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2.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-741702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excessive sugar intake is one of the causes associated with obesity and several chronic diseases prevalent in the modern society. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of parenting variables based on the theory of planned behavior, on the sweetness preferences and sweets intake of children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Parents and their children (n = 103, aged 5–7 years) were enrolled to participate in a survey for this study, after providing the required informed consent. Parents were asked to fill out a self-administered questionnaire at their residence. The sweetness preference test for children was conducted at a kindergarten (or daycare center) by applying the one-on-one interview method. RESULTS: The children were divided into two clusters categorized by the K-mean cluster analysis: Cluster 1 had higher sweetness preference (0.42 M sugar, 35%; 0.61 M sugar, 65%); Cluster 2 exhibited lower sweetness preference (0.14 M sugar, 9.5%; 0.20 M sugar, 9.5%; 0.29 M sugar, 81%). Cluster 1 had a higher frequency of sweets intake (P < 0.01), and lower sweets restriction (P < 0.05) and nutrition quotient score (P < 0.05). Sweets intake was negatively correlated with the nutritional quotient (r = −0.204, P < 0.05). The behavioral intention of parents was higher in cluster 2 (P < 0.05), while affective attitude, feeding practice, and reward were higher in cluster 1 (P < 0.001, P < 0.05, and P < 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, behavioral intention of parents showed a negative correlation with affective attitude (r = −0.282, P < 0.01) and feeding practice (r = −0.380, P < 0.01), and a positive correlation with subjective norm (r = 0.203, P < 0.05) and parenting attitude (r = 0.433, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the sweetness preferences and sweets intake of children is related to the parent's affective attitude, feeding practice and reward. We suggest that to reduce the sugar consumption of children, guidelines for access to sweets and pertinent parenting practices are required.


Subject(s)
Child , Chronic Disease , Food Preferences , Humans , Informed Consent , Intention , Methods , Obesity , Parenting , Parents , Reward
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740596

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the job satisfaction level of the dental staff working at oral health centers for people with disabilities. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted with 73 dentists and dental hygienists working at seven regional oral health centers for people with special needs and dental hospitals for people with disabilities in Seoul. The questionnaire consisted of seven questions across two subscales: general satisfaction (4 questions) and satisfaction with wage and welfare (3 questions). The internal consistency of the questionnaire items was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (0.80). The responses were analyzed using a t-test with SPSS (version 23.0). RESULTS: Of the 73 dental staff members, 50% were dentists, 64% were women, and participants' average age was 30 years. In total, 58% of the participants had up to five years of experience working with people with disabilities, 42% of them worked full-time, and each participant treated an average of 200 patients with disabilities per month. The participants reported that their salary was relatively low. Dental hygienists had higher satisfaction level than dentists in the institution's welfare work. The more full-time workers answered, the more suitable they are for their work. CONCLUSIONS: The job satisfaction level of most professionals working in oral health centers for people with disabilities was not very high but they felt rewarded by their welfare work. It was inferred that it is necessary to examine and improve institutional support aspects such as human resource support. Increasing the number of centers in the central region is also needed.


Subject(s)
Dental Hygienists , Dental Staff , Dentists , Disabled Persons , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Oral Health , Reward , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Seoul
4.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-739631

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the dietary quality and food habits in children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and to evaluate the relationship between diet quality of children with PDDs and their caregivers' feeding practice and nutritional perceptions. Twenty-one pairs of caregivers and their children with PDD were surveyed. The caregivers completed surveys regarding their children's weight status, food habits, and dietary quality and their food habits, nutritional perceptions, knowledge, and feeding practices. Dietary quality was assessed as mean adequacy ratio, dietary diversity score (DDS), dietary variety score (DVS), and Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). The children were in the normal ranges of body mass index (BMI) and Röhrer index. Having three times a meal, regular meal time, salty taste of the caregiver were related to those of the children with PDD (β = 0.533, 0.447, and 0.886, respectively; p < 0.05). Child control, food as reward, involvement, pressure, and restriction for the health of the caregiver were positively related to DDS, DVS, and INQ of the children with PDD (p < 0.05). High feeding stress and nutritional knowledge of the caregiver were related to the high BMI of the children with PDD (β = 0.445 and 0.602, respectively; p < 0.05), whereas emotion regulation, encourage balance and variety, and involvement of caregiver were negatively related to BMI (β = −0.426, −0.430, and −0.388, respectively; p < 0.05). In conclusion, food habits of children with PDD were closely related to those of caregiver. To improve nutritional status, more insightful understand will be required by considering their developmental differences in this population.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Caregivers , Child , Developmental Disabilities , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Meals , Nutritional Status , Nutritive Value , Reference Values , Reward
5.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-738872

