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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285616

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Rifampin/pharmacology
2.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(4): e3470, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289656

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: En los últimos 10 años en Cuba y, especialmente, en provincia Guantánamo se ha observado incremento del número de pacientes tuberculosos farmacorresistentes; esta es la provincia de mayor incidencia en el país. Objetivo: Identificar las características epidemiológicas y el patrón de resistencia de la tuberculosis farmacorresistente en provincia Guantánamo. Método: Se diseñó un estudio descriptivo y transversal que incluyó la totalidad de casos (n=6) con tuberculosis farmacorresistentes diagnosticados entre diciembre de 2010 y diciembre de 2019. Se estudiaron las variables: edad, sexo, régimen terapéutico, situación económica, categorías de casos, clasificación epidemiológica de la resistencia y resistencia de la cepa aislada según el grado y perfil. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino (66, 6 %) y el grupo de edades de menores de 45 años (83,3 %), la mayor cantidad de resistencia estuvo propiciada por violaciones en los tratamientos anteriores (66,6 %), categorizados mayormente como crónicos y reingresos por abandono. Predominó el nivel educacional de secundaria básica terminada (66,7 %), con situación económica regular (50,0 %) y alto nivel de alcoholismo (66,7 %). La multidrogorresistencia prevaleció en cepas de pacientes con tratamiento previo (66,6 %). Conclusiones: Existe coincidencia del patrón epidemiológico y el patrón de resistencia mostrado en la investigación actual con los resultados de estudios previos nacionales e internacionales, estos resultados sugieren fallas en la aplicación local del Programa Nacional de Control y Tratamiento de la tuberculosis. Se recomienda investigar y resolver estas fallas lo que produciría un impacto inmediato en la disminución de la incidencia de tuberculosis farmacorresistentes.


ABSTRACT Introduction: An increase in the number of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients has been observed in the last 10 years in Cuba and, especially, in Guantánamo province. This is the province with the highest incidence in the country. Objective: To identify the epidemiological characteristics and the resistance pattern of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Guantánamo province. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was designed that included all cases (n=6) with drug-resistant tuberculosis, diagnosed between December 2010 and December 2019. The variables studied were: age, gender, therapeutic regimen, economic situation, categories of cases, epidemiological classification of resistance, and resistance of the isolated strain according to the grade and profile. Results: Males predominated (66.6%), and also the age group under 45 years (83.3%), the greatest resistance was caused by not abiding the previous treatments (66.6%), categorized mostly as chronic, and readmitted due to treatment abandonment. Highschool degree (66.7%) predominated, with a moderate economic situation (50.0%) and high levels of alcoholism (66.7%). Multi-drug resistance prevailed in the strains in patients with previous treatment (66.6%). Conclusions: There is a coincidence of the epidemiological pattern and the resistance pattern shown in the current research with the results of previous national and international studies; these results suggest flaws in the local application of the Programa Nacional de Control y Tratamiento de la tuberculosis. It is recommended to investigate and resolve these flaws, which would have an immediate impact on reducing the incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis.


RESUMO Introdução: Nos últimos 10 anos, em Cuba e, principalmente, na província de Guantánamo, observou-se um aumento no número de pacientes com tuberculose resistente aos medicamentos; esta é a província com maior incidência no país. Objetivo: Identificar as características epidemiológicas e o padrão de resistência da tuberculose resistente a medicamentos na província de Guantánamo. Método: Foi elaborado um estudo descritivo e transversal que incluiu todos os casos (n=6) com tuberculose resistente a medicamentos diagnosticados entre dezembro de 2010 e dezembro de 2019. Foram estudadas as variáveis: idade, sexo, regime terapêutico, situação econômica, categorias de casos, classificação epidemiológica de resistência e resistência da cepa isolada de acordo com o grau e perfil. Resultados: Houve predomínio do sexo masculino (66,6%) e na faixa etária abaixo de 45 anos (83,3%), a maior quantidade de resistência foi causada por violações nos tratamentos anteriores (66,6%), categorizados principalmente como crônicos e reinternações por abandono. Predominou situação econômica regular (50,0%) e alto nível de alcoolismo (66,7%). A multirresistência prevaleceu em cepas de pacientes com tratamento anterior (66,6%). Conclusões: Há coincidência do padrão epidemiológico e do padrão de resistência mostrado na pesquisa atual com os resultados de estudos nacionais e internacionais anteriores, esses resultados sugerem falhas na aplicação local do Programa Nacional de Controle e Tratamento da Tuberculose. Recomenda-se investigar e resolver essas falhas, que teriam um impacto imediato na redução da incidência de tuberculose resistente aos medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Rifampin , Streptomycin , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Isoniazid
3.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(3): 180-176, jul. 29, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1283009

