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1.
Biol. Res ; 56: 7-7, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The distinct arterial and venous cell fates are dictated by a combination of various genetic factors which form diverse types of blood vessels such as arteries, veins, and capillaries. We report here that YULINK protein is involved in vasculogenesis, especially venous formation. METHODS: In this manuscript, we employed gene knockdown, yeast two-hybrid, FLIM-FRET, immunoprecipitation, and various imaging technologies to investigate the role of YULINK gene in zebrafish and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). RESULTS: Knockdown of YULINK during the arterial-venous developmental stage of zebrafish embryos led to the defective venous formation and abnormal vascular plexus formation. Knockdown of YULINK in HUVECs impaired their ability to undergo cell migration and differentiation into a capillary-like tube formation. In addition, the phosphorylated EPHB4 was decreased in YULINK knockdown HUVECs. Yeast two-hybrid, FLIM-FRET, immunoprecipitation, as well as imaging technologies showed that YULINK colocalized with endosome related proteins (EPS15, RAB33B or TICAM2) and markers (Clathrin and RHOB). VEGF-induced VEGFR2 internalization was also compromised in YULINK knockdown HUVECs, demonstrating to the involvement of YULINK. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that YULINK regulates vasculogenesis, possibly through endocytosis in zebrafish and HUVECs. Key points Knockdown of YULINK with morpholino in embryos of double transgenic zebrafish exhibited abnormal venous formation. Tube formation and phosphorylated EPHB4 were decreased in YULINK knockdown HUVECs. FLIM-FRET, immunoprecipitation, as well as other imaging technologies showed that YULINK colocalized with endosome related proteins (EPS15, RAB33B and TICAM2) and endosome markers (Clathrin and RHOB). Knockdown of YULINK decreased the internalization of VEGF and VEGFR2 in HUVECs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Zebrafish/genetics , Cell Differentiation , Cell Movement , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4647-4662, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008048

ABSTRACT

Limonene and its derivative perillic acid are widely used in food, cosmetics, health products, medicine and other industries as important bioactive natural products. However, inefficient plant extraction and high energy-consuming chemical synthesis hamper the industrial production of limonene and perillic acid. In this study, limonene synthase from Mentha spicata was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by peroxisome compartmentalization, and the yield of limonene was 0.038 mg/L. The genes involved in limonene synthesis, ERG10, ERG13, tHMGR, ERG12, ERG8, IDI1, MVD1, ERG20ww and tLS, were step-wise expressed via modular engineering to study their effects on limonene yield. The yield of limonene increased to 1.14 mg/L by increasing the precursor module. Using the plasmid with high copy number to express the above key genes, the yield of limonene significantly increased up to 86.74 mg/L, which was 4 337 times higher than that of the original strain. Using the limonene-producing strain as the starting strain, the production of perillic acid was successfully achieved by expressing cytochrome P450 enzyme gene from Salvia miltiorrhiza, and the yield reached 4.42 mg/L. The results may facilitate the construction of cell factory with high yield of monoterpene products by S. cerevisiae.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Limonene/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Monoterpenes/metabolism
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4621-4634, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008046

ABSTRACT

Sialyllactose is one of the most abundant sialylated oligosaccharides in human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which plays an important role in the healthy development of infants and young children. However, its efficient and cheap production technology is still lacking presently. This study developed a two-step process employing multiple-strains for the production of sialyllactose. In the first step, two engineered strains, E. coli JM109(DE3)/ pET28a-BT0453 and JM109(DE3)/pET28a-nanA, were constructed to synthesize the intermediate N-acetylneuraminic acid. When the ratio of the biomass of the two engineered strains was 1:1 and the reaction time was 32 hours, the maximum yield of N-acetylneuraminic acid was 20.4 g/L. In the second step, E. coli JM109(DE3)/ pET28a-neuA, JM109(DE3)/ pET28a-nst and Baker's yeast were added to the above fermentation broth to synthesize 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL). Using optimal conditions including 200 mmol/L N-acetyl-glucosamine and lactose, 150 g/L Baker's yeast, 20 mmol/L Mg2+, the maximum yield of 3'-SL in the fermentation broth reached 55.04 g/L after 24 hours of fermentation and the conversion rate of the substrate N-acetyl-glucosamine was 43.47%. This research provides an alternative technical route for economical production of 3'-SL.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Escherichia coli/genetics , Lactose , Fermentation , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Oligosaccharides , Glucosamine
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4358-4375, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008030

