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1.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(2): 113-126, Junio 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1556081

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En diciembre de 2019, se detectó un brote de enfermedad por un nuevo coronavirus que evolucionó en pandemia con severa morbilidad respiratoria y mortali- dad. Los sistemas sanitarios debieron enfrentar una cantidad inesperada de pacientes con insuficiencia respiratoria. En Argentina, las medidas de cuarentena y control sani - tario retrasaron el primer pico de la pandemia y ofrecieron tiempo para preparar el sis- tema de salud con infraestructura, personal y protocolos basados en la mejor evidencia disponible en el momento. En una institución de tercer nivel de Neuquén, Argentina, se desarrolló un protocolo de atención para enfrentar la pandemia adaptado con la evo- lución de la mejor evidencia y evaluaciones periódicas de la mortalidad hospitalaria. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte observacional para evaluar la evolución de pacientes con COVID-19 con los protocolos asistenciales por la mortalidad hospitalaria global y al día 28 en la Clínica Pasteur de Neuquén en 2020. Resultados: Este informe describe los 501 pacientes diagnosticados hasta el 31 de di- ciembre de 2020. La mortalidad general fue del 16,6% (83/501) y del 12,2% (61/501) al día 28 de admisión. En los 139 (27,7%) pacientes con ventilación mecánica, la mortali- dad general y a los 28 días fue de 37,4% (52/139) y 28,1% (38/139) fallecieron, respec- tivamente. Los factores de riesgo identificados fueron edad, comorbilidades y altos re- querimientos de oxígeno al ingreso. Conclusión: La mortalidad observada en los pacientes hospitalizados en nuestra insti- tución en la primera ola de la pandemia COVID-19 fue similar a los informes internacio- nales y menor que la publicada en Argentina para el mismo período.


Introduction: In December 2019, an outbreak of disease due to a new coronavirus was detected that evolved into a pandemic with severe respiratory morbidity and mortality. Health systems had to face an unexpected number of patients with respiratory failure. In Argentina, quarantine and health control measures delayed the first peak of the pan - demic and offered time to prepare the health system with infrastructure, personnel and protocols based on the best evidence available at the time. In a third level institution of Neuquén, Argentina, a care protocol was developed to confront the pandemic adapted by evolving best evidence and periodic evaluations of hospital mortality. Methods: Observational cohort study to evaluate the evolution of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 with care protocols in terms of overall hospital mortality and at day 28 at the Pasteur Clinic in Neuquén in 2020. Results: This report describes the 501 patients diagnosed until December 31, 2020. Mortality was 16.6% (83/501) and 12.2% (61/501) on day 28 of admission. Among the 139 (27.7%) patients with mechanical ventilation, overall mortality and at 28 days it was 37.4% (52/139) and 28.1% (38/139), respectively. The risk factors identified were age, comorbidities and high oxygen requirements on admission. Conclusion: The mortality observed in patients hospitalized in our institution during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic was similar to international reports and lower than other publications in Argentina for the same period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Argentina/epidemiology , Tertiary Healthcare , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data
2.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(2): 127-136, Junio 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1556122

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neumonía por COVID-19 puede presentarse con dos patrones radio-lógicos: daño alveolar difuso o neumonía organizativa. Estos patrones tienen diferente evolución y pronóstico en pacientes sin infección por COVID-19. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la prevalencia del patrón radiológico de neumonía organizativa y su asociación con los desenlaces clínicos.Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo que incluyó a pacientes adultos hospitalizados por COVID-19 grave/crítica a los que se les realizó una tomografía computarizada de tórax en los 21 días posteriores al diagnóstico. Los patrones radiológicos fueron revisados y clasificados por dos radiólogos expertos. Resultados: De los 80 pacientes incluidos, el 89% (n=71) presentaron un patrón compatible con neumonía organizativa. Los principales hallazgos radiológicos fueron la distribución multilobar (98,7%) y bilateral (97,6%) con opacidades en vidrio esmerilado (97,6%). El 44% (n=33) de los sujetos requirió ingreso en cuidados intensivos, de los cuales el 24% (n=19) recibió ventilación mecánica. La presencia de neumonía organizativa se asoció de forma independiente con una disminución de las probabilidades de ventilación mecánica o muerte (Odds ratio 0,14; intervalo de confianza del 95%: 0,02 - 0,96; valor de p 0,045) en un modelo multivariado que incluía la edad, el sexo, el IMC y la afectación pulmonar en la TC.Conclusiones: Un patrón radiológico de neumonía organizativa es altamente prevalen-te en pacientes con COVID-19 grave/crítico y se asocia con mejores resultados clínico


Introduction: COVID-19 pneumonia can present with two distinct radiologic patterns: diffuse alveolar damage or organizing pneumonia. These patterns have been linked to different outcomes in non-COVID-19 settings. We sought to assess the prevalence of organizing pneumonia radiologic pattern and its association with clinical outcomes. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study including adult patients hospita- lized for severe/critical COVID-19 who underwent chest computed tomography within 21 days of diagnosis. Radiologic patterns were reviewed and classified by two expert radiologists. Results: Among 80 patients included, 89% (n=71) presented a pattern consistent with organizing pneumonia. The main radiologic findings were multilobar (98.7%) and bilateral (97.6%) distribution with ground glass opacities (97.6%). Intensive care admission was required for 44% (n=33) of subjects, of which 24% (n=19) received mechanical ventilation. The presence of organizing pneumonia was independently associated with a decreased odds of mechanical ventilation or death (Odds ratio 0.14; 95% confidence interval 0.02 - 0.96; p value 0.045) in a multivariate model including age, gender, BMI and lung involvement on CT. Conclusion: A radiologic pattern of organizing pneumonia is highly prevalent in patients with severe/critical COVID-19 and is associated with improved clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Comorbidity , Clinical Diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Prevalence , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , COVID-19 Serological Testing
3.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(2): 137-150, Junio 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1556149

