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1.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 86 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152221

ABSTRACT

Introdução A forma como a nossa sociedade lida com a noção de saúde e como constrói a ideia da doença é discricionária e, ao mesmo tempo em que impacta, ela é impactada pela disponibilidade de tratamentos de um complexo industrial biomédico. O caso específico a ser analisado nessa dissertação é o da infertilidade. De que forma essa condição é definida como doença? Por quais atores? Quais tratamentos são disponibilizados para essa doença? Quais conflitos de interesse estão presentes nessa definição? Como se dá a regulamentação dessas questões, no âmbito internacional, e no âmbito nacional? Objetivo O objetivo dessa dissertação é analisar de que forma, e por meio de quais atores, se constrói a dupla condição da infertilidade atualmente: a sua definição como doença, e a noção de que a fertilidade é uma condição natural a ser preservada, uma potencialidade dos corpos femininos. Considera-se, para tanto, que tais construções são permeadas pelo mercado das tecnologias de reprodução assistida (TRAs) e são objeto de regulamentação nacional e internacionalmente. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo baseado em metodologia de caráter qualitativo, incluindo análise documental. Foram analisadas informações de fontes primárias. Foi feita análise documental da Classificação Internacional de Doenças (CID) e da Organização Mundial de Saúde - e seus parceiros -, tendo em vista serem essas as fontes reconhecidas mundialmente para a definição de condições patológicas. Ademais, foi analisado o papel regulamentador dessas entidades internacionais, assim como, dos atores, em âmbito nacional, responsáveis pela regulamentação da prática médica no campo da infertilidade e do mercado das Tecnologias de Reprodução Assistida (TRAs). A fim de propiciar um panorama de análise mais completo, foram estudados os websites das dez principais clínicas privadas da Cidade de São Paulo em busca de quatro conceitos-chave: a definição de "infertilidade" apresentada pelas clínicas, a indicação clínica para o procedimento de fertilização in vitro, o termo usado para se referir ao procedimento de congelamento de gametas femininos e as taxas de efetividade apresentadas nos websites para os tratamentos de infertilidade. Foram estudados os relatórios financeiros e balanços das principais empresas do complexo tecno-científico da biomedicina que atuam na cidade de São Paulo, a fim de identificar as tecnologias/equipamentos sendo desenvolvidos pelas empresas, quais mercados são alvo delas e a relação desse movimento com a proliferação de condições patológicas relacionadas à infertilidade. Resultados A definição da infertilidade como patologia é feita pela OMS por meio da Classificação Internacional de Doenças e, conforme observado, é adotada mundialmente, inclusive pelas clínicas de Reprodução Assistida paulistanas. Essa definição é feita pela OMS e por seus parceiros, os quais se apresentam como instituições neutras e de caráter técnico, apesar de serem patrocinadas direta ou indiretamente pelas indústrias responsáveis por ofertarem tecnologias reprodutivas. Os outros atores partícipes nessa definição consistem em associações de clínicas de reprodução assistida e médicos dessa área, as quais além do próprio interesse em expandirem seus negócios possuem, muitas vezes, financiamento direto das mesmas indústrias. Conclusão A partir dessas análises foi possível identificar o caráter não-neutro da definição da infertilidade como doença, a nova perspectiva da fertilidade como potencial reprodutivo, a influência de atores do mercado na construção desses conceitos, assim como os impactos desses conceitos no mercado das tecnologias para reprodução assistida. Ademais, observou-se a frágil regulamentação existente nesse campo, tanto no cenário internacional como no cenário nacional e a atuação limitada do setor público nessa seara. O poder público está ausente das decisões sobre a adoção das TRAs e sobre a sua aplicação nos corpos das mulheres, da mesma forma que não intervém nas discussões conceituais acerca da condição patológica atribuída à infertilidade pelo campo biomédico. A regulamentação estatal se limita a questões sanitárias, por meio da atuação da ANVISA, o que permite a autoregulamentação da classe médica e do mercado, os quais são permeados por contradições e conflitos de interesse.


