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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e252071, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1440790

ABSTRACT

Este artigo analisou a percepção e os sentimentos de casais sobre o atendimento recebido nos serviços de saúde acessados em função de perda gestacional (óbito fetal ante e intraparto). O convite para a pesquisa foi divulgado em mídias sociais (Instagram e Facebook). Dos 66 casais que contataram a equipe, 12 participaram do estudo, cuja coleta de dados ocorreu em 2018. Os casais responderam conjuntamente a uma ficha de dados sociodemográficos e uma entrevista semiestruturada, realizada presencialmente (n=4) ou por videochamada (n=8). Os dados foram gravados em áudio e posteriormente transcritos. A Análise Temática indutiva das entrevistas identificou cinco temas: sentimento de impotência, iatrogenia vivida nos serviços, falta de cuidado em saúde mental, não reconhecimento da perda como evento com consequências emocionais negativas, e características do bom atendimento. Os achados demonstraram situações de violência, comunicação deficitária, desvalorização das perdas precoces, falta de suporte para contato com o bebê falecido e rotinas pouco humanizadas, especialmente durante a internação após a perda. Para aprimorar a assistência às famílias enlutadas, sugere-se qualificação profissional, ampliação da visibilidade do tema entre diferentes atores e reorganização dos serviços, considerando uma diretriz clínica para atenção ao luto perinatal, com destaque para o fortalecimento da inserção de equipes de saúde mental no contexto hospitalar.(AU)


This study analyzed couples' perceptions and feelings about pregnancy loss care (ante and intrapartum fetal death). A research invitation was published on social media (Instagram and Facebook) and data collection took place in 2018. Of the 66 couples who contacted the research team, 12 participated in the study by filling a sociodemographic questionnaire and answering a semi-structured interview in person (n=04) or by video call (n=08). All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and examined by Inductive Thematic Analysis, which identified five themes: feelings of impotence, iatrogenic experiences in health services, lack of mental health care, not recognizing pregnancy loss as an emotionally overwhelming event, and aspects of good healthcare. Analysis showed experiences of violence, poor communication, devaluation of early losses, lack of support for contact with the deceased baby, and dehumanizing routines, especially during hospitalization after loss. Professional qualification, extended pregnancy loss visibility among different stakeholders, and reorganization of health services are needed to improve the care offered to grieving families, considering a clinical guideline for perinatal grief care with emphasis on strengthening the insertion of mental health teams in the hospital context.(AU)


Este estudio analizó las percepciones y sentimientos de parejas sobre la atención recibida en los servicios de salud a los que accedieron debido a la pérdida del embarazo (muerte fetal ante e intraparto). La invitación al estudio se publicó en las redes sociales (Instagram y Facebook). De las 66 parejas que se contactaron con el equipo, 12 participaron en el estudio, cuya recolección de datos se realizó en 2018. Las parejas respondieron un formulario de datos sociodemográficos y realizaron una entrevista semiestructurada presencialmente (n=4) o por videollamada (n=08). Los datos se grabaron en audio para su posterior transcripción. El análisis temático inductivo identificó cinco temas: Sentimiento de impotencia, experiencias iatrogénicas en los servicios, falta de atención a la salud mental, falta de reconocimiento de la pérdida como un evento con consecuencias emocionales negativas y características de buena atención. Los hallazgos evidenciaron situaciones de violencia, comunicación deficiente, desvalorización de las pérdidas tempranas, falta de apoyo para el contacto con el bebé fallecido y rutinas poco humanizadas, especialmente durante la hospitalización tras la pérdida. Para mejorar la atención a las familias en duelo, se sugiere capacitación profesional, ampliación de la visibilidad del tema entre los diferentes actores y reorganización de los servicios, teniendo en cuenta una guía clínica para la atención del duelo perinatal, enfocada en fortalecer la inserción de los equipos de salud mental en el contexto hospitalario.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Child Health Services , Mental Health , Humanization of Assistance , Fetal Death , Pain , Parents , Pediatrics , Perinatology , Placenta Diseases , Prejudice , Prenatal Care , Psychology , Psychology, Medical , Public Policy , Quality of Health Care , Reproduction , Syndrome , Congenital Abnormalities , Torture , Uterine Contraction , Birth Injuries , Maternity Allocation , Labor, Obstetric , Trial of Labor , Adaptation, Psychological , Abortion, Spontaneous , Child Care , Maternal-Child Nursing , Refusal to Treat , Women's Health , Patient Satisfaction , Parenting , Parental Leave , Health Care Quality, Access, and Evaluation , Privacy , Depression, Postpartum , Credentialing , Affect , Crying , Curettage , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Access to Information , Ethics, Clinical , Humanizing Delivery , Abortion, Threatened , Denial, Psychological , Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Parturition , Labor Pain , Premature Birth , Prenatal Injuries , Fetal Mortality , Abruptio Placentae , Violence Against Women , Abortion , User Embracement , Ethics, Professional , Stillbirth , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Nuchal Cord , Resilience, Psychological , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Fear , Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications , Fertility , Fetal Diseases , Prescription Drug Misuse , Hope , Prenatal Education , Courage , Psychological Trauma , Professionalism , Psychosocial Support Systems , Frustration , Sadness , Respect , Psychological Distress , Obstetric Violence , Family Support , Obstetricians , Guilt , Health Services Accessibility , Hospitals, Maternity , Obstetric Labor Complications , Labor, Induced , Anger , Loneliness , Love , Midwifery , Mothers , Nursing Care
4.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(6): 521-528, dic. 2021. tab, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388693