ABSTRACT

Introducción: SARS-CoV-2 ha causado millones de muertes a nivel global desde su primer caso reportado en China. En Guatemala existen pocos estudios que describan los factores pronósticos. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar los factores asociados de mortalidad a 30 días en pacientes con neumonía (Nm) por SARS-CoV-2 y construir un modelo predictor. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo en 144 sujetos en el Hospital Roosevelt de marzo a diciembre 2020 con criterios de Nm por SARS-CoV-2. Se revisó el expediente médico para datos clínicos y de laboratorio desde ingreso hasta alta hospitalaria o muerte. Resultados: Se evaluaron 105 hombres y 39 mujeres con media de edad 53 años. El 47% tenía comorbilidades como diabetes mellitus 2 e hipertensión arterial sistémica. Promedio de días de hospitalización: 13. Cuadros leves a moderados de Síndrome de Distrés Respiratorio Agudo (SDRA): 92%. Se indicó ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI) a 46 pacientes. La mortalidad general fue 35%. Factores asociados a mortalidad a 30 días: edad ≥50 años, inicio de síntomas ≥7 días, SDRA severo, radio NL >4,4, recibir VMI, alteración en LDH y procalcitonina. Nuestro modelo mostró que los mejores predictores de mortalidad eran alteración en procalcitonina (OR: 4,45), recibir VMI (OR: 112) y días de estancia hospitalaria (OR: 1,12) con precisión de 91,5% y área bajo la curva de 94,4%. Conclusiones: Los factores pronósticos de mortalidad en pacientes guatemaltecos con Nm por SARS-CoV-2 son múltiples e incluyen rasgos demográficos, clínicos y serológicos; identificarlos y contar con un modelo pronóstico ayudará a brindar atención médica de precisión.


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 has caused millions of deaths globally since its first case was reported in China. In Guatemala, few studies describe prognostic factors. Our objective was to determine the factors associated with 30 day mortality in patients with Pneumonia (Nm) due to SARS-CoV-2 and to build a predictor model. Material and Methods: Retrospective study in 144 subjects at Roosevelt Hospital from March to December 2020 with Nm criteria for SARS-CoV-2. The medical record was rviewed, obtaining clinical and laboratory data from admission to hospital discharge or death. Results: 105 men and 39 women with an average age of 53 years were evaluated. 47% had comorbidities, with type 2 diabetes mellitus and systemic arterial hypertension being common. The average number of days of hospitalization was 13. 92% had mild to moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Invasive mechanical ventila-tion (IMV) was indicated for 46 patients. Overall mortality was 35%. The factors asso-ciated with 30-day mortality were age ≥50 years, the onset of symptoms ≥7 days, severe ARDS, N/L ratio >4.4, receiving IMV, alterations in LDH, and procalcitonin. Our model showed that the best predictors of mortality were altered procalcitonin (OR: 4.45), receiving IMV (OR: 112), and days of hospital stay (OR: 1.12) with precision of 91.5% and area under the curve of 94.4%. Conclusions: The prognostic factors of mortality in Guatemalan patients with Nm due to SARS-CoV-2 are multiple and include demographic, clinical and serological features; identifying them and having a prognostic model will help provide precision medical care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia/mortality , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/mortality , Comorbidity , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ultrasonography , Age Factors , Guatemala/epidemiology
4.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(2): 161-168, Junio 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1556158

ABSTRACT

La terapia de alto flujo se ha popularizado durante los últimos años, basada en sus efectos fisiológicos, la entrega de una fracción inspirada de oxígeno segura y estable, sumada al flujo calefaccionado y humidificado, lo que hizo posible su utilización en distintos escenarios. Sin embargo, los estudios que muestran estos beneficios y efectos se han realizado, principalmente, con el empleo de una cánula nasal; mientras que las características de esta terapia en los pacientes traqueostomizados no se ha desarrollado suficientemente. Proponemos aquí una revisión narrativa con las características más salientes de la terapia de alto flujo en este subgrupo de pacientes.


High-flow therapy has become popular in recent years, based on its physiological effects, the delivery of a safe and stable inspired fraction of oxygen, combined with heated and humidified flow, which made its use possible in different scenarios. However, studies demonstrating these benefits and effects have been mainly conducted using a nasal cannula, while the characteristics of this therapy in tracheostomized patients have not been sufficiently developed. We propose a narrative review highlighting the most relevant characteristics of high-flow therapy in this subgroup of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial , Review , Critical Care , Cannula
5.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 5-15, Marzo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1538330

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Millones de pacientes con COVID-19 fueron internados en terapia intensiva en el mundo, la mitad desarrollaron síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (SDRA) y recibieron ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI), con una mortalidad del 50%. Analiza-mos cómo edad, comorbilidades y complicaciones, en pacientes con COVID-19 y SDRA que recibieron VMI, se asociaron con el riesgo de morir durante su hospitalización.Métodos: Estudio de cohorte observacional, retrospectivo y multicéntrico realizado en 5 hospitales (tres privados y dos públicos universitarios) de Argentina y Chile, durante el segundo semestre de 2020.Se incluyeron pacientes >18 años con infección por SARS-CoV-2 confirmada RT-PCR, que desarrollaron SDRA y fueron asistidos con VMI durante >48 horas, durante el se-gundo semestre de 2020. Se analizaron los antecedentes, las comorbilidades más fre-cuentes (obesidad, diabetes e hipertensión), y las complicaciones shock, insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA) y neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica (NAV), por un lado, y las alteraciones de parámetros clínicos y de laboratorio registrados.Resultados: El 69% era varón. La incidencia de comorbilidades difirió para los diferentes grupos de edad. La mortalidad aumentó significativamente con la edad (p<0,00001). Las comorbilidades, hipertensión y diabetes, y las complicaciones de IRA y shock se asociaron significativamente con la mortalidad. En el análisis multivariado, sólo la edad mayor de 60 años, la IRA y el shock permanecieron asociados con la mortalidad. Conclusiones: El SDRA en COVID-19 es más común entre los mayores. Solo la edad >60 años, el shock y la IRA se asociaron a la mortalidad en el análisis multivariado.


Objectives: Millions of patients with COVID-19 were admitted to intensive care world-wide, half developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), with a mortality of 50%. We analyzed how age, comor-bidities and complications in patients with COVID-19 and ARDS who received IMV were associated with the risk of dying during their hospitalization.Methods: Observational, retrospective and multicenter cohort study carried out in 5 hospitals (three private and two public university hospitals) in Argentina and Chile, during the second half of 2020.Patients >18 years of age with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR, who devel-oped ARDS and were assisted with IMV for >48 hours, during the second half of 2020, were included. History, the most frequent comorbidities (obesity, diabetes and hyper-tension) and the complications of shock, acute renal failure (AKI) and pneumonia as-sociated with mechanical ventilation (VAP), on the one hand, and the alterations of re-corded clinical and laboratory parameters, were analyzed.Results: 69% were men. The incidence of comorbidities differed for different age groups. Mortality increased significantly with age (p<0.00001). Comorbidities, hyper-tension and diabetes, and complications of ARF and shock were significantly associat-ed with mortality. In the multivariate analysis, only age over 60 years, ARF and shock remained associated with mortality.Conclusions: ARDS in COVID-19 is more common among the elderly. Only age >60 years, shock and ARF were associated with mortality in the multivariate analysis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia/complications , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/complications , Shock/complications , Comorbidity , Renal Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Mortality , Multicenter Study
6.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 67-77, Marzo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551223