Introduction The way in which our society deals with the notion of health and how the idea of disease is built is discretionary and at the same time that it impacts it is impacted by the availability of treatments of the industrial biomedical complex. The specific case to be analyzed in this dissertation is infertility. In what way is this condition defined as a disease? By whom? What treatments are made available for this disease? What conflicting economic interests are present in this definition? How are these processes regulated in both the international and domestic field? Objectives This dissertation aims to analyze how and by means of which participants the dual notion of infertility is conceived currently: its definition as a disease and the idea that fertility is a natural condition to be preserved, a potential of the female body. To do so, it is deemed that such constructions are pervaded by the market of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) and are subject to both domestic and international regulations. Methods In order to achieve this aim, a study was performed based upon methodology of a qualitative nature, including documentary analysis. A documentary analysis was made of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and of the World Health Organization (WHO) - and its partners -, bearing in mind that it is acknowledged throughout the world for defining pathological conditions. Furthermore, the regulating role of these international entities was analyzed, as was that of those taking part in the Domestic scope, responsible for regulating medical practice in the field of infertility and the market of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). In order to provide a more complete overview, the websites of the ten main private clinics in São Paulo were studied seeking four key concepts: the definition of "infertility" presented by the clinics, the clinical indication for the procedure of fertilization in vitro, the term used to refer to the procedure of freezing female gametes and the effectiveness rates displayed on the websites for treating infertility. The main participants of the industrial biomedical complex, focusing on the pharmaceutical industry and medical equipment were identified, as was any relationship thereof with the main fertility clinics of São Paulo city. To do so, the financial reports and balance sheets of the main companies of the technical-scientific complex of biomedicine performing in São Paulo city were studied, in order to identify the technology/equipment being developed by companies, their target markets and the relationship of this movement with the proliferation of pathological conditions related to infertility. Results The definition of infertility as a pathology in the ICD elaborated by the World Health Organization - WHO - is adopted worldwide including by clinics in São Paulo. This definition is elaborated by the WHO and its partners which are funded by the Industry of ART even though they portray an image of neutrality and technical-scientific character. The other players involved in these definitions are fertility clinics' associations and doctors that provide fertility treatments, which have their own business interests and sometimes are even funded directly by this Industry. Conclusion These analyses allowed the identification of the non-neutral nature of the definition of infertility as a disease, the new perspective of fertility as reproductive potential, the influence of entities in the market in building these concepts, as well as the impact of these concepts on the assisted reproductive technology market. Furthermore, the lack of string regulations in this field was noted, in both the international and domestic scenarios and the limited performance of the public sector in this area, which allows the self-regulation of the medical class and the market, pervaded with contradictions and self- interest.


Subject(s)
Social Control, Formal , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Fertility Clinics , Infertility
2.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(supl.1): S122-S130, set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138657

ABSTRACT

La pandemia de SARS-CoV-2 es una emergencia sanitaria sin precedentes, que ha implicado un reordenamiento en la priorización de procedimientos médicos electivos, frente a un potencial colapso del sistema de salud a nivel mundial y riesgo de contagio del personal y pacientes. Al igual que en el resto del mundo, en Chile la mayoría de los centros de medicina reproductiva han debido suspender sus diferentes terapias de reproducción asistida (TRA). Sin embargo, a raiz de la disminución del número de contagios y mayor evidencia científica disponible, la Sociedad Europea de Reproducción Humana y Embriología (ESHRE) ha recomendado reiniciar los ciclos de medicina reproductiva de forma gradual, a través de sistemas de triage, priorizando pacientes por medio de la generación de distintos escenarios. Considerando esta recomendación, se realizó una revisión sobre la evidencia existente respecto a SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 en medicina reproductiva recopilando diferentes directrices de las principales sociedades internacionales, con el objetivo de generar una recomendación ajustada a la realidad nacional.


SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is an unprecedented health emergency, which involves a reorganization of elective procedures, facing a potential global health system collapse. In Chile, as in the rest of the world. most reproductive medicine centers have suspended their different assisted reproduction therapies (ART). However, due to the decrease in the number of infections and due to a greater collection of scientific evidence, the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) have recommended restarting cycles gradually through triage systems, prioritizing patients through the generation of different scenarios. With this in mind, we carried out a review of the existing evidence so far regarding SARS-CoV-2 and reproductive medicine, and we tried to compile the different guidelines of the main international societies, to generate a recommendation adjusted to our local scenario.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Reproductive Medicine/standards , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/standards , Betacoronavirus , Ovulation Induction , Fertilization in Vitro , Triage , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Patient Selection , Embryo Transfer , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(4): 400-407, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138638

ABSTRACT

La utilización de técnicas de reproducción asistida (TRA) ha aumentado en todo el mundo, incluyendo procedimientos como la donación de gametos, la subrogación y el diagnóstico genético preimplantacional. Creciente evidencia confirma que los embarazos de pacientes sometidas a estos tratamientos tienen un mayor riesgo de complicaciones perinatales. No queda claro si la causa de estos hallazgos se debe a la infertilidad subyacente o los tratamientos en sí. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo resumir la evidencia actual acerca de los efectos sobre los resultados maternos y perinatales tanto de los diferentes procedimientos propios de la fecundación in vitro como de algunos tipos de TRA especiales.