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La Ley 21.030 permite la objeción de conciencia al personal de salud al interior del pabellón y a las instituciones privadas. Ha sido considerada conflicto de intereses no monetario, al anteponer los valores personales, afectando el cumplimiento del deber profesional. OBJETIVOS: Establecer la prevalencia de funcionarios/as objetores/as en los hospitales de la red pública del país y caracterizarles según edad, género y nacionalidad. MÉTODO: Estudio cuantitativo, analítico y transversal. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión. Para medir la asociación entre variables sociodemográficas, profesión y causal objetada, se utilizaron las pruebas de χ2, exacta de Fisher y de Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTADOS: En 57 hospitales, se observa una mayor frecuencia de objetores en causal 3. En 443 objetores, la mediana de edad fue de 43 años, el 64,8% mujeres y el 87,4% de nacionalidad chilena. En las zonas centro y sur del país se concentra la mayor proporción de hospitales con más del 50% de objetores. CONCLUSIONES: La dificultad para obtener información impide conocer cabalmente la magnitud de la objeción de conciencia. Resulta preocupante la alta prevalencia de objetores, específicamente en la causal violación. La objeción no puede operar como barrera que vulnere los derechos y la dignidad de las mujeres.


INTRODUCTION: Law 21.030 incorporates conscientious objection for health personnel inside the surgical ward and allows its invocation by private institutions. It has been considered a conflict of interest, not monetary, by putting personal values first, affecting the fulfillment of professional duty. OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of objectors in the countrys public network hospitals and characterize them according to age, gender, and nationality. METHOD: Quantitative, analytical, and cross-sectional study. Central and dispersion trend measures were used. For measuring the association between sociodemographic variables, profession and causal objected, test χ2, Fisher exact and Kruskal-Wallis test were used. RESULTS: In 57 hospitals, a higher frequency of objectors were observed in the third causal. In 443 objectors, the median age was 43 years, 64.8% are women, and 87.4% are Chilean. The central and southern areas of the country have the highest proportion of hospitals, with more than 50% objectors. CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty for obtaining the information prevents fully knowing the magnitude of conscientious objection in Chile. The high prevalence of objectors, specifically in the causal violation is worrying. The conscientious objection cannot operate as a barrier that violates the rights and dignity of women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Health Personnel/psychology , Abortion, Induced/legislation & jurisprudence , Abortion, Induced/psychology , Conscience , Attitude of Health Personnel , Chile , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Refusal to Treat , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Reproductive Rights , Abortion , Age and Sex Distribution , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data
5.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 22: e60815, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1155269

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo analisar o abandono do acompanhamento em saúde de bebês de mães com agravo de transmissão vertical. Métodos estudo documental retrospectivo. Os dados foram oriundos de prontuários de crianças estratificadas como alto risco pelo Programa Rede Mãe Paranaense, devido serem filhas de mulheres com diagnóstico de sífilis, toxoplasmose ou Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana no período gestacional, atendidas em centro de referência de atendimento materno-infantil. Para a análise dos fatores associados ao abandono do tratamento, realizou-se análise univariada e Teste Exato de Fisher com as variáveis sociodemográficas. Todos os preceitos éticos foram observados. Resultados foram analisados 136 prontuários. Os casos com maior taxa de abandono foram de filhos de mulheres com toxoplasmose e sífilis gestacional, apresentando taxas de 48,4% e 45,7%, respectivamente. Conclusão o abandono do acompanhamento de saúde dos bebês é recorrente. Os motivos de abandono frequentes foram: falta de busca ativa, falta de transporte e imprevisto familiar.