ABSTRACT

La tasa de reintubación orotraqueal luego de la extubación se registra entre un 10 a 20%. La aplicación de soportes respiratorios no-invasivos (SRNI) posterior a la extuba-ción como cánula nasal de alto-flujo, ventilación no invasiva (dos niveles de presión) y presión positiva continua en la vía aérea demostraron ser seguras y efectivas post ex-tubación. El período pre-destete representa un momento crucial en el manejo de los pa-cientes críticos ya que el fracaso de la extubación, definido como la necesidad de reintu-bación dentro de los 2 a 7 días, demostró peores resultados al aumentar la mortalidad entre un 25-50%. Esta situación conlleva al requerimiento de ventilación mecánica prolongada, neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica y estancias prolongadas de internación. Por lo tanto, es esencial identificar a los pacientes que se beneficiarán utilizando SRNI post extubación.


The rate of re-intubation after extubation is recorded at 10-20%. The use of non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS) post-extubation such as high-flow nasal cannula, non-invasive ventilation (bilevel pressure) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) have been shown to be safe and effective post-extubation. The pre-weaning period represents a crucial time in the management of critically ill patients, as extubation failure, defined as the need for reintubation within 2-7 days, showed worse outcomes with mortality increasing by 25-50%. This situation leads to the requirement for prolonged mechanical ventilation, ventilator-associated pneumonia and long lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, it is essential to identify patients who will benefit from NIRS post extubation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/statistics & numerical data , Airway Extubation/statistics & numerical data , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , Cannula/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Mortality , Review
7.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 59-66, Marzo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551217

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección por SARS-CoV-2 puede presentar síndrome de distrés res-piratorio agudo con requerimiento de ventilación mecánica prolongada y retraso en la realización de traqueostomía. Esto trae como consecuencia un incremento en casos de estenosis traqueal y la necesidad de métodos menos invasivos para su abordaje. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, desde marzo 2020 hasta diciem-bre 2021 en el Hospital Universitario Nacional de Colombia, en adultos con estenosis traqueal postintubación asociado SARS-CoV-2. Se realizó análisis univariado entre los grupos con infección o no por SARS-CoV-2 como control, y reintervención, grado de estenosis, uso de inyección intramucosa con dexametasona intratraqueal o múltiples estenosis como desenlaces de importancia. Se usó test exacto de Fisher, t Student y Man-Whitney según la naturaleza de variables. Se consideró p estadísticamente significativo menor a 0.05.Resultados: Se identificaron 26 pacientes, 20 tenían COVID-19 y 6 no. Se encontraron diferencias en edad (p=0,002), epilepsia (p=0,007) y estenosis múltiple (p= 0,04). En 85% de los casos se utilizó láser blue más dilatación con balón pulmonar, en 35% inyección intramucosa con dexametasona intratraqueal y reintervención en 35%, sin diferencias significativas entre grupos. Conclusiones: Se observó un incremento tres veces mayor de pacientes con estenosis múltiple en el grupo de infección por COVID-19, así mismo se encontró que el método más utilizado en este grupo para la recanalización fue el uso de láser blue más dilatación con balón pulmonar y la innovación en el uso de inyección intramucosa.


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome with a prolonged need for mechanical ventilation and delayed tracheostomy, resulting in an increase in cases of tracheal stenosis and the necessity for less invasive approaches.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2020 to December 2021 at the Hospital Universitario Nacional de Colombia, focusing on adults with post-intubation tracheal stenosis associated with SARS-CoV-2. Univariate analysis was performed between groups with or without SARS-CoV-2 infection as a control, considering reintervention, degree of stenosis, use of intratracheal steroids, or multiple stenoses as important outcomes. Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whit-ney test were employed based on the nature of variables. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: A total of 26 patients were included, with 20 having COVID-19 and 6 without. Significant differences were found in age (p=0.002), epilepsy (p=0.007), and multiple stenosis (p=0.04). In 85% of cases, laser blue plus balloon pulmonary dilation was used, intratracheal dexamethasone in 35%, and reintervention in 35%, with no significant differences between groups.Conclusions: A threefold increase in subglottic stenosis was observed during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, with more instances of multiple stenosis and predominantly the use of laser blue plus balloon pulmonary dilation as a successful recanalization technique. There was a higher use of intratracheal dexamethasone in this group compared to oth-er pathologies causing tracheal stenosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Tracheal Stenosis/complications , Dyspnea , COVID-19/complications , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Bronchoscopy/methods , Tracheostomy/methods , Colombia , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013427

ABSTRACT

Introduction@#Intensive care unit (ICU) patients are at the greatest risk of acquiring nosocomial infections, partly because of their serious underlying disease, but also by exposure to life-saving invasive procedures. Hospital-acquired infections increase patient morbidity, increase the length of hospital stay and hospital costs, and also increases mortality rate. The basic knowledge of organisms infecting ICU patients is very important to empirically select appropriate antibiotics, so that the most likely infecting organisms are addressed.@*Objective@#The aim of the study was to find out the etiologic agents causing infection in medical intensive care unit patients.@*Results@#In our study of 289 patients, 180 (62.3%) showed a growth of organism during the stay in ICU. The most common site of infection was the respiratory tract in 138 patients (47.8%) with 60 patients (20.8%) showing Acinetobacter baumannii.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Intensive Care Units , Acinetobacter baumannii , Respiration, Artificial
9.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(4): 180-187, out.-dez. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532058

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: several patients with COVID-19 require hospital admission due to severe respiratory complications and undergo intensive care with mechanical ventilation (MV) support. Associated with this situation, there is an increase in fungal co-infections, which has a negative impact on the outcome of COVID-19. In this regard, this study intended to compare Candida spp. incidence in the respiratory tract of patients admitted in the COVID and General Intensive Care Units (ICU) at a teaching hospital in 2021. Methods: the results of protected tracheal aspirate samples from 556 patients admitted to the COVID ICU and 260 to General ICU as well as the respective records. Results: of the patients analyzed, 38 revealed a positive sample for Candida in the COVID ICU and 10 in the General ICU, with an incidence of 68.3/1000 and 38.5/1000, respectively. Males were predominant in both wards. The most affected age group was the population over 60 years old, and the average hospital admission for the COVID ICU was 22.1 years, and for the General ICU, 24.2. Conclusion: Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species, and the mortality rate in patients positive for Candida was higher in patients with COVID-19 compared to patients in the General ICU, suggesting that patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, admitted to the ICU under MV, are more predisposed to colonization by Candida spp., which can have a fatal outcome in these patients.(AU)