The use of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) has increased worldwide, including procedures such as gamete donation, subrogation and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Growing evidence confirms that pregnancies following these treatments have an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. It is not clear whether the cause of these findings is due to the underlying infertility or the treatments themselves. This review aims to summarize the current evidence regarding the effects of both the different ART procedures and some special types of ART on maternal and perinatal outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/adverse effects , Ovulation Induction/adverse effects , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Pregnancy Outcome , Fertilization in Vitro/adverse effects , Risk , Premature Birth/etiology , Embryo Transfer/adverse effects
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(4): 306-314, Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135625

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the sperm quality obtained of domestic cats by electroejaculation and recovery of the tail of the epididymis after cooling at -1°C and 4°C for 24 and 48 hours. Twenty-nine adult cats (2 to 6kg) were used. Sperm collection was performed by electroejaculation (EEJ), and after 48 hours, the cats were orchiectomized, and sperm sample was obtained from the vas deferens and epididymis tail (EPD). The samples were diluted in ACP-117® extender, and the sperm characteristics were evaluated at three different moments: when still fresh, 24 and 48 hours after cooling. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sperm quality obtained of domestic cats by electroejaculation and recovery of the tail of the epididymis after cooling at -1°C and 4°C for 24 and 48 hours. Twenty-nine adult cats (2 to 6kg) were used. Sperm collection was performed by electroejaculation (EEJ), and after 48 hours, the cats were orchiectomized, and sperm sample was obtained from the vas deferens and epididymis tail (EPD). The samples were diluted in ACP-117® extender, and the sperm characteristics were evaluated at three different moments: when still fresh, 24 and 48 hours after cooling. In order to compare the two refrigeration temperatures, the first stage was to analyze if there was a difference between the harvesting techniques. After this, two experiments were conducted: in the first, sperm sample from 14 cats were used and the cooling was performed at -1°C; and in the second, sample from 15 cats were used and the sperm were refrigerated at 4°C. Sperm kinetics were evaluated by computerized analysis (CASA) and concentration by Neubauer chamber, spermatic morphology was evaluated by modified Karras staining, and membrane integrity was evaluated by eosin nigrosine. The results obtained were analyzed in R software, version 3.2.5 using the Mann-Whitney test for variables with abnormal distributions, considering significance at the level of 5%. In ejaculate samples, higher values of total morphological defects were observed after 24 and 48 hours of refrigeration at 4°C (P<0.022) compared to refrigeration at -1°C, using Friedman test. To quantify the decrease in sperm quality, parameter reductions were calculated among time points (F-24h/F-48h/24h-48h). In EPD samples, a greater reduction in sperm quality was detected after 24 hours of refrigeration at 4°C, both in motility and sperm kinetics and in the movement and velocity indices, compared to refrigeration at -1°C. Based on the results, it can be concluded that cooling of feline spermatozoa at -1°C for up to 48 hours was efficient in maintaining spermatic quality collected by EEJ and EPD, and it could be an alternative to spermatozoa cryopreservation in domestic felines.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade espermática de gatos domésticos obtidos por eletroejaculação e recuperação da cauda do epidídimo após a refrigeração a -1°C e a 4°C por 24 e 48 horas. Vinte e nove gatos adultos (2 a 6kg) foram utilizados. A colheita de espermatozoides foi realizada por eletroejaculação (EEJ) e, após 48 horas, os gatos foram orquiectomizados, e as amostras espermáticas foram obtidas a partir do ducto deferente e da cauda do epidídimo (EPD). As amostras foram diluídas em ACP-117® e as características espermáticas foram avaliadas em três momentos distintos: fresco, 24 e 48 horas após a refrigeração. Para ser possível comparar as duas temperaturas de refrigeração, a primeira etapa foi analisar se havia diferença entre as técnicas de colheita. Após isto, dois experimentos foram conduzidos: no primeiro, espermatozoides de 14 gatos foram utilizados e a refrigeração foi realizada a -1°C; e no segundo, amostras de 15 gatos foram utilizados e os espermatozoides foram refrigerados a 4°C. A cinética espermática foi avaliada por análise computadorizada (CASA), a concentração por câmara de Neubauer, a morfologia espermática foi avaliada pela coloração de Karras modificada, e a integridade da membrana foi avaliada por eosina nigrosina. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados no software R, versão 3.2.5, utilizando o teste de Mann-Whitney para variáveis com distribuições anormais, considerando significância ao nível de 5%. No ejaculado, maiores valores de defeitos morfológicos totais foram observados após 24 e 48 horas de refrigeração a 4°C (P<0,022) em comparação com refrigeração a -1°C, usando o teste de Friedman. Para quantificar a diminuição na qualidade espermática, as reduções dos parâmetros foram calculadas entre os pontos de tempo (F-24h/F-48h/24h-48h). Na EPD, uma maior redução na qualidade espermática foi detectada após 24 horas de refrigeração a 4°C, tanto na motilidade e na cinética espermática quanto nos índices de movimento e velocidade, em comparação com a refrigeração a -1°C. Com base nos resultados, pode concluir-se que a refrigeração dos espermatozoides felino a -1°C, até 48 horas, foi eficaz na manutenção da qualidade espermático colhidos por EEJ e EPD, e pode ser uma alternativa para a criopreservação de espermatozoides em felinos domésticos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cats , Semen , Semen Preservation/veterinary , Spermatozoa , Cryopreservation , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/veterinary , Epididymis
5.
JBRA Assist. Reprod ; 24(2)2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088097

