controles de base populacional pareados e 76 irmãos (30,3% homens). Foram realizados teste exato de Fisher e ANOVA. Os anticorpos anti-NMDAR positivos foram mais observados no transtorno afetivo bipolar (10,0%) do que na esquizofrenia (2,4%) ou depressão psicótica (3,1%), embora não tenham sido observadas diferenças significativas. Nossos resultados não são conclusivos quanto à inclusão de anticorpos IgG anti-NMDAR no plasma em protocolos de diagnósticos diferenciais para psicose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Schizophrenia , Bipolar Disorder , Prevalence , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922255

ABSTRACT

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in central nerve system is mostly composed of GluN1 and GluN2 subunits. The classical NMDAR has been intensively studied. However, GluN3‑containing NMDAR is much less expressed and have atypical channel properties. Recently, accumulating evidences have revealed two types of GluN3‑containing NMDAR: glutamate-gated GluN1/GluN2/GluN3 NMDAR and glycine-gated GluN1/GluN3 NMDAR. The former may play important roles in regulating synapse maturation and pruning non-used synapses, and its elevated expression at the adult stage may alter synaptic reorganization in some neuropsychiatric disorders. The latter is expressed in the medial habenula and involves in control of aversion. This article reviews the recent progresses on the expression, functional properties of GluN3‑containing atypical NMDARs and the physiological and pathological relevance.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System/metabolism , Protein Subunits/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Synapses
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888078

ABSTRACT

Excitatory toxicity(ET) is an important factor of neuropathic pain(NPP) induced by central sensitization(CS), and the association of pannexin-1(Panx1)-Src-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2 B(NMDAR-2 B) is an important new pathway for ET to initiate CS. The present study confirmed whether the central analgesic effect of Chuanxiong Rhizoma extract(CRE) was achieved through the synchronous regulation of the brain and spinal pathways of Panx1-Src-NMDAR-2 B. In this study, dynamic and simulta-neo-us microdialysis of the brain and spinal cord in vivo combined with behavioristics, high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)-fluorescence detection, microdialysis analysis(ISCUS~(flex)), ultrasensitive multifactorial electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, ELISA, and Western blot was employed to investigate the protein expression of NMDAR-2 B, Src, and Panx1, extracellular excitatory amino acids, cytokines, energy metabolites, and substance P in spinal dorsal horn(SDH) and anterior cingulate cortex(ACC) after CRE intervention with the rat model of spared sciatic nerve injury(SNI) as the experimental tool. Compared with the sham group, the SNI group exhibited diminished mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT)(P<0.01), increased cold spray scores(P<0.01), glutamate(Glu), D-serine(D-Ser), and glycine(Gly) in extracellular fluids of ACC, and Glu, D-Ser, interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and lactic acid(Lac) in extracellular fluids of SDH(P<0.05), dwindled tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α)(P<0.05), and elevated protein levels of NMDAR-2 B, Src, and Panx1 in ACC(P<0.05). Compared with the SNI model rats, high-and medium-dose CRE(CRE-H/M) could potentiate the analgesic activity as revealed by the MWT test(P<0.05) and CRE-M enabled the decrease in cold spray scores(P<0.05). CRE-H/M could inhibit the levels of Glu, D-Ser and Gly in the extracellular fluids of ACC(P<0.05), and the levels of Glu in the extracellular fluids of SDH(P<0.05) in SNI rats. CRE-M significantly increased the levels of glucose(Gluc), Lac, interferon-gamma(IFN-γ), keratinocyte chemoattractant/human growth-regulated oncogenes(KC/GRO), and IL-4 in extracellular fluids of SDH in SNI rats(P<0.05). CRE-H/M/L could also inhibit the levels of NMDAR-2 B, Src and Panx1 in ACC and SDH in SNI rats(P<0.05). The central analgesic effect of CRE is presumedly related to the inhibited release of excitatory amino acid transmitters(Glu, D-Ser and Gly) in ACC and SDH of SNI rats, decreased protein expression of NMDAR-2 B, Src and Panx1 in the two regions, and the regulation of the Panx1-Src-NMDAR-2 B pathway in the spinal cord and brain. The above findings partially clarified the scientific basis of clinical analgesic effect of Chuanxiong Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Central Nervous System Sensitization , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spinal Cord/metabolism
17.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 12(2): 1273-1278, oct. 2021-marz. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1435725