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El diagnóstico temprano de tuberculosis permite el control de la enfermedad y su transmisibilidad. Objetivo. Describir la validez diagnóstica del GeneXpert MTB/RIF para Mycobacterium tuberculosis en muestra bronquial, utilizando como referencia el cultivo Löwenstein Jensen. Metodología. Estudio transversal analítico, mediante revisión de 942 registros de la Unidad de Broncoscopía durante el año 2014 al 2018, de las cuales 320 cumplieron criterios de inclusión. Estos datos fueron exportados a un formato compatible con Epi Info versión 7 y analizados con parámetros estadísticos de sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo, valor predictivo negativo, prueba de concordancia e índice Kappa Epidat 4,2. Resultados. De los 320 pacientes sometidos a fibrobroncoscopía diagnóstica para tuberculosis con GeneXpert MTB/RIF, los resultados negativos fueron 79 % (252) y positivo 21 % (68); el 1 % mostró resistencia a rifampicina. Se reportó una fuerte concordancia de GeneXpert MTB/RIF con el cultivo bacilo ácido alcohol resistente, que se determinó con un índice de kappa de 0,88 +/- (0,81-0,94) IC 95 %, una sensibilidad del 98 %, especificidad del 96 %, valor predictivo positivo 83 % (IC 95 %), valor predictivo negativo 99,6 % (CI 95 %). Conclusión. La prueba GeneXpert MTB/RIF tiene una capacidad altamente sensible y específica para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis en muestras obtenidas por fibrobroncoscopía


Introduction. The early diagnosis of tuberculosis allows the control of the disease and its transmissibility. Objective. Describe the diagnostic validity of GeneXpert MTB / RIF for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bronchial sample using the Löwenstein Jensen culture as reference. Methodology. Analytical cross-sectional study, through a review of 942 records of the Bronchoscopy Unit during the year 2014 to 2018, of which 320 met inclusion criteria. These data were exported to a format compatible with Epi Info version 7, analyzed with statistical parameters of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, concordance test, and Kappa Epidat index 4,2. Results. Of the 320 patients who underwent diagnostic bronchoscopy for tuberculosis with GeneXpert MTB / RIF, the negative results were 79 % (252), and positive 21 % (68), 1 % showed genetic resistance to rifampicin. A strong concordance of GeneXpert MTB / RIF was reported with the acid-alcohol-resistant bacillus culture determined with a kappa index of 0,88 +/- (0,81-0,94) 95 % CI, a sensitivity of 98 %, specificity 96 %, positive predictive value 83 % (95 % CI), negative predictive value 99,6 % (95 % CI). Conclusions. The GeneXpert MTB / RIF Test has a highly sensitive and specific capacity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in samples obtained by bronchoscopy


Subject(s)
Rifampin , Tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Bronchoscopy
4.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(2): e2101, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341492

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En el departamento del Atlántico los estudios de resistencia del Mycobacterium tuberculosis se han limitado a drogas de segunda línea. Objetivo: Determinar prevalencia de resistencia a amikacina, kanamicina, capreomicina y ofloxacina en casos de tuberculosis resistente a isoniacida, rifampicina o a ambas drogas, en el periodo 2013 a 2016 en el departamento del Atlántico. Métodos: Estudio transversal de 194 aislamientos resistentes a isoniacida, rifampicina o ambas, por metodología Genotype MTBDR plus versión 2, enviados al Instituto Nacional de Salud en el periodo 2013 al 2016 para ser confirmados y procesados para drogas de segunda línea. La proporción de resistencia, se hizo según variables sociodemográficas, clínica y de vigilancia en salud pública. Resultados: Las comorbilidades frecuentes encontradas fueron desnutrición con el 18,56 por ciento, seguido de infección concomitante VIH-tuberculosis con el 13,40 por ciento. La ofloxacina en casos no tratados obtuvo la mayor resistencia global con el 1,50 por ciento (IC 95 por ciento 0,18-5,33). En los que fueron previamente tratados la resistencia global a capreomicina fue del 8,10 por ciento (IC 95 por ciento 2,7-17,8). En los resistentes a rifampicina, un caso fue extensivamente resistente y dos casos resistentes en los multidrogorresistente. Conclusiones: Se encontró baja resistencia a fluoroquinolonas y fármacos inyectables en pacientes no tratados resistentes a isoniacida, rifampicina o ambas, que muestra que todavía no constituye un problema mayor en el departamento del Atlántico. Se debe complementar su seguimiento con buen manejo tanto físico como psicológico y un equipo de salud fortalecido que actúe prontamente y ayude a la adherencia del paciente a los tratamientos(AU)