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) started in China in December 2019 and has since spread to several other countries. On March 25, 2020, a total of 375,498 cases had been confirmed globally with 2,201 cases in Brazil, showing the urgency of reacting to this international public health emergency. While in most cases, mild symptoms are observed, in some cases the infection leads to serious pulmonary disease. As a result, the possible consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak for pregnant women and its potential effects on the management of assisted reproductive treatments, demand attention. In this review, we summarize the latest research progress related to COVID-19 epidemiology and the reported data of pregnant women, and discuss the current evidence of COVID-19 infections during pregnancy and its potential consequences for assisted reproductive treatments. Reported data suggest that symptoms in pregnant women are similar to those in other people, and that there is no evidence for higher maternal or fetal risks. However, considering the initial data and lack of comprehensive knowledge on the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy, human reproduction societies have recommended postponing the embryo transfers and do not initiate new treatment cycles. New evidence must be considered carefully in order to adjust these recommendations accordingly at any time and to guide assisted reproductive treatments.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Pregnant Women , Brazil
6.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 27(4): 603-608, out.-dez. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057439

ABSTRACT

Resumen En los últimos años se ha incrementado en Argentina la cantidad de tratamientos de reproducción asistida con donación de gametos (óvulos y/o espermatozoides). La filiación por técnicas de reproducción asistida heterólogas interroga la tradicional "herencia de sangre" objeto de estudio privilegiado de las ciencias sociales. En las últimas décadas, el paradigma sobre el anonimato de los donantes ha cambiado en muchos países. A su vez, se ha sugerido que los rápidos y generalizados avances en las pruebas genéticas podrían modificar las políticas de anonimato. ¿Cuáles son las consecuencias de fundamentar la revelación de la información genética/identificatoria sobre la base del mayor acceso que posibilitan los test genéticos? La presente reflexión parte de dos vertientes: la pública - que analiza las paradojas que encierra el articulado del nuevo Código Civil y Comercial (2015) - y la íntima, que ubica las coordenadas sobre las que se inscribe la transmisión singular de los orígenes.


Abstract In recent years, the number of assisted reproduction treatments with the donation of gametes (ovules and/or sperm) has increased in Argentina. The filiation by heterologous assisted reproduction techniques interrogates the traditional "blood inheritance" object of privileged study of the social sciences. In recent decades, the donor anonymity paradigm has changed in many countries. In turn, it has been suggested that rapid and widespread advances in genetic testing could modify anonymity policies. What are the consequences of substantiating the disclosure of genetic/identifying information based on the greater access that genetic tests allow? This reflection is based on two aspects: the public aspect - which analyzes the paradoxes contained in the articles of the new Civil and Commercial Code (2015) - and the intimate one, which locates the coordinates on which the singular transmission of the origins is inscribed.


Resumo Nos últimos anos, o número de tratamentos de reprodução assistida com doação de gametas (óvulos e/ou espermatozoides) aumentou na Argentina. A filiação por técnicas de reprodução assistida heteróloga interroga a tradicional "herança sanguínea", objeto de estudo privilegiado das ciências sociais. Nas últimas décadas, o paradigma do anonimato dos doadores mudou em muitos países. Por sua vez, sugeriu-se que avanços rápidos e generalizados em testes genéticos poderiam modificar as políticas de anonimato. Quais são as consequências de fundamentar a revelação das informações genéticas/de identificação com base no maior acesso que o teste genético torna possível? Esta reflexão parte de duas vertentes: a pública, que analisa os paradoxos dos artigos do novo Código Civil e Comercial (2015); e a íntima, que determina as coordenadas sobre as quais se inscrevem a transmissão singular das origens.


Subject(s)
Bioethics , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Direct-To-Consumer Screening and Testing
8.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 22(253): 2920-2926, jun.2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1023870

ABSTRACT

O objetivo foi compreender as repercussões psicossociais da infertilidade inexplicada em mulheres. Trata-se de um estudo transversal descritivo com abordagem qualitativa e exploratória. O procedimento metodológico utilizado nesse estudo compreendeu a realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas com dez mulheres que não apresentavam problema biológicos que impedisse a gestação, mas sofriam com a infertilidade. A análise das entrevistas se baseou na perspectiva da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados. Foram analisadas quatro categorias que emergiram na análise discursiva das entrevistas: sem problemas biológicos, sem diagnóstico; repercussões nas relações sociais; repercussões na relação conjugal; e o sonho realizado e providências futuras. As repercussões psicossociais associadas à infertilidade inexplicada podem trazer grande desorganização na vida pessoal, social e laboral das mulheres que estão enfrentando esse problema.(AU)


