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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879004

ABSTRACT

Rhei Radix et Rhizoma is a kind of commonly used Chinese medicinal materials. Due to the overharvesting, the wild resource is endangering. Large market demand caused severely adulterant of commercial Rhei Radix et Rhizoma medicinal materials and decoction pieces. This manuscript reviewed the advances of the original species authentication in the industrial chain of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma during the latest decade, including characteristics and microscopic features, phytochemical analysis on anthraquinones, and molecular authentication based on DNA barcoding. Accordingly, an original species authentication route for the industrial chain of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma was summarized:(1)the identification of seeds and seedlings by DNA barcoding;(2) the selection of high variable sites based on the chloroplast genome;(3)biomonitoring of the Rhei Radix et Rhizoma medicinal materials and decoction pieces by two-dimensional DNA barcode;(4)traceability of Chinese patent medicines by third-generation sequencing. In conclusion, the combination of molecular identification and traditional identification methods provides a new idea for the identification of the original species of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma in the industrial chain and a essential guidance for the research of drug safety and efficacy of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthraquinones , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Roots , Rheum , Rhizome
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878954

ABSTRACT

The color characteristic information of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma powder was obtained by spectrophotometer, the feasibility of rapid identification of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma origin based on chromaticity value was studied by statistical analysis. The results of rank correlation analysis showed that a~*(P<0.01), b~*(P<0.01) had significantly correlation with the origin of medicinal herbs, which could be used as two important parameters to distinguish the origin of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, the larger the a~* value, the more red the powder color,and the greater the b~* value, the more yellow the powder color. Meanwhile, through Fisher discriminant analysis, the linear discriminant functions of different genus Rhei Radix et Rhizoma were established, which was Rheum tanguticum=40.666a~*+0.019b~*-213.303, Rh. palmatum=34.121a~*+0.061b~*-151.770, Rh. officinale=28.071a~*+0.113b~*-104.604 3, the coincidence rate of cross-validation was over 95%, among them, the discriminant rate of Rh. tanguticum and Rh. officinale reached 100%;In addition, using the percentile method to analyze the 90% reference value range of three different origin of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, as a result, Rh. tanguticum a~*(10.236 5-10.604 7), b~*(32.294 8-34.841 7); Rh. palmatum a~*(8.602 7-8.770 0), b~*(27.534 8-28.968 6), and Rh. officinale a~*(6.825 7-7.464 3),b~*(21.001 6-27.716 4). According to this study, rank correlation analysis and Fisher discriminant analysis are feasible to distinguish the base of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma in a certain range, and provide some theoretical basis for the identification of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It also provides a new method and idea for the identification of other multi-base Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastropoda , Plant Roots , Rheum , Rhizome
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878905

ABSTRACT

Rhei Radix et Rhizoma was first recorded in Shennong Ben Cao Jing, with a wide range of pharmacological activities. Autoimmune disease is a kind of disease that damages the tissue structure and function of immune cells and their components due to the impairment of immune tolerance function, including atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune thyroiditis, ulcerative colitis, type 1 diabetes and IgA nephropathy. In recent years, clinical and experimental studies show that Rhei Radix et Rhizoma has potential therapeutic effects on autoimmune diseases. Under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, this paper reviews therapeutic and intervening effects of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and its main active ingredient anthraquinone on autoimmune diseases. It also puts forward new study directions in view of the existing problems in studies of rhubarb and its anthraquinone, with the aim to provide reference for clinical treatment and scientific studies of effect of Rhei Radix et Rhizomaon autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthraquinones , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Rheum , Rhizome
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773117