ABSTRACT

Yeast surface display (YSD) is a technology that fuses the exogenous target protein gene sequence with a specific vector gene sequence, followed by introduction into yeast cells. Subsequently, the target protein is expressed and localized on the yeast cell surface by using the intracellular protein transport mechanism of yeast cells, whereas the most widely used YSD system is the α-agglutinin expression system. Yeast cells possess the eukaryotic post-translational modification mechanism, which helps the target protein fold correctly. This mechanism could be used to display various eukaryotic proteins, including antibodies, receptors, enzymes, and antigenic peptides. YSD has become a powerful protein engineering tool in biotechnology and biomedicine, and has been used to improve a broad range of protein properties including affinity, specificity, enzymatic function, and stability. This review summarized recent advances in the application of YSD technology from the aspects of library construction and screening, antibody engineering, protein engineering, enzyme engineering and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Protein Engineering , Biotechnology , Antibodies/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4275-4294, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008026

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to prepare tandem multimeric proteins of BmSPI38, a silkworm protease inhibitor, with better structural homogeneity, higher activity and stronger antifungal ability by protein engineering. The tandem multimeric proteins of BmSPI38 were prepared by prokaryotic expression technology. The effects of tandem multimerization on the structural homogeneity, inhibitory activity and antifungal ability of BmSPI38 were explored by in-gel activity staining of protease inhibitor, protease inhibition assays and fungal growth inhibition experiments. Activity staining showed that the tandem expression based on the peptide flexible linker greatly improved the structural homogeneity of BmSPI38 protein. Protease inhibition experiments showed that the tandem trimerization and tetramerization based on the linker improved the inhibitory ability of BmSPI38 to microbial proteases. Conidial germination assays showed that His6-SPI38L-tetramer had stronger inhibition on conidial germination of Beauveria bassiana than that of His6-SPI38-monomer. Fungal growth inhibition assay showed that the inhibitory ability of BmSPI38 against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans could be enhanced by tandem multimerization. The present study successfully achieved the heterologous active expression of the silkworm protease inhibitor BmSPI38 in Escherichia coli, and confirmed that the structural homogeneity and antifungal ability of BmSPI38 could be enhanced by tandem multimerization. This study provides important theoretical basis and new strategies for cultivating antifungal transgenic silkworm. Moreover, it may promote the exogenous production of BmSPI38 and its application in the medical field.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Bombyx/chemistry , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3747-3756, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007990

ABSTRACT

To develop a novel glucose-lowering biomedicine with potential benefits in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, we used the 10rolGLP-1 gene previously constructed in our laboratory and the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technique to create an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The gRNA expression vector pYES2-gRNA, the donor vector pNK1-L-PGK-10rolGLP-1-R and the Cas9 expression vector pGADT7-Cas9 were constructed and co-transformed into S. cerevisiae INVSc1 strain, with the PGK-10rolGLP-1 expressing unit specifically knocked in through homologous recombination. Finally, an S. cerevisiae strain highly expressing the 10rolGLP-1 with glucose-lowering activity was obtained. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting results confirmed that two recombinant strains of S. cerevisiae stably expressed the 10rolGLP-1 and exhibited the desired glucose-lowering property when orally administered to mice. Hypoglycemic experiment results showed that the recombinant hypoglycemic S. cerevisiae strain offered a highly hypoglycemic effect on the diabetic mouse model, and the blood glucose decline was adagio, which can avoid the dangerous consequences caused by rapid decline in blood glucose. Moreover, the body weight and other symptoms such as polyuria also improved significantly, indicating that the orally hypoglycemic S. cerevisiae strain that we constructed may develop into an effective, safe, economic, practical and ideal functional food for type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/metabolism
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3464-3480, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007970

ABSTRACT

Mitophagy is a process whereby cells selectively remove mitochondria through the mechanism of autophagy, which plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. In order to explore the effect of mitophagy genes on the antioxidant activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutants with deletion or overexpression of mitophagy genes ATG8, ATG11 and ATG32 were constructed respectively. The results indicated that overexpression of ATG8 and ATG11 genes significantly reduced the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content upon H2O2 stress for 6 h, which were 61.23% and 46.35% of the initial state, respectively. Notable, overexpression of ATG8 and ATG11 genes significantly increased the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP content, which were helpful to improve the antioxidant activities of the strains. On the other hand, deletion of ATG8, ATG11 and ATG32 caused mitochondrial damage and significantly decreased cell vitality, and caused the imbalance of intracellular ROS. The intracellular ROS content significantly increased to 174.27%, 128.68%, 200.92% of the initial state, respectively, upon H2O2 stress for 6 h. The results showed that ATG8, ATG11 and ATG32 might be potential targets for regulating the antioxidant properties of yeast, providing a new clue for further research.


