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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(3): e202310130, jun. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1554608

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Durante 2020 y 2021, la circulación de los virus influenza se mantuvo por debajo de lo esperado en todo el mundo. En Argentina, en el año 2022 observamos una circulación ininterrumpida de influenza todo el año. Nuestros objetivos fueron describir los patrones de circulación y las características clínicas de niños internados con influenza. Población y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo, analítico, observacional. Se incluyeron todos los niños internados en un centro pediátrico con detección del virus influenza durante los años 2019-2022. Resultados. Se internaron 138 pacientes en 4 años; en 2019 se observó una tasa del 4,5/1000 egresos hospitalarios mientras que en 2022, fue del 15,1/1000. En 2020 y 2021 no hubo casos. En el 2019 la mayoría de los casos ocurrieron en invierno, la causa de la internación fue la infección respiratoria aguda baja (IRAB) en el 79 % y se detectó influenza A en el 92 % de los casos. En el 2022, la mayoría de los casos ocurrieron en primavera, el 62 % presentó IRAB y en el 56 % se detectó influenza A. Ambos períodos tuvieron similares frecuencias de vacunación y de comorbilidades. Conclusiones. En el 2022 se registraron más internaciones por influenza, lo que podría corresponder a que se realizaron métodos diagnósticos moleculares, que son más sensibles, y se observó un cambio en la estacionalidad con más casos en primavera. En 2019 predominó influenza A en infecciones del tracto respiratorio inferior, mientras que en el 2022 influenza A y B fueron similares, y hubo más formas extrapulmonares.


Introduction. During 2020 and 2021, the circulation of influenza virus remained below expectations worldwide. In Argentina, in 2022, we observed an uninterrupted circulation of influenza all year round. Our objectives were to describe the circulation patterns and clinical characteristics of hospitalized children with influenza. Population and methods. Retrospective, analytical, observational study. All children with influenza virus admitted to a children's hospital during the 2019­2022 period were included. Results. A total of 138 patients were admitted over 4 years; in 2019, the rate of hospital discharges was 4.5/1000, compared to 15.1/1000 in 2022. No cases were recorded in 2020 and 2021. In 2019, most cases were observed in the winter; in 79%, the cause was acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI); influenza A was detected in 92%. In 2022, most cases occurred in the spring; 62% developed ALRTI; and influenza A was detected in 56%. Similar rates of vaccination and comorbidities were observed in both periods. Conclusions. In 2022, more hospitalizations due to influenza were recorded, which may have correlated with the use of more sensitive molecular diagnostic testing and a change in seasonality, with more cases observed in the spring. In 2019, influenza A predominated in lower respiratory tract infections, while in 2022, cases of influenza A and B were similar, with more extra-pulmonary forms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Hospitalization , Hospitals
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(3): e202310103, jun. 2024. Tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1554609

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El examen genital en varones es una evaluación clínica simple y rápida para detectar patología urogenital. Los datos sobre prevalencia de patología urogenital en varones adolescentes son limitados. Nuestro objetivo fue describir la prevalencia de patología urogenital en varones adolescentes. Población y métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal en el Servicio de Adolescencia de un hospital público de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Se evaluaron retrospectivamente las historias clínicas (HC) de varones de 9 a 20 años atendidos entre 2008 y 2018; se incluyeron las que tenían examen genital. Se recabaron datos de edad, estadio puberal, orquidometría, patología urogenital antes de la adolescencia y al momento de la consulta. La prevalencia se expresó en porcentaje e intervalo de confianza del 95 % (IC95%). Se estimó necesario incluir 1167 HC como muestra poblacional. Resultados. Se evaluaron 2129 HC; se incluyeron 1429. En 686 casos no se hizo el examen genital. La población tuvo una mediana de edad de 12 años (rango intercuartílico 11-14 años). En 72 varones (5,7 %; IC95% 4,5-7,2), se halló una enfermedad genitourinaria antes de la adolescencia. Se detectó al menos una patología urogenital en 272 adolescentes (14,8 %; IC95% 13,1-16,7); las más frecuentes fueron adherencia balanoprepucial 5,3 % (IC95% 4,2-6,6), varicocele 2,7 % (IC95% 2-3,7) y fimosis 1,8 % (IC95% 1,2-2,6). Conclusiones. El examen genital permitió detectar que el 14,8 % de los varones adolescentes atendidos presentó alguna patología urogenital. Las entidades más frecuentes fueron adherencia balanoprepucial, varicocele y fimosis.


Introduction. The male genital exam is a simple and quick assessment to look for urogenital disease. Data on the prevalence of urogenital disease in male adolescents are limited. Our objective was to describe the prevalence of urogenital disease in male adolescents. Population and methods. Descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Adolescenceof a public hospital in the City of Buenos Aires. The medical records of male patients aged 9 to 20 years seen between 2008 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed; all those with a genital exam were included. Data on age, pubertal stage, orchidometry, and urogenital disease before adolescence and at the time of consultation were recorded. The prevalence was described as percentage and 95% confidence interval (CI).As per estimations, 1167 medical records had to be included to establish the population sample. Results. A total of 2129 medical records were assessed and 1429 were included. No genital exam had been conducted in 686 cases. The median age of the population was 12 years (interquartile range: 11­14 years). Urogenital disease before adolescence was detected in 72 boys (5.7%; 95% CI: 4.5­7.2). Urogenital disease was found in 272 adolescents (14.8%; 95% CI: 13.1­16.7); the most common conditions were balanopreputial adhesions in 5.3% (95% CI: 4.2­6.6), varicocele in 2.7% (95% CI: 2­3.7), and phimosis in 1.8% (95% CI: 1.2­2.6). Conclusions. A genital exam allowed to detect that 14.8% of adolescent boys had a urogenital diseaseThe most common conditions were balanopreputial adhesions, varicocele, and phimosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Phimosis/diagnosis , Phimosis/epidemiology , Varicocele/diagnosis , Varicocele/epidemiology , Outpatients , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 10 (1) 2024;10(1): 34416, 2024 abr. 30. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1553426

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Infecções nosocomiais, adquiridas após a internação hospitalar, são o evento adverso mais comum que ameaça a saúde dos pacientes hospitalizados, sendo a pneumonia, incluindo a causada pelo SARS-Cov-2, responsável por mais de 80% das infecções nosocomiais. A pandemia declarada pela OMS em março de 2020 reflete o rápido aumento de casos, impulsionado pela disseminação do vírus através de gotículas e aerossóis. A transmissão nosocomial do SARS-Cov-2 foi observada desde o início do surto em Wuhan, representando um desafio adicional na qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Estudos internacionais em hospitais reportam incidências de infecção nosocomial por COVID-19 entre 11% e 44%.Objetivo: Identificar a proporção de infecção nosocomial por SARS-COV-2 no Brasil entre março de 2020 até dezembro de 2022.Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo analítico, retrospectivo, de corte transversal, sobre a proporção de infecção nosocomial por Sars-Cov-2 no Brasil, através de dados secundários oriundos do Sistema de Informação da Vigilância Epidemiológica da Gripe. No presente estudo a variável dependente analisada foi a proporção de infecção nosocomial por Sars-cov-2. Como variáveis independentes exploratórias foram utilizadas: faixa etária, sexo, comorbidades e macrorregião de residência. Resultados: O estudo identificou uma proporção de casos nosocomiais de 2,58%, sendo maior no terceiro ano da pandemia 2022 (5,5%) na região Norte (7,57%), entre os indivíduos de 18-59 anos de idade (6,93%)Conclusões: Este estudo sobre casos nosocomiais de COVID-19 no Brasil revela uma proporção de 2,58% entre 2020 e 2022, com associações identificadas em relação à região, idade e comorbidades. Diferenças em relação a estudos internacionais sugerem questões metodológicas específicas. Essa pesquisa é de importância crítica, visto ser de abrangência nacional com grande amplitude, e estabelece uma base sólida para futuros estudos epidemiológicos (AU).