ABSTRACT

La encefalitis es un desorden inflamatorio del encéfa- lo que deriva en un estado mental alterado, crisis con- vulsivas, déficits neurológicos focales, acompañado usualmente de signos de inflamación en el líquido ce- falorraquídeo y hallazgos en la resonancia magnética que pueden ir desde normalidad hasta anormalidades extensas. El anticuerpo anti RNMDA es el que origi- na la mayoría de los casos de encefalitis autoinmune en niños y adultos jóvenes, seguido por el anticuerpo anti LGI1 de presentación en el adulto. Se caracteri- zan por estar frecuentemente asociadas a algún tumor, responder a la inmunoterapia y provocar daños cere- brales variables que se manifiestan como cuadros clí- nicos polimorfos (desde la disfunción límbica hasta una encefalopatía multifocal o difusa). La prevalencia exacta de las encefalitis autoinmunes es incierta, exis- tiendo un aumento importante del reporte de casos en los últimos 10 años, asociado al avance en la pesqui- sa de los anticuerpos contra un antígeno celular espe- cífico. Todas las encefalitis autoinmunes responden a terapia inmunomoduladora, generalmente la evolución a la mejoría es lenta y puede completarse en meses o incluso en un año o más. Revisaremos generalidades de la encefalitis autoinmune, su forma más común y discutiremos su enfoque diagnóstico y tratamiento...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/diagnosis , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis , Neurologic Manifestations
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of children with anti-N-methyl--aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis and to provide a basis for early clinical identification of this disease.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 42 cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis at Department of Pediatrics, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from January 2015 to March 2018 were collected. The clinical features and followed-up outcomes were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#There were 15 cases (35.7%) of males and 27 cases (64.3%) of females in 42 children, with a ratio of 1꞉1.8. They were aged from 4 months to 17 years, with an average of (9.20±4.66) years. The most common initial symptoms were seizures (47.6%, 20/42) and mental behavior disorder (35.7%, 15/42). During the course of the disease, 85.7% patients(36/42) had mental and behavior disorder, 85.7% patients (36/42) had epilepsy, 76.2% (32/42) had speech disorder, 66.7% patients (28/42) had dyskinesia, 66.7% patients (28/42) had the decreased level of consciousness, 61.9% patients (26/42) had autonomic instability, and 57.1% (24/42) patients had sleep disorder. All the children had positive antibody against NMDA receptor resistance encephalitis in cerebrospinal fluid. Head MRI showed the abnormal incidence was 50.0% (21/42), and the lesions involved in parietal lobe, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, midbrain, thalamus, basal ganglia and optic nerve. There was a patient with optic nerve damage combined with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody positive. Forty cases were examined by electroencephalogram (EEG), 92.5% cases (37/40) were abnormal, mainly showing diffuse slow waves, and δ brushes could be seen in severe cases. And there was 1 patient (2.4%) complicated with mesenteric teratoma. The mRS score (2.14±1.46) at discharge was significantly lower than the highest mRS score (3.88±1.38) during hospitalization (<0.05). After 3-39 months of follow-up, mRS score at 3 months after discharge was only 0.81±1.29, which was still improved compared with that at discharge, 76.2% cases (32/42) experienced complete or near-complete recovery (mRS score≤2), and 4.8% (2/42) cases relapsed. There was no mortality; the initial time of immunotherapy and the highest mRS score in the course of the disease were the factors affecting the prognosis. The earlier the starting time for immunotherapy and the lower mRS score in the course of the disease were, the better the prognosis was.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Seizures, mental and behavior disorder, dyskinesias, speech disorder and autonomic instability are common clinical manifestations of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in children. The effect of immunotherapy is significant, and the time to start immunotherapy and the severity of the disease are important factors affecting the prognosis. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis can be combined with other autoantibodies, but its clinical significance and mechanism need further study.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis , Autoantibodies , Electroencephalography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Retrospective Studies
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 463-474, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827040