Subject(s)
Mitophagy/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Antioxidants , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3204-3218, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007953

ABSTRACT

Sterols are a class of cyclopentano-perhydrophenanthrene derivatives widely present in living organisms. Sterols are important components of cell membranes. In addition, they also have important physiological and pharmacological activities. With the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering technology, yeast cells are increasingly used for the heterologous synthesis of sterols in recent years. Nevertheless, since sterols are hydrophobic macromolecules, they tend to accumulate in the membrane fraction of yeast cells and consequently trigger cytotoxicity, which hampers the further improvement of sterols yield. Therefore, revealing the mechanism of sterol transport in yeast, especially understanding the working principle of sterol transporters, is vital for designing strategies to relieve the toxicity of sterol accumulation and increasing sterol yield in yeast cell factories. In yeast, sterols are mainly transported through protein-mediated non-vesicular transport mechanisms. This review summarizes five types of sterol transport-related proteins that have been reported in yeast, namely OSBP/ORPs family proteins, LAM family proteins, ABC transport family proteins, CAP superfamily proteins, and NPC-like sterol transport proteins. These transporters play important roles in intracellular sterol gradient distribution and homeostasis maintenance. In addition, we also review the current status of practical applications of sterol transport proteins in yeast cell factories.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Sterols , Phytosterols , Biological Transport , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/genetics
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e253009, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339373

ABSTRACT

Abstract Today, global focus of research is to explore the solution of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Like other agricultural countries, bulk quantities of watermelon peels (WMP) are disposed-off in environment as waste in Pakistan and appropriate management of this waste is the need of hour to save environment from pollution. The work emphasizes the role of ethanologenic yeasts to utilize significant sugars present in WMP for low-cost bioethanol fermentation. Dilute hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of WMP was carried out on optimized conditions employing RSM (response surface methodology) following central composite design (CCD). This experimental design is based on optimization of ethanologenesis involving some key independent parameters such as WMP hydrolysate and synthetic media ratio (X1), incubation temperature (X2) and incubation temperature (X3) for maximal ethanol yield exploiting standard (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) as well as experimental (Metchnikowia cibodasensisY34) yeasts. The results revealed that maximal ethanol yields obtained from S. cerevisiae K7 was 0.36±0.02 g/g of reducing sugars whereas M. cibodasensisY34, yielded 0.40±0.01 g ethanol/g of reducing sugars. The yeast isolate M. cibodasensisY34 appeared as promising ethanologen and embodies prospective potential for fermentative valorization of WMP-to-bioethanol.


Resumo Hoje, o foco global da pesquisa é explorar a solução da crise energética e da poluição ambiental. Como em outros países agrícolas, grandes quantidades de cascas de melancia (WMP) são descartadas como resíduos no meio ambiente no Paquistão, mas a gestão adequada desses resíduos é a mais recente solução para salvar o meio ambiente da poluição. O trabalho enfatiza o papel das leveduras etanologênicas para utilizar açúcares significativos presentes no WMP para fermentação de bioetanol de baixo custo. A hidrólise de ácido clorídrico diluído de WMP foi realizada em condições otimizadas empregando RSM (metodologia de superfície de resposta) e seguindo o projeto de composto central (CCD). Este projeto experimental é baseado na otimização da etanologenesis envolvendo alguns parâmetros independentes importantes, como hidrolisado de WMP e razão de meio sintético (X1), temperatura de incubação (X2) e temperatura de incubação (X3) para rendimento máximo de etanol explorando o padrão (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) também como leveduras experimentais (Metchnikowia cibodasensis Y34). Os resultados revelaram que os rendimentos máximos de etanol obtidos a partir de S. cerevisiae K7 foi de 0,36 ± 0,02 g / g de açúcares redutores, enquanto M. cibodasensis Y34 rendeu 0,40 ± 0,01 g de etanol / g de açúcares redutores. O isolado de levedura M. cibodasensis Y34 apareceu como um etanologeno promissor e incorpora um potencial prospectivo para a valorização fermentativa de WMP em bioetanol.