Introduction: In Atlántico department, resistance studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been limited to second-line drugs. Objective: Determine prevalence of resistance to amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin and ofloxacin in cases of tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin or both, in the period 2013 to 2016 in Atlántico department. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 194 isolations resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin or both, by Genotype MTBDR plus version 2 methodology, that were sent to the National Institute of Health from 2013 to 2016 to be confirmed and processed for second-line drugs. The resistance ratio was made according to sociodemographic, clinical and public health surveillance variables. Results: The common comorbilities found were malnutrition with 18.56 percent, followed by concomitant HIV-tuberculosis infection with 13.40 percent. Ofloxacin in non-treated cases achieved the highest overall resistance with 1.50 percent (95 percent CI 0.18-5.33). In those previously treated, global resistance to capreomycin was 8.10 percent (95 percent CI 2.7-17.8). In the ones resistant to rifampicin, one case was extensively resistant and two cases were resistant in multi-drugs resistant. Conclusions: Low resistance to fluoroquinolones and injectable drugs was found in non-treated patients who were resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin or both, showing that it is not yet a major problem in Atlántico department. Its follow-up should be complemented with good physical and psychological management and a strengthened health team that acts promptly and helps the patient adherence to treatments(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Fluoroquinolones/antagonists & inhibitors , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(1): 1-20, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284396

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la tuberculosis es una enfermedad infecto-contagiosa, causada por diversas especies del Complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, actualmente se estima que un tercio de la población mundial se encuentra afectada por lo que representa una amenaza para la salud pública, principalmente por el surgimiento de cepas Multidrogorresistentes (TB-MDR). En Bolivia se reportaron 7.538 personas enfermas con Tuberculosis, los últimos datos sobre TB-MDR indican un aumento de 0,2% por año, en 2019 se registró un 3,1% de TB-MDR. Actualmente en nuestro país se emplean métodos moleculares para la identificación de este agente infeccioso; no obstante, existen muy pocos o ningún trabajo acerca de la aplicación de métodos moleculares para la detección precisa y efectiva de cepas TB-MDR que otorguen validez a los resultados emitidos. Este trabajo resuelve el cuestionamiento de, si la PCR en tiempo real (RT-qPCR) acoplada a curvas melting es una herramienta de diagnóstico alternativo aplicable, para la identificación de Tuberculosis Multidrogorresistente MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se trabajó con 74 cepas de Mycobaterium tuberculosis fenotípicamente identificadas por cultivo (método de las proporciones, Canetti Rist) como gold standar. El material genético para las pruebas moleculares se obtuvo por el método de columnas, se utilizaron dos controles primarios para la determinación de resistencia a los fármacos Isoniacida y Rifampicina, tanto los controles como las muestras se procesaron por RT-qPCR acoplada a curvas melting, mediante cambios de temperatura de disociación. RESULTADOS: los parámetros de test diagnóstico de la prueba demostraron sensibilidad: 67.4%, especificidad: 83.3%, Exactitud: 73.97%, VPP: 85.3%, VPN: 64.1% para Isoniacida. Mientras que para Rifampicina: Sensibilidad: 97%, especificidad: 20%, exactitud: 58.9%, VPP: 55.4% y VPN: 87.5%. CONCLUSIÓN: el método evaluado para la determinación de resistencia a Isoniacida presenta un equilibrio entre sensibilidad y especificidad, por lo que representa una alternativa diagnóstica confiable, mientras que para resistencia a Rifampicina presenta una alta sensibilidad que es muy útil para países endémicos como el nuestro.


INTRODUCTION: tuberculosis is an infectious-contagious disease, caused by various species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex, it is estimated that one third of the world population is affected by what represents a threat to public health, mainly by the emergence of multidrugresistant strains (MDR-TB). In Bolivia, 7,538 people are reported sick with Tuberculosis, the latest data on MDR-TB indicate an increase of 0.2% per year, in 2018 there was 3.1% of MDR-TB. Currently in our country molecular methods are used to identify this infectious agent; however, there is very little or no work on the application of molecular methods for the precise and effective detection of MDR-TB strains that give validity to the results issued. This work resolves the question of whether real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) coupled to melting curves is an applicable alternative diagnostic tool for the identification of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis MATERIALS AND METHODS: we worked with 74 strains of Mycobaterium tuberculosis phenotypically identified by culture (method of proportions, Canetti Rist) as a gold standar. The genetic material for molecular methods was obtained by the column assay, two primary controls were used for the determination of resistance to the drugs Isoniazid and Rifampicin, both the controls and the samples were processed by RT-qPCR coupled to melting curves, by means of temperature changes of dissociation. RESULTS: the diagnostic test parameters of the test demonstrated sensitivity: 67.4%, specificity: 83.3%, Accuracy: 73.97%, PPV: 85.3%, NPV: 64.1% for Isoniazid. While for Rifampicin: Sensitivity: 97%, Specificity: 20%, Accuracy: 58.9%, PPV: 55.4% and NPV: 87.5% CONCLUSION: the method evaluated for the determination of resistance to Isoniazid presents a balance between sensitivity and specificity, therefore it represents a reliable diagnostic alternative, while for resistance to Rifampicin it presents a high sensitivity that is very useful for endemic countries such as ours.