ABSTRACT

The dose-toxicity-effect relationship between licorice combined with rhubarb in purgation was studied. A total of 108 ICR mice were divided into control group,model group,positive group,low,medium and high-dose rhubarb groups,and low,medium and high-dose rhubarb-liquorice decoction group. After 6 days of continuous administration of loperamide hydrochloride,the constipation model of mice was replicated,and each group was given lactulose,different doses of rhubarb and rhubarb-liquorice decoction for 14 days. After administration,the defecation characteristics,blood biochemistry,liver,kidney and colon pathological changes in each group were compared. Based on the objective weight given by factor analysis,the dose-toxicity-effect relationship was comprehensively analyzed by multi-index scoring method. Two common factors were extracted by factor analysis,representing effect and toxicity respectively. The results showed that rhubarb could exert a diarrhea effect at the dosage of 1/2,2 and 8 times of the high limit set forth in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia,increase the defecation volume and the intestinal tract propulsion rate,reduce the time of anal and the oral transmission,and increase the water content of feces. The combination with licorice could alleviate its diarrhea effect,especially at the dosage of 1/2 times of the high limit set forth in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. However,rhubarb showed obvious hepatic and colon toxicities at the dosage of 2 and 8 times of the high limit set forth in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia,and the combination with licorice could significantly reduce its toxicity. It shows that licorice has a " mediating" effect on rhubarb by alleviating the purgation property and reducing the toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cathartics , Pharmacology , Colon , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glycyrrhiza , Chemistry , Kidney , Liver , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rheum , Chemistry , Toxicity Tests
5.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 111-114, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760556

ABSTRACT

The herbal formula, DF-02, consisting of Ephedra intermedia and Rheum palmatum are used for the treatment of the metabolic diseases such as obesity and liver fibrosis in Korean local clinics. We aimed to develop the simultaneous analytical conditions for four standards, (+)-pseudoephedrine (PSEP) and (−)-ephedrine (EP) for E. intermedia, and aloe-emodin (AE) and chrysophanol (CP) for R. palmatum using HPLC-UV techniques. The validated conditions yielded the high precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) 0.9994). As a result, four standards of DF-02 were simultaneously determined under the developed method, which will be utilized for the quality control or evaluation of DF-02 and many herbal preparations containing E. intermedia and R. palmatum.


Subject(s)
Calibration , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Ephedra , Liver Cirrhosis , Metabolic Diseases , Methods , Obesity , Plant Preparations , Quality Control , Rheum
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777537

ABSTRACT

Anthraquinones,dianthrones and tannins are the main active ingredients of Rheum tanguticum. In this study the three components were determined by HPLC,and the results were analyzed by multiple comparisons,principal components analysis(PCA)and correspondence analysis(CA). The results showed that the contents of components in different growing areas and types(wild and cultivated) reached a significant level(P<0. 05). Baiyu county,Xiaojin county and Ruoergai county had obvious advantages in the accumulation of catechin hydrate,rhien and sensenoside A respectively. The principal component was different in two growing type and the wild environment was conducive to combined anthraquinones accumulation. For active components,normalized planting was better than retail cultivating. Therefore,the effect on the accumulation of chemical components in Rh. tangusticum,should be taken into full account in the selection of the cultural base of Rh. tanguticum. The standardized cultivating is superior to retail cultivating in terms of the accumulation of active ingredients,and standardized planting is inferior to the wild.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Phytochemicals , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Rheum , Chemistry , Tannins
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17110, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011643

ABSTRACT

Rhubarb is commonly used as a cathartic in Asian countries. However, researchers have devotedextensive concerns to the quality control and safety of rhubarb and traditional Chinese preparations composed of rhubarb due to the instable purgative effect and potential nephrotoxicity of anthraquinones. In this study, we aimed to prepare rhubarb total free anthraquinones (RTFA) oral colon-specific drug delivery granules (RTFA-OCDD-GN) to delivery anthraquinones to colon to produce purgative effect. RTFA-OCDD-GN were prepared using chitosan and Eudragit S100 through a double-layer coating process and the formulation was optimized. Continuous release studies were performed in a simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2), followed by a small-intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) and a colonic fluid (pH 7.4, containing rat cecal contents). The purgative effect test was performed in rats. The dissolution profile of RTFA-OCDD-GN showed that the accumulative dissolution rate of RTFA was about 83.0% in the simulated colonic fluid containing rat cecal contents and only about 9.0% in the simulated gastrointestinal fluids. And the RTFA-OCDD-GN could produce the comparative purgative activity as rhubarb, suggesting it could deliver the free AQs to the colon. The RTFA-OCDD-GN was a useful media to enhance the purgative activity of free anthraquinones after administered orally.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Rheum/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anthraquinones/adverse effects , Colon , Projects , Cathartics/analysis
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1142-1150, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-686962