Subject(s)
Cucurbitaceae , Ethanol , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Water , Biotransformation , Prospective Studies , Fermentation
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981307

ABSTRACT

Patchoulol is an important sesquiterpenoid in the volatile oil of Pogostemon cablin, and is also considered to be the main contributing component to the pharmacological efficacy and fragrance of P. cablin oil, which has antibacterial, antitumor, antioxidant, and other biological activities. Currently, patchoulol and its essential oil blends are in high demand worldwide, but the traditional plant extraction method has many problems such as wasting land and polluting the environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a new method to produce patchoulol efficiently and at low cost. To broaden the production method of patchouli and achieve the heterologous production of patchoulol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the patchoulol synthase(PS) gene from P. cablin was codon optimized and placed under the inducible strong promoter GAL1 to transfer into the yeast platform strain YTT-T5, thereby obtaining strain PS00 with the production of(4.0±0.3) mg·L~(-1) patchoulol. To improve the conversion rate, this study used protein fusion method to fuse SmFPS gene from Salvia miltiorrhiza with PS gene, leading to increase the yield of patchoulol to(100.9±7.4) mg·L~(-1) by 25-folds. By further optimizing the copy number of the fusion gene, the yield of patchoulol was increased by 90% to(191.1±32.7) mg·L~(-1). By optimizing the fermentation process, the strain was able to achieve a patchouli yield of 2.1 g·L~(-1) in a high-density fermentation system, which was the highest yield so far. This study provides an important basis for the green production of patchoulol.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Sesquiterpenes/metabolism , Pogostemon , Oils, Volatile/metabolism
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2772-2793, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981232

ABSTRACT

Sweet potato is an important food crop that can also be used as an industrial raw material. Sucrose is the main form of long-distance carbohydrate transport in plants, and sucrose transporter (SUT) regulates the transmembrane transport and distribution of sucrose during plant growth and metabolism. Moreover, SUT plays a key role in phloem mediated source-to-sink sucrose transport and physiological activities, supplying sucrose for the sink tissues. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 were obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) cloning according to the transcripts of the two SUT coding genes which were differentially expressed in sweet potato storage roots with different starch properties. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to clarify the classification of IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616. The subcellular localization of IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 was determined by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The function of IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 in sucrose and hexose absorption and transport was identified using yeast functional complementarity system. The expression pattern of IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 in sweet potato organs were analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Arabidopsis plants heterologous expressing IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 genes were obtained using floral dip method. The differences in starch and sugar contents between transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis were compared. The results showed IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 encoded SUT proteins with a length of 505 and 521 amino acids, respectively, and both proteins belonged to the SUT1 subfamily. IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 were located in the cell membrane and were able to transport sucrose, glucose and fructose in the yeast system. In addition, IbSUT62788 was also able to transport mannose. The expression of IbSUT62788 was higher in leaves, lateral branches and main stems, and the expression of IbSUT81616 was higher in lateral branches, stems and storage roots. After IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 were heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis, the plants grew normally, but the biomass increased. The heterologous expression of IbSUT62788 increased the soluble sugar content, leaf size and 1 000-seed weight of Arabidopsis plants. Heterologous expression of IbSUT81616 increased starch accumulation in leaves and root tips and 1 000-seed weight of seeds, but decreased soluble sugar content. The results obtained in this study showed that IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 might be important genes regulating sucrose and sugar content traits in sweet potato. They might carry out physiological functions on cell membrane, such as transmembrane transport of sucrose, sucrose into and out of sink tissue, as well as transport and unloading of sucrose into phloem. The changes in traits result from their heterologous expression in Arabidopsis indicates their potential in improving the yield of other plants or crops. The results obtained in this study provide important information for revealing the functions of IbSUT62788 and IbSUT81616 in starch and glucose metabolism and formation mechanism of important quality traits in sweet potato.


