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1.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(2): 177-182, Junio 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1556164

ABSTRACT

La bronquitis plástica es una enfermedad infrecuente y poco estudiada. Se caracteriza por la obstrucción parcial o total de la vía aérea inferior por moldes o yesos gomosos y firmes, compuestos por múltiples sustancias como fibrina, mucina y otros, que se acumulan en la luz bronquial. En la actualidad, no hay un consenso de la fisiopatología real. Puede presentarse con síntomas leves como tos, sibilancias y disnea, hasta eventos fatales de insuficiencia respiratoria. Se clasifican en tipo I (inflamatorios) y tipo II (acelulares). La presencia de la bronquitis plástica es una complicación de varias enfermedades y está relacionada con procedimientos correctivos de cardiopatías congénitas (procedimiento de Fontan). El diagnóstico se hace a través de la identificación de los yesos bronquiales, ya sea cuando el paciente los expectora o por broncoscopía. Se han utilizado múltiples terapias que solo tienen evidencias anecdóticas. En los últimos años se han observado buenos resultados con el uso de heparinas, así como el alteplasa nebulizado e instilado por broncoscopia.


Plastic bronchitis is a rare and little-studied disease. It is characterized by partial or total obstruction of the lower airway by rubbery and firm molds or plasters, made up of multiple substances that accumulate in the bronchial lumen. Currently, there is no consensus on real pathophysiology. It can present itself with mild symptoms such as cough, wheezing and dyspnea, to fatal events of respiratory failure. They are classified into type I (inflammatory) and type II (acellular). The presence of plastic bronchitis is a complication of several diseases and in corrective procedures for congenital heart disease (Fontan procedure). Diagnosis is made by identifying bronchial casts, either by the patient expectorating them or by bronchoscopy. Multiple therapies have been used that only have anecdotal evidence. In recent years, good results have been observed with the use of heparins and tPA nebulized and instilled by bronchoscop.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Bronchitis/diagnosis , Bronchoscopy , Fontan Procedure , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Shock, Septic , Fibrin , Tracheostomy , Respiratory Sounds , Cough , Airway Obstruction/diagnosis , Dyspnea
2.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 79-83, Marzo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551228

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de un niño de 3 años con diagnóstico de asma, rinitis alérgica, características craneofaciales dismórficas e infecciones respiratorias altas y bajas recurrentes, manejado como asma desde un inicio. Como parte del estudio de comorbilidades, se decide realizar una prueba del sudor que sale en rango intermedio y más tarde se encuentra una mutación, donde se obtiene un resultado positivo para una copia que se asocia a fibrosis quística. Se revisará el caso, así como el diagnóstico, clínica y tratamiento del síndrome metabólico relacionado con el regulador de conductancia transmembrana de fibrosis quística (CRMS).


We present the case of a 3-year-old boy with a diagnosis of asthma, allergic rhinitis, dysmorphic craniofacial characteristics and recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections, managed as asthma from the beginning. As part of the study of comorbidi-ties, it was decided to carry out a sweat test that came out in the intermediate range and later one mutation was found, where a positive result was obtained for a copy that is associated with cystic fibrosis. The case will be reviewed, as well as the diagnosis, symptoms and treatment of the metabolic syndrome related to the cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator (CRMS).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Asthma/diagnosis , Respiratory Sounds/diagnosis , Cough/diagnosis , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections , Radiography, Thoracic , Comorbidity , Neonatal Screening , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics
3.
Femina ; 51(8): 480-485, 20230830. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512457

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar o uso dos contraceptivos hormonais em mulheres com asma e a escolha desses métodos contraceptivos para essa população, com avaliação de eventuais repercussões sobre novos episódios de asma e sibilos. Métodos: Foram selecionados estudos longitudinais, ensaios clínicos, revisões sistemáticas e metanálises. As plataformas consultadas foram PubMed, Embase, Cochrane e SciELO, com a utilização dos descritores: "contracepção", "contracepção hormonal", "sistema intrauterino liberador de levonorgestrel" e "asma". Resultados: Dois grandes estudos demonstraram que o uso de contraceptivos hormonais esteve associado à redução do risco de novos episódios de asma. Uma revisão sistemática concluiu que os resultados para o uso de contraceptivos hormonais para mulheres com asma foram mistos, com aumento ou redução dos seguintes riscos: novo episódio de asma e aumento da frequência das crises e dos sibilos. O uso da contracepção hormonal em pacientes obesas portadoras de asma é controverso. Conclusão: Os resultados para o uso de contraceptivos hormonais em mulheres com asma são inconsistentes, com relatos de aumento ou de redução do risco de novos episódios. O uso do método contraceptivo deve ser discutido individualmente, levando-se em consideração outros fatores de risco associados e o desejo da mulher. A paciente deverá ser orientada se houver piora dos sintomas clínicos de asma na vigência do uso de qualquer método contraceptivo hormonal.