Introduction: Nosocomial infections, acquired after hospital admission, are the most common adverse events threatening patient health, with pneumonia, including that caused by SARS-CoV-2, responsible for over 80% of nosocomial infections. The pandemic declared by the WHO in March 2020 reflects the rapid rise in cases driven by the virus's spread through droplets and aerosols. Nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been observed since the outbreak's onset in Wuhan, posing an additional challenge to patient quality of life. International hospital studies report nosocomial COVID-19 infection rates between 11% and 44%. Objective: Identifying the proportion of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection in Brazil between March 2020 and December 2022.Methodology:This is an analytical, retrospective, cross-sectional study on the proportion of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection in Brazil, using secondary data from the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System. In this study, the analyzed dependent variable was the proportionof nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection. The exploratory independent variables included: age group, gender, comorbidities, and macro-region of residence.Results:The study identified a proportion of nosocomial cases of 2.58%, with a higher proportion in the third year of the pandemic, 2022 (5.5%) in the North region (7.57%), among individuals aged 18-59 years (6.93%). Conclusions: This study on nosocomial cases of COVID-19 in Brazil reveals a proportion of 2.58% between 2020 and 2022, with associations identified regarding region, age, and comorbidities. Differences compared to international studies suggest specific methodological issues. This research is of critical importance, given its national scope and broad coverage, and establishes a solid foundation for future epidemiological studies (AU).


Introducción: Las infecciones nosocomiales, adquiridas tras la hospitalización, son el evento adverso más común que amenaza la salud de los pacientes hospitalizados, siendo la neumonía, incluida la causada por el SARS-Cov-2, la responsable de más del 80% de las infecciones. La pandemia declarada por la OMS en marzo de 2020 refleja el rápido aumento de casos, impulsado por la propagación del virus a través de gotitas y aerosoles. La transmisión nosocomial del SRAS-Cov-2 se ha observado desde el inicio del brote en Wuhan, lo que supone un reto adicional para la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Estudios internacionales realizados en hospitales informan de incidencias de infecciones nosocomiales por COVID-19 de entre el 11% y el 44%. Objetivo: Identificar la proporción de infección nosocomial por SARS-CoV-2 en Brasil entre marzo de 2020 y diciembre de 2022. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio analítico, retrospectivo y transversal sobre la proporción de infección nosocomial por SARS-CoV -2 en Brasil, utilizando datos secundarios del Sistema de Información de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Influenza. La variable dependiente analizada fue la proporción de infección nosocomial por SARS-CoV-2. Como variables independientes exploratorias se utilizaron: grupo de edad, sexo, comorbilidades y macrorregión de residencia. Resultados:El estudio identificó una proporción de casos nosocomiales del 2,58%, siendo mayor en el tercer año de la pandemia de 2022 (5,5%) en la región Norte (7,57%), entre individuos de 18 a 59 años (6,93%). Conclusiones:Este estudio de casos de COVID-19 hospitalizados en Brasil revela una proporción de 2,58% entre 2020 y 2022, con asociaciones identificadas en relación a la región, edad y comorbilidades. Las disparidades en relación a estudios internacionales sugieren la presencia de cuestiones metodológicas específicas. Esta investigación es de extrema importancia para orientar estrategias preventivas y mejorar el control de las infecciones hospitalarias (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross Infection/transmission , Electronic Health Records/instrumentation , Health Information Systems , COVID-19/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/etiology
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(2): 291-297, abr. 2024. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559683

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El absceso hepático (AH) es el tipo mas común de abscesos viscerales. Se estima que el perfil epidemiológico de esta enfermedad ha cambiado con el aumento de la resistencia de los microorganismos y el uso de nuevos medicamentos. OBJETIVO: Describir las características demográficas y clínicas de los pacientes hospitalizados con diagnóstico de AH en un hospital universitario del suroccidente colombiano. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo, en la Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 18 años con diagnóstico de AH hospitalizados entre 2011-2020. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 182 pacientes. La mediana de edad fUe 56 años (rango intercuartílico, 45-67) y 62,1% fueron hombres. El microrganismo mas común fue Klebsiella pneumoniae (17,6%). La mayoría requirió drenaje percutáneo (58,2%). El 58,8% tuvo un absceso único y 54,4% fue manejado en cuidados intensivos. El 7,1% de los pacientes falleció. Al comparar los casos que fueron manejados en cuidados intensivos vs. aquellos que no lo fueron, hubo más hepatomegalia (28,3 vs. 11,0%, p = 0,004), derrame pleural derecho (48,5 vs. 28,1%, p = 0,010), cirugía (42,4 vs. 13,4%, p < 0,001), falla terapéutica (22,2 vs. 7,3%, p = 0,007) y muerte (12,1 vs. 1,2%, p = 0,005) en los atendidos en UCI. CONCLUSIÓN: Las Enterobacterales son la principal causa de AH en nuestra población. La mortalidad ha disminuido, pero la hospitalización en cuidados intensivos sigue siendo alta.