ABSTRACT

Formaldehyde is one of the simplest organic small molecules containing C, H and O elements in the early stage of earth's evolution; however, it has been found to be existed in every eukaryotic cell and participate in "one carbon metabolism". Recent studies have shown that formaldehyde may act as a signal molecule to regulate memory formation. After electrical stimulation or learning activity, the levels of formaldehyde in rat brains were increased instantly, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor was activated to promote the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP) or spatial memory. On the contrary, after reducing the levels of formaldehyde in the brains, NMDA receptor could not be activated, which was accompanied by the deficits in both LTP and memory. Moreover, in the brains of normal aged rats and APP/PS1 transgenic mice, the concentrations of formaldehyde were abnormally increased, which directly inhibited NMDA receptor activity and impaired spatial memory. This article reviewed the physiological and pathophysiological functions of endogenous formaldehyde in learning and memory.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Formaldehyde , Hippocampus , Long-Term Potentiation , Maze Learning , Memory , Memory Disorders , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826359

ABSTRACT

To observe the cell origin of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid(NMDA)receptor expression in skin after chronic ischemic pain modeling in rats and explore the role of NMDA receptor in type Ⅰ complex regional pain syndrome. Forty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups:sham operation group(=12),chronic post ischemia pain(CPIP)group(=12),CPIP+normal saline(NS)group(=6),CPIP+NMDA group(=6),and CPIP+MK801 group(=6).Six rats in the sham operation group and CPIP group were sacrificed under deep anesthesia one day after modeling.The plantar skin and L3-L5 spinal cord tissue were used for NR1(NMDA receptor)subunit immunofluorescence detection and for Western blotting of NR1,interleukin(IL)-1β,and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α.For the remaining rats,the mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT)values on the 2nd,6th,10th and 14th day after ischemia were recorded,and the corresponding drugs were injected subcutaneously from the 6th day after ischemia.The skin and L3-L5 spinal cords were collected on the 14th day,and the same detection methods were applied. Compared with the sham operation group,the CPIP group had significantly higher expressions of NR1(1.708±0.064;=12.120, <0.001),IL-1β(2.575±0.305;=5.158, =0.003),and TNF-α(2.691±0.217;=7.786, <0.001)in the skin on the first day after modeling.After intervention with NMDA and MK801,the MWT value was [(20.37±0.95)g] in the CPIP+NS group,which was significantly higher than that in CPIP+NMDA group [(15.85±1.09)g;=10.920, <0.001] but significantly lower than that in CPIP+MK801 group[(22.95±0.96)g;=6.421, <0.001] 10 days after modeling.On the 14th day,compared with the MWT of the CPIP+NS group [(21.57±0.96)g],the CPIP+NMDA group had significantly decreased MWT value [(16.53±1.63)g;=12.190, <0.001],and the CPIP+MK801 group had significantly increased MWT value [(23.27±1.28)g;=4.094, =0.025].Compared with the sham operation group,the CPIP group had significantly increased NR1 expression(1.708±0.064;=10.910, <0.001)and the CPIP+NS group had significantly increased expressions of IL-1β(2.518±0.147;=11.010, <0.001)and TNF-α(1.949±0.184;=10.870, <0.001).Compared with the CPIP+NS group,the CPIP+NMDA group had significantly increased expressions of IL-1β(4.816±0.607;=16.670, =0.003)and TNF-α(2.629±0.349;=7.790, <0.001)and the CPIP+MK801 group had significantly decreased expressions of IL-1β(1.048±0.257;=10.660, =0.003)and TNF-α(0.790±0.165;=13.280, <0.001). NMDA receptor activation in skin keratinocytes after chronic ischemia in rats hinders the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α,which may be involved in central sensitization and pain conduction of type Ⅰ complex regional pain syndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Interleukin-1beta , Keratinocytes , Pain , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Spinal Cord , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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