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1.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 193-203, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929228

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome (MS) involves people with the following risk factors: obesity, hypertension, high glucose level and hyperlipidemia. It can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of MS in the world's adult population is about 20%-25%. Today, there is much care to use medicinal plants. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) as well as curcumin which is derived from the rhizome of the plant, has been shown beneficial effects on different components of MS. Thus, the purpose of this manuscript was to introduce different in vitro, in vivo and human studies regarding the effect of turmeric and its constituent on MS. Moreover, different mechanisms of action by which this plant overcomes MS have been introduced. Based on studies, turmeric and its bioactive component, curcumin, due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, have antidiabetic effects through increasing insulin release, antihyperlipidemic effects by increasing fatty acid uptake, anti-obesity effects by decreasing lipogenesis, and antihypertensive effects by increasing nitric oxide. According to several in vivo, in vitro and human studies, it can be concluded that turmeric or curcumin has important values as a complementary therapy in MS. However, more clinical trials should be done to confirm these effects.


Subject(s)
Curcuma , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rhizome
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928173

ABSTRACT

Based on the previous research results of our group and literature research, the chemical components, mechanisms, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata were summarized to determine the quality markers(Q-markers) of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata and Zingiberis Rhizoma. Our research group has clarified the differential components of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata and Zingiberis Rhizoma, the meridian-warming hemostatic effect of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata, the related targets and pathways of the effect, the endogenous biomarkers of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata, and the hemodynamic processes of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata and Zingiberis Rhizoma. Moreover, based on high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(HPLC-DAD-ESIMS), a method for determining the content of Q-mar-kers was established. In conclusion, the study finally determined that gingerone, 6-shogaol, and diacetyl-6-gingerol were the Q-mar-kers of Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata decoction pieces, and 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol were Q-markers of Zingiberis Rhizoma decoction pieces. The result is expected to provide a reference for the establishment of quality standards for Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata decoction pieces and Zingiberis Rhizoma decoction pieces.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Ginger , Mass Spectrometry , Plant Extracts , Rhizome/chemistry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928152

ABSTRACT

Based on the combination of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF) and Waters UNIFI software, the chemical constituents of the classic prescription Xiaochengqi Decoction were qualitatively analyzed and identified. The UPLC conditions are as follows: Acquity HSS T3 reverse phase column(2.1 mm ×100 mm, 1.8 μm), column temperature of 30 ℃, mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution(A)-acetonitrile(B), and flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1). High-resolution MS data of Xiaochengqi Decoction were collected in ESI~(+/-) modes by Fast DDA. The structures of the chemical constituents were tentatively characterized or identified by UNIFI software according to the retention time of reference standards and characteristic fragment ions in MS profile, and literature data. A total of 233 components in Xiaochengqi Decoction were identified, with 93 from wine-processed Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, 104 from bran-processed Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, and 36 from ginger-processed Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex. These 233 components included anthraquinones, flavonoids, lignans, alkaloids, coumarins, and phenylethanoid glycosides. The result provided experimental evidence for the further study on establishment of quality standard and product development of the formula.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , DDT/analogs & derivatives , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Rhizome/chemistry , Software
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928099