Subject(s)
Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampin , Tuberculosis , Public Health , Isoniazid
6.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(3): 129-134, 20210000. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1359534

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad por arañazo de gato (EAG) es una zoonosis emergente causada por Bartonella henselae. Puede presentarse de forma atípica, incluyendo meningitis, neuroretinitis, endocarditis y compromiso hepatoesplénico, lo cual es poco frecuente en adultos inmunocompetentes. Su manejo terapéutico es controvertido dada la ausencia de ensayos aleatorizados al respecto. Se describen 5 casos de EAG con compromiso hepato-esplénico, donde la correcta anamnesis epidemiológica permitió la sospecha diagnóstica, evitando la realización de procedimientos invasivos en la mayoría de los casos. La posibilidad de realización de PCR y serología para Bartonella spp. fueron de vital importancia


Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an emerging zoonosis caused by Bartonella henselae. It can occur atypically including meningitis, neuroretinitis, endocarditis and hepatosplenic involvement, a rare occurrence in immunocompetent adults. Therapeutic management is controversial, supported by case series and retrospective data published literature. Five cases of CSD with hepatosplenic involvement are described. The correct clinical and epidemiological anamnesis allow the diagnostic and avoid the performance of invasive procedures in most cases. The possibility of performing Bartonella spp PCR and serology is crucial


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Cat-Scratch Disease/diagnosis , Cat-Scratch Disease/therapy , Ultrasonography , Immunocompromised Host , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Blood Culture , Duration of Therapy , Liver Abscess/therapy
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 224-227, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248740

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leprosy is one of the neglected diseases in the world and Brazil is the second country with more cases. A retrospective study was conducted based on the medical records of 196 leprosy patients diagnosed during the course of 13 years at a university hospital. The aim was to describe the adverse effects of polychemotherapy, as well the most prevalent and most vulnerable populations. In the study, dapsone was the most implicated drug, especially in women, and the risk increased with age. The authors conclude that with this patient profile, greater vigilance should be taken regarding possible adverse effects, especially anemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Leprostatic Agents/adverse effects , Leprosy/drug therapy , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Clofazimine/therapeutic use , Dapsone/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination
8.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 79-85, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151426

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O diagnóstico da hanseníase possui números significativos que causam preocupação à saúde pública. Os casos de resistência medicamentosa nessa doença se iniciaram em meados dos anos 60 e diante do problema, a Organização Mundial da Saúde instituiu em 1981 a poliquimioterapia, associação dos antibióticos rifampicina, dapsona e clofazimina, tratamento atual de escolha. A resistência aos fármacos na hanseníase é reportada pela literatura, desvelando um obstáculo à sua eliminação. Apresentamos nessa revisão os principais aspectos da resistência medicamentosa no tratamento para hanseníase e seus impactos. Metodologia: Revisão sistemática sobre os aspectos da resistência medicamentosa utilizando a pesquisa exploratória como metodologia de abordagem. Foram pesquisados os termos resistência medicamentosa, hanseníase, recidiva, alterações genéticas e os operadores booleanos "and" e "or" na busca. Resultados e discussão: A dificuldade de tomar a medicação corretamente foi um dos principais fatores que acarretaram resistência do bacilo Mycobacterium leprae aos fármacos. Homens de países norte e sul-americanos e asiáticos foram os mais atingidos por episódios de resistência. A resistência medicamentosa é uma das principais causas de recidivas em hanseníase. O principal fármaco causador de resistência medicamentosa descrito nos trabalhos foi a dapsona (46,6%) e a maioria das alterações genéticas encontradas estão no gene rpoB; 23,2% dos registros relatados foram de resistência secundária aos fármacos e, também, sete casos de resistência múltipla a esses medicamentos. Conclusão: Os principais aspectos da resistência medicamentosa na hanseníase são os equívocos ao ingerir os medicamentos e as alterações genéticas na bactéria. Os impactos causados estão na dificuldade de refazer o tratamento, a possibilidade de nova transmissão e o aparecimento de sintomas mais graves.