ABSTRACT

The Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety has approved three anti-obesity drugs for long-term management in the past decade. In addition, since 2019, bariatric surgery has been financially supported by National Health Insurance Service in Korea. In this review, the mechanisms of action and the clinical implications of the recently approved anti-obesity drugs, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide are explained. Lorcaserin stimulates proopiomelanocortin (POMC)/cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons and inhibits neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons, which results in the activation of melanocortin 3/4 receptors. Naltrexone/bupropion stimulates POMC neurons through bupropion; this stimulation is augmented by blocking the autoinhibitory mechanism of POMC with naltrexone. The hypophagic effect of liraglutide is mediated through the direct activation of POMC/CART neurons and the indirect suppression of NPY/AgRP neurons through γ-aminobutyric acid-dependent signaling, with adjunctive suppression of the mesolimbic dopamine reward system. In addition to liraglutide, another glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, semaglutide, is expected to be added to the list of anti-obesity drugs in the near future. In patients with obesity and high cardiovascular risk, lorcaserin was considered neutral and liraglutide was considered favorable, whereas inconclusive results were obtained for naltrexone/bupropion.


Subject(s)
Anti-Obesity Agents , Bariatric Surgery , Bupropion , Dopamine , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Humans , Korea , Liraglutide , Naltrexone , National Health Programs , Neurons , Neuropeptide Y , Obesity , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Reward
6.
Diagn. tratamento ; 23(1): 24-27, 06/04/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-882169

ABSTRACT

Em diversos estudos, as mulheres são definidas como mais propensas a atitudes pró-sociais, em comparação aos homens. Especula-se que essas diferenças de comportamento se devem às influências sociais. Entretanto, pesquisadores da Universidade de Zurich creditam essa diferença a questões de ordem biológica. O presente artigo consiste em síntese e comentário desse estudo, intitulado "The dopaminergic reward system underpins gender differences in social preferences", o qual verificou que o sistema de recompensa dopaminérgico das mulheres reage mais fortemente a comportamentos pró-sociais e o dos homens a comportamentos não sociais. Estudos anteriores já haviam demonstrado diferenças nas preferências entre os gêneros de bebês recém-nascidos e a influência no nível de testosterona fetal na tendência de crianças para sistematizar (analisar e construir sistemas) ou "empatizar" (perceber informações não verbais no comportamento). Diferenças de gênero entre habilidades e tendências comportamentais podem ter uma base biológica subjacente para além de influências sociais. Esta base incluiria a atuação hormonal no período gestacional e uma consequente diferenciação de funcionamento das estruturas cerebrais, em especial do sistema de recompensa e do sistema límbico.