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Gastrointestinal dysfunction plays a critical role in the prognosis of critically ill patients. Previous studies showed rhubarb, a traditional Chinese herb, can protect the intestinal barrier function, prevent intestinal bacterial translocation, and promote gastrointestinal peristalsis, but the clinical studies are less. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rhubarb on gastrointestinal dysfunction in critically ill patients.</p><p><b>Methods</b>From June 2015 to May 2017, a total of 368 critically ill patients with Grade I-III acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the exposure factors (whether the patients received rhubarb treatment): the rhubarb group and the usual treatment group. Clinical data were collected within the first 24 h of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and 7 days after treatment. Survival data on day 28 after ICU admission and the durations of ICU and total hospitalization were also collected. Propensity score matching (PSM) was conducted to reduce confounding bias between the groups. The logistic regression was conducted to screen the influence factors.</p><p><b>Results</b>The eligible patients were divided into rhubarb group (n = 219, 59.5%) and usual treatment group (n = 149, 40.5%). Before PSM, the remission rate of feeding intolerance in rhubarb group and usual treatment group were 59.8% and 39.6%, respectively. After PSM, the remission rate of feeding intolerance in rhubarb group and usual treatment group was 77.9% and 30.9%, respectively. The remission rates of feeding intolerance in rhubarb group were significantly higher than those in the usual treatment group (all P < 0.05). Compared with the usual treatment group, the rhubarb group had a higher rate of AGI improvement, lower level of C-reactive protein, shorter stay in ICU before and after PSM (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in 28-day mortality between rhubarb and usual treatment groups before and after PSM (48 vs. 33, P = 0.959; and 16 vs. 21, P = 0.335). The logistic regression analysis showed that the single factor, whether receiving rhubarb therapy, affected the proportion of patients whose enteral nutrition needs ≥83.7 kJ·kg·d after 7 days of treatment (odds ratio: 7.908, 95% confidence interval: 3.661-17.083, P < 0.001). No serious adverse effects were found in two groups.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>The rhubarb might significantly improve feeding tolerance and relieve gastrointestinal dysfunction in critically ill patients, without serious adverse reactions. It provided proof for the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction with rhubarb during clinical practice.</p>


Subject(s)
APACHE , Adult , Aged , Critical Illness , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Metabolism , Pathology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Rheum , Chemistry
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689616

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of rhubarb on neonatal rats with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) induced by hyperoxia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 64 rats (postnatal day 4) were randomly divided into four groups: air control, rhubarb control, hyperoxia model, and hyperoxia+rhubarb (n=16 each). The rats in the hyperoxia model and hyperoxia+rhubarb groups were exposed to hyperoxia (60% O2) to establish a BPD model. The rats in the rhubarb control and hyperoxia+rhubarb groups were given rhubarb extract suspension (600 mg/kg) by gavage daily. The pathological changes of lung tissue were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining on postnatal days 14 and 21. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured by spectrophotometry. The mRNA and protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The hyperoxia model group showed reduced alveolar number, increased alveolar volume, and simplified alveolar structure, which worsened over the time of exposure to hyperoxia. These pathological changes were significantly reduced in the hyperoxia+rhubarb group. On postnatal days 14 and 21, compared with the air control and rhubarb control groups, the hyperoxia model group had significantly reduced radical alveolar count (RAC), significantly reduced activity of SOD in the lung tissue, and significantly increased content of MDA and mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 (P<0.05). Compared with the hyperoxia model group, the hyperoxia+rhubarb group had significantly increased RAC, significantly increased activity of SOD in the lung tissue, and significantly reduced content of MDA and mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Rhubarb may play a protective role in rats with BPD induced by hyperoxia through inhibiting inflammatory response and oxidative stress.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , Metabolism , Pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Hyperoxia , Lung , Metabolism , Pathology , Plant Extracts , Therapeutic Uses , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rheum , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics
10.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(5): 435-440, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896349