Introduction: The diagnosis of leprosy has significant numbers causing public health concern. Reports of drug resistance in this disease begun in the mid-1960s and due to this problem, the World Health Organization instituted a multidrug therapy with rifampicin, dapsone, and clofazimine antibiotic association in 1981, which is currently the first-choice treatment for leprosy. Cases of drug resistance have been reported in literature, revealing an obstacle to the eradication of the disease. This paper has the purpose of presenting the key aspects and impacts of drug resistance in the treatment for leprosy. Methods: Systematic review of the drug resistance aspects using exploratory research as an approach methodology. The authors searched the terms drug resistance, leprosy, recurrence, genetic alterations, and the Boolean operators "and" and "or" between them. Results and discussion: The difficulty in taking the medication correctly was one of the key factors that led to drug resistance for Mycobacterium leprae. Men from North and South American, as well as from Asian countries, were the most affected by episodes of resistance. Drug resistance is one of the main causes of leprosy recurrences. Dapsone was the most frequently identified drug resistance in the studies (46.6%), while most of the genetic alterations were found in the rpoB gene; 23.2% of the cases were from secondary resistance episodes, and seven cases of multiple resistance were reported. Conclusion: The misconceptions when taking the treatment and the Mycobacterium leprae genetic alterations have been described as the key aspects of drugs resistance in leprosy and the impacts caused are the difficulty in redoing the treatment, the possibility of new transmission, and the appearance of more severe symptoms.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Mycobacterium leprae/drug effects , Rifampin/adverse effects , Bacteria/genetics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Clofazimine/adverse effects , Fluoroquinolones/adverse effects , Dapsone/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Leprosy/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(1): 82-84, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152789

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare infection that is difficult to diagnose, because it shows less sensitivity and specificity in classic complementary exams when compared with the pulmonary form. The Xpert MTB/RIF® method offers an early diagnosis that identifies the DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the main mutations that give the bacterium resistance to rifampicin. The authors present a case of scrofuloderma whose diagnosis was quickly obtained through the secretion of a cervical lesion, allowing an early diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Sensitivity and Specificity , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Lymph Nodes
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2503-2512, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887816

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to provide a simple and reliable genetic typing approach for molecular drug susceptibility test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, through the developing of fluorescence molecular marker of rifampicin resistance gene rpoB. Eleven fluorescent molecular markers of the rpoB gene were established by using the sequence difference between the amino acid positions 531, 526, 516, 511 and 513 of rpoB gene of rifampicin-resistant strains and the alleles of rifampicin-sensitive strains, combined with the PARMS technique (Penta-primer amplification refractory mutation system). We used 104 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to validate this marker and it was verified by sequencing as 100% correct. These samples were also tested with proportional drug sensitivity test. The coincidence rate was 94.23%. The molecular markers had high reliability for genotyping of rpoB gene. It can also detect low-concentration drug-resistant samples (511/533 unit point mutations) whose phenotypic susceptibility cannot be detected. The eleven sets of fluorescent molecular markers could cover 92%-96% of rpoB gene mutation types of rifampicin-resistant strains, and provide new idea for rapid detection of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutation , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Rifampin/pharmacology , Technology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887737

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate multidrug resistant loop-mediated isothermal amplification (MDR-LAMP) assay for the early diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and to compare the mutation patterns associated with the @*Methods@#MDR-LAMP assay was evaluated using 100 @*Results@#The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of MDR-LAMP were 85.5%, 93.6%, 96.7%, and 74.4% for the detection of resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, respectively, and 80.5%, 92.3%, 98.6%, and 41.4% for the detection of @*Conclusion@#MDR-LAMP is a rapid and accessible assay for the laboratory identification of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance of


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Catalase/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Isoniazid , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mutation , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Oxidoreductases/genetics , Phenotype , Rifampin , Whole Genome Sequencing
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e10660, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249330

ABSTRACT

It is known that the combined use of antibiotics, such as isoniazid and rifampicin, in the treatment of tuberculosis causes oxidative kidney damage. The aim of this study was to biochemically and histopathologically investigate the effect of lycopene on oxidative kidney damage due to the administration of isoniazid and rifampicin in albino Wistar male rats. Lycopene at a dose of 5 mg/kg was orally administered to lycopene+isoniazid+rifampicin (LIR) rats, and normal sunflower oil (0.5 mL) was orally administered to isoniazid+rifampicin (IR) and healthy control (HG) rats as vehicle by gavage. One hour after the administration of lycopene and vehicle, 50 mg/kg isoniazid and rifampicin were given orally to the LIR and IR groups. This procedure was performed once a day for 28 days. Rats were sacrificed by a high dose of anesthesia at the end of this period, and oxidant-antioxidant parameters were measured in the removed kidney tissues. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were measured in blood samples, and kidney tissues were also evaluated histopathologically. The combined administration of isoniazid and rifampicin changed the oxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants, and it increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, which are indicators of kidney function. Co-administration of isoniazid and rifampicin also caused oxidative kidney damage. Lycopene biochemically and histopathologically decreased oxidative kidney damage induced by isoniazid and rifampicin administration. These results suggested that lycopene may be beneficial in the treatment of nephrotoxicity due to isoniazid and rifampicin administration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Rifampin/toxicity , Isoniazid/toxicity , Carotenoids/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Lycopene/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism
13.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3441, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1289785