Justificativa e objetivos: muitos pacientes com COVID-19 necessitam de hospitalização devido às complicações respiratórias graves, e são submetidos a cuidados intensivos com suporte de ventilação mecânica (VM). Associado a esse quadro, verifica-se o aumento de coinfecções fúngicas, que tem impacto negativo no desfecho da COVID-19. Nesse sentido, este estudo pretendeu comparar a incidência de Candida spp. no trato respiratório de pacientes internados nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) COVID e Geral em um hospital escola em 2021. Métodos: foram avaliados os resultados de amostras de aspirado traqueal protegido provenientes de 556 pacientes internados na UTI COVID e 260 na UTI Geral, bem como os respectivos prontuários. Resultados: dos pacientes analisados, 38 revelaram amostra positiva para Candida na UTI COVID e 10 na UTI Geral, com incidência de 68,3/1000 e 38,5/1000, respectivamente. O sexo masculino foi predominante em ambas as alas. A faixa etária mais acometida foi a população acima de 60 anos, e a média de internação para a UTI COVID foi de 22,1 anos, e para a UTI Geral, 24,2. Conclusão: Candida albicans foi a espécie isolada com maior frequência, e a taxa de mortalidade em pacientes com positivos para Candida foi maior em pacientes com COVID-19 em relação aos pacientes da UTI Geral, sugerindo que pacientes infectados com SARS-CoV-2, internados em UTI sob VM, são mais predispostos à colonização por Candida spp., que pode ter um desfecho fatal nesses pacientes.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: muchos pacientes con COVID-19 requieren hospitalización debido a complicaciones respiratorias graves y se someten a cuidados intensivos con soporte de ventilación mecánica (VM). Asociado a esta situación, hay un aumento de las coinfecciones fúngicas, lo que repercute negativamente en el desenlace de la COVID-19. En este sentido, este estudio pretendió comparar la incidencia de Candida spp. en el tracto respiratorio de pacientes ingresados en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) COVID y General de un hospital escuela en 2021. Métodos: los resultados de muestras de aspirado traqueal protegidas de 556 pacientes ingresados en la UCI COVID y 260 en el UCI General, así como los respectivos registros. Resultados: de los pacientes analizados, 38 presentaron muestra positiva a Candida en UCI COVID y 10 en UCI General, con una incidencia de 68,3/1000 y 38,5/1000, respectivamente. Los machos predominaban en ambas alas. El grupo de edad más afectado fue la población mayor de 60 años, y la hospitalización promedio en la UCI COVID fue de 22,1 años, y en la UCI General, de 24,2. Conclusiones: Candida albicans fue la especie aislada con mayor frecuencia, y la tasa de mortalidad en pacientes positivos para Candida fue mayor en pacientes con COVID-19 en comparación con los pacientes en la UCI General, lo que sugiere que los pacientes infectados con SARS-CoV-2, ingresados en la UCI bajo VM, están más predispuestos a la colonización por Candida spp., lo que puede tener un desenlace fatal en estos pacientes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/isolation & purification , Clinical Evolution , Coinfection , COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Intensive Care Units
10.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3864, ene.-dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1431836

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to investigate the factors associated with extubation failure of patients in the intensive care unit. Method: unpaired, longitudinal, retrospective and quantitative case-control with the participation of 480 patients through clinical parameters for ventilator weaning. Data were analyzed by: Fisher's exact test or the chi-square test; unpaired two-tailed Student's t test; and Mann-Whitney test. Significant P values lower than or equal to 0.05 were admitted. Results: of the patients, 415 (86.5%) were successful and 65 (13.5%) failed. Success group: the most negative fluid balance, APACHE II in 20 (14-25), weak cough in 58 (13.9%). Failure group: the most positive fluid balance, APACHE II in 23 (19-29), weak cough in 31 (47.7%), abundant amount of pulmonary secretions in 47.7%. Conclusion: positive fluid balance and the presence of inefficient cough or inability to clear the airway were predictors of extubation failure.


Resumo Objetivo: investigar os fatores associados à falha de extubação de pacientes na unidade de terapia intensiva. Método: caso-controle não pareado, longitudinal, retrospectivo e quantitativo com a participação de 480 pacientes por meio de parâmetros clínicos para desmame ventilatório. Dados analisados por: Teste Exato de Fisher ou o teste Qui-quadrado; teste t de Student bicaudal não pareado; e teste de Mann-Whitney. Admitiram-se significantes valores de P menores ou iguais a 0,05. Resultados: dos pacientes, 415 (86,5%) tiveram sucesso e 65 (13,5%) falharam. Grupo sucesso: balanço hídrico mais negativo, APACHE II em 20 (14-25), tosse fraca em 58 (13,9%). Grupo falha: balanço hídrico mais positivo, APACHE II em 23 (19-29), tosse fraca em 31 (47,7 %), quantidade abundante de secreção pulmonar em 47,7 %. Conclusão: o balanço hídrico positivo e a presença de tosse ineficiente ou incapacidade de higienizar a via aérea foram preditores de falhas de extubação.


Resumen Objetivo: investigar los factores asociados al fracaso de la extubación de pacientes en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Método: caso y control no apareado, longitudinal, retrospectivo y cuantitativo con la participación de 480 pacientes mediante parámetros clínicos para el destete de la ventilación. Datos analizados por: Prueba Exacta de Fisher o prueba de Chi-cuadrado; prueba t de Student de dos colas para datos no apareados; y prueba de Mann-Whitney. Se admitieron valores de P significativos menores o iguales a 0,05. Resultados: de los pacientes, 415 (86,5%) tuvieron éxito y 65 (13,5%) fracasaron. Grupo de éxito: balance hídrico más negativo, APACHE II en 20 (14-25), tos débil en 58 (13,9%). Grupo de fracaso: balance de líquidos más positivo, APACHE II en 23 (19-29), tos débil en 31 (47,7%), abundante cantidad de secreciones pulmonares en 47,7%. Conclusión: el balance hídrico positivo y la presencia de tos ineficaz o incapacidad para higienizar la vía aérea fueron predictores de fracaso de la extubación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patients , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Chi-Square Distribution , APACHE , Bodily Secretions , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units
11.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 44(3): 63-66, set.-dez. 2023. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1553240