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rhubarb on extravascular lung water (EVLW) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Method: A total of 80 patients with ARDS were randomly divided into a treatment group (40 cases) and control group (40 cases). Patients in the treatment group received rhubarb (30.0 g/d) and patients in the control group received conventional therapy for seven consecutive days. Extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were determined using pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) technology, and the oxygenation index was measured by blood gas analysis at baseline and on days 3, 5 and 7 after treatment. Results: The oxygenation index was higher and the levels of EVLWI and PVPI were lower after treatment in the two groups; however, these indexes showed significant differences on the 5th and 7th days after rhubarb treatment compared with the results in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Rhubarb can decrease EVLWI and PVPI, and improve oxygenation in patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Rheum/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Extravascular Lung Water/drug effects , Oxygen/physiology , Pulmonary Edema/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Time Factors , Blood Gas Analysis , Capillary Permeability/drug effects , Capillary Permeability/physiology , Cardiac Output/drug effects , Cardiac Output/physiology , Extravascular Lung Water/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Lung/drug effects , Lung/physiopathology , Middle Aged
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1218-1225, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330640

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Leakage of the intestinal mucosal barrier may cause translocation of bacteria, then leading to multiorgan failure. This study hypothesized that rhubarb monomers might protect the gut mucosal barrier in sepsis through junction proteins.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 230-250 g) under anesthesia and sedation were subjected to cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). After surgical preparation, rats were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 6 or 8 each group): sham group (Group A: normal saline gavage); sepsis group (Group B: normal saline gavage); Group C (intraperitoneally, dexamethasone 0.5 mg/kg) immediately after CLP surgery; and rhubarb monomer (100 mg/kg in normal saline)-treated groups (Group D: rhein; Group E: emodin; Group F: 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid; Group G: 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxy-O-cinnamoyl)-D-glucose; and Group H: daucosterol linoleate). Animals were sacrificed after 24 h. Intestinal histology, lactulose, mannitol concentrations were measured, and zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin and claudin-5 transcription (polymerase chain reaction), translation (by Western blot analysis), and expression (by immunohistochemistry) were also measured.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Intestinal histology revealed injury to intestinal mucosal villi induced by sepsis in Group B, compared with Group A. Compared with Group A (0.17 ± 0.41), the pathological scores in Groups B (2.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001), C (1.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001), D (2.00 ± 0.63, P < 0.001), E (1.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001), F (1.83 ± 0.75, P < 0.001), G (2.17 ± 0.41, P < 0.001),and H (1.83 ± 0.41, P < 0.001) were significantly increased. Lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio in Group B (0.046 ± 0.003) was significantly higher than in Group A (0.013 ± 0.001, P< 0.001) while L/M ratios in Groups C (0.028 ± 0.002, P< 0.001), D (0.029 ± 0.003, P< 0.001), E (0.026 ± 0.003, P< 0.001), F (0.027 ± 0.003, P< 0.001), G (0.030 ± 0.005, P< 0.001), and H (0.026 ± 0.002, P< 0.001) were significantly lower than that in Group B. ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 transcription, translation, and expression in Group B were significantly lower than that in Group A (P < 0.001), but they were significantly higher in Groups C, D, E, F, G, and H than those in Group B (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Rhubarb monomer treatment ameliorated mucosal damage in sepsis via enhanced transcription, translation, and expression of junction proteins.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Claudin-5 , Metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa , Metabolism , Lactulose , Metabolism , Male , Mannitol , Metabolism , Occludin , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rheum , Chemistry , Sepsis , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(2): e15022, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951893

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The effects of rheum on serum parameters in a taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) rat model were investigated using pathological and biochemical tests, and a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based metabonomic strategy. Healthy rats and rats with AP were either treated with rheum (7.5% at a dose of 1.5 g/kg) or left untreated. Serum samples were collected from the AP and rheum-treated groups at 6, 12, and 24 h after treatment. The effect of rheum on pathological changes in the pancreatic was investigated to validate the AP model. We obtained 1H NMR spectra and analyzed the results using the partial least squares discriminant method. The results of the pathological and metabolic analyses revealed an amelioration of multiple metabolic abnormalities and an increase in the aerobic respiration ratio after treatment, compared with the AP groups. These results were attributed to improvements in energy supply and the elimination of metabolic products. The study also promoted NMR-based metabonomic analysis as a feasible method of assessing traditional Chinese drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pancreatitis/pathology , Rheum/adverse effects , Taurocholic Acid/administration & dosage , Metabolomics , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/instrumentation
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812050