ABSTRACT

Objective: to assess the impact of the GeneXpert® MTB/RIF rapid molecular test on tuberculosis detection, to analyze the temporal trend of the event and to identify vulnerable territories in a Brazilian municipality. Method: an ecological study carried out in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, a municipality considered a priority in tuberculosis control due to the high number of cases. To classify the temporal trend, the Prais-Winsten method and the Interrupted Time Series were used to identify changes in the disease incidence. Kernel intensity analysis was applied to identify vulnerable areas. Results: the temporal trend of tuberculosis decreased by 18.1%/year and by 6.9%/year for children under 15 years old. The North District decreased by 6.67%/year and the East District increased by 17.5%/year in the incidence of tuberculosis. Resistant tuberculosis, after the implementation of the Rapid Molecular Test, increased by 0.6% per year. The South and West Districts showed a higher density of cases, with a range from 45 to 79 tuberculosis cases per square kilometer (km2). Conclusion: although resistant tuberculosis is not a problem in the scenario, the study showed an increase in its incidence, which puts it on alert. The use of spatial analysis enabled the identification of priority areas, putting them in evidence for health surveillance actions.


Objetivo: avaliar o impacto do teste rápido molecular GeneXpert® MTB/RIF na detecção da tuberculose, analisar a tendência temporal do evento e identificar territórios vulneráveis em município brasileiro. Método: estudo ecológico realizado em Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil, município considerado prioritário no controle da tuberculose devido ao elevado número de casos. Para classificar a tendência temporal foi utilizado o método de Prais-Winsten e a Série Temporal Interrompida para identificar mudanças na incidência da doença. Aplicou-se a análise de intensidade de Kernel para a identificação de áreas vulneráveis. Resultados: a tendência temporal da tuberculose apresentou decréscimo de 18,1%/ano e de 6,9%/ano em menores de 15 anos. O Distrito Norte apresentou decréscimo de 6,67%/ano e o Distrito Leste crescimento de 17,5%/ano, na incidência de tuberculose. A tuberculose resistente, após a implementação do teste rápido molecular, apresentou aumento de 0,6% por ano. Os Distritos Sul e Oeste apresentaram maior densidade de casos, com variação de 45 a 79 casos de tuberculose por quilômetro quadrado (km2). Conclusão: apesar da tuberculose resistente não ser um problema no cenário, o estudo evidenciou um crescimento na sua incidência, o que o coloca em estado de alerta. O uso da análise espacial possibilitou a identificação das áreas prioritárias, colocando-as em evidência para ações de vigilância em saúde.


Objetivo: evaluar el impacto de la prueba rápida molecular GeneXpert® MTB/RIF en la detección de tuberculosis, analizar la tendencia temporal del evento e identificar territorios vulnerables en un municipio brasileño. Método: estudio ecológico realizado en Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil, municipio considerado prioritario en el control de la tuberculosis por el elevado número de casos. Se utilizó el método de Prais-Winsten para clasificar la tendencia temporal y la técnica de Series de Tiempo Interrumpidas para identificar cambios en la incidencia de la enfermedad. Se aplicó un análisis de intensidad de Kernel para identificar áreas vulnerables. Resultados: la tendencia temporal de la tuberculosis disminuyó un 18,1%/año y un 6,9%/año en los menores de 15 años. La incidencia de tuberculosis disminuyó un 6,67%/año en el Distrito Norte y aumentó un 17,5%/año en el Distrito Este. La tuberculosis resistente, después de la implementación de la Prueba Molecular Rápida, aumentó un 0,6% anual. Los Distritos Sur y Oeste presentaron una mayor densidad de casos, con un rango de 45 a 79 casos de tuberculosis por kilómetros cuadrados (km2). Conclusión: aunque la tuberculosis resistente no representa un problema en el escenario, el estudio mostró un aumento en la incidencia, lo que genera una señal de alerta. El uso del análisis espacial permitió identificar áreas prioritarias, para que puedan llevarse a cabo acciones de vigilancia en salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Rifampin , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Time Series Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spatial Analysis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(4): 626-640, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142429