The aimed was understand the psychosocial repercussions of unexplained infertility in women. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study with a qualitative and exploratory approach. The methodological procedure used in this study included semi-structured interviews with ten women who did not present biological problems that prevented pregnancy but who suffered from infertility. The analysis of the interviews was based on the perspective of the Grounded Theory. We analyzed four categories that emerged in the discursive analysis of the interviews: no biological problems, no diagnosis; repercussions on social relations; repercussions on the conjugal relationship; and the dream come true and future action. The psychosocial repercussions associated with unexplained infertility can lead to great disorganization in the personal, social and work life of the women who are facing this problem. Keywords: female infertility; unexplained infertility; assisted reproductive techniques.(AU)


El objetivo fue comprender las repercusiones psicosociales de la infertilidad inexplicada en mujeres. Se trata de un estudio transversal descriptivo con enfoque cualitativo y exploratorio. El procedimiento metodológico utilizado en ese estudio comprendió la realización de entrevistas semiestructuradas con diez mujeres que no presentaban problema biológico que impidiera la gestación, pero sufrían con la infertilidad. El análisis de las entrevistas se basó en la perspectiva de la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos. Se analizaron cuatro categorías que surgieron en el análisis discursivo de las entrevistas: sin problemas biológicos, sin diagnóstico; repercusiones en las relaciones sociales; repercusiones en la relación conyugal; y el sueño realizado y providencias futuras. Las repercusiones psicosociales asociadas a la infertilidad inexplicada pueden traer gran desorganización en la vida personal, social y laboral de las mujeres que están enfrentando este problema.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Risk Factors , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Infertility, Female , Infertility, Female/psychology , Women's Health
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 917-928, mar. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-989629

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Conselho Federal de Medicina (CFM) publicou em 1992 a resolução CFM nº 1.358/1992 com o objetivo de adotar normas éticas para utilização das técnicas de Reprodução Assistida (TRA). Esta resolução foi atualizada em 2010 (CFM nº 1.957/2010), em 2013 (CFM Nº 2.013/13) e teve sua última atualização 2015 (CFM nº 2.121/2015). O objetivo desse artigo é fazer uma análise crítica sobre a evolução das normas éticas propostas pelo CFM para a utilização de TRA no Brasil. Foi realizada uma análise documental do texto das quatro Resoluções publicadas onde estão descritas as normas éticas para utilização das TRA. Foi observado que a resolução evoluiu em relação aos direitos dos homossexuais, adotou medidas mais permissivas em relação a criopreservação, doação de gametas e embriões e cessão de útero e por fim autorizou alguns procedimentos em TRA como a reprodução post mortem, doação e gestação compartilhada. A partir de 2013 a resolução ganhou um caráter liberal estando atualizada com a prática clínica. Para as próximas atualizações seria interessante incluir procedimentos em TRA os quais não foram abordados como a transferência nuclear e citoplasmática. A frequência de atualização (a cada dois anos) deve ser mantida para as normas éticas que norteiam a TRA continuar evoluindo juntamente com o avanço da ciência.


Abstract The Federal Medical Council (FMC) published FMC Resolution No. 1,358/1992 with the aim of adopting ethical standards for the use of Assisted Reproduction Techniques (ART). This resolution was updated in 2010 (CFM No. 1957/2010), in 2013 (CFM No. 2,013/13) and the last update was in 2015 (CFM No. 2.121/2015). The scope of this article is to conduct a critical analysis of the evolution of the ethical norms proposed by FMC for the use of ART in Brazil. A documentary analysis of the text of the four published Resolutions was carried out, in which the ethical standards for the use of ART were described. It was observed that the resolution evolved in relation to the rights of homosexuals, adopted more permissive measures regarding cryopreservation, donation of gametes and embryos and uteruses on loan and lastly authorized some procedures in ART such as postmortem reproduction, donation and shared gestation. From 2013 onwards the resolution gained a liberal character being updated in terms of clinical practice. For the next updates it would be interesting to include procedures in ART not previously addressed such as nuclear and cytoplasmic transfer. The update frequency (every two years) should be kept to the ethical standards enabling the ART to continue evolving together with the advancement of science.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bioethics , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/ethics , Reproductive Rights/ethics , Tissue Donors/ethics , Brazil , Cryopreservation/ethics , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/legislation & jurisprudence , Reproductive Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Sexual and Gender Minorities/legislation & jurisprudence , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719630