Objective: To analyze the use of hormonal contraceptives in women with asthma and the choice of this contraceptive method for this population, evaluating possible repercussions on new episodes of asthma and wheezing. Methods: Longitudinal studies, clinical trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were selected. Platforms consulted: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, SciELO, using the descriptors: "contraception", "hormonal contraception", "levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system" and "asthma". Results: Two large studies demonstrated that the use of hormonal contraceptives was associated with a reduced risk of new episodes of asthma. A systematic review concluded that the results for the use of hormonal contraceptives for women with asthma were mixed, with increased or decrease in the following risks: new asthma episodes, increased frequency and wheezing. The use of hormonal contraception in obese patients with asthma is controversial. Conclusion: The results for the use of hormonal contraceptives in women with asthma are inconsistent, with reports of increased or reduced risk of new episodes. The use of the contraceptive method should be discussed individually, taking into account other associated risk factors and the woman's desire. The patient will be advised if there is a worsening of the clinical symptoms of asthma while using any hormonal contraceptive method.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Asthma/complications , Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal/adverse effects , Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Progesterone/adverse effects , Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Menarche , Respiratory Sounds/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Cough/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Estrogens , Systematic Review , Lung/physiopathology
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202782, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1437252

ABSTRACT

Los neurofibromas laríngeos (NFL) son tumores benignos poco frecuentes de localización principalmente supraglótica. Se manifiestan con síntomas obstructivos de la vía aérea. El tratamiento es la resección completa del tumor mediante abordaje endoscópico; se reserva la cirugía abierta para tumores de gran extensión. Se presenta el caso de un paciente pediátrico con localización atípica de NFL asociado a neurofibromatosis tipo 1 (NF1). Se realizó resección endoscópica del tumor y la anatomía patológica informó neurofibroma plexiforme. Es importante sospechar de esta patología en todo niño con estridor inspiratorio atípico progresivo. Se sugiere seguimiento a largo plazo por la alta probabilidad de recidiva.


Laryngeal neurofibromas (LNFs) are rare benign tumors mainly located in the supraglottis. LNFs occur with airway obstruction symptoms. The treatment is complete resection via an endoscopic technique; the open approach is reserved for large tumors. Here we describe the case of a pediatric patient with LNF of atypical location associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). The tumor was resected with an endoscopic technique, and the pathological study reported a plexiform neurofibroma. It is important to suspect this condition in any child with atypical, progressive inspiratory stridor. Long-term follow-up is recommended due to the high rate of recurrence


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Neurofibromatosis 1/complications , Neurofibromatosis 1/diagnosis , Neurofibromatosis 1/pathology , Neurofibroma, Plexiform/surgery , Neurofibroma, Plexiform/complications , Neurofibroma, Plexiform/diagnosis , Larynx/pathology , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Endoscopy
5.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 322-327, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985870

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and the risk factors of severe human metapneumovirus (hMPV)-associated community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. Methods: A retrospective case summary was conducted. From December 2020 to March 2022, 721 children who were diagnosed with CAP and tested positive for hMPV nucleic acid by PCR-capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis of nasopharyngeal secretions at the Yuying Children's Hospital, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University were selected as the research objects. The clinical characteristics, epidemiological characteristics and mixed pathogens of the two groups were analyzed. According to CAP diagnostic criteria, the children were divided into the severe group and the mild group. Chi-square test or Mann-Whitney rank and contrast analysis was used for comparison between groups, while multivariate Logistic regression was applied to analyze the risk factors of the severe hMPV-associated CAP. Results: A total of 721 children who were diagnosed with hMPV-associated CAP were included in this study, with 397 males and 324 females. There were 154 cases in the severe group. The age of onset was 1.0 (0.9, 3.0) years, <3 years old 104 cases (67.5%), and the length of hospital stay was 7 (6, 9) days. In the severe group, 67 children (43.5%) were complicated with underlying diseases. In the severe group, 154 cases (100.0%) had cough, 148 cases (96.1%) had shortness of breath and pulmonary moist rales, and 132 cases (85.7%) had fever, 23 cases (14.9%) were complicated with respiratory failure. C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated in 86 children (55.8%), including CRP≥50 mg/L in 33 children (21.4%). Co-infection was detected in 77 cases (50.0%) and 102 strains of pathogen were detected, 25 strains of rhinovirus, 17 strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 15 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 12 strains of Haemophilus influenzae and 10 strains of respiratory syncytial virus were detected. Six cases (3.9%) received heated and humidified high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, 15 cases (9.7%) were admitted to intensive care unit, and 2 cases (1.3%) received mechanical ventilation. In the severe group, 108 children were cured, 42 children were improved, 4 chlidren were discharged automatically without recovery and no death occurred. There were 567 cases in the mild group. The age of onset was 2.7 (1.0, 4.0) years, and the length of hospital stay was 4 (4, 6) days.Compared with the mild group, the proportion of children who age of disease onset <6 months, CRP≥50 mg/L, the proportions of preterm birth, congenital heart disease, malnutrition, congenital airway malformation, neuromuscular disease, mixed respiratory syncytial viruses infection were higher (20 cases (13.0%) vs. 31 cases (5.5%), 32 cases (20.8%) vs. 64 cases (11.3%), 23 cases (14.9%) vs. 44 cases (7.8%), 11 cases (7.1%) vs. 18 cases (3.2%), 9 cases (5.8%) vs. 6 cases (1.1%), 11 cases (7.1%) vs. 12 cases (2.1%), 8 cases (5.2%) vs. 4 cases (0.7%), 10 cases (6.5%) vs. 13 cases (2.3%), χ2=0.42, 9.45, 7.40, 4.94, 11.40, 8.35, 3.52, 6.92, all P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that age<6 months (OR=2.51, 95%CI 1.29-4.89), CRP≥50 mg/L (OR=2.20, 95%CI 1.36-3.57), prematurity (OR=2.19, 95%CI 1.26-3.81), malnutrition (OR=6.05, 95%CI 1.89-19.39) were the independent risk factors for severe hMPV-associated CAP. Conclusions: Severe hMPV-associated CAP is most likely to occur in infants under 3 years old and has a higher proportion of underlying diseases and co-infection. The main clinical manifestations are cough, shortness of breath and pulmonary moist rales, fever. The overall prognosis is good. Age<6 months, CRP≥50 mg/L, preterm birth, malnutrition are the independent risk factors for severe hMPV-associated CAP.