BACKGROUND: Liver abscess (LA) is the most common type of visceral abscess. It is estimated that the epidemiological profile of this disease has changed with the increase in resistance and the use of new drugs. AIM: To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of LA in a university hospital in the southwestern region of Colombia. METHODS: A. retrospective observational study was conducted at Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia. Patients older than 18 years with a diagnosis of LA hospitalized between 2011-2020 were included. RESULTS: A total of 182 patients were included. The median age was 56 years (interquartile range, 45-67) and 62.1% were men. The most common microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.6%). The majority required percutaneous drainage (58.2%). A 58.8% had a single abscess and 54.4% were treated in ICU. A 7.1% of the patients died. When comparing cases treated in the ICU vs. those who did not, there was more hepatomegaly (28.3 vs. 11.0%, p = 0.004), right pleural effusion (48.5 vs. 28.1%, p = 0.010), surgery (42.4 vs. 13.4%, p < 0.001), therapeutic failure (22.2 vs. 7.3%, p = 0.007) and death (12.1 vs. 1.2%, p = 0.005) in patients treated in ICU. CONCLUSION: Enterobacterales are the main cause of LA in our population. Mortality has decreased, but intensive care hospitalization remains high.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Liver Abscess/epidemiology , Drainage/methods , Retrospective Studies , Colombia , Critical Care , Hospitals, University , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Liver Abscess/microbiology , Liver Abscess/mortality , Liver Abscess/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(2): 193-198, abr. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559684

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En la diarrea asociada a Clostridioides dfficile (DACD) leve-moderada se recomienda tratar con vancomicina por sobre metronidazol, a pesar de su difícil acceso y poca evidencia en el medio ambulatorio. OBJETIVO: Comparar la tasa de cura clínica y recurrencia entre vancomicina y metronidazol en adultos chilenos con primer episodio leve-moderado de DACD de manejo ambulatorio. MÉTODOS: Cohorte retrospectiva entre enero 2015 y diciembre 2020 en centros de una red de salud universitaria de pacientes de ≥ 18 años con DACD tratados ambulatoriamente. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron 161 pacientes, 59% mujeres, edad promedio de 53 años (entre 18 y 94 años). De ellos, 109 (67,7%) usaron metronidazol y 52 (32,3%) vancomicina. En el análisis multivariado ajustado por edad y comorbilidades se obtuvo un OR 3,00 (IC 95% 1,12-9,59) para cura clínica y 0,27 (IC 95% 0,06-0,88) para recurrencia a ocho semanas, ambos a favor de vancomicina, sin diferencias en recurrencia a 12 meses, necesidad de hospitalización o mortalidad. CONCLUSIÓN: La terapia con vancomicina comparada contra metronidazol en el tratamiento ambulatorio de la infección leve-moderada por C. dfficile se asocia a mayor cura clínica y menor tasa de recurrencia a corto plazo, sin diferencias en desenlaces a largo plazo.


BACKGROUND: Recommended treatment against mild cases of Clostridioides difficile associated diarrhea is vancomycin despite the difficulties of access compared to metronidazole. AIM: To compare the effectiveness of vancomycin and metronidazole in Chilean adults with first mild-moderate episode of Clostridiodes difficile infection (CDI). METHODS: Retrospective cohort of patients with CDI between January 2015 and December 2020 treated in centers of a university health network. The patients were adults treated for C. difficile infection on an outpatient basis. Recurrent and severe cases were excluded. Outcomes included clinical cure and recurrence rate. RESULTS: Data from 161 patients was recovered. Fifty-nine percent were women and average age was 53 (18-94). One hundred and nine patients were treated with metronidazole (67.7%) and 52 (32.3%) used vancomycin. Multivariate analysis adjusted by age and comorbidities showed an Odds Ratio of 3.00 (IC 95% 1.12-9.59) for clinical cure and 0.27 (IC 95% 0.06-0.88) for 8-week recurrence rate, both in favor of vancomycin, without differences in 12-month recurrence rate, hospitalization rate nor mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Vancomycin is associated with better short-term outcomes in the treatment of outpatient mild-moderate first episode C. difficile infection, without differences in long term recurrence or mortality when compared with metronidazole.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Metronidazole/therapeutic use , Outpatients , Recurrence , Multivariate Analysis , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Ambulatory Care , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310064, abr. 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537219

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil constituyen un problema de salud pública. El inicio de la pandemia por COVID-19 pudo haber favorecido esta patología. El puntaje Z del índice de masa corporal (Z-IMC) es un indicador aceptado para su diagnóstico y seguimiento. Objetivo. Evaluar si la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, y el Z-IMC en niños de 2 a 5 años aumentó durante la pandemia. Población y métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron pacientes asistidos en efectores públicos de salud del Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (GCABA), de 2 a 5 años de edad, con registro de peso y talla en dos consultas, antes y después de haber comenzado el aislamiento social preventivo y obligatorio (ASPO). Se registró estado nutricional (Z-IMC) y variación del Z-IMC entre ambas consultas. Resultados. Se evaluaron 3866 sujetos, edad promedio 3,4 ± 0,8 años; el 48,1 % fueron mujeres. El intervalo promedio entre consultas fue 14,3 ± 2,5 meses. La prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad aumentó del 12,6 % (IC95% 11,6-13,6) al 20,9 % (IC95% 19,6-22-2); p <0,001, al igual que el Z-IMC (0,4 ± 1,1 vs. 0,8 ± 1,3; p <0,001). Conclusión. La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, y el Z-IMC en niños de 2 a 5 años aumentó significativamente durante la pandemia.


Introduction. Childhood overweight and obesity are a public health problem. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to this condition. The body mass index (BMI) Z-score has been accepted as an indicator for overweight and obesity diagnosis and follow-up. Objective. To assess whether the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the BMI Z-score in children aged 2 to 5 years increased during the pandemic. Population and methods. Retrospective, cohort study. Patients included were those seen at public health care facilities in the City of Buenos Aires (CABA), who were aged 2 to 5 years, had weight and height values recorded at 2 different visits, before and after the establishment of the preventive and mandatory social isolation policy. Patients' nutritional status (BMI Z-score) and the variation in this indicator between both visits were recorded. Results. A total of 3866 subjects were assessed; their average age was 3.4 ± 0.8 years; 48.1% were girls. The average interval between both visits was 14.3 ± 2.5 months. The prevalence of overweight/ obesity increased from 12.6% (95% CI: 11.6­13.6) to 20.9% (95% CI: 19.6­22.2), p < 0.001, and so did the BMI Z-score (0.4 ± 1.1 versus 0.8 ± 1.3, p < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of overweight and obesity and the BMI Z-score in children aged 2 to 5 years increased significantly during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Med. infant ; 31(1): 16-25, Marzo 2024. Ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1552732