ABSTRACT

By the in-depth excavation of prescriptions containing herbal pair Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma-Polygalae Radix in the Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions, this study analyzed their formulation rules, so as to provide reference for their clinical application and new drug development. First, the prescriptions containing Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma-Polygalae Radix were collected from the Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions, and their indications, herbal compatibility, and dosage forms were analyzed statistically using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System(TCMISS). Meanwhile, the formulation rules and common dosage forms for the top four indications(amnesia, palpitation, mania, and epilepsy) sorted by frequency were analyzed with Apriori algorithm. A total of 507 prescriptions containing Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma-Polygalae Radix were screened out, involving 15 indications(frequency>10) like amnesia, palpitation, mania, and epilepsy. There were 30 commonly used Chinese herbs(frequency≥60), with the Qi-tonifying herbs(Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizome), mind-tranquilizing herbs(Poria and Poria cum Radix Pini), and Yin-nourishing herbs(Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Ophiopogonis Radix) being the core ones. The commonly used dosage forms were honey pill, paste pill, decoction, and powder. These have indicated that the herbal pair Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma-Polygalae Radix is often combined with Qi-tonifying, Yin-nourishing, and mind-tranquilizing herbs for the treatment of "heart or brain diseases" caused by phlegm production due to spleen deficiency, Qi and blood deficiency, and phlegm-turbidity blocking orifice. In the treatment of amnesia, supplementing essence and replenishing marrow are considered on the basis of tonifying Qi, nourishing Yin, and tranquilizing mind. In the treatment of palpitation and mania, tranquilizing mind is emphasized. In the treatment of epilepsy, the emphasis is placed on resolving phlegm, extinguishing wind, and stopping convulsion.


Subject(s)
Data Mining , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots , Prescriptions , Rhizome
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928098

ABSTRACT

Based on network pharmacology, the mechanism of Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix-Ligustri Lucidi Fructus(PL) combination against acute gouty arthritis(AGA) was explored and preliminarily verified by animal experiment. The chemical components and corresponding targets of PL were retrieved from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP). The active components with oral bioavailability(OB)≥30% and drug-likeness(DL)≥0.18 were screened based on literature, and the related protein targets were collected. Then the protein targets were standardized with the help of UniProt database. The AGA-related targets were searched from GeneCards, NCBI, and DrugBank. The common targets of the disease and the medicinals were yielded by FunRich V3, and the protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed to screen the key targets, followed by Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of the key targets. Afterwards, some of the key targets were verified by sodium urate crystal-induced AGA mouse model. A total of 25 active components and 287 targets of PL, 811 targets of AGA, and 88 common targets were screened out. PPI network analysis showed that tumor necrosis factor(TNF), interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) may be the core targets of PL in the treatment of AGA. The key targets were mainly involved in 566 GO terms(P<0.05), including multiple biological processes such as inflammatory response and immune response. Moreover, they were related to 116 KEGG pathways and these pathways were involved in inflammation and immunity, mainly including NOD-like receptor signaling pathway and TNF signaling pathway. Animal experiment confirmed that PL can alleviate ankle swelling, improve abnormal gait, and down-regulate the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in AGA mice, indicating that PL can treat AGA through TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β and the feasibility of network pharmacology to predict drug targets. This study preliminarily discussed the key targets and biological signaling pathways involved in the treatment of AGA with PL combination, which reflected the multi-pathway and multi-target action characteristics of Chinese medicine. Moreover, this study laid a scientific basis for research on the treatment of AGA with PL combination, as well as the mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis, Gouty/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Ligustrum , Mice , Network Pharmacology , Rhizome
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928058

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to explore the effect of Zingiberis Rhizoma extract on rats with antibiotic-associated diarrhea(AAD), and reveal the modulation of gut microbiota during alleviation of AAD. AAD rat model was successfully established by exposing rats to appropriate antibiotic mixed solution. Peficon(70 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) was used as positive control, then rats were treated with 200 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) and 400 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) of Zingiberis Rhizoma extract for low and high dosage groups of Zingiberis Rhizoma extract, respectively. The weight changes of the rats were observed, and the degree of diarrhea were evaluated by fecal score, 120 min fecal weight and fecal water content. Colon tissues for histopathological examination were stained with hematoxylin and eosin(HE), and 16 S rRNA sequencing analysis of gut microbiota was performed. The results showed that compared with the model group, the degree of diarrhea, indicated by fecal water content, fecal score, and 120 min fecal weight of positive control group, Zingiberis Rhizoma low-dose group and Zingiberis Rhizoma high-dose group were significantly ameliorated. And the treatment of Zingiberis Rhizoma could significantly improve the pathological condition of colon tissue in AAD rats, especially the high dose of Zingiberis Rhizoma. In addition, 16 S rRNA sequencing analysis of gut microbiota showed that the diversity and abundance of gut microbiota were significantly improved and the reco-very of gut microbiota was accelerated after given high-dose of Zingiberis Rhizoma, while no significant changes of alterations were observed after given Pefikon. Of note, compared with the pefikon group, the abundance and diversity of gut microbiota in Zingi-beris Rhizoma high-dose group were significantly elevated. At the phylum level, the abundance of Firmicutes in AAD rats increased and the abundance of Proteobacteria was decreased after the Zingiberis Rhizoma intervention. At the genus level, the abundance of Bacillus spp., Lachnoclostridium and Escherichia coli-Shigella were decreased, and the abundance of Lactobacillus spp., Trichophyton spp., and Trichophyton spp., etc., were increased. While compared with the AAD model group, there was no significant difference of gut microbiota after given Peficon. The results showed that Zingiberis Rhizoma exerted beneficial health effects against AAD, and positively affected the microbial environment in the gut of rats with AAD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Ginger , Plant Extracts , Rats , Rhizome
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928046