ABSTRACT Objective to analyze the abandonment of the health monitoring of babies of mothers with vertical transmission grievance. Methods a retrospective documental study. The data came from children's records stratified as high risk by the Paranaense Mother Network Program, due to being daughters of women diagnosed with syphilis, toxoplasmosis or Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the gestational period, attended in a reference center of maternal-infant care. For the analysis of factors associated with abandonment of treatment, univariate analysis and Fisher's Exact Test with sociodemographic variables were performed. All ethical precepts were observed. Results a total of 136 medical records were analyzed. The cases with the highest abandonment rate were the children of women with toxoplasmosis and gestational syphilis, presenting rates of 48.4% and 45.7%, respectively. Conclusion the abandonment of baby health monitoring is recurrent. The reasons for frequent abandonment were: lack of active search, lack of transportation and unforeseen family events.


Subject(s)
Patients , Child Health Services , Refusal to Treat , Continuity of Patient Care , Health Services Accessibility
6.
Rev. Bras. Psicoter. (Online) ; 22(3): 9-20, 20200000.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1349117

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: contemporary psychodynamic therapy research supports combining clinical judgment with empirical evidences. Recent studies suggest that systematically analyzing single cases may contribute to such efforts. Also, current criteria for evidence-based case studies recommend different perspectives on therapeutic process and outcome, such as therapist's and external judges' ratings. Finally, client's dropout conforms a challenge for psychotherapy research. AIMS & METHODS: as part of a SPR Small Research Grant, this study analyzed and compared the psychodynamic profile proposed both by therapist and two external judges, for the same case of early dropout from focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, consisting of two diagnostic interviews and five subsequent sessions, in a patient with an emotional disorder. Being blind to the rating process of the counterpart, Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis (OPD-2) was used by therapist and judges to generate a psychodynamic profile including five therapeutic foci. External judges rating was achieved through consensus, following CQR's guidelines. RESULTS & DISCUSSION: similarities and differences among therapist's and judges' psychodynamic profiles were found. Result's contributions to the understanding of case's early dropout are discussed, along with OPD-2's usefulness for psychodynamic practice-oriented research.(AU)


Subject(s)
Refusal to Treat , Defense Mechanisms , Psychotherapy, Psychodynamic , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Judgment , Methods
7.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(2): 252-257, feb. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115783

ABSTRACT

Conscientious Objection arises as a response to a regulation that is judged as immoral. Faced with a law that is considered unfair, the citizen can respond accepting it against his will, exercising conscientious objection on a personal level or, collectively reaching civil disobedience or revolutionary violence. This is an old discussion known since ancient Greece. The current enactment of laws that allow actions previously judged as crime, and that contravene medical tradition, reactivated the discussion about such objection. Some people, such as Savolescu, who denies the legitimacy of conscientious objection invoked by doctors, arguing that it is inefficient, leads to inequality and is inconsistent. He proposes that the values of these professionals can be tolerated privately but should not be determinant in the public sphere. These arguments are critically examined, mentioning pertinent answers from theoretical and practical points of view. We highlight that ethics should not differ in public and private spheres and the principles should be the same, but exercised in different fields. It is concluded that conscientious objection is acquiring legitimacy and that it is necessary to reflect on the underlying reasons that lead to invoke it. It should be considered a civilized resource against determinations of power that are considered to be an attempt against personal values and moral integrity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Physicians , Conscience , Refusal to Treat , Dissent and Disputes
8.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(supl.1): e00038219, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055645

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Este artigo objetivou compreender a objeção de consciência com base na análise das formações ideológicas que permeiam o acesso ao abortamento legal decorrente de violência sexual na concepção de trabalhadores e gestores que atuam em serviços de referência. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa mediante a participação de 20 trabalhadores (seis exerciam, também, a gestão) desses serviços a um roteiro de entrevista semiestruturado. O método de análise usado foi a análise do discurso. Os resultados evidenciam que a objeção de consciência emergiu como elemento discursivo central às mesmas. A análise contextualizada dos discursos evidenciou uma instrumentalização da prerrogativa por razões ideológicas, confluindo para a organização dos resultados nas seguintes categorias: a instrumentalização da objeção de consciência e a desarticulação da rede; e a instrumentalização da objeção de consciência a fim de vigiar e punir. Conclui-se que a objeção de consciência como formação discursiva foi ressignificada, a fim de compor um complexo e refinado sistema de sabotagem interna - consciente e inconsciente - dos serviços de atendimento à mulher em situação de violência sexual, apesar dos marcos e avanços legais.