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor N-metil.D.aspartato (NMDA-R) es un trastorno inflamatorio del sistema nervioso central (SNC) en el cual autoanticuerpos dirigidos hacia la subunidad NR1 del receptor N-metil-D aspartato (NMDA) desarrollan un conjunto de síntomas neuropsiquiátricos, convulsiones y movimientos anormales. El tratamiento recomendado incluye metilprednisolona (MP) y gamaglobulina (IVIg), y/o recambio plasmático terapéutico (RPT); y en caso de no respuesta: rituximab (RTX) y/o ciclofosfamida (CFM). Objetivos: Analizar características clínicas, bioquímicas, electroencefalograma (EEG), resonancia magnética (RM) cerebral, tratamientos recibidos y resultados observados en una serie de pacientes con encefalitis autoinmune (EA) probable o confirmada. Materiales y métodos: Analizamos las historias clínicas de pacientes menores a 17 años que cumplían criterios diagnósticos de Graus (2016) para EA probable, con seguimiento mayor a 6 meses, internados en el Hospital Garrahan entre 2008 y 2023. El diagnóstico se definió por la identificación de anticuerpos anti-NMDAR (N-metil D-aspartato) en líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) por ensayo basado en células - cell bassed assay (CBA). Resultados: Reunieron criterios de EA probable 94 pacientes con una edad media de 89.5 meses, 51% mujeres. Se dividieron en dos grupos: seropositivos y seronegativos de acuerdo al resultado del biomarcador. Seropositivos 45/94. El síntoma inicial más frecuente fue: convulsiones. El 28% requirió ingreso a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI). 4 pacientes seropositivos y 1 seronegativo tuvieron encefalitis por el virus del herpes simple (Om) previamente. En una paciente seronegativa se diagnosticó teratoma ovárico. Hallazgos de estudios complementarios: LCR patológico en el 29%, RM cerebral en el 52%, EEG en el 74%. El tratamiento de primera línea más empleado fue MP + IVIg. El 46% de los pacientes presentó recuperación completa. Entre los pacientes que recibieron RTX, el 65% tuvo una recuperación completa. Ningún paciente que recibió RTX presentó recaída. Conclusión: Ante la sospecha de EA se debe considerar el inicio temprano de inmunoterapia para favorecer la rápida recuperación funcional. Se recomienda el uso temprano de RTX en los casos con presentación grave o respuesta subóptima al tratamiento de primera línea para beneficiar la respuesta clínica y reducir el riesgo de recaída (AU)


Introduction: Encephalitis due to antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in which autoantibodies directed against the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor develop a set of neuropsychiatric symptoms, seizures, and abnormal movements. The recommended treatment includes methylprednisolone (MP) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), and/or therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE); and in case of non-response: rituximab (RTX) and/or cyclophosphamide (CFM). Objectives: To analyze clinical, biochemical, electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, treatments received, and outcomes observed in a series of patients with probable or confirmed autoimmune encephalitis (AE). Materials and methods: We analyzed the medical records of patients under 17 years of age who met Graus' diagnostic criteria (2016) for probable AE, with follow-up of more than 6 months, hospitalized at Hospital Garrahan between 2008 and 2023. Diagnosis was defined by the identification of anti-NMDAR antibodies (N-methyl D-aspartate) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by cell-based assay (CBA). Results: Ninety-four patients met criteria for probable AE with a mean age of 89.5 months, 51% female. They were divided into two groups: seropositive and seronegative according to the biomarker result. Seropositive 45/94. The most frequent initial symptom was seizures. Twenty-eight percent required admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Four seropositive patients and one seronegative patient had previously had herpes simplex encephalitis (Om). Ovarian teratoma was diagnosed in one seronegative patient. Findings of complementary studies: Pathological CSF in 29%, brain MRI in 52%, EEG in 74%. The most commonly used first-line treatment was MP + IVIg. Forty-six percent of patients experienced complete recovery. Among patients who received RTX, 65% had complete recovery. No patient who received RTX experienced relapse. Conclusion: In the suspicion of AE, early initiation of immunotherapy should be considered to promote rapid functional recovery. Early use of RTX is recommended in cases with severe presentation or suboptimal response to first-line treatment to benefit clinical response and reduce the risk of relapse (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Autoantibodies , Encephalitis , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/diagnosis , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/drug therapy , Immunotherapy , Seizures , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
Med. infant ; 31(1): 26-30, Marzo 2024. Ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1552815

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Entre las variables que afectan el riesgo de mortalidad relacionada (MRT) al trasplante alogénico de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (TACPH) se incluyen las comorbilidades previas. Los índices de comorbilidad (IC) buscan mejorar la predicción de eventos combinando factores de riesgo independientes. Objetivos: 1) evaluar el uso de la versión breve y adaptada para niños, adolescentes y adultos jóvenes con enfermedad maligna del índice de comorbilidad específico para trasplante alogénico de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (smyHCT-CI ); 2) evaluar el uso de los biomarcadores ferritina y albúmina en un índice de comorbilidad ampliado (smyHCT-CIa). Población y métodos: Diseño: cohorte retrospectiva. Periodo 2017- 2022. A cada p se le asignó nuevos puntajes utilizando el smyHCT-CI y el smyHCT-CIa. Los p se clasificaron en grupos de riesgo (GR) bajo (puntaje 0), intermedio (1-2) y alto (>3) con cada índice. Se comparó el n° de p asignado a cada GR grupo de riesgo y la MRT en cada grupo al usar el HCT-CI, el smyHCTCI y el smyHCT-CIa. Resultados: n 75. Frecuencia de p por GR según cada indicador (IC95): HCT-CI bajo 36 (25-47), intermedio 57 (56-69), alto 7 (1-12); smyHCT-CI: bajo 48 (37-59), intermedio 33 (23-44), alto 19 (10-27); smyHCT-CIa: bajo 43 (31-54), intermedio 36 (25-47), alto 21 (12-31). MRT por GR según indicador (IC95): HCT-CI: bajo 6,8 (14-28), intermedio 20,9 (9-33), alto 17,9 (0-55); smyHCT-CIa bajo 12,5 (1-24), intermedio 18,5 (4-33), alto 31,2 (9-54). Conclusión: El smyHCT-CI permitió identificar mejor los pacientes con mayor comorbilidad y riesgo de MRT. La ferritina resultó un biomarcador útil en la estimación del riesgo de MRT (AU)


Introduction: Variables affecting allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) related mortality risk (TMR) include prior comorbidities. Comorbidity indices (CI) aim to improve event prediction by combining independent risk factors. Objectives: 1) to evaluate the use of the brief and adapted version of the HCT-specific comorbidity index for children, adolescents and young adults with malignancies (ymHCT-CI); 2) to evaluate the use of the biomarkers ferritin and albumin in an expanded comorbidity index (expanded ymHCT-CI). Population and methods: Design: retrospective cohort. Period 2017- 2022. Each patient was assigned new scores using the ymHCTCI and expanded ymHCT-CI. The p were classified into low (score 0), intermediate (1-2) and high (>3) risk groups (RG) with each index. The number of patients assigned to each RG and the TMR in each group were compared using the HCTCI, the ymHCT-CI, and the expanded ymHCT-CI. Results: n 75. Frequency of patients per RG according to each indicator (95%CI): HCT-CI low 36 (25-47), intermediate 57 (56-69), high 7 (1-12); ymHCT-CI: low 48 (37-59), intermediate 33 (23-44), high 19 (10-27); expanded ymHCT-CI: low 43 (31-54), intermediate 36 (25-47), high 21 (12-31). TMR by RG according to indicator (95%CI): HCT-CI: low 6.8 (14-28), intermediate 20.9 (9-33), high 17.9 (0-55); expanded ymHCT-CI low 12.5 (1-24), intermediate 18.5 (4-33), high 31.2 (9-54). Conclusion: ymHCT-CI allowed better identification of patients with higher comorbidity and risk of TMR. Ferritin proved to be a useful biomarker to estimate TMR risk (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Transplantation, Homologous , Comorbidity , Bone Marrow Transplantation/mortality , Risk Assessment , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Retrospective Studies
9.
Med. infant ; 31(1): 31-36, Marzo 2024. Ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1552833