ABSTRACT

In this study, a method was established for in-situ visualization of metabolite distribution in the rhizome of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. To be specific, through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging(MALDI-MSI), the spatial locations of steroidal saponins, amino acids, organic acids, phytosterols, phytoecdysones, nucleosides, and esters in rhizome of the medicinal plant were directly analyzed, and six unknown compounds with differential distribution in rhizome tissues were identified. The specific procedure is as follows: preparation of rhizome tissue section, matrix screening and optimization, and MALDI-MSI analysis. The results showed that the steroidal saponins were mainly distributed in the central, amino acids in epidermis and cortex, low-molecular-weight organic acids in central epidermis, phytosterols in the epidermis and lateral cortex, the phytoecdysones in epidermis and cortex, nucleosides(uneven distribution) in epidermis and cortex, growth hormones around the epidermis and cortex, particularly outside the cortex, and esters in cortex with unobvious difference among different tissues. In this study, the spatial distribution of meta-bolites in the rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was characterized for the first time. The result can serve as a reference for identifying and extracting endogenous metabolites of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, exploring the synthesis and metabolism mechanisms of the metabolites, and evaluating the quality of medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Liliaceae/chemistry , Melanthiaceae , Rhizome/chemistry , Saponins/analysis , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928043

ABSTRACT

Chuanxiong Rhizoma is a traditional Chinese medicinal material mainly produced in Sichuan and Chongqing of China. In recent years, the cadmium content in Chuanxiong Rhizoma produced in most of the genuine producing areas has exceeded the standard, which makes Chuanxiong Rhizoma difficult to be exported. To solve the problem of excessive cadmium content in soil, this study employed the MaxEnt model to simulate the potential geographic distribution of Ligusticum chuanxiong and evaluate important environmental factors, and re-plan its ecologically suitable areas based on the mineral distribution characteristics and soil cadmium pollution status. The results showed that the places suitable for L. chuanxiong growing covered an area of 335 523.69 km~2, mainly in central and eastern Sichuan, southern Shaanxi and most parts of Chongqing. Among them, the highly suitable areas of L. chuanxiong were mainly concentrated in Chengdu, Ya'an, Deyang, and Mianyang. Solar radiation, annual precipitation, and annual range of temperature were evaluated as important variables affecting the distribution of L. chuanxiong, with the contribution rates of 62.3%, 13.3%, and 6.8%, respectively. In addition, Qionglai county, Chongqing county, Mianyang city(Youxian district and Fucheng district), Qingchuan county, and Xinjin county were classified into the first-class ecologically suitable zone, covering a total area of 2 768.87 km~2. The se-cond-class ecologically suitable zone was even wider, involving such counties as Tongjiang county, Renshou county, Jianyang county, and Nanjiang county, and the total area reached 43 616.92 km~2. The re-planning of the ecologically suitable areas for L. chuanxiong has provided strong data support for the cultivation and resource development of L. chuanxiong and also new ideas for solving the problem of excessive cadmium content in L. chuanxiong.