Subject(s)
Ipomoea batatas/metabolism , Arabidopsis/metabolism , Sucrose/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , DNA, Complementary , Phylogeny , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Starch/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2465-2484, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981212

ABSTRACT

Large-scale genetic manipulation of the genome refers to the genetic modification of large fragments of DNA using knockout, integration and translocation. Compared to small-scale gene editing, large-scale genetic manipulation of the genome allows for the simultaneous modification of more genetic information, which is important for understanding the complex mechanisms such as multigene interactions. At the same time, large-scale genetic manipulation of the genome allows for larger-scale design and reconstruction of the genome, and even the creation of entirely new genomes, with great potential in reconstructing complex functions. Yeast is an important eukaryotic model organism that is widely used because of its safety and easiness of manipulation. This paper systematically summarizes the toolkit for large-scale genetic manipulation of the yeast genome, including recombinase-mediated large-scale manipulation, nuclease-mediated large-scale manipulation, de novo synthesis of large DNA fragments and other large-scale manipulation tools, and introduces their basic working principles and typical application cases. Finally, the challenges and developments in large-scale genetic manipulation are presented.


Subject(s)
DNA , Gene Editing , Genetic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Translocation, Genetic
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2334-2358, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981205

ABSTRACT

As a generally-recognized-as-safe microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely studied chassis cell for the production of high-value or bulk chemicals in the field of synthetic biology. In recent years, a large number of synthesis pathways of chemicals have been established and optimized in S. cerevisiae by various metabolic engineering strategies, and the production of some chemicals have shown the potential of commercialization. As a eukaryote, S. cerevisiae has a complete inner membrane system and complex organelle compartments, and these compartments generally have higher concentrations of the precursor substrates (such as acetyl-CoA in mitochondria), or have sufficient enzymes, cofactors and energy which are required for the synthesis of some chemicals. These features may provide a more suitable physical and chemical environment for the biosynthesis of the targeted chemicals. However, the structural features of different organelles hinder the synthesis of specific chemicals. In order to ameliorate the efficiency of product biosynthesis, researchers have carried out a number of targeted modifications to the organelles grounded on an in-depth analysis of the characteristics of different organelles and the suitability of the production of target chemicals biosynthesis pathway to the organelles. In this review, the reconstruction and optimization of the biosynthesis pathways for production of chemicals by organelle mitochondria, peroxisome, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets and vacuole compartmentalization in S. cerevisiae are reviewed in-depth. Current difficulties, challenges and future perspectives are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism , Golgi Apparatus/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Vacuoles/metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2231-2247, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981200

ABSTRACT

Organic acids are organic compounds that can be synthesized using biological systems. They often contain one or more low molecular weight acidic groups, such as carboxyl group and sulphonic group. Organic acids are widely used in food, agriculture, medicine, bio-based materials industry and other fields. Yeast has unique advantages of biosafety, strong stress resistance, wide substrate spectrum, convenient genetic transformation, and mature large-scale culture technology. Therefore, it is appealing to produce organic acids by yeast. However, challenges such as low concentration, many by-products and low fermentation efficiency still exist. With the development of yeast metabolic engineering and synthetic biology technology, rapid progress has been made in this field recently. Here we summarize the progress of biosynthesis of 11 organic acids by yeast. These organic acids include bulk carboxylic acids and high-value organic acids that can be produced naturally or heterologously. Finally, future prospects in this field were proposed.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Organic Chemicals , Carboxylic Acids/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Fermentation , Acids
15.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 18-18, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396574

ABSTRACT

Studies have shownthat homeopathy modulates the activity of both single-and multi-celled organisms;therefore, we propose a study into the action of Arnica Montanaand S. cerevisiae fungus nosode on growth "in vitro", and on the fermentation of S. cerevisiaeon brewer's wort. Methods:250 µL of medication in 30% alcohol were placed in 5 mL of Sabouraud Broth (SB) or wort, with 20 µL of fungus ata McFarland standard of 0.5 and in a dilution of 1:100. Fungal growth was evaluated via spectrophotometry at 600 nm or a cell count in a Neubauer chamber in a kinetic of 1 to 5 days' incubation at 25ºC. The production of alcohol by the fungus was evaluated using the BRIX index in the samekinetic. 1x107fungi/mL were previously incubated with medication for 5 days and, afterwards, placed in 20 mL of fresh wort, incubated at 25ºC for 7 days and evaluated for growth and sugar consumption. Resultsand Discussion: The SB results revealed that after 2days incubation with Arnica30CH, an increase in fungal growth was observed (p<0.0001), whilewith nosode 6 and 30CH there was a reduction in growth after 2 and 5 days incubation (p<0.001). The fungi incubated with Arnica30CH exhibited increased sugar consumption after 2 and5 days incubation (p<0.05), while the nosode 30CH resulted in lower sugar consumption after 2 and 3 days incubation (p<0.05). The results for fungal growth and sugar consumption with the wort were similar to those using SB.The fungalcultures previously incubated with homeopathic medication and subsequent incubation with fresh wortindicated a loss of distinction, bothin terms of fungal growth and sugar consumption. This piece of data may suggest action by the homeopathic medication only when in contact with the cells. Conclusion: The treatment of the S. cerevisiae fungus using Arnica and the S. cerevisiae nosode produced a significant modulation in fungal growth and sugar consumption.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Fermentation , Homeopathy
16.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 263 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379332