Subject(s)
Choice Behavior , Corpus Striatum , Dopamine Agents , Gender Identity , Reward
7.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 334-338, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-716718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With global changes in the current state of work and employment, the role of health-adverse psychosocial work environments has received increasing attention in developed as well as in rapidly developing countries. Thus, there is a need to apply valid measurement tools for monitoring and preventive purposes. This study aims to examine the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire, assessing one of the internationally leading concepts of stressful work. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study of a random sample of 202 white collar employees in an industrial company in Iran analyzes the ERI scales by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Moreover, aspects of construct and criterion validity are tested. To this end, correlations of ERI scales with subscales of organizational injustice, a complementary work stress model, and also the correlations of ERI scales with a questionnaire assessing psychosomatic symptoms are performed. RESULTS: Internal consistency of the three ERI scales was satisfactory (Cronbach α effort: 0.76, reward: 0.79, overcommitment: 0.75). Fit indices of confirmatory factor analysis pointed to an adequate representation of the theoretical construct (e.g., adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI): 0.73, goodness of fit index (GFI): 0.78). Negative correlations with subscales of organizational injustice supported the notion of construct validity of the ERI scales, and positive correlations of ERI scales with psychosomatic symptoms indicated preliminary criterion validity. CONCLUSION: The Persian version of the ERI questionnaire has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used as a valid instrument in research on this topic.


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries , Employment , Iran , Psychometrics , Reward , Weights and Measures
8.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 156-163, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-741903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this study, the relationship between occupational stress and suicidal ideation was investigated, focusing on gender differences among Korean employees. METHODS: Cross-sectional data for 53,969 workers were collected at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital health screening centers. Risk of suicidal ideation was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire examining suicidal ideation during the past year. Occupational stress was measured using 24 items of the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form (KOSS-SF). Logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the relationships between suicidal ideation and components of occupational stress. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted models, all job stress contributed to increased risk of suicidal ideation in males. Most subscales, except insufficient job control and organizational system, were risk factors of suicidal ideation in females. Further adjustments for depression markedly attenuated this relationship. However, the effects of insufficient job control and lack of reward on suicidal ideation remained significant in males, and interpersonal conflict remained significant in females. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that occupational stress plays a significant role in increasing risk of suicidal ideation through elevation of depressive symptoms. Gender differences in components of occupational stress associated with suicidal ideation were also observed.


Subject(s)
Depression , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Mass Screening , Odds Ratio , Reward , Risk Factors , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An 8-week health program is achieved for health providers in a general hospital in Seoul to verify whether health parameters are enhanced by improving life habits. We want to examine the effect of this program with measuring health parameters and exercise ability. This study is performed as a pilot study, and the goal is to introduce the outcome of health program with experimental methods. METHODS: Participants of this research consist of 42 health providers who were overweight, and they enrolled an 8-week health program in 2015. They took a class about improving eating habits and recorded daily diet. Moreover, they implemented exercise program with encouraging active participation by rewarding members who attended the program frequently. RESULTS: The result is analyzed with 31 participants who finished the program. There are 4 men whose physical indices correspond with the criteria of metabolic syndrome. Otherwise, 27 women have physical indices below the criteria. The result indicates that physical indices would not reveal meaningful changes. However, basal fitness comprised of flexibility, sit-up, and back muscle strength implies meaningful improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Even though there were some problems to revise in exercise intervention, it was accomplished systematically while nutrition intervention was not controlled strictly. In addition, factors including inspiring the enrollment of men and extending the period of program should be considered to improve the next program. The final goal of the health promoting hospital is to improve the health of health providers by sustaining this program with developing exercise and nutrition intervention in detail.


Subject(s)
Back Muscles , Diet , Eating , Exercise , Female , Health Promotion , Hospitals, General , Humans , Male , Muscle Strength , Obesity , Overweight , Pilot Projects , Pliability , Reward , Seoul
10.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-716372

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Baclofen is a promising treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD), although its clinical response in humans is mixed. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of baclofen treatment on cue-induced brain activation pattern and its relationship with relapse outcomes. METHODS: Twenty-three inpatients with AUD underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging cue-reactivity task before beginning medication with baclofen and 2 weeks later. Twelve additional inpatients with AUD, who did not receive any anticraving medications, formed the control group. All subjects were prospectively followed up for 90 days post-discharge or until lapse to first alcohol use. RESULTS: Whole-brain linear mixed effects analysis revealed a significant group-by-time interaction with greater activation of the bilateral dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) following baclofen treatment in comparison with the control group. Further, cox regression analysis revealed that increased activation of ACC and deactivation of insular cortex (IC) was associated with longer time to first alcohol use only in the baclofen treatment group but not in the control group. CONCLUSION: This study provides preliminary evidence for the neural predictors of baclofen treatment response in AUD. Baclofen treatment in AUD was associated with changes in cue-reactivity at critical brain regions within the incentive-salience network. Importantly, baclofen treatment-related specific activation of regions involved in cognitive control (ACC) and deactivation of regions involved in reward anticipation (IC) prolonged the time to first alcohol drink.