Subject(s)
Infant , Male , Female , Humans , Child , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Retrospective Studies , Cough , Coinfection , Premature Birth , Respiratory Sounds , Metapneumovirus , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Dyspnea , Malnutrition
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009855

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the efficacy and safety of Xiyanping injection through intramuscular injection for the treatment of acute bronchitis in children.@*METHODS@#A prospective study was conducted from December 2021 to October 2022, including 78 children with acute bronchitis from three hospitals using a multicenter, randomized, parallel-controlled design. The participants were divided into a test group (conventional treatment plus Xiyanping injection; n=36) and a control group (conventional treatment alone; n=37) in a 1:1 ratio. Xiyanping injection was administered at a dose of 0.3 mL/(kg·d) (total daily dose ≤8 mL), twice daily via intramuscular injection, with a treatment duration of ≤4 days and a follow-up period of 7 days. The treatment efficacy and safety were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The total effective rate on the 3rd day after treatment in the test group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the total effective rate on the 5th day between the two groups (P>0.05). The rates of fever relief, cough relief, and lung rale relief in the test group on the 3rd day after treatment were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The cough relief rate on the 5th day after treatment in the test group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the fever relief rate and lung rale relief rate between the two groups (P>0.05). The cough relief time, daily cough relief time, and nocturnal cough relief time in the test group were significantly shorter than those in the control group (P<0.05), while there were no significant differences in the fever duration and lung rale relief time between the two groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events between the two groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The overall efficacy of combined routine treatment with intramuscular injection of Xiyanping injection in the treatment of acute bronchitis in children is superior to that of routine treatment alone, without an increase in the incidence of adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Injections, Intramuscular , Cough/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Sounds , Bronchitis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971042

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the influencing factors for asthma management and asthma control level in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 202 children with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma were enrolled. The questionnaire of asthma control level and family management was used to investigate the influencing factors for asthma control level and the indicators of family management. The awareness of childhood asthma and its management was analyzed among the parents, as well as the influence on asthma control level in children, and the association between them was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the non-complete control group, the complete control group had significantly longer course of asthma and treatment time (P<0.05). The proportions of asthma attacks ≥3 times and aerosol treatment for asthma attacks >3 times in one year in the complete control group were significantly lower than those in the non-complete control group (P<0.05). The complete control group had a significantly lower proportion of children with frequent respiratory infection, wheezing during respiratory infection, or a family history of allergic diseases (P<0.05). The parents in the complete control group had significantly stronger awareness of short-term escalation to asthma medication after respiratory infection and significantly enhanced management of maintenance medication (P<0.05). Compared with the complete control group, the non-complete control group had a significantly higher proportion of children with abnormal pulmonary function at the initial stage (P<0.05). The level of asthma control in children was associated with short-term escalation to asthma medication during respiratory infection and initial lung function (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The level of asthma control in children is closely associated with the severity of asthma and the comprehensive management of childhood asthma. Early treatment and family management, especially escalation to asthma medication during the early stage of respiratory infection, are of great importance in asthma control. Citation:Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 2023, 25(1): 73-79.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Asthma/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Lung , Respiratory Tract Infections , Parents , Respiratory Sounds
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982758

ABSTRACT

Infants with laryngotracheal anomalies are clinically manifested as stridor or noisy breathing, choking, hoarseness, feeding difficulties, and cyanotic spells, followed by developmental and growth retardation and other health issues; in severe cases, patients may present with severe dyspnea, which is associated with high mortality. A timely diagnosis as well as appropriate strategy for laryngotracheal anomalies is still challenging for pediatric otolaryngologists. This consensus statement, evolved from expert opinion by the members of the Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Professional Committee of the Pediatrician Branch of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association, provides comprehensive recommendations and standardized guidance for otolaryngologists who manage infants and young children with laryngotracheal anomalies in evaluation and treatment based on symptomatology, physical and laboratory examinations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Infant , Child, Preschool , Laryngostenosis/surgery , Airway Obstruction/complications , Hoarseness/complications , Consensus , Respiratory Sounds
9.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 719-725, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013161