ABSTRACT

Os ribossomos são complexos ribonucleoproteicos conservados formados por duas subunidades assimétricas (40S e 60S em eucariotos) responsáveis pela tradução da informação genética e catálise da síntese proteica. A montagem destes complexos em eucariotos é mais bem descrita em S. cerevisiae, constituindo um processo celular energeticamente dispendioso e com múltiplas etapas. Ela tem origem no nucléolo com a transcrição do pré-rRNA 35S e requer o recrutamento hierárquico e transiente de cerca de 200 fatores de montagem para garantir a formação correta dos centros funcionais aptos à tradução. Neste processo, que se estende no núcleo e citoplasma, 79 proteínas ribossomais associam-se gradativamente à medida que o prérRNA é dobrado, modificado e processado. O processamento do pré-rRNA 35S consiste na remoção progressiva de espaçadores internos (ITS1 e ITS2) e externos (5ETS e 3ETS), que separam e flanqueiam os rRNAs maduros componentes de ambas subunidades ribossomais. A clivagem do ITS1 separa as vias de maturação do pré-60S e do pré-40S. O ITS2, que, em associação a fatores de montagem, forma uma estrutura denominada ITS2-foot, é o último espaçador do pré-60S a ser removido. A composição do ITS2-foot permanece inalterada no nucléolo até a transição entre o estado E nucleolar e a formação da partícula Nog2 nuclear. Nesta etapa, a liberação do fator Erb1 permite o recrutamento do fator de montagem conservado e essencial Nop53. Na base do ITS2-foot, Nop53 recruta o exossomo via RNA helicase Mtr4 para a clivagem 3-5 exonucleolítica de parte do ITS2 levando à desmontagem do ITS2-foot. O fato de Nop53 atuar como ponte entre dois grandes complexos e apresentar uma estrutura flexível e estendida nos levou a aprofundar a caracterização de seu papel durante a maturação do pré60S. Neste trabalho, usando análise proteômica quantitativa label-free baseada em espectrometria de massas, caracterizou-se o interactoma de Nop53, e avaliou-se o impacto da depleção de Nop53 no interactoma da subunidade catalítica do exossomo Rrp6 e na composição de pré-ribossomos representativos de quase todas as etapas de maturação do pré-60S. Em paralelo, foram caracterizados mutantes truncados de Nop53 e avaliada por pull-down a interação de Nop53 com componentes do exossomo. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que Nop53 é capaz de interagir com o cofator do exossomo Mpp6, sugerindo pontos adicionais de interação durante o recrutamento do exossomo ao pré-60S. A análise do interactoma de Rrp6 mostrou uma associação precoce do exossomo aos intermediários pré-ribossomais nucleolares mais iniciais, anteriores aos previamente descritos. Mudanças na composição dos intermediários pré-60S revelaram que a depleção de Nop53 afeta a transição entre o estado E e a partícula Nog2, afetando eventos tardios de maturação como o recrutamento de Yvh1. Comparando-se o efeito da depleção de Nop53 com o de mutantes nop53 desprovidos da região de recrutamento do exossomo, obtivemos evidências bioquímicas do papel estrutural de Nop53 na base do ITS2- foot. Em conjunto, estas observações, à luz de estruturas de intermediários pré-ribossomais recentemente descritas, nos permitiram concluir que o recrutamento de Nop53 ao pré-60S contribui para a estabilização de eventos de remodelamento do rRNA que antecedem a formação da partícula Nog2