ABSTRACT

Lesão por pressão relacionada a dispositivos médicos é uma complicação bastante comum e geralmente oriunda da fixação do dispositivo utilizado na intubação endotraqueal para ventilação mecânica. Desta forma, o presente estudo reportou o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 65 anos, leucoderma, internado em uma unidade de terapia intensiva, e que desenvolveu lesão ulcerada na região de fixação do dispositivo utilizado para intubação orotraqueal. Após alívio da pressão local exercida, terapia de fotobiomodulação foi proposta como única estratégia para cicatrização da lesão e diminuição do edema. Após 3 sessões diárias foi possível observar excelente curso de reparação tecidual e remissão dos sinais flogísticos. De acordo com o presente caso, a terapia de fotobiomodulação parece ser bastante eficiente para o tratamento de lesões por pressão relacionada a dispositivos médicos(AU)


Medical device-related pressure injuries are very common complications and usually arise from the fixation of the device used in endotracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation. Thus, the present study reports a case of a Caucasian male patient, 65 years old, who was admitted to an intensive care unit and developed later an ulcerated lesion on the region of fixation of the device used for orotracheal intubation. After relieving the local pressure exerted, photobiomodulation therapy was proposed as the only strategy for wound healing and edema reduction. After 3 daily sessions, it was possible to note an excellent tissue repair course and remission of phlogistic signs. According to the present case, photobiomodulation therapy appears to be a quite efficient treatment strategy for medical device-related pressure injuries(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pressure Ulcer , Respiration, Artificial , Laser Therapy
12.
Femina ; 51(10): 614-626, 20231030. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532465

ABSTRACT

Até este momento da pandemia de COVID-19, embora as gestantes não tenham maior risco de se infectar do que a população geral, elas têm maiores riscos de desenvolver formas graves e demandar cuidados de UTI e ventilação invasiva, so- bretudo aquelas que apresentam comorbidades. No Brasil, a mortalidade materna por COVID-19 está entre as mais elevadas do mundo. A transmissão vertical do SARS-CoV-2 parece ser um evento raro, e até o momento não se observou aumento da ocorrência de abortos e malformações. Entretanto, a COVID-19 está associada a elevadas taxas de prematuridade, baixo peso ao nascer e admissão em UTI neona- tal. Em adaptação a esse novo cenário, são indicados cuidados especiais durante o ciclo gravídico-puerperal, sendo útil destacar: o espaço crescente da telemedicina no pré-natal; a não obrigatoriedade da realização de cesariana em caso de gestan- te infectada no momento do parto e a liberação da amamentação pelas puérperas com COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Pregnancy Complications , Puerperal Disorders/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Parturition , Premature Birth/prevention & control , Dyspnea/complications , COVID-19 Drug Treatment/methods
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1485-1491, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521047

ABSTRACT

Los pacientes con COVID-19 subsidiarios de ventilación mecánica (VM), evolucionan con consecuencias funcionales en la musculatura ventilatoria y apendicular que no necesariamente se abordan de manera diferenciada. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el impacto de un programa de recuperación funcional en estos pacientes y determinar si las intervenciones afectan de manera diferenciada a las funciones ventilatorias y musculatura apendicular, utilizando pruebas de bajo costo. Se evaluaron 47 pacientes con COVID-19 que estuvieron en VM. Posterior a una espirometría basal se les realizó; presión inspiratoria máxima (PIMáx), fuerza de prensión palmar (FPP), prueba de pararse y sentarse (PPS) y Prueba de caminata en 6 minutos (PC6m), antes y después del plan de intervención. Este programa incluyó ejercicios aeróbicos y de fuerza supervisados por dos sesiones semanales de 60 minutos durante 3 meses. Después del programa, se observaron mejoras significativas en la capacidad vital forzada (CVF), el volumen espiratorio en el primer segundo (VEF1) y la PIMáx. Se encontraron relaciones significativas entre estas mediciones y la distancia recorrida de la PC6m, la FPP y la PPS. En conclusión, el programa de recuperación funcional en pacientes con COVID-19 que requirieron VM, beneficia tanto la función ventilatoria como la fuerza muscular apendicular. Las pruebas de fuerza muscular apendicular pueden ser útiles para evaluar la recuperación ya que pueden entregar información diferenciada de sus rendimientos. Por último, se necesita más investigación para comprender mejor la respuesta de estos pacientes a la rehabilitación.


SUMMARY: Patients with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) evolve with functional consequences in the ventilatory and appendicular muscles that are not necessarily addressed in a differentiated manner. The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of a functional recovery program in these patients and determine if the interventions differentially affect ventilatory functions and appendicular muscles, using low- cost tests. 47 patients with COVID-19 who were on MV were evaluated. After a baseline spirometry, they were performed; maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), handgrip strength (HGS), sit to stand test (STST) and 6-minute walk test (6MWT), before and after the intervention plan. This program included supervised aerobic and strength exercises for two weekly 60-minute sessions for 3 months. After the program, significant improvements were observed in forced vital capacity (FVC), expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and MIP. Significant relationships were found between these measurements and the distance traveled of the 6MWT, the HGS and the STST. In conclusion, the functional recovery program in patients with COVID-19 who required MV benefits both ventilatory function and appendicular muscle strength. Appendicular muscle strength tests can be useful to evaluate recovery since they can provide differentiated information about your performances. Finally, more research is needed to better understand the response of these patients to rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Recovery of Function , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Respiration, Artificial , Spirometry , Walking , Hand Strength , Maximal Respiratory Pressures
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(4): e202202806, ago. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1442558

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La adecuada sedación y analgesia es fundamental en el tratamiento de pacientes que requieren asistencia ventilatoria mecánica (AVM). Se recomienda la utilización de protocolos y su monitoreo; son dispares los resultados reportados sobre adhesión e impacto. Objetivos. Evaluar el impacto de la implementación de un protocolo de sedoanalgesia sobre el uso de benzodiacepinas, opioides y evolución en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos (UCIP), en pacientes que requieren AVM mayor a 72 horas. Métodos. Estudio tipo antes-después, no controlado, en la UCIP de un hospital pediátrico. Se desarrolló en 3 etapas: preintervención de diagnóstico situacional (de abril a septiembre de 2019), intervención y posintervención de implementación del protocolo de sedoanalgesia, educación sobre uso y monitorización de adherencia y su impacto (de octubre de 2019 a octubre de 2021). Resultados. Ingresaron al estudio 99 y 92 pacientes en las etapas pre- y posintervención, respectivamente. Presentaron mayor gravedad, menor edad y peso en el período preintervención. En la comparación de grupos, luego de ajustar por gravedad y edad, en la etapa posintervención se reportó una reducción en los días de uso de opioides en infusión continua (6 ± 5,2 vs. 7,6 ± 5,8; p = 0,018) y los días de uso de benzodiacepinas en infusión continua (3,3 ± 3,5 vs. 7,6 ± 6,8; p = 0,001). No se observaron diferencias significativas en los días de AVM y en los días totales de uso de benzodiacepinas. Conclusión. La implementación de un protocolo de sedoanalgesia permitió reducir el uso de fármacos en infusión continua.