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se ha postulado que el uso de vasopresina tendría efectos beneficiosos en el postoperatorio de cirugía cardiovascular. Objetivo: Evaluar la respuesta a la vasopresina en el postoperatorio (POP) de cirugía de Fontan de nuestra población. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles anidados en una cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron pacientes con cirugía de Fontan entre 2014 y 2019. Se registraron variables demográficas, datos del cateterismo pre-Fontan, días de asistencia respiratoria mecánica (ARM), necesidad de inotrópicos, diuréticos, diálisis, dieta hipograsa, octreotide, sildenafil y nutrición parenteral total (NPT); balance de fluidos al primer y segundo día POP, necesidad de cateterismo en el POP, días de permanencia de tubo pleural, días de internación, necesidad de reinternación y mortalidad. Se compararon los grupos con y sin vasopresina utilizando la prueba de Mann- Whitney-Wilcoxon test. Se consideró significativa una p < 0.05. Resultados: Del total analizado, 35 pacientes recibieron vasopresina. En el grupo control fueron 58 pacientes con características similares de gravedad sin vasopresina. No se encontraron diferencias en la evolución postoperatoria entre ambos grupos. El grupo con vasopresina recibió en mayor proporción dieta hipograsa. Conclusiones: En nuestra serie el uso de vasopresina no marcó diferencias significativas en términos de morbimortalidad con relación al grupo control (AU)


Introduction: The use of vasopressin has been suggested to have beneficial effects in the postoperative period after cardiovascular surgery. Objective: To evaluate the response to vasopressin in the postoperative period (POP) of Fontan surgery in our population. Methods: Nested case-control study in a retrospective cohort. Patients who underwent Fontan surgery between 2014 and 2019 were included. Demographic variables, pre-Fontan catheterization data, days of mechanical ventilation (MRA), need for inotropics, diuretics, dialysis, low-fat diet, octreotide, sildenafil and total parenteral nutrition (TPN); fluid balance at first and second day POP, need for catheterization at POP, duration of chest tube drainage, days of hospitalization, need for readmission, and mortality were recorded. Groups with and without vasopressin were compared using the Mann-Whitney- Wilcoxon test. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of all patients analyzed, 35 received vasopressin. The control group consisted of 58 patients with similar severity characteristics who did not receive vasopressin. No differences were found in the postoperative outcome between the two groups. The vasopressin group received a higher proportion of low-fat diet. Conclusions: In our series the use of vasopressin did not show significant differences in terms of morbidity and mortality compared to the control group (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Arginine Vasopressin/administration & dosage , Arginine Vasopressin/therapeutic use , Fontan Procedure/adverse effects , Antidiuretic Agents/administration & dosage , Antidiuretic Agents/therapeutic use , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hemodynamics
10.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 35(1): 29-32, mar. 2024. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551660

ABSTRACT

Introducción: existen varias técnicas para el tratamiento quirúrgico de las fístulas anales, con variables resultados. La técnica de ligadura del trayecto fistuloso interesfinteriano (LIFT) consiste en la disección del espacio entre ambos esfínteres para localizar el trayecto fistuloso y proceder a su ligadura y sección. Objetivo: evaluar nuestros resultados con la técnica de LIFT para del tratamiento de las fístulas anales transesfinterianas. Diseño: retrospectivo, observacional de corte transversal. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron todos los pacientes con fístulas transesfinterianas tratados con LIFT desde enero de 2013 a diciembre 2020. El seguimiento postoperatorio se realizó hasta los 2 años. Resultados: se operaron 62 pacientes. El sexo predominante fue masculino. Hubo 47 pacientes con fístulas transesfinterianas bajas y 15 con fístulas transesfinterianas altas. En todos se identificó el trayecto fistuloso realizándose ligadura de ambos cabos del trayecto interesfinteriano y se procedió a un curetaje del trayecto a través del orificio externo. Cinco pacientes (8%) presentaron dehiscencia de piel a nivel de la incisión del espacio interesfinteriano, manejado en forma conservadora. Este grupo tuvo una cicatrización mas retardada de 4 semanas. Ocurrió recidiva en 22 (35,5%) pacientes. Conclusión: La técnica de LIFT parece una alternativa eficaz y segura para el tratamiento de las fístulas transesfinterianas bajas y altas ya que no altera la anatomía ni la continencia. (AU)


Introduction: there are various techniques for the surgical treatment of anal fistulas, with variable results. The ligation procedure of the intersphincteric fistulous tract (LIFT) consists of dissecting the space between both sphincters to locate the fistulous tract and proceed to its ligation and section. Objective: to evaluate our results with the LIFT procedure for the treatment of transsphincteric anal fistulas. Design: retrospective, cross-sectional observational study. Material and methods: all patients with transsphincteric fistulas treated with LIFT from January 2013 to December 2020 were included. Postoperative follow-up was carried out for up to 2 years. Results: sixty-two patients underwent surgery. The predominant sex was male. There were 47 patients with low transsphincteric fistulas and 15 with high transsphincteric fistulas. After identifying the fistulous tract in the intersphincteric groove, both ends were ligated and the tract was cut. Finally, curettage of the tract through the external orifice was performed. Five patients (8%) presented skin dehiscence at the level of the intersphincteric groove incision, managed conservatively. This group had a longer healing time of four weeks. Recurrence occurred in 22 (35.5%) patients. Conclusion: the LIFT procedure appears to be an effective and safe alternative for the treatment of low and high transsphincteric fistulas, since it does not alter the anatomy or continence. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Ligation/methods , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome
11.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 35(1): 18-23, mar. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551674

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La sífilis es una infección sexualmente transmisible sistémica crónica que afecta a docenas de millones de personas al año. A nivel anorrectal, su manifestación polimórfica obliga al diagnóstico diferencial con enfermedades anorrectales benignas y malignas. Objetivo: Describir las diferentes presentaciones de la sífilis anorrectal a propósito de 5 casos clínicos. Método: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo, descriptivo. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes fueron VIH positivos en edad sexual activa. Las manifestaciones registradas, al igual que las reportadas en la bibliografía fueron las fisuras, úlceras perianales y pseudotumores. Conclusiones: La sífilis es considerada "la gran simuladora". En la localización anorrectal se requiere una alta sospecha diagnóstica para diferenciarla de presentaciones similares de otras enfermedades anales benignas, la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal y el cáncer anorrectal, con el fin de evitar el consiguiente riesgo de sobretratamiento. (AU)