Ribosomes are conserved ribonucleoprotein complexes formed by two asymmetric subunits (the 40S and the 60S in eukaryotes) responsible for translating the genetic information and catalyzing protein synthesis. The assembly of these complexes in eukaryotes is best described in S. cerevisiae. It is an energetically demanding, multi-step cellular process, that starts in the nucleolus with the transcription of the 35S pre-rRNA. It requires the hierarchical and transient recruitment of about 200 assembly factors to ensure the correct formation of the functional centers suitable for translation. In this process, which extends into the nucleus and cytoplasm, 79 ribosomal proteins gradually associate as the pre-rRNA is folded, modified, and processed. The 35S pre-rRNA processing happens with the progressive removal of internal (ITS1 and ITS2) and external (5'ETS and 3'ETS) transcribed spacers, which separate and flank the mature rRNA components of both ribosomal subunits. The cleavage at the ITS1 separates the pre-60S and pre40S maturation pathways. The ITS2, which in association with assembly factors constitutes a structure called ITS2-foot, is the last pre-60S spacer to be removed. The composition of the ITS2- foot remains unchanged in the nucleolus until the transition between the nucleolar state E and the nuclear Nog2 particle. At this stage, the release of Erb1 allows the recruitment of the conserved and essential assembly factor Nop53. At the base of the ITS2-foot, Nop53 recruits the exosome via the RNA helicase Mtr4 for the ITS2 3'-5' exonucleolytic cleavage leading to the ITS2-foot disassembly. The fact that Nop53 acts as a bridge between these two large complexes and exhibits a flexible and extended structure led us to further characterize its role in the pre-60S maturation. In this work, using mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitative proteomics, we characterized the interactome of Nop53, as well as the impact of the depletion of Nop53 on the interactome of the exosome catalytic subunit Rrp6 and on the composition of pre-ribosomes representative of almost all pre-60S maturation stages. In parallel, we characterized nop53 truncated mutants and evaluated the interaction of Nop53 with exosome components by pulldown assays. The results showed that Nop53 can interact with the exosome cofactor Mpp6, suggesting the contribution of additional points of interaction during the exosome recruitment to the pre-60S. The analysis of the Rrp6 interactome revealed an early association of the exosome with pre-ribosomal intermediates at very early nucleolar stages, before those previously described. Changes in the composition of pre-60S intermediates revealed that Nop53 depletion affects the transition between the state E and the Nog2 particle, affecting late pre-60S maturation events, such as the Yvh1 recruitment. Comparing the effect of Nop53 depletion with that of nop53 mutants lacking the exosome interacting region, we obtained biochemical evidence of the structural role of Nop53 at the base of the ITS2-foot. Altogether, and in light of recently described structures of pre-ribosomal intermediates, these observations allowed us to conclude that the recruitment of Nop53 to the pre-60S contributes to the stabilization of rRNA remodeling events that precede the formation of the Nog2 particle


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classification , Ribosome Subunits/chemistry , Ribonucleoproteins , Ribosomal Proteins , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Cell Nucleolus , Ribosome Subunits, Large , Eukaryota
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928007

ABSTRACT

Monoterpenes are widely used in cosmetics, food, medicine, agriculture and other fields. With the development of synthetic biology, it is considered as a potential way to create microbial cell factories to produce monoterpenes. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce monoterpenes has been a research hotspot in synthetic biology. In S. cerevisiae, the production of geranyl pyrophosphate(GPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate(FPP) is catalyzed by a bifunctional enzyme farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase(encoded by ERG20 gene) which is inclined to synthesize FPP essential for yeast growth. Therefore, reasonable control of FPP synthesis is the basis for efficient monoterpene synthesis in yeast cell factories. In order to achieve dynamic control from GPP to FPP biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae, we obtained a novel chassis strain HP001-pERG1-ERG20 by replacing the ERG20 promoter of the chassis strain HP001 with the promoter of cyclosqualene cyclase(ERG1) gene. Further, we reconstructed the metabolic pathway by using GPP and neryl diphosphate(NPP), cis-GPP as substrates in HP001-pERG1-ERG20. The yield of GPP-derived linalool increased by 42.5% to 7.6 mg·L~(-1), and that of NPP-derived nerol increased by 1 436.4% to 8.3 mg·L~(-1). This study provides a basis for the production of monoterpenes by microbial fermentation.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Geranyltranstransferase/genetics , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927947