Subject(s)
Cadmium/toxicity , Environmental Pollution , Ligusticum , Rhizome , Soil
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928034

ABSTRACT

As revealed by the investigation on the name change, biological characteristics, artificial cultivation, and edible history of Polygonatum kingianum var. grandifolium, it was described as a variation pattern of P. kingianum in the Chinese version of Flora of China(1978) and as a variant of P. kingianum in the revised English version of the Flora of China(2000). P. kingianum var. grandifolium, long been consumed as food by local folks, has been widely cultivated in its natural distribution area and circulated as Polygonati Rhizoma in the market. The important biological properties of P. kingianum var. grandifolium make it possess a great potential of being consumed as both medicine and food. The shoots of P. kingianum var. grandifolium sprout immediately out of the ground after seed germination and a new seedling will be formed at the same year, implying that its seedling cultivation period is at least two years shorter than that of P. cyrtonema. It can sprout more than twice a year, and the adult plants always remain evergreen, thereby obtaining higher biomass. Its rhizome biomass can be more than one time higher than that of P. cyrtonema. With reference to the diploid P. cyrtonema, flow cytometry revealed the polyploid and aneuploid forms in natural populations, which were tall and light-adapted with large underground rhizome. It can grow normally under the forest canopy and in the open field. Furthermore, P. kingianum var. grandifolium has important theoretical values for the study of ploidy variation, bud dormancy mechanism, etc.


Subject(s)
China , Medicine , Polygonatum , Rhizome
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928031

ABSTRACT

Based on the Drugdataexpy and the prescription modern application database, this study explored the formulation regularity of ancient and modern prescriptions for the treatment of sinusitis. The Chinese medicinal prescriptions for the treatment of sinusitis with various syndromes were retrieved from the above databases and the corresponding formulation regularity was investigated by frequency analysis, association rule analysis, and factor analysis. Eighty-seven Chinese medicinal prescriptions were included, involving five syndrome types of sinusitis and 160 Chinese medicine, which were mainly effective in releasing exterior, clearing heat, and tonifying deficiency, and acted on the lung meridian due to cold and warm nature and pungent and bitter flavor or on the spleen meridian due to warm nature and pungent flavor. Seventeen core Chinese medicine were screened out by topological data analysis, including Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, Magnoliae Flos, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Xanthii Fructus, and Scutellariae Radix. Chinese medicine such as Magnoliae Flos, Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, and Xanthii Fructus were commonly used in the treatment of sinusitis of wind-heat in the lung meridian, while the combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Magnoliae Flos, Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, etc. was the key compatibility in treating sinusitis of dampness-heat in the spleen and stomach. Six common factors were extracted from the factor analysis of the above two syndrome types. The findings indicate that the exterior-releasing, heat-clearing, and deficiency-tonifying Chinese medicine with cold and warm nature and pungent flavor are preferential options for the clinical treatment of sinusitis. Treatment should be based on syndrome differentiation and key therapeutic principles should be followed.


Subject(s)
Data Mining , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Meridians , Rhizome , Sinusitis/drug therapy
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928011

ABSTRACT

Aiming to solve the poor compactibility of the alcoholic extract of Zingiberis Rhizoma(ZR), this study explored the feasibility of its physical modification using co-spray drying with a small amount of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose(HPMC). Based on the univariate analysis, the influence of two independent variables(the HPMC content in the product and the solid content of spray material) on the powder properties and tablet properties of the dried product was investigated by the central composite design. With the tensile strength and disintegration time of the tablets as the evaluation indexes, the optimal prescription was determined as follows: the HPMC content was 15% and the solid content of spray material was 25.6%. The accuracy of the regression model established for predicting tensile strength and disintegration time of tablets was verified, and the results revealed that the measured values were close to the predicted ones with deviations of 0.47% and-8.2%, indicating good prediction and reproducibility of the model. The tensile strength(4.24 MPa) of tablets prepared with the optimal prescription was 3.59 times that(1.18 MPa, far lower than the baseline of 2 MPa for qualified tablets) with the spray-dried powder of the ZR. On the other hand, due to the addition of HPMC, the disintegration time of tablets increased from 7.3 min to 24.6 min. On the whole, this study provided a new strategy to solve the common problem of poor compactibility of raw Chinese medicinal materials, which facilitated the successful preparation of Chinese medicinal tablets with high drug loads.