Background: Syphilis is a chronic systemic sexually transmitted infection that affects tens of millions of people annually. At the anorectal level, its polymorphic manifestation requires differential diagnosis with benign and malignant anorectal diseases. Objective: To review the presentation of anorectal syphilis from 5 clinical cases. Methods: Observational, retrospective, descriptive study. Results: Most of the patients were HIV positive in sexually active age. The manifestations recorded and reported in the literature were fissures, perianal ulcers, and pseudotumors. Conclusions: Syphilis is considered "the great pretender". In anorectal syphilis, a high diagnostic suspicion is needed to differentiate it from similar presentations due to other anal conditions, inflammatory bowel disease, and anorectal cancer, to avoid the consequent risk of overtreatment. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Penicillin G Benzathine/administration & dosage , Rectal Diseases/diagnosis , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/drug therapy , Risk Groups , Syphilis Serodiagnosis , Comorbidity , HIV Infections , Retrospective Studies , Fissure in Ano
12.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 137(1): 35-38, mar. 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552864

ABSTRACT

La poliomielitis es una enfermedad de antigua data que afecta exclusivamente a los humanos. Sus secuelas de parálisis se encuentran ya documentadas en escritos del antiguo Egipto. Es producida por el poliovirus y se transmite por vía fecal-oral. Uno de cada doscientos niños infectados sufre un ataque vírico a las neuronas motoras del sistema nervioso central, que deja como secuela una parálisis flácida muscular. En la Argentina, las últimas epidemias de poliomielitis ocurrieron entre 1955 y1957, en 1971 y en 1983. La epidemia de 1953 registró 2.700 casos, mientras que en la de 1956 hubo 6.490 casos, con una tasa de mortalidad del 33,7%. Durante 1971, 46 pacientes fueron internados con diagnóstico de poliomielitis en las salas que dependían de la cátedra de Enfermedades Infecciosas de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, en el predio del Hospital Francisco Javier Muñiz. La cohorte estaba compuesta por 26 varones y 20 mujeres. Hemos realizado una revisión de las historias clínicas de aquellos pacientes, obrantes en el archivo de la cátedra. (AU)


Poliomyelitis is a human disease of ancient origin. Evidence of sequelae of paralysis is documented in ancient Egyptian writings. It is caused by the poliovirus and is transmitted through the fecal-oral route. One out of 200 infected children suffers a viral attack on the central nervous system´s motor neurons, which results in flaccid muscle paralysis. In Argentina, the last polio epidemics occurred between 1955 and 1957, in 1971 and in 1983. The 1953 poliomyelitis epidemic reported a total of 2,700 cases, while in the 1956 outbreak 6,490 cases were recorded with a mortality rate of 33.7%. In 1971, 46 patients were diagnosed with poliomyelitis and admitted to the wards of the Department of Infectious Diseases at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, located in the Javier Muñiz Hospital. The cohort consisted of 26 men and 20 women. We reviewed the medical records of those patients, recorded in the Department´s archive. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Poliomyelitis/history , Disease Outbreaks/history , Argentina , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, University
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(1): e202202972, feb. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1524470

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El dengue es la enfermedad transmitida por mosquitos con mayor propagación mundial en los últimos años. Presenta un amplio espectro de manifestaciones clínicas y, en ocasiones, evoluciona a un estado crítico llamado dengue grave. Su tratamiento es de sostén. La información disponible acerca de las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y de laboratorio de la enfermedad en la población pediátrica es limitada. Objetivo. Describir la epidemiología y las manifestaciones clínicas y de laboratorio de la enfermedad. Población y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, observacional y retrospectivo. Incluyó pacientes entre 1 y 180 meses asistidos por dengue probable o confirmado en un hospital de niños, desde el 01 de enero de 2020 hasta el 31 de mayo de 2020. Resultados. Se incluyeron 85 pacientes por criterios microbiológicos de positividad o clínicoepidemiológicos. Veinticinco (29 %) confirmados por RT-PCR, todos serotipos DENV-1. La mediana de  edad fue de 108 meses (rango intercuartílico: 84-144). Las principales manifestaciones clínicas fueron fiebre, cefalea y mialgias. Los hallazgos de laboratorio más importantes fueron leucopenia, trombocitopenia y elevación de transaminasas. Conclusión. El reconocimiento y la comprensión de las alteraciones clínicas y de laboratorio que se presentan durante la enfermedad pueden permitir un abordaje eficaz y contribuir a la reducción de cuadros clínicos más graves en los niños.


Introduction. Dengue has been the most widespread mosquito-borne disease worldwide in recent years. It develops with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and sometimes progresses to a critical condition known as severe dengue. It is managed with supportive treatment. Available information about its clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics in the pediatric population is limited. Objective. To describe the clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of dengue. Population and methods. Descriptive, observational, and retrospective study. It included patients aged 1 to 180 months seen due to probable or confirmed dengue at a children's hospital between 1/1/2020 and 5/31/2020. Results. A total of 85 patients with positive microbiological or clinical-epidemiological criteria were included. Of these, 25 (29%) were confirmed by RT-PCR; all corresponded to DENV-1 serotype. Patients' median age was 108 months (interquartile range: 84­144). The main clinical manifestations were fever, headache, and myalgia. The most important laboratory findings were leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and high transaminase levels. Conclusion. The recognition and understanding of clinical and laboratory alterations that occur during dengue disease may allow an effective approach and help to reduce the more severe clinical form in children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Thrombocytopenia , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Leukopenia , Retrospective Studies , Fever/epidemiology , Serogroup
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 65-70, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528833

ABSTRACT

En el arco posterior del atlas se describe una variación de tejido óseo denominada Ponticulus posticus (PP), la cual se ha relacionado con el desarrollo de dolor cervical. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de PP en telerradiografías laterales digitales. Este estudio correspondió a un estudio observacional descriptivo, donde se analizaron 450 telerradiografías laterales digitales obtenidas de la base de datos del Servicio de Imagenología Oral y Maxilofacial de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Andrés Bello, Viña del Mar, Chile. Se analizó la presencia de PP en cada cefalograma, y se utilizó la clasificación de Cederberg y Stubbs para determinar los grados de osificación. Se aplicó la prueba de Chi-cuadrado para establecer una asociación entre la presencia de PP con el sexo y la edad. De las 450 telerradiografías laterales el 42,4 % presenta PP, con una mayor prevalencia entre el rango de 21-40 años. En cuanto al grado de osificación, el grado 2 fue el tipo más prevalente (25 %), seguido del grado 4 (9,5 %), el grado 3 (8 %). No se encontró asociación entre la presencia de PP con edad y género (P > 0,05). La PP es frecuente en la población y se observa a diferentes edades sin predilección por sexo.