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to investigate the intervening role of Didang decoction (DDD) at different times in macrovascular endothelial defense function, focusing on its effects on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. The effects of DDD on mitochondrial energy metabolism were also investigated in rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). Type 2 diabetes were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) combined with high fat diet. Rats were randomly divided into non-intervention group, metformin group, simvastatin group, and early-, middle-, late-stage DDD groups. Normal rats were used as control. All the rats received 12 weeks of intervention or control treatment. Western blots were used to detect the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor 1α (PGC-1α). Changes in the intracellular AMP and ATP levels were detected with ELISA. Real-time-PCR was used to detect the mRNA level of caspase-3, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and Bcl-2. Compared to the diabetic non-intervention group, a significant increase in the expression of AMPKα1 and PGC-1α were observed in the early-stage, middle-stage DDD groups and simvastatin group (P < 0.05). The levels of Bcl-2, eNOS, and ATP were significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the level of AMP and caspase-3 were decreased (P < 0.05) in the early-stage DDD group and simvastatin group. Early intervention with DDD enhances mitochondrial energy metabolism by regulating the AMPK signaling pathway and therefore may play a role in strengthening the defense function of large vascular endothelial cells and postpone the development of macrovascular diseases in diabetes.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate , Metabolism , Animals , Aorta , Metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases , Metabolism , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Diptera , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Endothelial Cells , Metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular , Metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Leeches , Mitochondria , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Metabolism , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha , Metabolism , Phytotherapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Metabolism , Prunus persica , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rheum , Signal Transduction
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198628

ABSTRACT

DF formula is comprised of three traditional herbs, Ephedra intermedia, Rheum palmatum and Lithospermum erythrorhizon, and locally used for treating of the metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes in Korea. We tried to optimize the extraction conditions of two major components, (−)-ephedrine and (+)-pseudoephedrine, in DF formula using response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design (BBD). The experimental conditions with 70% for EtOH concentrations, 4.8 hour for extraction hours and 8.7 times for the solvent to material ratio were suggested for the optimized extraction of DF formula with the highest amounts of (−)-ephedrine and (+)-pseudoephedrine in the designed model.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Ephedra , Korea , Lithospermum , Metabolic Diseases , Obesity , Rheum
15.
Mycobiology ; : 93-98, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729447

ABSTRACT

A new leaf spot disease was observed on leaves of Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) in Northwest China (Gansu Province) starting in 2005. A Septoria-like fungus was isolated and completion of Koch's postulates confirmed that the fungus was the casual agent of the leaf spot disease. Morphology and molecular methods were combined to identify the pathogen. The fungus produced conidiomata pycnidia and the conidia were 2~5 septate, 61.2~134.1 µm in length and 3.53~5.3 µm in width, which is much larger than the known Spetoria species that infects Polygonaceae species. Phylogenic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region confirmed that this Spetoria-like fungus is within the Spetoria genus but distinct from known Spetoria species. Together, these morphological and phylogenetic data support that the R. palmatum infecting Spetoria strain is a newly-described plant pathogenic species.


Subject(s)
China , Classification , Fungi , Plants , Polygonaceae , Rheum , Spores, Fungal
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20940

ABSTRACT

Emodin is an anthraquinone derivative from the roots of Rheum officinale Baill that possesses a variety of biological activities, including inhibition of 5α-reductase and prostaglandin D2. In this study, we investigated whether emodin promotes hair growth. After emodin was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6 N mice, the hair growth rate and morphological analysis were evaluated in dorsal skin for 15 days. After 13 days of treatment, minoxidil or emodin (0.01% or 0.1%)-treated groups showed remarkable regrowth of hairs relative to the vehicle control group. Scoring of the hair growth and rate of hair growth area for 15 days revealed that groups treated with minoxidil and 0.1% emodin were significantly higher than the vehicle control group. Histological examination revealed the emodin and minoxidil groups markedly recovered the number and morphology of hair follicles, including the subcutis depth, relative to the vehicle group. These results suggest that emodin has an excellent promoting effect in hair growth similar to that of minoxidil and might be useful for treatment of baldness or alopecia.