Introduction. Adequate sedation and analgesia is essential in the management of patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV). The implementation of protocols and their monitoring is recommended; mixed results on adherence and impact have been reported. Objectives. To assess the impact of the implementation of a sedation and analgesia protocol on the use of benzodiazepines, opioids, and evolution in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in patients requiring MV for more than 72 hours. Methods. Before-and-after, uncontrolled study in the PICU of a children's hospital. The study was developed in 3 stages: pre-intervention for situational diagnosis (from April to September 2019), intervention, and post-intervention for implementation of a sedation and analgesia protocol, education on use, and monitoring of adherence and impact (from October 2019 to October 2021). Results. A total of 99 and 92 patients were included in the study in the pre- and post-intervention stages, respectively. Patients had a more severe condition, were younger, and had a lower weight in the preintervention period. After adjusting for severity and age, the group comparison in the post-intervention stage showed a reduction in days of continuous infusion of opioids (6 ± 5.2 versus 7.6­5.8, p = 0.018) and days of continuous infusion of benzodiazepines (3.3 ± 3.5 versus 7.6 ± 6.8, p = 0.001). No significant  differences were observed in days of MV and total days of benzodiazepine use. Conclusion. The implementation of a sedation and analgesia protocol resulted in a reduction in the use of continuous infusion of drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Analgesia , Analgesics, Opioid , Pain , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Hypnotics and Sedatives
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202656, jun. 2023.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1435629

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El botulismo del lactante (BL) es la forma más frecuente de botulismo humano en Argentina. El objetivo es describir aspectos esenciales del diagnóstico y tratamiento de pacientes con BL internados en el servicio de terapia intensiva pediátrica (STIP). Métodos. Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo. Se utilizó la base de datos del STIP con diagnóstico de BL en el período 2005-2020. Se registraron variables demográficas, métodos de diagnóstico, días de asistencia respiratoria mecánica convencional (ARMC), de ventilación no invasiva (VNI), estadía en STIP, mortalidad al alta hospitalaria. Resultados. Se registraron 21 pacientes con BL; 14 pacientes fueron varones, con una mediana de edad de 5 meses (RIC 2-6 m). El diagnóstico se realizó mediante técnica de bioensayo y se detectó la toxina en suero en 12 pacientes. Uno solo no requirió ARMC; 1 paciente fue traqueostomizado; 18 pacientes recibieron antibióticos; 5 recibieron VNI. Ningún paciente recibió antitoxina y no hubo fallecidos. La mediana de estadía hospitalaria fue 66 días (RI: 42-76); de internación en STIP, 48 días (RI: 29-78); y de ARMC, 37 días (RI: 26-64). La demora en la confirmación diagnóstica fue 15,8 ± 4,8 días. Conclusiones. La totalidad de los pacientes fueron diagnosticados con la técnica de bioensayo, que generó un tiempo de demora diagnóstica que excede los lapsos recomendados para la administración del tratamiento específico. Ningún paciente recibió tratamiento específico. El BL presentó baja mortalidad, pero tiempos de ARM e internación prolongados, que se asocian a infecciones sobreagregadas y uso frecuente de antibióticos.


Introduction. Infant botulism (IB) is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina. Our objective was to describe the main aspects of diagnosis and management of patients with IB admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods. Observational, descriptive, and retrospective study. The PICU database with IB diagnosis in 2005­2020 period was used. Demographic variables, diagnostic methods, days of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV), non-invasive ventilation (NIV), length of stay in the PICU and mortality upon hospital discharge were recorded. Results. In total, 21 patients with IB were recorded; 14 were male, their median age was 5 months (IQR: 2­6 m). Diagnosis was made by bioassay, and the toxin was identified in the serum of 12 patients. Only 1 patient did not require CMV; 1 patient had a tracheostomy; 18 patients received antibiotics; 5 received NIV. No patient was administered antitoxin and no patient died. The median length of stay in the hospital was 66 days (IQR: 42­76); in the PICU, 48 days (IQR: 29­78); and the median use of CMV, 37 days (IQR: 26­64). The delay until diagnostic confirmation was 15.8 ± 4.8 days. Conclusions. All patients were diagnosed using the bioassay technique, which resulted in a diagnostic delay that exceeds the recommended period for the administration of a specific treatment. No patient received a specific treatment. IB was related to a low mortality, but also to prolonged use of MV and length of hospital stay, which were associated with cross infections and frequent antibiotic use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Botulism/diagnosis , Botulism/therapy , Botulism/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Respiration, Artificial , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Retrospective Studies , Delayed Diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents
16.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22(1): 852, 30 Junio 2023. ilus, tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451425

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION. Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for developing severe new coronavirus disease. Bariatric surgery prior to infection could behave as a protective factor against serious infections and death. OBJECTIVE. To describe the impact of bariatric surgery on the severity and mortality of patients with obesity and new coronavirus disease; through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the specialized literature from 2020-2022. METHODOLOGY. Publications indexed in databases such as Pubmed, Tripdatabase, and Google scholar, on the impact of previous bariatric surgery on the evolution and prognosis of patients with new coronavirus disease were taken. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess quality and risk of bias. RevMan 5.0 software was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS. Eight cohort studies were included, with a population of 137 620 adult subjects with obesity and new coronavirus disease; of these, 5638 (4.09%) had a history of bariatric surgery. In the meta-analysis, it was determined that, in subjects with obesity and new coronavirus disease, the history of bariatric surgery had a protective effect against the use of mechanical ventilation [OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.62-0.75] (p<0.001) and mortality [OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.50-0.65] (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS. The history of bariatric surgery in subjects with obesity seems to have a protective effect against the severity defined by the use of mechanical ventilation in patients with obesity and mortality due to the new coronvirus disease; therefore, the resumption of bariatric surgical activity, at pre-pandemic levels, could represent an additional benefit for candidate subjects.