Subject(s)
Ginger , Plant Extracts , Reproducibility of Results , Rhizome , Spray Drying
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928010

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the kinetics and variation of volatile components of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma during the hot-air drying process to obtain the optimal process parameters under multiple goals such as drying efficiency and drying quality. The dry basis moisture content and drying rate curves along with the change of drying time of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma were investigated at five levels of drying air temperatures(30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ℃). The relationship between moisture ratio and time in the drying process of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma was fitted and verified by Midilli model, Page model, Overhults model, Modified Page model, Logaritmic model, Two terms Exponential model, and Newton model. Meanwhile, the effective diffusion coefficient of moisture(D_(eff)) and activation energy(E_a) in Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma were calculated under different drying air temperatures. GC-MS was used to determine the volatile components and content changes of the fresh Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and dried products at different temperatures. The dry basis moisture content and drying rate of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma were closely related to the temperature of the drying medium, and the moisture of the Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma decreased with the prolonged drying time. As revealed by the drying rate curve, the drying rate increased with the increase in hot air temperature, and the migration of moisture was accelerated. The comparison of the correlation coefficient(R~2), chi-square(χ~2), and root mean standard error(RMSE) of each model indicated that the parameter average of the Midilli model had the highest degree of fit, with R~2=0.999 2, χ~2=8.78×10~(-5), and RMSE=8.20×10~(-3). Besides, the D_(eff) at 30-70 ℃ was in the range of 1.04×10~(-9)-6.28×10~(-9) m~2·s~(-1), and E_a was 37.47 kJ·mol~(-1). The volatile components of fresh Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and dried products at different temperatures were determined by GC-MS, and 18, 18, 18, 17, 17, and 18 compounds were identified respectively, which accounted for more than 84.76% of the volatile components. In conclusion, the hot-air drying of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma can be model-fitted and verified and the variation law of the moisture and volatile components of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma with temperature is obtained. This study is expected to provide new ideas for exploring the drying characteristics and quality of aromatic Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hot Temperature , Kinetics , Rhizome
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927985

ABSTRACT

Three sesquiterpenoids were isolated and purified from the 95% ethanol extract of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma by column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS, and high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and physiochemical properties as(7Z)-8β,13-diacetoxy-eudesma-4(15),7(11)-diene(1), 7-oxo-7,8-secoeudesma-4(15),11-dien-8-oic acid(2), and guai-10(14)-en-11-ol(3). Compounds 1 and 2 are new compounds and compound 3 was obtained from Compositae family for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 showed weak inhibitory activities against sterol regulatory element-binding proteins(SREBPs).


Subject(s)
Atractylodes/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes, Eudesmane/pharmacology , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927972

ABSTRACT

A total of 18 batches of Zhuru Decoction samples were prepared. Chromatographic fingerprints were established for Zhuru Decoction and single decoction pieces, the content of which was then determined. The extraction rate ranges, content, and transfer rate ranges of puerarin, liquiritin, and glycyrrhizic acid, together with the common peaks and the similarity range of the fingerprints, were determined to clarify key quality attributes of Zhuru Decoction. The 18 batches of Zhuru Decoction samples had 25 common peaks and the fingerprint similarity higher than 0.95. Puerariae Lobatae Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens had 21, 3, and 1 characteristic peaks, respectively. The 18 batches of samples showed the extraction rates within the range of 18.45%-25.29%. Puerarin had the content of 2.20%-3.07% and the transfer rate of 38.5%-45.9%; liquiritin had the content of 0.24%-0.85% and the transfer rate of 15.9%-37.5%; glycyrrhizic acid had the content of 0.39%-1.87% and the transfer rate of 16.2%-32.8%. In this paper, the quality value transmitting of substance benchmarks of Zhuru Decoction was analyzed based on chromatographic fingerprints, extraction rate, and the content of index components. A scientific and stable method was preliminarily established, which provided a scientific basis for the quality control and formulation development of Zhuru Decoction.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/standards , Glycyrrhizic Acid/analysis , Quality Control , Rhizome/chemistry
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927961