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the risk factors for airway mucus hypersecretion in childhood pneumonia infected by different pathogens. Method: A retrospective cohort included 968 children who were hospitalized for Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia, adenovirus pneumonia and underwent bronchoscopy in Respiratory Department of Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2019 to December 2021 was conducted. The children were divided into two groups distinguished by airway mucus secretion according to the airway mucus hypersecretion score which were scored according to the mucus secretion under the bronchoscope. The demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, laboratory tests and disease severity of the two groups were compared. And the risk factors for the development of airway mucus hypersecretion in two groups were analyzed. Chi square test, Mann-Whithey U test and Fisher exact test were used to analyze the differences between the two groups, and multivariate Logistic regression was used to analyze the influencing factors. Result: There were 559 males and 409 females in the 968 children, with an age of 4.0 (1.4, 6.0) years. Among the 642 children with MPP, 185 cases were in the hypersecretion group and 457 cases were in the non-hypersecretion group. There were 41 cases in the hypersecretion group and 160 cases in the non-hypersecretion group of 201 children with RSV pneumonia. In the 125 children with adenovirus pneumonia, there were 39 cases in the hypersecretion group and 86 cases in the non-hypersecretion group. In these children, the age of children in the hypersecretion group was older than that in the non-hypersecretion group (6.0 (4.0, 7.0) vs. 5.0 (3.0, 7.0) years old, 1.5 (0.5, 3.6) vs. 0.8 (0.4, 1.6) years old, 2.0 (1.2, 4.5) vs. 1.3 (0.8, 2.0) years old, U=35 295.00, 2 492.00, 1 101.00, all P<0.05). Through multivariate Logistic regression analysis it found that increased risk of airway mucus hypersecretion was present in childhood MPP with increase in peripheral blood white blood cell count (OR=3.30, 95%CI 1.51-7.93, P=0.004) or increase in neutrophil ratio (OR=2.24, 95%CI 1.16-4.33, P=0.016) or decrease in lymphocyte count (OR=3.22, 95%CI 1.66-6.31, P<0.001) or decrease in serum albumin (OR=2.00, 95%CI 1.01-3.98, P=0.047). The risk of airway mucus hypersecretion was increased in children with RSV pneumonia combined with elevated peripheral blood eosinophils (OR=3.04, 95%CI 1.02-8.93, P=0.043). Meanwhile, airway mucus hypersecretion was associated with severe pneumonia (OR=2.46, 95%CI 1.03-6.15, P=0.047) in children with RSV pneumonia. Older age was associated with increased risk of airway mucus hypersecretion in children with adenovirus pneumonia (OR=1.02, 95%CI 1.00-1.04, P=0.026). In these children with occurrence of pulmonary rales, wheezes or sputum sounds (OR=3.65, 95%CI 1.22-12.64, P=0.028) had an increased risk of airway mucus hypersecretion. Neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) demonstrated higher ratio in hypersecretion group from children with MPP (0.65 (0.43, 0.81) vs. 0.59 (0.34, 0.76), U=24 507.00, P<0.01), while the proportion of macrophages in BALF was lower (0.10 (0.05, 0.20) vs. 0.12 (0.06, 0.24), U=33 043.00, P<0.05). Nucleated cell count and neutrophil ratio in BALF were higher in hypersecretion group of children with RSV pneumonia (1 210 (442, 2 100)×106 vs. 490 (210, 1 510)×106/L, 0.43 (0.26, 0.62) vs. 0.30 (0.13, 0.52), U=2 043.00, 2 064.00, all P<0.05). Conclusions: The increase in peripheral blood white blood cell count, neutrophil ratio and decrease in lymphocyte count, serum albumin in children with MPP is related to the development of airway mucus hypersecretion. In children with RSV pneumonia, the abnormal increase of eosinophils in peripheral blood has relationship with hypersecretion. The appearance of lung rale, wheezing, and sputum rale are associated with airway mucus hypersecretion in children with adenovirus pneumonia. In addition, local neutrophil infiltration in the respiratory tract is closely related to the occurrence of airway mucus hypersecretion caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and RSV infection.


Subject(s)
Child , Male , Female , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Sounds , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Lung , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Mucus , Pneumonia, Viral , Risk Factors
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011084

ABSTRACT

Congenital laryngomalacia is the most common disease causing laryngeal stridor in infants. The pathogenesis has not yet been clearly concluded. It may be related to abnormal development of laryngeal cartilage anatomical structure, neuromuscular dysfunction, gastroesophageal and laryngeal reflux disease, etc. The typical manifestations of the disease are inspiratory laryngeal stridor and feeding difficulties, which can be divided into mild, moderate and severe according to the severity of symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly based on clinical symptoms, signs and endoscopy, among which endoscopy is an important diagnostic basis. The treatment of laryngomalacia depends on the severity of symptoms. Mild and some moderate congenital laryngomalacia children can be relieved by conservative treatment, and severe and some moderate congenital laryngomalacia children should be treated by surgery. Supraglottic plasty is the main surgical method, which can effectively improve the symptoms of laryngeal stridor, dyspnea, feeding difficulties and growth retardation in most children, and the surgical effect is good.