INTRODUCTION. Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for developing severe new coronavirus disease. Bariatric surgery prior to infection could behave as a protective factor against serious infections and death. OBJECTIVE. To describe the impact of bariatric surgery on the severity and mortality of patients with obesity and new coronavirus disease; through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the specialized literature from 2020-2022. METHODOLOGY. Publications indexed in databases such as Pubmed, Tripdatabase, and Google scholar, on the impact of previous bariatric surgery on the evolution and prognosis of patients with new coronavirus disease were taken. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess quality and risk of bias. RevMan 5.0 software was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS. Eight cohort studies were included, with a population of 137 620 adult subjects with obesity and new coronavirus disease; of these, 5638 (4.09%) had a history of bariatric surgery. In the meta-analysis, it was determined that, in subjects with obesity and new coronavirus disease, the history of bariatric surgery had a protective effect against the use of mechanical ventilation [OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.62-0.75] (p<0.001) and mortality [OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.50-0.65] (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS. The history of bariatric surgery in subjects with obesity seems to have a protective effect against the severity defined by the use of mechanical ventilation in patients with obesity and mortality due to the new coronvirus disease; therefore, the resumption of bariatric surgical activity, at pre-pandemic levels, could represent an additional benefit for candidate subjects.


Subject(s)
Mortality , Bariatric Surgery , Patient Acuity , Protective Factors , COVID-19 , Obesity/complications , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory System , Obesity, Morbid , Cardiovascular System , Body Mass Index , Ecuador , Hypertension , Metabolic Diseases
17.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22(1): 862, 30 Junio 2023. ilus, tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451458

ABSTRACT

de la deglución, los cuales representan todas las alteraciones del proceso fisiológico encargado de llevar el alimento desde la boca al esófago y después al estómago, salvaguardando siempre la protección de las vías respiratorias. OBJETIVO. Definir el manejo óptimo, de la disfagia en pacientes con antecedente de infección severa por COVID-19. METODOLOGÍA. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura científica en las bases de datos PubMed y Elsevier que relacionan el manejo de la disfagia y pacientes con antecedente de infección severa por SARS-CoV-2. Se obtuvo un universo de 134 artículos que cumplieron los criterios de búsqueda. Se seleccionaron 24 documentos, para ser considerados en este estudio. RESULTADOS. La incidencia de disfagia posterior a infección severa por SARS-CoV-2 fue del 23,14%, siendo la disfagia leve la más frecuente 48,0%. Los tratamientos clínicos más empleados en el manejo de la disfagia fueron rehabilitación oral y cambio de textura en la dieta en el 77,23% de los casos, mientras que el único tratamiento quirúrgico empleado fue la traqueotomía 37,31%. Un 12,68% de pacientes recuperó su función deglutoria sin un tratamiento específico. La eficacia de los tratamientos clínicos y quirúrgicos en los pacientes sobrevivientes de la infección severa por SARS-CoV-2 fue del 80,68%, con una media en el tiempo de resolución de 58 días. CONCLUSIÓN. La anamnesis es clave para el diagnóstico de disfagia post COVID-19. El tratamiento puede variar, desde un manejo conservador como cambios en la textura de la dieta hasta tratamientos más invasivos como traqueotomía para mejorar la función deglutoria.


INTRODUCTION. The difficulty to swallow or dysphagia is included within the problems of swallowing, which represent all the alterations of the physiological process in charge of carrying the food from the mouth to the esophagus, and then to the stomach, always taking into account the protection of the airways. OBJECTIVE. To define the optimal management, both clinical and surgical, for the adequate treatment of dysphagia produced as a consequence of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODOLOGY. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using both PubMed and Elsevier databases, which relate the management of dysphagia and patients with a history of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS. The incidence of dysphagia following severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was of 23,14%, with mild dysphagia being the most frequent 48,00%. The most frequently used clinical treatments for dysphagia management were oral rehabilitation and change in dietary texture in 77,23% of cases, while tracheotomy was the only surgical treatment used 37,31%. A total of 12,68% of patients recovered their swallowing function without specific treatment. The efficacy of clinical and surgical treatments in survivors of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was 80,68%, with a mean resolution time of 58 days. CONCLUSION. An adequate medical history is key to the diagnosis of post-COVID-19 dysphagia. Treatment can range from conservative management such as changes in diet texture to more invasive treatments such as tracheotomy to improve swallowing function.


Subject(s)
Rehabilitation , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheotomy , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Deglutition/physiology , COVID-19 , Otolaryngology , Rehabilitation of Speech and Language Disorders , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Speech , Tertiary Healthcare , Pulmonary Medicine , Deglutition Disorders , Respiratory Mechanics , Enteral Nutrition , Aerophagy , Dysgeusia , Ecuador , Exercise Therapy , Pathologists , Gastroenterology , Anosmia , Glossopharyngeal Nerve , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal
18.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(2)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530117

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda producido por la COVID-19 provoca alteraciones en el intercambio de oxígeno y la excreción de dióxido de carbono con consecuencias neurológicas. Objetivo: Describir las implicaciones del oxígeno y el dióxido de carbono sobre la dinámica cerebral durante el tratamiento ventilatorio del síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda en el accidente cerebrovascular. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en bases referenciales como: PubMed/Medline, SciELO, Google Académico y BVS Cuba. Los términos incluidos fueron brain-lung crosstalk, ARDS, mechanical ventilation, COVID-19 related stroke, ARDS related stroke y su traducción al español. Fueron referenciados libros de neurointensivismo y ventilación mecánica artificial. El período de búsqueda incluyó los últimos 20 años. Se seleccionaron 46 bibliografías que cumplieron con los criterios de selección. Resultados: Se ha descrito que los niveles de oxígeno y dióxido de carbono participan en la neurorregulación vascular en pacientes con daño cerebral. Algunas alteraciones alusivas son la vasodilatación cerebral refleja o efectos vasoconstrictores con reducción de la presión de perfusión cerebral. Como consecuencia aumenta la presión intracraneal y aparecen afectaciones neurocognitivas, isquemia cerebral tardía o herniación del tronco encefálico. Conclusiones: El control de la oxigenación y la excreción de dióxido de carbono resultaron cruciales para mantener la homeostasis neuronal, evita la disminución de la presión de perfusión cerebral y el aumento de la presión intracraneal. Se sugiere evitar la hipoxemia e hiperoxemia, limitar o eludir la hipercapnia y usar hiperventilación hipocápnica solo en condiciones de herniación del tallo encefálico(AU)