SUMMARY: A bony tissue variation called Ponticulus posticus (PP) is described in the posterior arch of the atlas, which has been associated with the development of cervical pain. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of PP in digital lateral cephalograms. This study was an observational descriptive study, in which 450 digital lateral cephalograms obtained from the database of the Oral and Maxillofacial Imaging Service of the Faculty of Dentistry of the Andrés Bello University, Viña del Mar, Chile, were analyzed. The presence of PP was analyzed in each cephalogram, and the Cederberg and Stubbs classification was used to determine the degrees of ossification. The Chi-square test was applied to establish an association between the presence of PP with gender and age. Of the 450 lateral cephalograms, 42.4 % presented PP, with a higher prevalence in the 21-40 year range. In terms of the degree of ossification, grade 2 was the most prevalent type (25 %), followed by grade 4 (9.5 %), and grade 3 (8 %). No association was found between the presence of PP with age and gender (P > 0.05). PP is common in the population and is observed at different ages without a sex preference.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cervical Atlas/diagnostic imaging , Skull/diagnostic imaging , Teleradiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Retrospective Studies , Age and Sex Distribution
15.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 71-75, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013252

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinical features and prognosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome with hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) in children. Methods: The clinical data of a child who had Budd-Chiari syndrome with HPS treated at the Department of Pediatrics of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University in December 2016 was analyzed retrospectively. Taking "Budd-Chiari syndrome" and "hepatopulmonary syndrome" in Chinese or English as the keywords, literature was searched at CNKI, Wanfang, China Biomedical Literature Database and PubMed up to July 2023. Combined with this case, the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome with HPS in children under the age of 18 were summarized. Results: A 13-year-old boy, presented with cyanosis and chest tightness after activities for 6 months, and yellow staining of the skin for 1 week. Physical examination at admission not only found mild yellow staining of the skin and sclera, but also found cyanosis of the lips, periocular skin, and extremities. Laboratory examination showed abnormal liver function with total bilirubin 53 μmol/L, direct bilirubin 14 μmol/L, and indirect bilirubin 39 μmol/L, and abnormal blood gas analysis with the partial pressure of oxygen of 54 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), the partial pressure of carbon dioxide of 31 mmHg, and the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient of 57 mmHg. Hepatic vein-type Budd-Chiari syndrome, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension were indicated by abdominal CT venography. Contrast-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography (CE-TTE) was positive. After symptomatic and supportive treatment, this patient was discharged and received oxygen therapy outside the hospital. At follow-up until March 2023, there was no significant improvement in hypoxemia, accompanied by limited daily activities. Based on the literature, there were 3 reports in English while none in Chinese, 3 cases were reported. Among a total of 4 children, the chief complaints were dyspnea, cyanosis, or hypoxemia in 3 cases, and unknown in 1 case. There were 2 cases diagnosed with Budd-Chiari syndrome with HPS at the same time due to respiratory symptoms, and 2 cases developed HPS 1.5 years and 8.0 years after the diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome respectively. CE-TTE was positive in 2 cases and pulmonary perfusion imaging was positive in 2 cases. Liver transplantation was performed in 2 cases and their respiratory function recovered well; 1 case received oxygen therapy, with no improvement in hypoxemia; 1 case was waiting for liver transplantation. Conclusions: The onset of Budd-Chiari syndrome with HPS is insidious. The most common clinical manifestations are dyspnea and cyanosis. It can reduce misdiagnosis to confirm intrapulmonary vascular dilatations with CE-TTE at an early stage. Liver transplantation is helpful in improving the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Budd-Chiari Syndrome/therapy , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Hypoxia/complications , Oxygen , Dyspnea/complications , Cyanosis/complications , Bilirubin
16.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 66-70, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013251

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinical and genetic characteristics of children with β-ketothiolase deficiency (BKTD). Methods: The clinical characteristics, biochemical, markers detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), as well as the variants in ACAT1 gene among 5 children with BKTD in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University between October 2018 and December 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The onset age of the disease in 5 patients (4 males and 1 female) ranged from 9.7 to 28.0 months. During the acute phase, severe metabolic acidosis was observed with a pH of 6.9-7.1, as well as hypoglycaemia (2.3-3.4 mmol/L) and positive urinary ketone bodies (+-++++). Blood levels of methylcrotonyl carnitine, methylmalonyl carnitine and malonyl carnitine were 0.03-0.42, 0.34-1.43 and 0.83-3.53 μmol/L respectively and were significantly elevated. Urinary 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid was 22-202 and 3-hydroxybutyric acid was 4-6 066, both were higher than the normal levels. Methylcrotonylglycine was mild elevated (0-29). The metabolites detected by MS/MS and GC/MS were significantly reduced after treatment. Analysis of ACAT1 gene mutation was performed in 5 children. Most variants were missense (8/9). Four previously unreported variants were identified: c.678G>T (p.Trp226Cys), c.302A>G (p.Gln101Arg), c.627_629dupTGA (p.Asn209_Glu210insAsp) and c.316C>T (p.Gln106Ter), the first 2 variants were predicted to be damaging by SIFT, PolyPhen-2 and Mutation Taster software. c.316C>T (p.Gln106Ter) is a nonsense variant. Conclusions: β-ketothiolase deficiency is relatively rare, lacks specific clinical manifestations, however severe metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, and ketosis during the acute onset were consistent findings. Missense mutations in the ACAT1 gene are common genetic causes of β-ketothiolase deficiency.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Acidosis , Carnitine , Retrospective Studies , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
17.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 60-65, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013250

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical features,treatment and prognosis of drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (DIHS-HLH). Methods: This was a retrospective case study. Clinical characteristics, laboratory results, treatment and prognosis of 9 patients diagnosed with DIHS-HLH in Beijing Children's hospital between January 2020 and December 2022 were summarized. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate the overall survival rate. Results: Among all 9 cases, there were 6 males and 3 females, with the age ranged from 0.8 to 3.1 years. All patients had fever, rash, hepatomegaly and multiple lymph node enlargement. Other manifestations included splenomegaly (4 cases), pulmonary imaging abnormalities (6 cases), central nervous system symptoms (3 cases), and watery diarrhea (3 cases). Most patients showed high levels of soluble-CD25 (8 cases), hepatic dysfunction (7 cases) and hyperferritinemia (7 cases). Other laboratory abnormalities included hemophagocytosis in bone marrow (5 cases), hypofibrinogenemia (3 cases) and hypertriglyceridemia (2 cases). Ascending levels of interleukin (IL) 5, IL-8 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were detected in more than 6 patients. All patients received high dose intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroid and ruxolitinib, among which 4 patients were also treated with high dose methylprednisolone, 2 patients with etoposide and 2 patients with cyclosporin A. After following up for 0.2-38.6 months, 7 patients survived, and the 1-year overall survival rate was (78±14)%. Two patients who had no response to high dose immunoglobulin, methylprednisolone 2 mg/(kg·d) and ruxolitinib died. Watery diarrhea, increased levels of IL-5 and IL-8 and decreased IgM were more frequently in patients who did not survive. Conclusions: For children with fever, rash and a suspicious medication history, when complicated with hepatomegaly, impaired liver function and high levels of IL-5 and IL-8, DIHS-HLH should be considered. Once diagnosed with DIHS-HLH, suspicious drugs should be stopped immediately, and high dose intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroid and ruxolitinib could be used to control disease.