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the underlying mechanism of Astragali Radix-Curcumae Rhizoma-Paridis Rhizoma(AR-CR-PR) in the treatment of colorectal cancer(CRC) by network pharmacology and molecular docking and animal tests and verified the core targets based on the orthotopic transplantation model in nude mice. The active components of AR-CR-PR were retrieved from databases such as TCMSP. The targets of drugs and the disease were obtained from PubChem, SwissTargetPrediction, TTD, and DrugBank, and the intersection targets were imported into STRING for the analysis of the protein-protein interaction(PPI). Gene Ontology(GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) analyses were performed through DAVID. AutoDock Vina was used to perform molecular docking and binding ability prediction between the active components and the core targets. The effects of AR-CR-PR on tumor growth, metastasis, and phosphorylation of core target proteins in tumor tissues based on the orthotopic transplantation model in nude mice. As revealed by network pharmacology, AR-CR-PR contained nine core components, such as quercetin, curcumin, and β-ecdysone, and the key targets included protein kinase B(AKT1), mitogen-activated protein kinase 3(MAPK3), MAPK1, and epithelial growth factor receptor(EGFR), which was indicated that the anti-CRC effect of AR-CR-PR was presumedly achieved by regulating tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and angiogenesis through PI3 K-AKT, MAPK and other signaling pathways. The results of molecular docking showed that the nine core components had strong binding abilities to AKT1 and MAPK3. The results in vivo showed that AR-CR-PR could reduce the volume of the orthotopic tumor, inhibit liver metastasis, and decrease the phosphorylation of AKT1 and MAPK3 in the CRC model. The mechanism of AR-CR-PR in the intervention of CRC may be related to the activation of PI3 K-AKT and MAPK signaling pathway. This study provides a scientific basis for the clinical application of AR-CR-PR in the treatment of CRC and ideas for modern research on AR-CR-PR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Nude , Molecular Docking Simulation , Neoplasms , Network Pharmacology , Rhizome
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927960

ABSTRACT

The core prescriptions and formulation characteristics in the treatment of edema by traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) masters were analyzed through data mining and their mechanisms were explored by network pharmacology. We collected journal reports on the treatment of edema by TCM masters in three sessions from China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI) and constructed a database by Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System 3.0. The prescriptions in the case studies were analyzed by association rules and k-means clustering. The chemical components and targets of Chinese medicines in core prescriptions were collected through TCMSP and TCMID. Edema-related targets were collected from DrugBank and GeneCards. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed by STRING and the core targets were screened out. FunRich 3.1.3 was used to enrich the expression sites of core prescriptions. Metascape was used to perform Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) enrichment analysis of intersection targets. Cytoscape 3.6.0 was used to visualize the "Chinese medicine-active ingredient-core target-pathway" network. The results showed that 315 pieces of medical records in the treatment of edema by TCM masters were obtained and five core prescriptions were analyzed by association rules and k-means clustering. Core prescription 1 contained Poria, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and Codonopsis Radix, involving 166 chemical components and 1 125 targets. Core prescription 2 contained Astragali Radix, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Poria, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, involving 138 chemical components and 1 112 targets. Core prescription 3 contained Poria, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Alismatis Rhizoma, and Coicis Semen, involving 126 chemical components and 1 121 targets. Core prescription 4 contained Poria, Forsythiae Fructus, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Imperatae Rhizoma, Cicadae Periostracum, and Coicis Semen, involving 58 chemical components and 820 targets. Core prescription 5 contained Poria, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Trionycis Carapax, and Dioscoreae Rhizoma, involving 68 chemical components and 919 targets. The core targets of core prescriptions included AKT1, ALB, CASP3, MAPK3, EGFR, SRC, MAPK1, and TNF. The potential targets of core prescriptions in the treatment were highly expressed in the stomach, bladder, lung, and kidney. KEGG pathways were enriched in inflammation and cell cycle pathways, especially the inflammation-relation pathways. The therapeutic effect of core prescriptions on edema is presumedly achieved by tonifying the spleen, draining water, activating blood, and benefiting Qi to resist inflammation and regulate the immune system. This study is expected to provide references for the summary of TCM masters' experience and new drug development.