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim was to describe our preliminary experience performing testicular fine-needle aspiration (TEFNA) with a larger needle in infertile patients with obstructive azoospermia, and to provide a systematic literature review of the different testicular sperm aspiration techniques, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement recommendations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively collected data between March 2017 and June 2018. All men underwent bilateral TEFNA under analgo-sedation, using a larger disposable 18-gauge butterfly needle with 60 mL Luer-Lock syringe attached to it. RESULTS: Thirty consecutive patients were enrolled. Median operative time was 16 minutes (interquartile range [IQR]: 12–30 minutes). No intraoperative complications occurred. Two/thirty patients (6.7%) reported postoperative adverse events: 1 patient had prolonged orchialgia, 1 patient presented scrotal hematoma. Successful sperm retrieval was found in 28/30 cases (93.3%). Median sperm concentration was 0.05 ×106/mL (IQR: 0.001–0.1 ×106/mL). Median total sperm motility was 10% (IQR: 0%–15%). In 20/30 men (66.7%) sperm retrieved was used for fresh intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle, in 8/30 (26.7%) sperm cryopreservation was necessary, because on the day of sperm retrieval the female resulted not responder to ovarian stimulation. In this cases mean number of 3 (IQR: 1–4) bio system straws was cryopreserved. CONCLUSIONS: TEFNA with 18-gauge needle proved to be a feasible, safe and effective treatment, even if future prospective studies will be addressed to clarify what type of azoospermia benefits from this procedure, and if a larger needle permits to improve Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) outcomes.


Subject(s)
Azoospermia , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Butterflies , Cryopreservation , Female , Hematoma , Humans , Infertility, Male , Intraoperative Complications , Male , Needles , Operative Time , Ovulation Induction , Prospective Studies , Reproductive Techniques , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic , Sperm Motility , Sperm Retrieval , Spermatozoa , Syringes
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758566

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the secular trend of the multiple birth rate in Korea from 1981 to 2017. METHODS: This study used birth certificate data covering the years 1981–2017 (20,948,901 births), provided by Statistics Korea. The impact of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) on multiple birth was analyzed by examining data prior to and after the introduction of ART and the national support program for infertile couples in South Korea. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to describe the secular trend in the multiple birth rate per 100 births. RESULTS: During this period, the multiple birth rate per 100 births increased by 277 percent from 1.031 to 3.891, the twin birth rate increased from 1.013 to 3.807 (275%), and the triplet birth rate increased from 0.018 to 0.084 (363%). The secular trend of the multiple birth rate remained in the 1.000 level during 1981–1991, but has been rising steadily since 1992. The average increment of the multiple birth rate was 3.9% annually from 1981 through 2017 (peaking at more than 10 percent during 2006–2007). Prior to the introduction of ART in Korea (1981–1984), the multiple birth rate was 1.007, but after its introduction, the multiple birth rate was 1.005 in 1985–1989 (OR, 0.998; 95% confidence interval, 0.982–1.014), 1.084 in 1990–1994 (1.007; 1.060–1.094), 1.891 in 2000–2004 (1.894; 1.866–1.922), 3.127 in 2010–2014 (3.173; 3.129–3.217), and 3.811 in 2015–2017 (3.893; 3.835–3.952). CONCLUSION: Over the past three decades, multiple births have risen dramatically in Korea, primarily due to the increasingly widespread use of fertility therapies, and the delayed age of childbearing. There is a need for more research to understand the factors contributing to multiple births, and the national birth registration systems ought to be reformed to monitor whether multiple births originated spontaneously or from assisted-conception.


Subject(s)
Birth Certificates , Birth Rate , Family Characteristics , Fertility , Humans , Korea , Multiple Birth Offspring , Odds Ratio , Parturition , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Triplets , Twins
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The male reproductive system generates, accumulates, and transports the sperm. In this study, 2 methods of surgically retrieving sperm, namely, testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) and percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA), are discussed and studied in men aged ≤38 years to achieve successful conception using assisted reproductive technology. The purpose was to assess the fertilization rate (FA), clinical pregnancy, and live birth rate (LBR) with sperm. METHODS: A total of 287 semen samples were divided into 4 groups as follows: fresh PESA (n=73), frozen PESA (n=65), fresh TESA (n=128), and frozen TESA (n=21). The DNA fragmentation test using sperm chromatin dispersion assay was measured and reported. RESULTS: FA was 70.3% and 65.5%, (P<0.022) for fresh and frozen epididymal sperm and 53.8% and 49.5%, (P<0.032) for fresh and frozen testicular sperm. LBR was 33.6% and 30.2% (P<0.075) for fresh and frozen epididymal sperm (PESA) and 22.7% and 18.2% (P<0.063) for fresh and frozen-thawed TESA sperm. CONCLUSION: Exposure to tissue shearing may adversely affect sperm quality. Increased sperm DNA damage due to long-term exposure while teasing enhances reactive oxygen species production foremost to membrane damage because of the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid in lipids (lipid peroxidation), oxidation of amino acid in proteins, and inactivation of specific enzymes, all leading to enzymatic dipping and possibility of less fertilization and conception as indicated by the increase in LBR with fresh/frozen PESA compared to with fresh/frozen TESA.