Resumen: El objetivo de este artículo fue comprender la objeción de conciencia, a partir del análisis de las formaciones ideológicas que permean el acceso al aborto legal ocasionado por violencia sexual, en la concepción de trabajadores y gestores que actúan en servicios de referencia. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa mediante la participación de 20 trabajadores (seis ejercían, también, la gestión) de estos servicios en un guión de entrevista semiestructurado. El método de análisis utilizado fue el análisis del discurso. Los resultados evidencian que la objeción de conciencia emergió como elemento discursivo central a las mismas. El análisis contextualizado de los discursos evidenció una instrumentalización de la prerrogativa por razones ideológicas, confluyendo a la organización de los resultados en las siguientes categorías: la instrumentalización de la objeción de conciencia y la desarticulación de la red, así como la instrumentalización de la objeción de conciencia, a fin de vigilar y castigar. Se concluye que la objeción de conciencia como formación discursiva fue resignificada, con el fin de componer un complejo y refinado sistema de sabotaje interno - consciente e inconsciente - de los servicios de atención a la mujer en situación de violencia sexual, a pesar de los marcos y avances legales.


Abstract: This article sought to understand objection of conscience based on an analysis of the ideological formations that permeate access to legal abortion in cases of sexual violence in the perspective of workers and managers who work at reference centers. It is a qualitative research with semi-structured interviews of 20 workers (six of whom were also managers) of these services. The study used discourse analysis. Results show that objection of conscience emerged as a central discursive element. The contextualized analysis of the discourses showed an instrumentalization of the prerogative according to ideological reasons, flowing toward the organization of the following categories: the instrumentalization of objection of conscience and the disarticulation of the network; and instrumentalization of the objection of conscience in order to surveil and punish. We conclude that objection of conscience as discursive formation was re-signified so as to compose a complex and refined system of internal sabotage - both conscious and unconscious - of the health care services for women victims of sexual violence, despite the existing legal framework and advancements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Abortion, Induced , Conscience , Brazil , Refusal to Treat , Abortion, Legal
9.
S. Afr. j. bioeth. law ; 13(2): 1-4, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1270214

ABSTRACT

At some health establishments, doctors and nurses employed there are refusing to treat COVID-19 patients ­ even when they have been provided with the necessary personal protective equipment. Such conduct would appear to be in breach of the World Medical Association International Code of Medical Ethics, the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics for Nurses, the Rules of Conduct of the Health Professions Council of South Africa (SA), the SA Nursing Council and some of the provisions of the SA Constitution and of the relevant labour legislation. Guidance is provided to employers on how to deal with the situation based on ethical and legal considerations


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Jurisprudence , Personal Protective Equipment , Refusal to Treat , South Africa
10.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (33): 137-157, set.-dez. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059085

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este artículo examina el fenómeno de la objeción de conciencia (OC) a los servicios de aborto legal en Argentina, Uruguay y Colombia. Basado en relatos obtenidos a través de entrevistas, el análisis toma distancia de aquellos enfocados en diferenciar entre OC y barreras al servicio, o en identificar si las razones de objeción son verdaderas o válidas. Partiendo del hecho de que en muy pocos casos las/los objetoras/es están al tanto de las definiciones legales de la OC, se busca entender los significados que las/los entrevistadas/os le atribuyeron, y desde los cuales organizan su práctica médica, y justifican su negación a prestar servicios de aborto. En los tres países las/los entrevistadas/os se oponían principalmente a que fueran las mujeres quienes tomaran la decisión de qué embarazos interrumpir, y cómo y cuándo hacerlo. Los discursos contingentes a través de los cuales las/os médicas/os construyen las racionalidades de su OC están hechos, sobre todo, de un incuestionado apego al control de los cuerpos con capacidad de gestar; y de entendidos médico-sociales de las mujeres como inexorablemente madres, máquinas de reproducción o soportes vitales de fetos.