Subject(s)
Child , Male , Female , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Retrospective Studies , Interleukin-5 , Hepatomegaly/complications , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/adverse effects , Interleukin-8 , Methylprednisolone , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Diarrhea/complications , Exanthema/complications
18.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 55-59, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013249

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) related to SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical data of 11 children with MIS-C, who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics of Peking University First Hospital from December 2022 to January 2023. Clinical characteristics, treatment, and follow-up of MIS-C were summarized in this study. Results: The 11 cases contained 7 boys and 4 girls, with an age of 4.4 (2.0, 5.5) years on admission. All the patients had fever, with a duration of 7(5, 9) days. Other clinical manifestations included rash in 7 cases, conjunctival hyperemia in 5 cases, red lips and raspberry tongue in 3 cases, lymphadenopathy in 3 cases, and swollen fingers and toes in 2 cases. There were 8 cases of digestive symptoms, 8 cases of respiratory symptoms, and 3 cases of nervous system symptoms. Eight patients had multi-system injuries, and one of them had shock presentation. All 11 patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BF.7 variant. The laboratory examination results showed that all cases had elevated inflammatory indicators, abnormal coagulation function and myocardial damage. Six patients had elevated white blood cell counts, 5 cases had liver function abnormalities, 3 cases had kidney function abnormalities, and 8 cases had coronary artery involvement. All 11 patients received anti-infection treatment, of which 3 cases received only 2 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), while the remaining 8 cases received a combination of IVIG and 2 mg/(kg·d) methylprednisolone. Among the 8 cases with coronary artery disease, 6 cases received low molecular weight heparin anticoagulation therapy. All patients were followed up in 2 weeks after being discharged, and their inflammatory markers had returned to normal by that time. The 8 cases with coronary artery disease and 3 cases with pneumonia showed significant improvement or back to normal at the 4-week follow-up. All patients had no new complications or comorbidities during follow-up of more than 3 months. Conclusions: MIS-C may present with Kawasaki disease-like symptoms, with or without gastrointestinal, neurological, or respiratory symptoms. Elevated inflammatory markers, abnormal coagulation function, and cardiac injury contribute to the diagnosis of MIS-C. IVIG and methylprednisolone were the primary treatments for MIS-C, and a favorable short-term prognosis was observed during a follow-up period of more than 3 months.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , Coronary Artery Disease , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Connective Tissue Diseases , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
19.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 49-54, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013248

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (IALL). Methods: A retrospective cohort study.Clinical data, treatment and prognosis of 28 cases of IALL who have been treated at Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University and Baoding Children's Hospital from October 2013 to May 2023 were analyzed retrospectively. Based on the results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), all patients were divided into KMT2A gene rearrangement (KMT2A-R) positive group and KMT2A-R negative group. The prognosis of two groups were compared. Kaplan-Meier method and Log-Rank test were used to analyze the survival of the patients. Results: Among 28 cases of IALL, there were 10 males and 18 females, with the onset age of 10.9 (9.4,11.8) months. In terms of immune classification, 25 cases were B-ALL (89%), while the remaining 3 cases were T-ALL (11%). Most infant B-ALL showed pro-B lymphocyte phenotype (16/25,64%). A total of 22 cases (79%) obtained chromosome karyotype results, of which 7 were normal karyotypes, no complex karyotypes and 15 were abnormal karyotypes were found. Among abnormal karyotypes, there were 4 cases of t (9; 11), 2 cases of t (4; 11), 2 cases of t (11; 19), 1 case of t (1; 11) and 6 cases of other abnormal karyotypes. A total of 19 cases (68%) were positive for KMT2A-R detected by FISH. The KMT2A fusion gene was detected by real-time PCR in 16 cases (57%). A total of 24 patients completed standardized induction chemotherapy and were able to undergo efficacy evaluation, 23 cases (96%) achieved complete remission through induction chemotherapy, 4 cases (17%) died of relapse. The 5-year event free survival rate (EFS) was (46±13)%, and the 5-year overall survival rate (OS) was (73±10)%.The survival time was 31.3 (3.3, 62.5) months. There was no significant statistical difference in 5-year EFS ((46±14)% vs. (61±18)%) and 5-year OS ((64±13)% vs. (86±13)%) between the KMT2A-R positive group (15 cases) and the KMT2A-R negative group (9 cases) (χ2=1.88, 1.47, P=0.170, 0.224). Conclusions: Most IALL patients were accompanied by KMT2A-R. They had poor tolerance to traditional chemotherapy, the relapse rate during treatment was high and the prognosis was poor.


Subject(s)
Male , Child , Infant , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Prognosis , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Abnormal Karyotype , Recurrence
20.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 43-48, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013247

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinical features and genetic characteristics of Zellweger spectrum disorder caused by PEX6 gene variation. Methods: This was a case series research. Clinical date and genetic results of 2 neonatal cases of Zellweger syndrome caused by PEX6 gene variation in Wuhan Children's Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology and Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University from July 2021 to July 2022 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Literature up to August 2023 was searched from electronic databases of China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data and PubMed with the combined keywords of "Zellweger syndrome" "Zellweger spectrum disorder", and "PEX6 gene" both in Chinese and English. The main clinical features and genetic characteristics of Zellweger spectrum disorder caused by PEX6 gene variation were summarized. Results: The 2 male neonates both developed clinical manifestations as dyspnea, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, enlarged fontanelle, and high palatine arch after birth. Biochemical parameters indicated elevated bile acids, and the cranial ultrasound showed the enlarged bilateral ventricles and subependymal cyst in both 2 neonates. Zellweger syndrome was confirmed by whole exome sequencing, and the results revealed PEX6 gene variation in the 2 neonates, including compound heterozygous variants c.315G>A and c.2095-3T>G, and homozygous variant c.506_507del. Case 1 was hospitalized for 5 days, and case 2 for 32 days; they both died shortly after being discharged (the specific time is unknown). Literature review found 26 patients, including 2 neonates in this study, with Zellweger spectrum disorder caused by PEX6 gene defect reported in 1 Chinese article and 11 English articles. Clinical features included hearing loss (19 cases), developmental delay (19 cases), vision impairment (19 cases), elevated very long chain fatty acids (17 cases), brain malformations (15 cases), hypotonia (12 cases), hepatic insufficiency (12 cases), distinctive facies (10 cases), and dental impairment (9 cases). Compound heterozygous variations dominated the variation types (15 cases), and the frameshift variations (16 cases) were the main pathogenic variations. Conclusions: Zellweger spectrum disorder should be considered when neonates show hypotonia, feeding difficulty, distinctive facial appearance, brain malformations and failure of hearing screening, or when older children show retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural hearing loss, amelogenesis imperfecta and developmental delays. Detection of genetic variation in the PEX gene is crucial for definitive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Zellweger Syndrome/diagnosis , Muscle Hypotonia , Retrospective Studies , Frameshift Mutation , Exome Sequencing , Mutation , ATPases Associated with Diverse Cellular Activities/genetics
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