Introduction: The acute respiratory distress syndrome produced by COVID-19 causes alterations in the exchange of oxygen and the excretion of carbon dioxide with neurological consequences. Objective: To describe the implications of oxygen and carbon dioxide on brain dynamics during ventilatory treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome in stroke. Methods: A search was carried out in referential bases such as PubMed/Medline, SciELO, Google Scholar and VHL Cuba. The terms included were brain-lung crosstalk, ARDS, mechanical ventilation, COVID-19 related stroke, ARDS related stroke and their translation into Spanish. Books on neurointensive care and artificial mechanical ventilation were referenced. The search period included the last 20 years. Forty six bibliographies that met the selection criteria were selected. Results: Oxygen and carbon dioxide levels have been described to participate in vascular neuroregulation in patients with brain damage. Some allusive alterations are reflex cerebral vasodilatation or vasoconstrictor effects with reduced cerebral perfusion pressure. As a consequence, intracranial pressure increases and neurocognitive impairments, delayed cerebral ischemia or brainstem herniation appear. Conclusions: The control of oxygenation and the excretion of carbon dioxide were crucial to maintain neuronal homeostasis, avoiding the decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure and the increase in intracranial pressure. It is suggested to avoid hypoxemia and hyperoxemia, limit or avoid hypercapnia, and use hypocapnic hyperventilation only in conditions of brainstem herniation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/complications , Intracranial Hypertension/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypoxia
19.
Med. UIS ; 36(1)abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534829

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica es una limitación del flujo de aire por anomalías alveolares. En una exacerbación aguda, la ventilación mecánica no invasiva es la primera línea en el manejo, sin embargo, existen ciertos factores de riesgo que hacen más probable el uso de ventilación mecánica invasiva en estos pacientes, que no están apropiadamente descritos en la literatura científica y que pueden guiar hacia una elección de soporte ventilatorio apropiado. Objetivo: describir los factores que se asociaron con mayor necesidad de ventilación mecánica no invasiva en una cohorte de pacientes hospitalizados con exacerbación aguda de la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Métodos: estudio observacional analítico de corte transversal, con muestreo no probabilístico que incluye todos los pacientes que consultaron a urgencias y fueron hospitalizados por exacerbación aguda de la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica en un hospital de tercer nivel de Santander, Colombia, durante el período 2014-2020. Resultados: fueron incluidos 81 pacientes, 36 requirieron ventilación mecánica no invasiva y 12 ventilación mecánica invasiva; 25 % de los pacientes con ventilación mecánica no invasiva fallaron a la terapia inicial y demandaron el uso de ventilación mecánica invasiva. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron hipertensión arterial (70,3 %) y cardiopatía (49,38 %); 70 % había tenido exposición al tabaquismo como fumador directo. Conclusiones: el uso de ventilación mecánica invasiva estuvo relacionado de forma estadísticamente significativa en pacientes con perfil de disnea severa, acidosis por parámetros gasométricos, escalamiento antibiótico, uso de corticoides intravenosos, requerimiento de unidad de cuidado intensivo, infecciones asociadas al cuidado de la salud y estancia hospitalaria prolongada.


Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is airflow limitation due to alveolar abnormalities. In an acute exa- cerbation, non-invasive mechanical ventilation is the first line of management, however, there are certain risk factors that make the use of invasive mechanical ventilation more likely in these patients, which are not adequately described in the scientific literature and that can guide towards a choice of appropriate ventilatory support. Objective: To describe the factors that were associated with an increased need for invasive mechanical ventilation in a cohort of hospitalized patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: Cross-sectional analytical observational study, with non-probabilistic sampling including all patients who consulted the emergency room and were hospitalized for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a tertiary care hospital in Santander-Colombia during the period 2014-2020. Results: 81 patients were included, 36 required non-invasive mechanical ventilation and 12 invasive me- chanical ventilation. 25 % of the patients with non-invasive mechanical ventilation failed the initial therapy and demanded the use of invasive mechanical ventilation. The most frequent comorbidities were arterial hypertension (70.3 %) and heart disease (49.38 %). 70 % had been exposed to smoking as direct smokers. Conclusions: The use of invasive mechanical ven- tilation was associated in a statistically significant way in patients with a profile of: severe dyspnea, acidosis by gasometric parameters, antibiotic escalation, use of intravenous corticosteroids, intensive care unit requirement, infections associa- ted with health care and prolonged hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Interactive Ventilatory Support , Recurrence , Research , Respiration, Artificial , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Critical Care , Observational Study
20.
Diagn. tratamento ; 28(1): 61-67, jan-mar. 2023. tab 2
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1413215

ABSTRACT

Contextualização: A displasia broncopulmonar é uma das principais causas de enfermidade respiratória crônica na infância, levando a hospitalizações frequentes e prolongadas e com altos índices de mortalidade, alterações do crescimento pôndero-estatural e desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. Tamanho impacto justifica o grande investimento nas pesquisas para identificar suas causas e buscar alternativas para prevenção e tratamento. Objetivos: Avaliar a efetividade das intervenções para prevenção de displasia broncopulmonar em recém-nascidos prematuros com ventilação mecânica invasiva. Métodos: Trata-se de overview de revisões sistemáticas realizadas pela Colaboração Cochrane. Procedeu-se à busca na Cochrane Library (2022), utilizando os termos "neonatal prematurity" e "bronchopulmonary dysplasia". Foram incluídos todos os ensaios clínicos randomizados. O desfecho primário de análise foi a redução de morbimortalidade. Resultados: A estratégia de busca recuperou um total de 47 revisões sistemáticas. Oito foram incluídas, totalizando 94 ensaios clínicos randomizados e 10.511 participantes. Discussão: Os estudos demonstram efetividade de corticosteroides, mas é necessário cautela na dosagem e no momento correto para sua administração. O uso de surfactante sintético pode trazer benefícios respiratórios, mas requer novos estudos. Não se justifica o uso de pentoxifilina. Conclusão: A displasia broncopulmonar tornou-se um grande desafio para o neonatologista e as revisões sistemáticas Cochrane sugerem que a corticoterapia pode ser efetiva na prevenção dessa condição, embora novos estudos sejam recomendados para estabelecer dosagem ideal e melhor momento para a terapêutica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Respiration, Artificial , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/prevention & control , Infant, Premature , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trial , Treatment Outcome , Systematic Reviews as Topic
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