Resumo Este artigo examina o fenômeno da objeção de consciência (OC) nos serviços de aborto legal na Argentina, Uruguai e Colômbia. Com base nas narrativas obtidas por meio de entrevistas, a análise se distancia daquelas focadas na diferenciação entre OC e barreiras ao serviço, ou na interrogação sobre a verdade ou validade das razões para a objeção. Partindo do fato de que, em poucos casos, os objetores conhecem as definições legais da OC, procura-se compreender os significados que as/os entrevistadas/os lhe atribuíram e a partir dos quais organizam a sua prática médica e justificam a sua recusa em prestar serviços de aborto. Em todos os três países, os/as entrevistados/as se opuseram principalmente a que as mulheres decidissem por si mesmas quais gravidezes interromper, como e quando o fazem. Os discursos contingentes através dos quais os/as médicos/as constroem as racionalidades da sua OC são feitos, sobretudo, através de um apego inquestionável ao controle dos corpos capazes de gestação; e de compreensões médico-sociais das mulheres como inexoravelmente mães, máquinas de reprodução ou suportes vitais dos fetos.


Abstract This article examines conscientious objection (CO) to legal abortion services in Argentina, Uruguay and Colombia. Based on interviews, the analysis offers an alternative from studies focusing on differentiating between CO and access barriers, or in identifying if the reasons for the objections are true or valid. Considering the fact that it is only in very few cases that the objectors knew the legal definition of CO, the article seeks to understand the meanings that the interviewees attribute to their objection, how they organize their medical practices and how they justify their denial to provide abortion services. In all three countries, the interviewees' main opposition was to women themselves making the decision to interrupt a pregnancy, and how and when to do it. The contingent and variable discourses through which the doctors construct the logic of their CO are made of an unquestioning attachment to controlling gestating bodies; and a default socio-medical understanding of women as mothers, reproductive machines or as fetal life support systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Physicians , Bioethics , Refusal to Treat/ethics , Abortion, Legal , Conscience , Argentina , Uruguay , Attitude of Health Personnel , Interviews as Topic , Colombia , Reproductive Rights , Violence Against Women , Personal Narrative , Barriers to Access of Health Services , Gynecology
11.
Investig. psicol ; 24(2): 33-42, dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372938

ABSTRACT

Introducción: es necesario mayor estudio de la experiencia de abandono terapéutico temprano. Indagar sistemáticamente casos únicos puede conformar una respuesta orgánica a este desafío. Objetivos y métodos: se analizó y comparó la evolución de focos terapéuticos, planteados por el terapeuta tratante y por dos juezas externas, para un caso de abandono temprano de psicoterapia psicodinámica focalizada de un trastorno emocional. Ciegos a la codificación de la contraparte, terapeuta y juezas utilizaron el Diagnóstico Psicodinámico Operacionalizado-2 (OPD-2) para generar un perfil psicodinámico y establecer focos de tratamiento. Para cada foco, aplicaron la Escala de Presencia de Foco y la Escala de Cambio Estructural de Heidelberg. Resultados y discusión: se observaron puntos de convergencia y divergencia entre las perspectivas de terapeuta y juezas externas. Se discute la utilidad de dichos puntos para la comprensión del abandono temprano del paciente, así como las implicancias del OPD-2 como herramienta de investigación orientada a la práctica


Introduction: more study on the experience of therapeutic early dropout is needed. The systematic study of psychodynamic single cases can conform an organic response to this challenge. Aims & Methods: therapeutic foci's evolution, proposed by both treating therapist and two external judges, for the same early dropout case of a focused psychodynamic psychotherapy for an emotional disorder, were analyzed and compared. Blind to the counterpart's rating process, therapist and judges employed Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis (OPD-2) in order to generate a psychodynamic profile and establish therapeutic foci. For each focus, they applied the Focus Presence Scale and the Heidelberg Structural Change Scale. Results & Discussion: specific convergences' and discrepancies' points between therapist's and judges' perspectives were observed. Such points' usefulness for the understanding of patient's early dropout, together with OPD-2' implications as a practice-oriented research tool, are discussed


Subject(s)
Humans , Patients , Refusal to Treat , Psychotherapy, Psychodynamic , Psychotherapists
12.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 10(40): 7-13, 30 de septiembre 2019.
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, ARGMSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1024360