Subject(s)
Data Mining , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Edema/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Prescriptions , Rhizome
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927950

ABSTRACT

The volatile oil of Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CX) is known as an effective fraction. In order to seek a suitable method for processing CX and its decoction pieces, this study selected 16 volatile components as indices to investigate how different processing methods such as washing/without washing, sun-drying, baking, oven-drying and far-infrared drying at different temperatures affected the quality of CX and its decoction pieces(fresh CX was partially dried, cut into pieces, and then dried) by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), cluster analysis, principal component analysis and comprehensive weighted scoring. The results showed that the rapid washing before processing did not deteriorate the volatile components of CX. Considering the practical condition of production area, oven-drying was believed to be more suitable than sun-drying, baking, and far-infrared drying. The CX decoction pieces with a thickness of 0.3-0.4 cm were recommended to be oven-dried at 50 ℃. The integrated processing(partial drying, cutting into pieces, and drying) did not cause a significant loss of volatile components. For the fresh CX, the oven-drying at 60 ℃ is preferred. The temperature should not exceed 60 ℃, and drying below 60 ℃ will prolong the processing time, which will produce an unfavorable effect on volatile components. This study has provided the scientific evidence for field processing of CX, which is conducive to realizing the normalization and standardization of CX processing in the production area and stabilizing the quality of CX and its decoction pieces.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Oils, Volatile , Principal Component Analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927939

ABSTRACT

Shenmai Injection is a Chinese medicinal injection prepared from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma Rubra and Ophiopogonis Radix, which is widely used in clinical practice for the treatment and adjuvant therapy of cardiovascular diseases with significant pharmacological effects. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(~1H-NMR) has the advantages of simple and nondestructive sample pretreatment, fast analysis, abundant chemical information, quantification and no need to follow the standard curve. It is widely used in the analysis and research of complex mixtures of traditional Chinese medicine, clinical blood and urine samples. In this study, the ~1H-NMR fingerprint of Shenmai Injection was established. Thirty-two chemical components were identified, including seven amino acids, eight small molecular organic acids, one alkaloid, four sugars, two nucleosides, seven saponins, and three other components. Pearson's correlation coefficient and multivariate analysis of variance(principal component analysis combined with hierarchical cluster analysis) were applied based on the ~1H-NMR fingerprint to evaluate the quality consistency. The results showed high-quality consistency of 82 batches of Shenmai Injection. This study confirms that the ~1H-NMR fingerprint has great potential in the application of quality control of Chinese medicinal injection.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Rhizome/chemistry
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927930