ABSTRACT

Resumen. Introducción. La prueba Xpert MTB/RIF™ es una prueba molecular rápida para el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis y la resistencia a la rifampicina. Desde el 2010 es la recomendada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y, aunque fue introducida en Colombia en el 2012, se desconocen los resultados de su uso.Objetivo. Describir la cobertura y la fidelidad en el uso de la prueba Xpert MTB/RIF™ en pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar en una ciudad con alta carga de la enfermedad en Colombia.Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de casos del programa de tuberculosis en Cali entre el 2013 y el 2019. La cobertura se estimó como el total de pruebas empleadas en los casos registrados en el programa. La fidelidad se midió con base en los protocolos internacionales de uso de la Xpert MTB/RIF™. Además, se hizo un análisis de correspondencias múltiples entre la prueba y las variables sociodemográficas.Resultados. Se incluyeron 6.328 pacientes con tuberculosis pulmonar, de los cuales 181 eran resistentes a los fármacos. La cobertura total de la Xpert MTB/RIF™ durante el periodo de estudio fue de 10,3 % (n=655), con una variación anual entre 0,2 y 23 %. La fidelidad fue de 46,8 % para los grupos de mayor riesgo de tuberculosis multirresistente (TB-MDR). El uso de la prueba se relacionó con la condición de ser hombre, afrocolombiano, y tener entre 41 y 60 años de edad.Conclusiones. La cobertura de la prueba Xpert MTB/RIF™ en Cali es baja y su uso no responde a la priorización recomendada para su implementación. Se requieren estrategias para promover su uso adecuado, de manera que contribuya a la meta de poner fin a la tuberculosis.


Abstract. Introduction:The Xpert MTB/RIF™ is a rapid molecular test that diagnoses tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. Since 2010, it is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and although it was introduced in Colombia since 2012, the results of its implementation are unknown.Objective: To describe the coverage and fidelity in the implementation of the Xpert MTB/RIF™ in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in a city with a high burden for the disease in Colombia.Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of cases from a tuberculosis program in Cali between 2013 and 2019. We estimated the coverage as the total number of tests used compared to the cases registered in the program and the fidelity based on international Xpert MTB/RIF™ implementation protocols. We performed a multivariate analysis of multiple correspondences between the test and the sociodemographic variables.Results: We included 6,328 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis of whom 181 were drug-resistant. The Xpert MTB/RIF™ coverage was 10,3% (n=655) with an annual variation between 0.2% and 23%. Loyalty among the highest risk groups of MDR-TB was 46.8%. The use of the test was related to being an Afro-Colombian man between 41 and 60 years of age.Conclusions: The coverage of the Xpert MTB/RIF in Cali is low and its use does not follow the recommended prioritization for its implementation. Implementation strategies are required for its proper use to contribute to the goal of ending tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Rifampin , Drug Resistance
15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(11): 700-707, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142365

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The timely diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is challenging. Molecular diagnostic tools are necessary for TBM, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Objectives: We aimed to calculate the diagnostics characteristics of Xpert MTB/RIF for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the frequency of rifampicin (RIF)-resistance in the CSF samples. Methods: A total of 313 consecutive CSF samples were studied and categorized into TBM definite, probable, possible, or not TBM cases based on the clinical, laboratory, and imaging data. Results: For the definite TBM cases (n=7), the sensitivity, specificity, efficiency, and positive likelihood ratio were 100, 97, 97, and 38%, respectively. However, for the TBM definite associated with the probable cases (n=24), the sensitivity decreased to 46%. All CSF samples that were Xpert MTB/RIF-positive were RIF susceptible. Conclusion: Xpert MTB/RIF showed high discriminating value among the microbiology-proven TBM cases, although the values for the probable and possible TBM cases were reduced. Xpert MTB/RIF contributes significantly to the diagnosis of TBM, mainly when coupled with the conventional microbiological tests and clinical algorithms.


RESUMO Introdução: O diagnóstico da meningite tuberculosa (TBM) é desafiador. Ferramentas de diagnóstico molecular são necessárias para esse diagnóstico, particularmente em países de baixa e média renda. Objetivos: Calcular as características diagnósticas do Xpert MTB/RIF para a detecção de Mycobacterium tuberculosis no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) e a frequência de resistência à rifampicina (RIF) nas amostras do LCR. Métodos: Um total de 313 amostras consecutivas de LCR foram estudadas e categorizadas em casos de TBM definida, provável, possível ou não TBM, com base nos dados clínicos, laboratoriais e de imagem. Resultados: Para os casos definidos de TBM (n=7), sensibilidade, especificidade, eficiência e razão de verossimilhança positiva foram de 100, 97, 97 e 38%, respectivamente. No entanto, para os casos de TBM definidos associados aos prováveis (n=24), a sensibilidade diminuiu para 46%. Todas as amostras de LCR que foram positivas para Xpert MTB/RIF foram suscetíveis a RIF. Conclusão: O Xpert MTB/RIF mostrou alto valor discriminante entre os casos TBM comprovados por microbiologia, porém o valor nos casos prováveis e possíveis de TBM foram reduzidos. O Xpert MTB/RIF contribui significativamente para o diagnóstico de TBM, principalmente quando associado aos testes microbiológicos convencionais e algoritmos clínicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Rifampin/pharmacology , Brazil , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 215-222, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138555