Subject(s)
Infant , Child , Humans , Laryngomalacia/therapy , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Larynx/surgery , Laryngeal Diseases/surgery , Endoscopy/adverse effects , Laryngismus
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011077

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the clinical data of laryngeal airway diseases in infants and provide reference for the standardized diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Methods:From June 2022 to August 2023, analyze the clinical data of 4 cases of children with laryngeal airway diseases recently admitted to Department of Otolaryngology, Fuzhou Children's Hospital of Fujian Province, and summarize the experience and lessons of diagnosis and treatment by consulting relevant literature. Results:Three cases had symptoms such as laryngeal wheezing, dyspnea, backward growth and development, etc. After electronic laryngoscopy, the first case was diagnosed with laryngeal softening (severe, type Ⅱ), and the angular incision was performed. While cases 2, 3 diagnosed with case 2 and 3 were diagnosed with laryngeal cyst and underwent laryngeal cyst resection. All three cases underwent low-temperature plasma surgery under visual laryngoscope, and the symptoms were relieved after operation. Case 4 was laryngeal wheezing and dyspnea after extubation under general anesthesia. The electronic laryngoscopy showeded early stage of globetic stenosis, and endoscopic pseudomembrane clamping was performed, and the postoperative symptoms were relieved. Conclusion:Infants and young children with laryngeal airway diseases should pay attention to the early symptoms and be diagnosed by electronic laryngoscopy as soon as possible. With good curative effect and few complications, low-temperature plasma surgery under visual laryngoscope is recommended. The formation of pseudomembrane under the gluteal caused by tracheal intubation causes rapid onset and rapid development. The pseudomembrane extraction by clamping is convenient and fast, with good curative effect.


Subject(s)
Infant , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Larynx , Laryngeal Diseases/surgery , Laryngoscopy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Dyspnea/surgery , Cysts/surgery
12.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1023-1027, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007437

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical efficacy of the combined application of blistering cupping with thunder-fire moxibustion in treating bronchial asthma of cold-wheezing syndrome, and its influences on airway remodeling, inflammatory factors, lung function, and quality of life on the base of conventional western medicine treatment.@*METHODS@#A total of 76 patients with bronchial asthma of cold-wheezing syndrome were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 38 cases in each group. In the control group, the basic treatment was used, i.e. budesonide formoterol powder inhalation. In the observation group, on the basis of the treatment as the control group, blistering cupping combined with thunder-fire moxibustion was supplemented, Dazhui (GV 14), Danzhong (CV 17) and bilateral Feishu (BL 13), Gaohuang (BL 43), and Zhongfu (LU 1) were selected; blistering cupping was administered once a day and thunder-fire moxibustion was given twice a day. One course of treatment was composed of 7 days in both groups, and 2 courses of treatment were required. Before and after treatment, the airway remodeling indexes (matrix metalloproteinase-9 [MMP-9], tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 [TIMP-1], and transforming growth factor-β1 [TGF-β1]) and inflammatory indexes (interleukin [IL] -1β、IL-25) were detected by using radioimmunoassay in the patients of the two groups. The lung function, traditional Chinese medicine symptom score, and asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ) score were observed in the patients of the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the serum levels of MMP-9, TIMP-1, TGF-β1, IL-1β, IL-25, peak expiratory flow (PEFR), traditional Chinese medicine symptom scores, and AQLQ scores were decreased compared with those before treatment in the patients of the two groups (P<0.05), and the results in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the first second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) were increased compared with those before treatment in the two groups (P<0.05), and the results in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#On the basis of the conventional western medicine treatment, the combination of blistering cupping with thunder-fire moxibustion can effectively ameliorate the clinical symptoms of patients, reduce inflammatory levels, inhibit airway remodeling and improve the lung function and quality of life in the patients with bronchial asthma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Airway Remodeling , Respiratory Sounds , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Moxibustion , Quality of Life , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 , Asthma/therapy
13.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(3): 300-307, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522093

ABSTRACT

El estridor corresponde a un signo altamente frecuente, sin embargo, es heterogéneo e inespecífico. Existen múltiples causas conocidas y manejadas por el otorrinolaringólogo. Los quistes subglóticos constituyen una entidad infrecuente de estridor en pediatría, siendo la población más frecuentemente afectada, niños con antecedentes de prematurez e intubación por períodos prolongados. Su manifestación clínica es variada, desde cuadros asintomáticos a pacientes con riesgo inminente de pérdida de la vía aérea. El diagnóstico suele ser tras largos períodos desde el antecedente de intubación. Su resolución suele ser quirúrgica, teniendo como principal complicación asociada la estenosis subglótica y las recurrencias. Se presenta el caso de una preescolar con un episodio de estridor y distrés respiratorio rápidamente progresivos, cuyo diagnóstico intraoperatorio resultó en quistes subglóticos submucosos bilaterales, que requirieron resolución quirúrgica.


Stridor corresponds to a highly frequent sign; however, it is heterogeneous and nonspecific. There are multiple causes that are widely known and managed by the otorhinolaryngolo-gist. Subglottic cysts are an infrequent entity of stridor in pediatric patients, where the most frequently affected population are childrens with history of prematurity and intubation for long periods. It's clinical manifestations are wide, from asymptomatic cases to patients with imminent risk of airway loss. Their manifestation its often after long periods after the moment of intubation. The management often involves surgery, and the main associated complication is subglottic stenosis and recurrences. We present the case of a preschool girl with an episode of rapidly progressive stridor and respiratory distress; whose intraoperative diagnosis was bilateral subglottic submucosal cysts that required surgical resolution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Sounds , Cysts/surgery , Laryngoscopy/methods , Constriction, Pathologic
14.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 39(2): 152-168, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515115

ABSTRACT

Las sibilancias recurrentes del preescolar son un problema prevalente. 50% de todos los niños tiene al menos un episodio de sibilancias en los primeros 6 años. Sin embargo, solo 4% de los menores de 4 años tiene diagnóstico de asma. Por este motivo es fundamental realizar una adecuada anamnesis y examen físico tendientes a descartar causas secundarias, lo que debe ser complementado con exámenes de laboratorio de acuerdo con la orientación clínica. En la actualidad se recomienda indicar tratamiento de mantención con corticoides inhalados en aquellos niños que tengan episodios repetidos de obstrucción bronquial y que tengan una alta probabilidad de respuesta favorable a esta terapia. Se ha demostrado que aquellos pacientes que tienen un recuento de eosinófilos en sangre > 300 células por mm3 o aquellos que presentan una prueba cutánea positiva o IgE específicas positivas para alergenos inhalados responderán adecuadamente al tratamiento con esteroides inhalados.