Subject(s)
Chromatin , DNA Damage , DNA Fragmentation , Fertilization , Humans , Infertility , Live Birth , Male , Membranes , Pregnancy , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Retrospective Studies , Semen , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic , Sperm Retrieval , Spermatozoa
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785642

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the clinical characteristics of men with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT)-induced hypogonadism and its effect on assisted reproductive technology (ART) in infertile couples.METHODS: This study examined the records of 20 consecutive male patients diagnosed with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia (<5×10⁶/mL) who visited a single infertility center from January 2008 to July 2018. All patients were treated at a primary clinic for erectile dysfunction or androgen deficiency symptoms combined with low serum testosterone. All men received a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor and TRT with testosterone undecanoate (Nebido®) or testosterone enanthate (Jenasteron®). Patients older than 50 years or with a chronic medical disease such as diabetes were excluded.RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 37 years and the mean duration of infertility was 16.3±11.6 months. At the initial presentation, eight patients had azoospermia, nine had cryptozoospermia, and three had severe oligozoospermia. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels were below 1.0 mIU/mL in most patients. Three ongoing ART programs with female factor infertility were cancelled due to male spermatogenic dysfunction; two of these men had normal semen parameters in the previous cycle. After withholding TRT, serum hormone levels and sperm concentrations returned to normal range after a median duration of 8 months.CONCLUSION: TRT with high-dose testosterone can cause spermatogenic dysfunction due to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, with adverse effects on infertility treatment programs. TRT is therefore contraindicated for infertile couples attempting to conceive, and the patient's desire for fertility must be considered before initiation of TRT in a hypogonadal man.


Subject(s)
Azoospermia , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5 , Erectile Dysfunction , Family Characteristics , Female , Fertility , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Humans , Hypogonadism , Infertility , Infertility, Male , Male , Oligospermia , Reference Values , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Semen , Spermatozoa , Testosterone
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766551

ABSTRACT

Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects 10% to 15% of all women of reproductive age. Several studies show an association between endometriosis and infertility; however, clear causality remains unproven. The association between endometriosis and infertility is attributable to distorted pelvic anatomy secondary to adhesions, altered endocrine and ovarian function, impaired uterine implantation, and poor quality of oocytes/embryos. Medical treatment shows limited efficacy, without any evidence to support its role in improving fertility. Surgical treatment can improve ongoing pregnancy rates in minimal-to-mild endometriosis, although this approach may cause inevitable ovarian injury in women with ovarian endometrioma. Tailored treatment should be used in women with infertility and endometriosis. Age, ovarian reserve, a history of ovarian surgery, and bilateral endometriomas are important factors that should be carefully considered in these cases.


Subject(s)
Endometriosis , Female , Fertility , Humans , Infertility , Ovarian Reserve , Pregnancy Rate , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763357

ABSTRACT

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a peptide growth factor of the transforming growth factor-β family, is a reliable marker of ovarian reserve. Regarding assisted reproductive technology, AMH has been efficiently used as a marker to predict ovarian response to stimulation. The clinical use of AMH has recently been extended and emphasized. The uses of AMH as a predictive marker of menopause onset, diagnostic tool for polycystic ovary syndrome, and assessment of ovarian function before and after gynecologic surgeries or gonadotoxic agents such as chemotherapy have been investigated. Serum AMH levels can also be affected by environmental and genetic factors; thus, the effects of factors that may alter AMH test results should be considered. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies focusing on the clinical application of AMH and factors that influence the AMH level and opinions on the use of the AMH level to assess the probability of conception before reproductive life planning as a “fertility test.”


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy , Female , Fertility , Fertilization , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures , Humans , Menopause , Ovarian Reserve , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763355

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Sperm cryopreservation has been widely used in assisted reproductive technology, as it offers great potential for the treatment of some types of male infertility. However, cryopreservation may result in changes in membrane lipid composition and acrosome status, as well as reductions in sperm motility and viability. This study aimed to evaluate sperm DNA fragmentation damage caused by conventional freezing using the sperm chromatin dispersion test. METHODS: In total, 120 fresh human semen samples were frozen by conventional methods, using SpermFreeze Solution as a cryoprotectant. Routine semen analysis and a Halosperm test (using the Halosperm kit) were performed on each sample before freezing and after thawing. Semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation were compared between these groups. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in sperm progressive motility, viability, and normal morphology after conventional freezing (32.78%, 79.58%, and 3.87% vs. 16%, 55.99%, and 2.55%, respectively). The sperm head, midpiece, and tail defect rate increased slightly after freezing. Furthermore, the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was significantly higher after thawing than before freezing (19.21% prior to freezing vs. 22.23% after thawing). Significant increases in the DFI after cryopreservation were observed in samples with both normal and abnormal motility and morphology, as well as in those with normal viability. CONCLUSION: Conventional freezing seems to damage some sperm parameters, in particular causing a reduction in sperm DNA integrity.