Subject(s)
Baclofen , Brain , Cerebral Cortex , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Inpatients , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Reward
11.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 447-453, 2018.
Article | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-718433

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient safety and accurate implementation of medication orders are among the essential requirements of par nursing profession. In this regard, it is necessary to determine and prevent factors influencing medications errors. Although many studies have investigated this issue, the effects of psychosocial factors have not been examined thoroughly. METHODS: The present study aimed at investigating the impact of psychosocial factors on nurses' medication errors by evaluating the balance between effort and reward. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in public hospitals of Tehran in 2015. The population of this work consisted of 379 nurses. A multisection questionnaire was used for data collection. RESULTS: In this research, 29% of participating nurses reported medication errors in 2015. Most frequent errors were related to wrong dosage, drug, and patient. There were significant relationships between medications errors and the stress of imbalance between effort and reward (p < 0.02) and job commitment and stress (p < 0.027). CONCLUSION: It seems that several factors play a role in the occurrence of medication errors, and psychosocial factors play a crucial and major role in this regard. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate these factors in more detail and take them into account in the hospital management.


Subject(s)
Data Collection , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Medication Errors , Nursing , Patient Safety , Psychology , Reward
12.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-718216

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) work has revealed that children/adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) show dysfunctional reward/non-reward processing of non-social reinforcements in the context of instrumental learning tasks. Neural responsiveness to social reinforcements during instrumental learning, despite the importance of this for socialization, has not yet been previously investigated. METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy children/adolescents and 19 children/adolescents with DBDs performed the fMRI social/non-social reinforcement learning task. Participants responded to random fractal image stimuli and received social and non-social rewards/non-rewards according to their accuracy. RESULTS: Children/adolescents with DBDs showed significantly reduced responses within the caudate and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to non-social (financial) rewards and social non-rewards (the distress of others). Connectivity analyses revealed that children/adolescents with DBDs have decreased positive functional connectivity between the ventral striatum (VST) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) seeds and the lateral frontal cortex in response to reward relative to non-reward, irrespective of its sociality. In addition, they showed decreased positive connectivity between the vmPFC seed and the amygdala in response to non-reward relative to reward. CONCLUSION: These data indicate compromised reinforcement processing of both non-social rewards and social non-rewards in children/adolescents with DBDs within core regions for instrumental learning and reinforcement-based decision-making (caudate and PCC). In addition, children/adolescents with DBDs show dysfunctional interactions between the VST, vmPFC, and lateral frontal cortex in response to rewarded instrumental actions potentially reflecting disruptions in attention to rewarded stimuli.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders , Conditioning, Operant , Fractals , Frontal Lobe , Gyrus Cinguli , Learning , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prefrontal Cortex , Problem Behavior , Reinforcement, Social , Reward , Socialization , Ventral Striatum
13.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 234-240, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-717377