Recurrent wheezing in preschoolers has a high prevalence. 50% of all children have at least one wheezing episode in the first six years of life. However, only 4% of children under four years of age are diagnosed with asthma. Therefore it is essential to carry out an adequate medical history and physical examination to rule out secondary causes, which must be complemented with laboratory tests in accordance with clinical guidance. It is recommended to indicate maintenance treatment with inhaled corticosteroids to those children who have repeated episodes of wheezing and who have a high probability of a good response to this therapy. It has been demonstrated that those patients who have blood eosinophil count > 300 cells per mm3 or those who have a positive skin test or positive specific IgE for inhaled allergens will have a good response to inhaled corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Respiratory Sounds , Phenotype , Recurrence , Severity of Illness Index , Consensus
15.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 18(3): 73-82, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1517019

ABSTRACT

Las sibilancias recurrentes del preescolar son un problema prevalente. 50% de todos los niños tiene al menos un episodio de sibilancias en los primeros 6 años. Sin embargo, solo 4 % de los menores de 4 años tiene diagnóstico de asma. Por este motivo es fundamental realizar una adecuada anamnesis y examen físico tendientes a descartar causas secundarias, lo que debe ser complementado con exámenes de laboratorio de acuerdo con la orientación clínica. En la actualidad se recomienda indicar tratamiento de mantención con corticoides inhalados en aquellos niños que tengan episodios repetidos de obstrucción bronquial y que tengan una alta probabilidad de respuesta favorable a esta terapia. Se ha demostrado que aquellos pacientes que tienen un recuento de eosinófilos en sangre > 300 células por mm3 o aquellos que presentan una prueba cutánea positiva o IgE específicas positivas para alérgenos inhalados, responderán adecuadamente al tratamiento con esteroides inhalados.


Recurrent wheezing in preschoolers has a high prevalence. 50% of all children have at least one wheezing episode in the first six years of life. However, only 4% of children under four years of age are diagnosed with asthma. Therefore, it is essential to carry out an adequate medical history and physical examination to rule out secondary causes, which must be complemented with laboratory tests in accordance with clinical guidance. It is recommended to indicate maintenance treatment with inhaled corticosteroids to those children who have repeated episodes of wheezing and who have a high probability of a good response to this therapy. It has been demonstrated that those patients who have blood eosinophil count > 300 cells per mm3 or those who have a positive skin test or positive specific IgE for inhaled allergens will have a good response to inhaled corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Phenotype , Recurrence , Administration, Inhalation , Immunoglobulin E , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Eosinophils
16.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(3): 338-342, sept. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | BBO, LILACS | ID: biblio-1409943

ABSTRACT

Resumen La neuropatía laríngea es una condición de hipersensibilidad, hiperreactividad e hiper-función laríngea secundaria a un desequilibrio entre las aferencias y eferencias laríngeas. La respuesta individual y exagerada frente a diversos gatillantes específicos puede generar síntomas como tos crónica, parestesia laríngea, carraspera, disfonía, estridor, sensación de globus faríngeo, movimiento paradojal de las cuerdas vocales (también conocido como disfunción cordal) y/o laringoespasmo. Existe abundante literatura sobre neuropatía laríngea en adultos, sin embargo, en niños es limitada. El objetivo de este artículo es dar a conocer un caso de neuropatía laríngea en la edad pediátrica y la importancia de su consideración en el enfrentamiento de estos pacientes. Se presenta caso clínico de un paciente de 13 años, con antecedente de cirugía cardiaca reciente, evoluciona con disfonía severa evidenciándose aparente inmovilidad cordal bilateral con resultados discordantes entre nasofibrolaringoscopía y electromiografía laríngea. Posteriormente presenta mejorías en su voz, sin embargo, se agregan otros síntomas laringológicos como carraspera, globus faríngeo y estridor no explicados por causas anatómicas. Se expone la evaluación y abordaje otorrinolaringológico-fonoaudiológico para el caso. Se concluye que el diagnóstico de neuropatía laríngea requiere un alto índice de sospecha clínica ante signos laringológicos sugerentes, debiendo descartarse causas orgánicas y estructurales. El abordaje otorrinolaringológico-fonoaudiológico constituye el pilar terapéutico asociado al uso de neuromoduladores en casos seleccionados.