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rh_2 is a rare active ingredient in precious Chinese medicinal materials such as Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and Panacis Quinquefolii Radix. It has important pharmacological activities such as anti-cancer and improving human immunity. However, due to the extremely low content of ginsenoside Rh_2 in the source plants, the traditional way of obtaining it has limitations. This study intended to apply synthetic biological technology to develop a cell factory of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce Rh_2 by low-cost fermentation. First, we used the high protopanaxadiol(PPD)-yielding strain LPTA as the chassis strain, and inserted the Panax notoginseng enzyme gene Pn1-31, together with yeast UDP-glucose supply module genes[phosphoglucose mutase 1(PGM1), α-phosphoglucose mutase(PGM2), and uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase(UGP1)], into the EGH1 locus of yeast chromosome. The engineered strain LPTA-RH2 produced 17.10 mg·g~(-1) ginsenoside Rh_2. This strain had low yield of Rh_2 while accumulated much precursor PPD, which severely restricted the application of this strain. In order to further improve the production of ginsenoside Rh_2, we strengthened the UDP glucose supply module and ginsenoside Rh_2 synthesis module by engineered strain LPTA-RH2-T. The shaking flask yield of ginsenoside Rh_2 was increased to 36.26 mg·g~(-1), which accounted for 3.63% of the dry weight of yeast cells. Compared with those of the original strain LPTA-RH2, the final production and the conversion efficiency of Rh_2 increased by 112.11% and 65.14%, respectively. This study provides an important basis for further obtaining the industrial-grade cell factory for the production of ginsenoside Rh_2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fermentation , Ginsenosides , Panax/genetics , Panax notoginseng , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Uridine Diphosphate Glucose
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1946-1952, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927829

ABSTRACT

In order to improve the salt tolerance of banana NHX genes, we cloned a MaNHX5 gene from Musa acuminata L. AAA group and predicted the key salt-tolerant amino acid sites and mutant protein structure changes of MaNHX5 by using bioinformatics tools. The 276-position serine (S) of MaNHX5 protein was successfully mutated to aspartic acid (D) by site-directed mutagenesis, and the AXT3 salt-sensitive mutant yeast was used for a functional complementation test. The results showed that after the mutated MaNHX5 gene was transferred to AXT3 salt-sensitive mutant yeast, the salt tolerance of the mutant yeast was significantly improved under 200 mmol/L NaCl treatment. It is hypothesized that Ser276 of MaNHX5 protein plays an important role in the transport of Na+ across the tonoplast.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Musa/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1565-1575, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927801

ABSTRACT

8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is a potent estrogen with high medicinal values. It also serves as an important precursor for many prenylated flavonoids. Microbial synthesis of 8-PN is mainly hindered by the low catalytic activity of prenyltransferases (PTS) and insufficient supply of precursors. In this work, a SfN8DT-1 from Sophora flavescens was used to improve the efficiency of (2S)-naringenin prenylation. The predicted structure of SfN8DT-1 showed that its main body is comprised of 9 α-helices and 8 loops, along with a long side chain formed by nearly 120 amino acids. SfN8DT-1 mutants with different side-chain truncated were tested in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A mutant expressing the truncated enzyme at K62 site, designated as SfND8T-1-t62, produced the highest 8-PN titer. Molecular docking of SfN8DT-1-t62 with (2S)-naringenin and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) showed that K185 was a potentially crucial residue. Alanine scanning within a range of 0.5 nm around these two substrates showed that the mutant K185A may decrease its affinity to substrates, which also indicated K185 was a potentially critical residue. Besides, the mutant K185W enhanced the affinity to ligands implied by the simulated saturation mutation, while the saturated mutation of K185 showed a great decrease in 8-PN production, indicating K185 is vital for the activity of SfN8DT-1. Subsequently, overexpressing the key genes of Mevalonate (MVA) pathway further improved the titer of 8-PN to 31.31 mg/L, which indicated that DMAPP supply is also a limiting factor for 8-PN synthesis. Finally, 44.92 mg/L of 8-PN was produced in a 5 L bioreactor after 120 h, which is the highest 8-PN titer reported to date.


Subject(s)
Dimethylallyltranstransferase/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Prenylation , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Sophora/metabolism
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