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Es reconocida la efectividad del test del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) para prevenir el cáncer cervicouterino (CC), así como su potencial para reducir barreras de acceso al tamizaje a través de su modalidad autotoma (ATVPH). Uno de los principales desafíos consiste en garantizar el acceso a la citología de triaje de las mujeres con AT-VPH positivas (VPH+). El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la magnitud y los determinantes sociales de la adherencia al triaje (realización de citología posterior a un resultado de test de VPH+) en mujeres de 30 años o más con AT-VPH+ dentro del sistema público de salud de la provincia de Jujuy. MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo transversal con análisis del Sistema de Información para el Tamizaje (SITAM) y encuestas domiciliarias a mujeres de 30 años o más con autotomas positivas en Jujuy durante 2015-2016, sin registro de triaje. RESULTADOS: El porcentaje estimado de adherencia al triaje fue de entre 96% y 81%. Estos porcentajes son menores a los 60 y 120 días de realizada la AT (18% y 35%, respectivamente). Las mujeres con cobertura de obra social/privada y sin condición de hacinamiento poseen mayor probabilidad de adherir al triaje. El principal motivo de no adherencia fueron los problemas con la entrega de resultados. CONCLUSIONES: Pese a los altos niveles de adherencia al triaje, es necesario incorporar intervenciones que mejoren la entrega de resultados y ayuden a enfrentar las barreras socioestructurales


Subject(s)
Cervix Uteri , Triage , Refusal to Treat
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(3): 290-299, mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961393

ABSTRACT

Background: The HIV epidemic reached Chile in late 1980s and as an early response, AIDS care centers were organized. Fundación Arriarán (FA) was the first center. Free antiretroviral therapy (ART) was later provided with progressive coverage and complexity over the years. Aim: To quantify evolution of mortality, retention and loss to follow up (LTFU) over 25 years according to different periods of access to ART, from no availability to full coverage with current drugs at FA center. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of FA database of 5,080 adults admitted between 1990 and 2014. The sample was distributed in 7 groups: A: no ART (1990-92), B: monotherapy, C: dual therapy, D: dual/triple ART, E: early triple therapy with incomplete coverage, F same as E but with complete coverage and G: contemporary ART (2008-14). Mortality, retention and LTFU were evaluated at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years and at 31/12/2015. Results: Mortality varied from 40% to 2%, and 62% to 7% at 1 and 5 years, for groups A and G respectively; from 71% to 16% at 10 years for groups A and E, respectively. Retention at 5 years were 28%, 23%, 39%, 62%, 75%, 75% and 77% for groups A to G, respectively. LTFU was 10%, 19%, 15%, 17%, 9% 12% and 10% at 5 years for same groups, respectively. At 12/31/2015 22% of patients had died, 11% were LTFU, 60% were retained in care and 6% had been transferred. Conclusions: There is a marked reduction in mortality and increase in retention of HIV patients' concomitant to expanded access to modern therapy, although LTFU remains a problem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Refusal to Treat/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , National Health Programs , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies
14.
Rev. chil. salud pública ; 22(2): 179-187, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373427

ABSTRACT

La Ley 21.030 de Chile despenalizó la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo en tres causales (riesgo de vida de la mujer, malformación de carácter letal del feto y embarazo producto de violación), e introdujo por primera vez en la legislación del país, el derecho a la objeción de conciencia de los equipos clínicos que participan directamente de los procedimientos de vaciamiento uterino de las gestaciones en que concurre alguna de las tres situaciones consideradas en la Ley. Esta Ley tuvo un amplio debate social y legislativo, y a un año de su implementación podemos observar con preocupación, que la objeción de conciencia de los equipos clínicos se alza como la principal barrera de acceso a las prestaciones de salud a las cuales tienen derechos las mujeres en estas situaciones en Chile.1,2 El presente artículo espera aportar al debate nacional sobre el rol de los profesionales de salud ante el nuevo escenario jurídico-sanitario, donde el equilibrio entre las libertades personales de los profesionales y el legítimo derecho de las mujeres a poder acceder a los servicios definidos en la Ley 21.030 estén en el centro de la discusión, y se expresan como una oportunidad o definitivamente una amenaza al estado de derecho, es decir a nuestra democracia