Abstract Laryngeal neuropathy is a condition of hypersensitivity, hyperresponsiveness and laryngeal hyperfunction secondary to an imbalance between laryngeal afferent and efferent information. The individual and exaggerated response to diverse specific triggers can lead to symptoms such as chronic cough, laryngeal paresthesia, throat clearing, dysphonia, stridor, globus pharyngeus, vocal cord dysfunction, and/or laryngospasm. There is plentiful literature on laryngeal neuropathy in adults, however, in children, it is limited. Here, we present a case report of laryngeal neuropathy in the pediatric age and discuss the importance of its consideration in the approach of these patients. A case of a 13-year-old patient, recently intervened with cardiac surgery that evolves with severe dysphonia is presented. Nasofibrolaryngoscopy shows apparent bilateral vocal fold immobility with discordant results in laryngeal electromyography. Later, his voice improves but other laryngological symptoms appeared, such as throat clearing, globus pharyngeus and stridor, not explained by anatomical causes. The otolaryngological-speech therapy evaluation and approach for the case is exposed. We conclude that for the diagnosis of laryngeal neuropathy, a high index of clinical suspicion is required in the presence of suggestive laryngological symptoms, and organic and structural causes must be previously ruled out. The otorhinolaryngological-logopedic approach constitutes the mainstay of treatment associated with the use of neuromodulators in selected cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Laryngeal Diseases/diagnosis , Laryngeal Diseases/therapy , Vocal Cords/physiopathology , Respiratory Sounds , Cough/diagnosis , Dysphonia/diagnosis , Vocal Cord Dysfunction/physiopathology , Globus Sensation/diagnosis
17.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(3): 412-419, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1395991

ABSTRACT

La COVID-19 es una enfermedad infecciosa que causa importantes disfunciones respiratorias con repercusión a largo plazo, perdurando después del alta médico. En este estudio, se determinó la asociación entre los factores sociodemográficos, clínicos y asistenciales con el impacto de la COVID-19 en la capacidad funcional respiratoria post alta hospitalaria. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, analítico, transversal. La muestra conformada por 385 pacientes con diagnóstico de COVID-19. Se aplicó una ficha de recolección de datos, se estimó la capacidad funcional respiratoria. Se realizó un análisis bivariado mediante la prueba de chi cuadrado y razón de prevalencias considerando una significancia del 95% (p<0,05). Resultados: De los 385 pacientes, 228 (59,2%) se les percibió capacidad respiratoria normal y, disminuida en 157 (40,8%). Los adultos contemporáneos (55,84%) y masculinos (67,80%) fueron mayormente afectados. La comorbilidad (p= 0,292) y Co-Rads (p= 0,797) no mostraron estar directamente asociadas a la afectación respiratoria; contrario a RALE ≥ 3 en Radiografía de tórax (p=0,000). El tiempo en hospitalización, UCI y ventilación mecánica sugiere estar relacionado con la disminución respiratoria. Sin embargo, por RPc no hubo evidencia estadísticamente significativa. Pero, clínica severa 3.029 [1.611 ­ 5.696] p= 0.001 y RALE ≥3 4.079 [2.248 ­ 7.401] p= 0,000, arrojaron asociación. Conclusión: se identificaron como factores asociados el grado de severidad y RALE≥ 3 en radiografía de tórax. Se sugiere realizar estudios que confirme los hallazgos de esta investigación y se proponga un protocolo de rehabilitación integral dirigido a pacientes post covid-19 que les permita recuperar la normalidad en la capacidad funcional respiratoria(AU)


COVID-19 is an infectious disease that causes significant respiratory dysfunctions with long-term repercussions, lasting after medical discharge. In this study, association between socio-demographic, clinical and healthcare factors with the impact of COVID-19 on post-discharge respiratory functional capacity was determinated. Material and methods: observational study, analytical, cross-sectional study. The sample made up of 385 patients diagnosed with COVID-19. A data collection form was applied; the respiratory functional capacity was estimated. A bivariate analysis was performed using the fe chi square test and prevalence ratio, considering a significance of 95% (p<0.05). Results: of the 385 patients, 228 (59.2%) had normal respiratory capacity, and decreased in 157 (40.8%). Contemporary adults (55.84%) and males (67.80%) were mostly affected. Comorbidity (p= 0,292) and Co-Rads (p= 0,797) were not shown to be directly associated with respiratory involvement; contrary to RALE ≥ 3 in chest X-ray (p=0,000). The time in hospitalization, ICU and mechanical ventilation suggests to be related to the respiratory decrease. However, by PCR there was no statically significant evidence. But, clinical severe 3,029 [1,611 ­ 5,696] p= 0.001 and RALE ≥3 4,079 [2,248 ­ 7,401] p= 0,000, showed association. Conclusion: the degree of severity and RALE ≥ 3 in chest X-ray were identified as associated factors. It is suggest to carry out studies that confirm the findings of this research and propose a comprehensive rehabilitation protocol aimed at post-covid-19 patients that allows them to recover normal respiratory functional capacity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Patient Discharge , Respiratory Sounds , Maximal Voluntary Ventilation , COVID-19/complications , Sociodemographic Factors , Comorbidity , Communicable Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization
18.
Rev. colomb. neumol ; 34(1): 29-38, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396791

ABSTRACT

La presencia de sibilantes refractarios y localizados en una sola área de auscultación en los adultos, sobre todo si están acompañados de anormalidades espirométricas y radiológicas, son a menudo la expresión clínica de una condición que requiere un proceso diagnóstico más profundo, más allá del facilista diagnóstico de asma. Entre estas anomalías se encuentran los anillos vasculares como el divertículo de Kommerel, que es una variante con una prevalencia muy baja y se caracteriza por la presencia de un arco aórtico derecho con una salida de la arteria subclavia izquierda aberrante y que provoca síntomas por la compresión de las estructuras adyacentes a estas. Aportamos en este caso clínico, el proceso diagnóstico de uno de estos hallazgos incidentales: la presencia de sibilantes localizados en una paciente joven, asintomática con una espirometría alterada que podría hacernos sospechar la presencia de broncomalacia, una aspiración de cuerpo extraño, un proceso infeccioso, tumoral o un anillo vascular que pasó desapercibido hasta la edad adulta.