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A cutting seton is used after a partial distal fistulotomy to treat patients with a high exrasphincteric fistula in ano to avoid fecal incontinence and recurrence. In Saudi Arabia, religious practices necessitate complete cleanness, which makes conditions affecting anal continence a major concern to patients affected by an anal fistula. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the cutting seton in treating a high anal fistula among Saudi Arabians. METHODS: Between January 2005 and December 2014, a prospective study was done for 372 Saudi Arabian patients diagnosed as having a high anal fistula and treated with a cutting seton at Al-Ansar General Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia. 0-silk sutures were used. All patients underwent the same preoperative assessment, operative technique, and postoperative follow-up. Weekly, the seton was tightened in outpatient clinics. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-eight patients (80.1%) were males and 74 (19.9%) females. The duration of symptoms varied from 3–21 months. The fistula healed completely in 363 patients (97.6%); 58 patients (15.6%) reported some degree of incontinence to flatus, but none to feces. In 9 patients (2.4%) the fistula recurred. CONCLUSION: The utilization of the cutting seton method in the treatment of patients with a high anal fistula is highly efficient as it simultaneously drains the abscess, cuts the fistulous tract, and causes fibrosis along the tract. Treatment of a high anal fistula by using a staged fistulotomy with a cutting seton was very rewarding to Saudi Arabian patients who feared anal incontinence for religious reasons and was associated with low postoperative complication and recurrence rates.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Fecal Incontinence , Feces , Female , Fibrosis , Fistula , Flatulence , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals, General , Humans , Male , Methods , Postoperative Complications , Prospective Studies , Rectal Fistula , Recurrence , Reward , Saudi Arabia , Sutures
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-719900

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the success and barrier factors of hypertension registration program in Goseong community health center proven improving hypertension treatment rate by community health survey. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative research using both a performance review of the program and in-depth interviews with the 8 operators who had worked for this program in April 2018. RESULTS: In this study, the success factors were analysed as follows: First, the willingness to improve health indicators, second, the implementation of large-scale projects, third, improving program processes, fourth, continuous efforts for achievement of goal, not output or reward, and the barrier factors are as follows. First, uniform output monitering, second, evaluation after the fashion of contest, third, the confusing concept of an integrated health promotion program, fourth, the attitude of the person worried with task change. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that the health community health center should follow the basic principles of public health, and the central government should introduce a health policy of decentralization.


Subject(s)
Clothing , Community Health Centers , Health Policy , Health Promotion , Health Surveys , Humans , Hypertension , Politics , Public Health , Qualitative Research , Reward
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-719015

ABSTRACT

This study attempted to identify factors work environment that affect job satisfaction in dental hygienists. This study was conducted between August 29 and September 28, 2017, as part of an in-depth study of the ‘Survey on the Working Environment of Clinical Dental Hygienists’ of the Korean Dental Hygienists Association. To get the responses, the questionnaire was posted on the website of the Korean Dental Hygienists Association, and of the respondents, 4,663 were selected and analyzed. An independent t-test and one way ANOVA analysis were used to make a comparison of job satisfaction according to the general characteristics, salary, and tasks. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors affecting job satisfaction. The significance level was 0.05. In regard to salary information, the job satisfaction was found to be high (p < 0.001) in cases where the salary was considered appropriate, when incentives were provided, when rewards or vacation expenses were supported, and when overtime and nightly work allowances were paid. In regard to job information, the job satisfaction was found to be high (p < 0.001) when the volume of work was considered appropriate, when there were sufficient numbers in the workforce, and when the division of labor among the other personnel was clear. As a factor affecting job satisfaction of dental hygienists, the case of thinking that ‘workload is appropriate’ was found to be 2.052 times, showing the highest score. Job satisfaction in dental hygienists affects the turnover and has a significant effect on the performance of the organization. Therefore, it is believed, that it is urgent to improve the working environment such as salary and clear division of duties affecting job satisfaction of dental hygienists.


Subject(s)
Dental Hygienists , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Logistic Models , Motivation , Reward , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thinking
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-739034

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of interpersonal relationship ability, job stress, and stress coping type on the turnover intention of nurses in the early stage of their careers. METHODS: Data were collected from 136 early stage nurses from two general hospitals and one tertiary hospital in Chungbuk province. An early stage nurse was defined as the nurse with a work experience of 3 to 36 months. The collected data were analyzed using independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, Person's correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple regression. RESULTS: It was seen that turnover intention had a negative correlation with interpersonal competency (r=-.20, p=.020) and a positive correlation with job stress (r=.56, p < .001). Job stress due to work over load, inadequate compensation and working environment, interpersonal relationship ability, and length of clinical career were significant factors influencing turnover intention (p < .05). These variables explained for 50.4% of the variance in turnover intention. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to develop an interpersonal relationship ability improvement program to decrease turnover intention among early stage nurses by helping them to successfully adapt to their job. Moreover, it is important to bring about continuous improvements in terms of provision of adequate workload and appropriate rewards, and creation of a suitable work environment to reduce the job stress of early stage nurses.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Compensation and Redress , Hospitals, General , Intention , Interpersonal Relations , Reward , Tertiary Care Centers
17.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 22(5): 1589-1600, maio 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-839985