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the regularity of prescriptions for the treatment of intermediate and advanced lung cancer to provide references for clinical medication. CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, and CBM were searched for the research papers on the treatment of lung cancer by Chinese medicine published from database inception to May 31, 2021. The relevant information of qualified papers was extracted to establish a database. The Chinese medicines with frequency >3% underwent analysis of the latent structure and association rules by Lantern 5.0 and SPSS Molder 14.1, respectively, and the prescription regularity in the treatment of intermediate and advanced lung cancer was analyzed based on the frequency description. A total of 713 papers were included, involving 327 Chinese medicines with a cumulative frequency of 12 794 and 106 prescriptions with a cumulative frequency of 824. The commonly used Chinese medicines were dominated by deficiency-tonifying, heat-clearing, phlegm-resolving, and cough/dyspnea-relieving drugs, such as Astragali Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ophiopogonis Radix, Poria, and Hedyotis Diffusa, which are cold, warm, and plain in nature and sweet, bitter, and pungent in flavor, and mainly act on lung, spleen, and stomach meridians. Commonly used prescriptions included Shashen Maidong Decoction, Liujunzi Decoction, and Baihe Gujin Decoction. The latent structure analysis revealed 32 latent variables and 65 hidden classes. Six comprehensive clustering models and 11 core prescriptions were obtained by professional knowledge inference. The common syndromes of intermediate and advanced lung cancer were inferred to be Qi and Yin deficiency in the lung, Qi deficiency in the lung and spleen, Yin deficiency in the liver and kidney, combined phlegm and stasis, phlegm-heat obstructing lung, and Qi stagnation and blood stasis. Forty-four strong associations were screened out by association rules analysis, including four pairwise strong associations(Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma→Ophiopogonis Radix, Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma→Glehniae Radix, Amomi Fructus→Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, and Polygonati Rhizoma→Astragali Radix) and 40 triplet strong associations(such as Trichosanthis Radix+Glehniae Radix→Ophiopogonis Radix, Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma+Glehniae Radix→Ophiopogonis Radix, Trichosanthis Radix+Ophiopogonis Radix→Glehniae Radix, and Scutellariae Barbatae Herba+Codonopsis Radix→Hedyotis Diffusa). In the treatment of intermediate and advanced lung cancer, Qi-replenishing and Yin-nourishing drugs are mainly employed, assisted with cancer-resisting, toxin-removing, spleen-invigorating, phlegm/stasis-resolving, and blood-activating drugs based on syndrome differentiation. The roots were treated following the principles of tonifying lungs and replenishing the spleen, and symptoms following the principles of removing the toxin, dispelling stasis, and resolving phlegm.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Meridians , Prescriptions , Rhizome
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927914

ABSTRACT

With reference to the production process documented in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, this paper prepared the calibrator samples of Xiaochaihu Granules from multiple batches and established a method for fingerprint analysis and content determination that could be used to evaluate Xiaochaihu Granules available in market. Multiple batches of Chinese herbal pieces contained in Xiaochaihu Granules were collected for preparing the calibrator samples according to the process in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Following the establishment of fingerprints for calibrator samples by UHPLC, the method for determining the contents of saikosaponin B2, saikosaponin B1, baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, liquiritin, glycyrrhizin G2 and glycyrrhizic acid in Xiaochaihu Granules was established. The experimental results showed that the fingerprints of calibrator samples had 26 common peaks, covering the chemical compounds of main herbs Bupleuri Radix, Scutellariae Radix, Changii Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens. The similarity of fingerprints for 47 batches of Xiaochaihu Granules from 31 companies with the calibrator sample fingerprint ranged from 0.74 to 0.99, indicating good applicability of the established fingerprint. The contents of main components baicalin, saikosaponin B2, and glycyrrhizic acid in Xiaochaihu Granules were within the ranges of 22.917-49.108 mg per bag(RSD 19%), 0.28-2.19 mg per bag(RSD 62%), and 0.897-6.541 mg per bag(RSD 41%), respectively. The quality difference in saikosaponin B2, and glycyrrhizic acid among different manufacturers was significant. The fingerprint analysis and content determination method for calibrator samples of Xiaochaihu Granules prepared according to the production process in Chinese Pharmacopoeia has been proved suitable for evaluating the quality of Xiaochaihu Granules from different manufacturers. Saikosaponin B2, glycyrrhizic acid, and liquiritin should be added as content control indicators for Xiaochaihu Granules, aiming to further improve the product quality.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Glycyrrhizic Acid/analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Scutellaria baicalensis
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