The presence of refractory and localized wheezing in a single area of auscultation in adults, especially if they are accompanied by spirometric and radiological abnormalities, are often the clinical expression of a condition that requires a deeper diagnostic process, beyond the easy diagnosis of asthma. Among these abnormalities are vascular rings such as Kommerell¨s diverticulum, which is a very low prevalence variant and it is characterized by the presence of a right aortic arch with an aberrant exit from the left subclavian artery and that causes symptoms due to compression of the adjacent structures. In this clinical case, we provide the diagnosis process of one of these incidental findings, such as the presence of localized wheezing in a young asyntomatic patient with altered spirometry that could lead us to suspect the presence of bronchomalacia, foreign body aspiration, an infection, tumor or vascular ring that went unnoticed until adulthood.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma , Spirometry , Respiratory Sounds , Vascular Ring , Infections
19.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(6): 617-622, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350978

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the impact of recombinant human interferon α1b (rhIFNα1b) treatment in infants hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections on subsequent wheezing. Methods: The clinical data of infants (n = 540) with viral pneumonia, wheezy bronchitis, or bronchiolitis hospitalized in 19 Chinese hospitals from June 2009 to June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The parameters relevant to wheezing episodes within the last year were collected by telephone and questionnaires. The rhIFNα1b treatment group (n = 253) and control group (n = 287) were compared in terms of wheezing episodes within the last year. Moreover, the wheezing group (95 cases) and non-wheezing group (445 cases) were compared. Results: Out of 540 cases, 95 (17.6%) experienced wheezing episodes, 13.8% (35/253) cases treated with rhIFNα1b, and 20.9% (60/287) cases without rhIFNα1b experienced wheezing episodes within the last year. The rhIFNα1b treatment significantly improved wheezing episodes within the last year, compared with the control peers (p = 0.031). Single-factor regression showed statistically significant differences between the wheezing and non-wheezing groups in terms of age, rhIFNα1b use, childhood and family history of allergy, housing situation, and feeding history (p < 0.05). Binary logistic regression showed a childhood history of allergy (OR = 2.14, p = 0.004), no rhIFNα1b use (OR = 1.70, p = 0.028), and living in a crowded house (OR = 1.92, p = 0.012) might be risk factors of subsequent wheezing. Accordingly, breastfeeding (OR = 0.44, p = 0.008) and hospitalization age of 1-year-old (OR = 0.58, p = 0.024) were protective factors. Conclusions: Early use of rhIFNα1b in infants hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections and breastfeeding could prevent subsequent wheezing. Living in a crowded house could promote subsequent wheezing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Bronchiolitis , Respiratory Sounds , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Interferons
20.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(6): 629-636, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350984

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Identify associated factors for recurrent wheezing (RW) in male and female infants. Methods: Cross-sectional multicentric study using the standardized questionnaire from the Estudio Internacional sobre Sibilancias en Lactantes (EISL). The questionnaire was applied to parents of 9345 infants aged 12-15 months at the time of immunization/routine visits. Results: One thousand two hundred and sixty-one (13.5%) males and nine hundred sixty-three (10.3%) females have had RW (≥3 episodes), respectively (p10 colds episodes (OR = 3.46; IC 95% 2.35-5.07), air pollution (OR = 1.33; IC 95% 1.12-1.59), molds at home (OR = 1.23; IC 95% 1.03-1.47), Afro-descendants (OR = 1.42; IC 95% 1.20-1.69), bronchopneumonia (OR = 1.41; IC; 1.11-1.78), severe episodes of wheezing in the first year (OR = 1.56; IC 95% 1.29-1.89), treatment with bronchodilators (OR = 1.60; IC 95% 1.22-2,1) and treatment with oral corticosteroids (OR = 1,23; IC 95% 0.99-1,52). Associated factors for RW for females were passive smoking (OR = 1.24; IC 95% 1.01-1,51), parents diagnosed with asthma (OR = 1.32; IC 95% 1,08-1,62), parents with allergic rhinitis (OR = 1.26; IC 95% 1.04-1.53), daycare attendance (OR = 1.48; IC 95% 1.17-1,88), colds in the first 6 months of life (OR = 2.19; IC 95% 1.69-2.82), personal diagnosis of asthma (OR = 1.84; IC 95% 1.39-2.44), emergency room visits (OR = 1.78; IC 95% 1.44-2.21), nighttime symptoms (OR = 2.89; IC 95% 2.34-3.53) and updated immunization (OR = 0.62; IC 95% 0.41-0.96). Conclusion: There are differences in associated factors for RW between genders. Identification of these differences could be useful to the approach and management of RW between boys and girls.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Asthma/epidemiology , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors
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