ABSTRACT

Resumo Estressores do trabalho afetam a capacidade para o trabalho (CT) e o aumento da idade associa-se ao envelhecimento funcional. Foi avaliado se diferentes estressores afetam a CT de profissionais de enfermagem jovens e em envelhecimento. Uma coorte (2009-2011) de 304 trabalhadores de um hospital de São Paulo respondeu aos questionários Desequilíbrio Esforço-Recompensa (ERI), Escala Estresse no Trabalho (EET), Atividades que contribuem para dor/lesão (WRAPI) e Índice de Capacidade para o Trabalho (ICT). Mudanças na exposição aos estressores nos grupos etários (< 45 anos e ≥ 45anos) foram comparadas ao delta-ICT (diferença na pontuação inicial e final) pelo teste Mann-Whitney. Houve piora no delta-ICT (p = 0,609), sem diferença entre os dois grupos etários. Nos jovens a intensificação dos estressores ERI (p = 0,004), excesso de comprometimento (p = 0,002), apoio social (p = 0,014) e WRAPI (p = 0,004) associou-se à diminuição da CT e nos mais velhos apenas o ERI (p = 0,047). A CT dos jovens sofreu efeito da intensificação de vários estressores, enquanto a CT dos mais velhos recebeu influência apenas do desequilíbrio esforço-recompensa, indicando que ações de intervenção devem ser diferenciadas para os grupos etários.


Abstract Work stressors influence work ability – WA - and increasing age is associated with functional aging. We sought to establish whether work stressors differentially influence WA in young and aging nursing professionals. A cohort (2009-2011) composed of 304 workers at a hospital in Sao Paulo responded questionnaires Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI), Job Stress Scale (JSS), Work-Related Activities That May Contribute To Job-Related Pain and/or Injury (WRAPI) and Work Ability Index (WAI). Changes in perceived exposure to stressors in each age group (< 45 and ≥ 45 years old) were compared to delta-WAI (difference between initial and final WAI score) by means of the Mann-Whitney test. There was a worsening in WAI (p = 0.609) without difference between the groups. WA impairment was associated with intensification of stressors ERI (p = 0.004), overcommitment (p = 0.002), social support (p = 0.014) and WRAPI (p = 0.004) among the younger workers, but with poorer ERI (p = 0.047) only among the older ones. While among the younger workers WA was influenced by the intensification of various stressors, in the case of the older ones it was influenced by effort-reward imbalance only, indicating that interventions should be differentiated according to age groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Reward , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Age Factors , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Social Support , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workload
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-222860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the nutrition quotient (NQ) by mother's parenting style which may influence the NQ in preschool children. METHODS: Subjects were 310 mothers and their 4-6 year old children. The questionnaire composed of demographic characteristics, mother's parenting style at meal time and eating behavior as measured by NQ questions. The NQ questions consisted of 19 food behavior checklist items and all items were grouped into 5 factors: balance, diversity, moderation, regularity, and practice. Mother's parenting style was classified by using words for nutrition education at meal time. All data were statistically analyzed by SPSS program (Ver. 23) and the statistical differences in variables were evaluated by Student's t-test, χ²-test, One-way ANOVA. RESULTS: We observed that in children whose mothers use the parenting style at meal time of ‘explanation’ and ‘compliment & cheer up’ had high dietary regularity, diversity, practice. The children of mothers who use the parenting style at meal time of ‘persuasion’ and ‘reward’ were found to have a lower degree of balance, diversity, and practice. Especially, children of ‘reward’ style mothers had lower moderation of dietary life. On the other hand, among the parenting style at meal time of ‘comparison & demand’, ‘treating’ and ‘faire’, there was no significant difference in the NQ factor by each group. NQ grade was higher among those who used more explanation (p < 0.001) and persuasion (p < 0.01) and with use of less persuasion (p < 0.01) and reward (p < 0.01). The positive association observed between the frequency of dietary education of mothers and higher NQ grade indicated the degree of dietary practices of those children. On the other hand, the children of mothers who rarely practice the dietary education at home had lower NQ grade (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In order to promote children's proper dietary behaviors, it is important to provide nutrition education to children as well as provide guidance on parenting style at meal time.