Chile's Law 21.030 decriminalized the voluntary interruption of pregnancy in three situations (when the woman's life is at risk, where the fetus has a lethal malformation, and in pregnancies resulting from rape), and also, for the first time in national legislative history, introduced the right to conscientious objection for clinical teams that participate directly in abortion procedures for the three situations considered in the Law. This Law spurred a broad social and legislative debate, and one year after its implementation, it is concerning to observe that the clinical teams' conscientious objections have been principle barrier impeding women's access to these health benefits, despite their legal right. This article seeks to contribute to the national debate on the role of health professionals in this new legal-sanitary scenario, where the balance between the personal freedoms of professionals and the legitimate right of women to access the services defined in Law 21.030 are at the center of the discussion. These are expressed either as an opportunity or as a definitive threat to the rule of law, which is to say, to our democracy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Women's Rights , Refusal to Treat/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Personnel/psychology , Conscience , Abortion , Chile , Refusal to Treat/ethics
16.
In. Tejera, Darwin; Soto Otero, Juan Pablo; Taranto Díaz, Eliseo Roque; Manzanares Castro, William. Bioética en el paciente grave. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2017. p.203-206.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1380928
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(3): 377-381, mar. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784908

ABSTRACT

It is usual to understand conscientious objection as a doctor’s refusal to perform a legitimate intervention, for subjective personal reasons unrelated to medicine. It is then accepted only by respect to professional autonomy and freedom of beliefs. Understood in that way it would be thus reasonable to limit it, curtail it or delete it, since the objector would not be willing to grant benefits that correspond to his medical profession. This work aims to show exactly the opposite, taking as an example the project of law that pretends to decriminalize abortion in some situations in Chile. Is the objector who defends medical activity relying on ethic codes that seek to preserve the values and principles of our profession.


Subject(s)
Humans , Professional Practice/ethics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/ethics , Abortion, Induced/ethics , Conscience , Ethics, Medical , Chile , Refusal to Treat/ethics , Professional Autonomy , Codes of Ethics
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(3): 382-387, mar. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784909

ABSTRACT

The Chilean bill that regulates abortion for three cases (Bulletin Nº 9895-11) includes the possibility that health professionals may manifest their conscientious objection (CO) to perform this procedure. Due to the broad impact that the issue of C O had, the Ethics Department of the Chilean College of Physicians considered important to review this concept and its ethical and legal basis, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health. In the present document, we define the practical limit s of CO, both for the proper fulfillment of the medical profession obligations, and for the due respect and non-discrimination that the professional objector deserves. We analyze the denial of some health institutions to perform abortions if it is legalize d, and we end with recommendations adjusted to the Chilean reality. Specifically, we recognize the right to conscientious objection that all physicians who directly participate in a professional act have. But we a lso recognize that physicians have ineludib le obligations towards their patients, including the obligation to inform about the existence of this service, how to access to it and -as set out in our code of ethics- to ensure that another colleague will continue attending the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Professional Practice/ethics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/ethics , Refusal to Treat/ethics , Conscience , Ethics, Medical , Chile , Ethics Committees , Abortion, Induced/ethics , Codes of Ethics
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154360

ABSTRACT

We validated the basic life support termination of resuscitation (BLS TOR) rule retrospectively using Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) data of metropolitan emergency medical service (EMS) in Korea. We also tested it by investigating the scene time interval for supplementing the BLS TOR rule. OHCA database of Seoul (January 2011 to December 2012) was used, which is composed of ambulance data and hospital medical record review. EMS-treated OHCA and 19 yr or older victims were enrolled, after excluding cases occurred in the ambulance and with incomplete information. The primary and secondary outcomes were hospital mortality and poor neurologic outcome. After calculating the sensitivity (SS), specificity (SP), and the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), tested the rule according to the scene time interval group for sensitivity analysis. Of total 4,835 analyzed patients, 3,361 (69.5%) cases met all 3 criteria of the BLS TOR rule. Of these, 3,224 (95.9%) were dead at discharge (SS,73.5%; SP,69.6%; PPV,95.9%; NPV, 21.3%) and 3,342 (99.4%) showed poor neurologic outcome at discharge (SS, 75.2%; SP, 89.9%; PPV, 99.4%; NPV, 11.5%). The cut-off scene time intervals for 100% SS and PPV were more than 20 min for survival to discharge and more than 14 min for good neurological recovery. The BLS TOR rule showed relatively lower SS and PPV in OHCA data in Seoul, Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Advanced Cardiac Life Support/mortality , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/mortality , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Decision Support Techniques , Electric Countershock/mortality , Emergency Medical Services , Hospital Mortality , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Refusal to Treat , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
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