Subject(s)
Acrosome , Chromatin , Cryopreservation , DNA Fragmentation , DNA , Freezing , Humans , Infertility, Male , Male , Membranes , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sperm Head , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa , Tail
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763354

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to explore the possibility that each oocyte and its surrounding cumulus cells might have different genetic expression patterns that could affect human reproduction. METHODS: Differential gene expression analysis was performed for 10 clusters of cumulus cells obtained from 10 cumulus-oocyte complexes from 10 patients. Same procedures related to oocyte maturation, microinjection, and microarray analyses were performed for each group of cumulus cells. Two differential gene expression analyses were performed: one for the outcome of clinical pregnancy and one for the outcome of live birth. RESULTS: Significant genes resulting from these analyses were selected and the top 20 affected pathways in each group were analyzed. Circadian entrainment is determined to be the most affected pathway for clinical pregnancy, and proteoglycans in cancer pathway is the most affected pathway for live birth. Circadian entrainment is also amongst the 12 pathways that are found to be in top 20 affected pathways for both outcomes, and has both lowest p-value and highest number of times found count. CONCLUSION: Although further confirmatory studies are necessary, findings of this study suggest that these pathways, especially circadian entrainment in cumulus cells, may be essential for embryo development and pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Circadian Clocks , Cumulus Cells , Embryonic Development , Female , Gene Expression , Granulosa Cells , Humans , Infertility , Live Birth , Microarray Analysis , Microinjections , Oocytes , Ovarian Follicle , Pregnancy , Proteoglycans , Reproduction , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763346

ABSTRACT

A viable spermatozoon is a prerequisite for fertilization in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Thus, it is crucial to select viable but immotile spermatozoa on the day of ICSI. We report conflicting results in the identification of viable but immotile spermatozoa between the eosin-nigrosin staining and the laser test, which resulted in confusion for embryologists during assisted reproductive technology (ART). Three patients’ semen samples that showed no motile spermatozoa are described in this report. To identify viable spermatozoa, we used both the eosin-nigrosin test and the laser test for each sample, and repeated the semen analysis twice in each patient. Viable but immotile spermatozoa selected by the laser test were used for ICSI. Viable spermatozoa were detected by both the eosin-nigrosin and laser tests in two patients (case 1, 95.00% vs. 24.21% and 92.68% vs. 22.22%; case 2, 41.18% vs. 23.48% and 39.81% vs. 22.52%), indicating consistent results between the two methods. In the third patient, the eosin-nigrosin test yielded viability rates of 20.75% and 19.14%, while the result of the laser test was 0%. Thus, testicular aspiration was performed to collect viable sperm from this patient. Normal fertilization was achieved after the injection of viable but immotile spermatozoa selected from these patients by the laser test, resulting in the birth of two healthy babies. Our study documents a case where the eosin-nigrosin test showed a limitation in identifying viable but immotile spermatozoa for ART, while the laser test may overcome this limitation. Larger samples may be required to corroborate the clinical value of the laser test.


Subject(s)
Fertilization , Humans , Parturition , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic , Spermatozoa
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761882

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The relationship between male systemic inflammation and fertility seems intriguing, but no data about its impact on the assisted reproductive technology outcomes has been reported. Here, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of male systemic inflammatory parameters in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes prediction, in couples undergoing an ovum donation program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2016 to December 2017, one hundred-ten couples were considered for this cross-sectional study. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-to-eosinophil ratio (MER), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), seminal parameters, fertilization rate (FR), cleavage rate (CR), pregnancy rate (PR) were evaluated. Male patients were divided into Group A with FR ≤70%, Group B with FR >70%. RESULTS: Overall, FR was 74.5%, CR 90.9%, PR 41.8%. Group A included 43 patients, Group B 67 men. Group A showed a median NLR of 1.55, PLR of 106.09, MER of 2.33. Group B reported a median NLR of 1.64, PLR 109.0, MER 2.76. We found no statistically differences between two groups with respect to NLR, PLR, MER (p=0.90, p=0.70, p=0.96, respectively). The age-adjusted linear regression analysis demonstrated only a relationship between NLR and sperm motility count (r=−0.02; p<0.05). Using the univariate logistic regression analysis, we found no significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find any relationship between ICSI outcomes and male inflammation parameters.


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Characteristics , Fertility , Fertilization , Humans , Infertility , Inflammation , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Male , Oocyte Donation , Pregnancy Rate , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Semen Analysis , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic , Sperm Motility
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742363

ABSTRACT

During the last decades the study of male infertility and the introduction of the assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) has allowed to understand that normal sperm parameters do not always predict fertilization. Sperm genetic components could play an important role in the early stages of embryonic development. Based on these acquisitions, several epigenetic investigations have been developed on spermatozoa, with the aim of understanding the multifactorial etiology of male infertility and of showing whether embryonic development may be influenced by sperm epigenetic abnormalities. This article reviews the possible epigenetic modifications of spermatozoa and their effects on male fertility, embryonic development and ART outcome. It focuses mainly on sperm DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone modifications and RNAs.


Subject(s)
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , DNA Methylation , Embryonic Development , Epigenomics , Female , Fertility , Fertilization , Histone Code , Humans , Infertility , Infertility, Male , Male , Pregnancy , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , RNA , Spermatozoa
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