Subject(s)
Checklist , Child , Child, Preschool , Education , Feeding Behavior , Hand , Humans , Meals , Mothers , Parenting , Parents , Persuasive Communication , Reward
19.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-58957

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In the current study we investigated neurodevelopmental changes in response to social and non-social reinforcement. METHODS: Fifty-three healthy participants including 16 early adolescents (age, 10–15 years), 16 late adolescents (age, 15–18 years), and 21 young adults (age, 21–25 years) completed a social/non-social reward learning task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants responded to fractal image stimuli and received social or non-social reward/non-rewards according to their accuracy. ANOVAs were conducted on both the blood oxygen level dependent response data and the product of a context-dependent psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analysis involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and bilateral insula cortices as seed regions. RESULTS: Early adolescents showed significantly increased activation in the amygdala and anterior insula cortex in response to non-social monetary rewards relative to both social reward/non-reward and monetary non-rewards compared to late adolescents and young adults. In addition, early adolescents showed significantly more positive connectivity between the vmPFC/bilateral insula cortices seeds and other regions implicated in reinforcement processing (the amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex, insula cortex, and lentiform nucleus) in response to non-reward and especially social non-reward, compared to late adolescents and young adults. CONCLUSION: It appears that early adolescence may be marked by: (i) a selective increase in responsiveness to non-social, relative to social, rewards; and (ii) enhanced, integrated functioning of reinforcement circuitry for non-reward, and in particular, with respect to posterior cingulate and insula cortices, for social non-reward.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Amygdala , Fractals , Gyrus Cinguli , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Learning , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Oxygen , Prefrontal Cortex , Reinforcement, Social , Reward , Young Adult
20.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-56111

ABSTRACT

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is often comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we compared the neurobiological differences between ADHD comorbid with IGD (ADHD+IGD group) and ADHD without comorbidity (ADHD-only group) by analyzing quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) findings. We recruited 16 male ADHD+IGD, 15 male ADHD-only adolescent patients, and 15 male healthy controls (HC group). Participants were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Scale and ADHD Rating Scale. Relative power and inter- and intra-hemispheric coherences of brain waves were measured using a digital electroencephalography (EEG) system. Compared to the ADHD-only group, the ADHD+IGD group showed lower relative delta power and greater relative beta power in temporal regions. The relative theta power in frontal regions were higher in ADHD-only group compared to HC group. Inter-hemispheric coherence values for the theta band between F3–F4 and C3–C4 electrodes were higher in ADHD-only group compared to HC group. Intra-hemispheric coherence values for the delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands between P4–O2 electrodes and intra-hemispheric coherence values for the theta band between Fz–Cz and T4–T6 electrodes were higher in ADHD+IGD group compared to ADHD-only group. Adolescents who show greater vulnerability to ADHD seem to continuously play Internet games to unconsciously enhance attentional ability. In turn, relative beta power in attention deficit in ADHD+IGD group may become similar to that in HC group. Repetitive activation of brain reward and working memory systems during continuous gaming may result in an increase in neuronal connectivity within the parieto-occipital and temporal regions for the ADHD+IGD group.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Brain , Brain Waves , Comorbidity , Electrodes , Electroencephalography , Humans , Immunoglobulin D , Internet , Male , Memory, Short-Term , Neurons , Reward , Temporal Lobe
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