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevención de la tuberculosis activa en los grupos de riesgo es clave para el control y eliminación de la tuberculosis. El tratamiento de la infección tuberculosa latente (TITL) con rifapentina e isoniazida en dosis semanales por 12 semanas es más corto que con otros esquemas, tiene menor hepatotoxicidad, mejor adherencia y es costo-efectivo. El OBJETIVO del estudio es evaluar la factibilidad de implementar este esquema a nivel programático en Chile. MÉTODOS: Se hizo una intervención piloto en territorios seleccionados entre mayo de 2018 y marzo de 2019. En esos territorios se reemplazó el esquema normado de TITL con isoniazida 6 meses por el esquema rifapentina-isoniazida 12 semanas. Además, se amplió la población objetivo, incluyendo a contactos mayores de 14 años. El tratamiento consistió en la administración conjunta de isoniazida y rifapentina por vía oral con frecuencia semanal, por 12 semanas, de forma supervisada por personal de salud. RESULTADOS: Ingresaron 238 pacientes al piloto, de los cuales 53% fueron mujeres y 54,2% fueron mayores de 14 años. Del total de pacientes, 203 (85,3%) completaron el tratamiento, 22 (9,2%) lo abandonaron, 8 (3,4%) presentaron reacciones adversas y 5 tuvieron otros motivos de egreso. CONCLUSIÓN: Tanto el TITL con rifapentinaisoniazida por 3 meses en dosis semanales supervisadas, como la incorporación de contactos adultos a TITL, son factibles de implementar a nivel programático en Chile.


INTRODUCTION: Prevention of active tuberculosis in risk groups is crucial in tuberculosis control and elimination. Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TITL) with rifapentine and isoniazid in weekly doses for 12 weeks is shorter than other pharmacological treatments, with less liver toxicity, better patient compliance and it is cost-effective. The OBJECTIVE of this study is to evaluate the feasibility to implement this treatment at a programmatic level in Chile. METHODS: A pilot intervention was conducted in selected territories between May 2018 and March 2019. Within these territories, the regulated treatment with isoniazid 6 months was replaced by the 12 weeks treatment with weekly rifapentine-isoniazide. Additionally, the target population was expanded to include contacts over 14 years old, currently not included in the national guidelines. Treatment consisted in oral administration of rifapentine and isoniazide together once a week for 12 weeks, under supervision of trained health workers. RESULTS: From 238 patients entered to the protocol, 53% of them were women and 54.2% were older than 14 years-old. Out of the total number of patients, 203 (85.3%) completed treatment, 22 (9.2%) abandoned, 8 (3.4%) had adverse drug reactions, and 5 ended treatment for different causes. CONCLUSION: Both TITL with rifapentine-isoniazide in 12 supervised weekly doses, and the inclusion of adult contacts in TITL, are feasible to implement at a programmatic level in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Rifampin/analogs & derivatives , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Chile , Pilot Projects , Administration, Oral , Patient Compliance , Directly Observed Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , National Health Programs
17.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 343-346, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130895

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis which, like disseminated tuberculosis, commonly occurs in immunocompromised patients. Poncet reactive arthritis is a seronegative arthritis affecting patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, which is uncommon even in endemic countries. We report a previously healthy 23-year-old male patient with watery diarrhea associated with erythematous ulcers on the lower limbs and oligoarthritis of the hands. Histopathological examination of the skin showed epithelioid granulomatous process with palisade granulomas and central caseous necrosis. AFB screening by Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed intact bacilli, the culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and colonoscopy revealed multiple shallow ulcers. Disseminated tuberculosis associated with reactive Poncet arthritis was diagnosed, with an improvement of the clinical and skin condition after appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/immunology , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/pathology , Immunocompromised Host , Arthritis, Reactive/immunology , Immunocompetence , Pyrazinamide/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Skin Ulcer/immunology , Skin Ulcer/pathology , Skin Ulcer/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Ethambutol/therapeutic use , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200104, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136907

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Gene-Xpert MTB RIF (Xpert) is based on nucleic acid amplification by real-time polymerase chain reaction, which allows for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. We describe the use of Xpert for extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A case series of two reference centers in Rio de Janeiro from 2014-2019. RESULTS: The final diagnosis of EPTB was established in 11/36 (31%) patients, with five cases detectable by Xpert. For lymph node evaluation (9/11), diagnosis by Xpert occurred in 5/9 patients, all with caseous aspects. CONCLUSIONS: Xpert can facilitate the rapid diagnosis of lymph node tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampin , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
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