Subject(s)
Alopecia , Animals , Emodin , Hair Follicle , Hair , Mice , Minoxidil , Prostaglandin D2 , Rheum , Skin
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1737-1743, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251313

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Intact endothelial structure and function are critical for maintaining microcirculatory homeostasis. Dysfunction of the latter is an underlying cause of various organ pathologies. In a previous study, we showed that rhubarb, a traditional Chinese medicine, protected intestinal mucosal microvascular endothelial cells in rats with metastasizing septicemia. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of rhubarb on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9)-induced vascular endothelial (VE) permeability.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Rhubarb monomers were extracted and purified by a series of chromatography approaches. The identity of these monomers was analyzed by hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), carbon-13 NMR, and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We established a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer on a Transwell insert. We measured the HUVEC permeability, proliferation, and the secretion of VE-cadherin into culture medium using fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran assay, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, in response to treatment with MMP9 and/or rhubarb monomers.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 21 rhubarb monomers were extracted and identified. MMP9 significantly increased the permeability of the HUVEC monolayer, which was significantly reduced by five individual rhubarb monomer (emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-O-cinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose, daucosterol linoleate, and rhein) or a combination of all five monomers (1 μmol/L for each monomer). Mechanistically, the five-monomer mixture at 1 μmol/L promoted HUVEC proliferation. In addition, MMP9 stimulated the secretion of VE-cadherin into the culture medium, which was significantly inhibited by the five-monomer mixture.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The rhubarb mixture of emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-O-cinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose, daucosterol linoleate, and rhein, at a low concentration, antagonized the MMP9-induced HUVEC monolayer permeability by promoting HUVEC proliferation and reducing extracellular VE-cadherin concentrations.</p>


Subject(s)
Cadherins , Metabolism , Capillary Permeability , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Cell Biology , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Metabolism , Rheum , Chemistry
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330196

ABSTRACT

Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, as a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely applied in clinic. Its major purgative constituent is anthraquinones, which are believed to be a toxic ingredient. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma has been reputed as the best alexipharmic to moderate medicine natures. In this paper, the effect of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma in relieving purgative activity of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma was studied in two aspects--the boiling process and intestinal metabolism; Studies on combined administration of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Rhei Radix et Rhizoma in recent years were summarized according to chemical constituent, intestinal flora, I/II phase metabolism and drug transport. However, the material basis and mechanism for their compatibility remain unclear, further studies will be made in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cathartics , Pharmacology , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Glycyrrhiza , Chemistry , Humans , Rheum , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337939

ABSTRACT

A HPLC method was established to determine the contents of the five anthraquinones and rhaponticin in the different varieties of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. The difference existed in different varieties. The results showed that rhein and rhaponticin were marker substances which could be used to distinguish palm leaf groups rhubarb and wave leaf groups rhubarb. Authentic rhubarb didn't contain rhaponticin. Falsify rhubarb contains trace amounts of rhein. Rheum tanguticum contains abundant rhein. The ratio value of the content of rhein to chrysophanol could be used to distinguish R. tanguticum from the other two authentic varieties (R. palmatum and R. officinale). The content of rhaponticin varied largely in different varieties of wave leaf groups rhubarb.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Quality Control , Rheum , Chemistry , Classification , Rhizome , Chemistry , Classification
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728009

ABSTRACT

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage failure of the kidney, but the efficacy of currently available strategies for the prevention of DN remains unsatisfactory. In this study, we investigated the effects of free anthraquinones (FARs) extract, which was extracted from the rhubarb and purified by macroporous resin DM130 with gradient mixtures of ethanol/water as the lelution solvents, in high glucose-cultured glomerular mesangial cells (MCs). The cell proliferation was determined by CCK-8 assay, the levels of TGF-beta1, CTGF, ColIV and FN proteins in the supernatant of MCs were measured by ELISA assays, and the mRNA levels of these four genes were detected by RT-PCR. The results showed that the increased proliferation of MCs, the mRNA levels and protein expression of TGF-beta1, CTGF, ColIV and FN induced by high glucose were inhibited after the treatment with the FARs extract. This indicated that FARs extract could inhibit cell proliferation and the expression of main extracellular matrix induced by high glucose in MCs. The FARs extract exhibited potential values for prophylaxis and therapy of DN.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Cell Proliferation , Diabetic Nephropathies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Extracellular Matrix , Glucose , Kidney , Mesangial Cells , Rheum , RNA, Messenger , Sincalide , Solvents , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
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