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1.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(1): 201-210, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177407

ABSTRACT

O trabalho dos educadores pode ser enriquecido com o uso de recursos pedagógicos importantes no processo de ensino e aprendizagem. Considerando este aspecto, uma animação baseada no livro O feitiço da lagoa, de Virginia Schall, que trata do tema esquistossomose foi construída para estimular o conhecimento sobre a doença entre escolares e exibida para alunos do ensino básico em quatro municípios endêmicos: Jaboticatubas, Malacacheta e Santa Luzia, em Minas Gerais; e João Pessoa, na Paraíba. Após sua exibição, um questionário foi aplicado com a finalidade de verificar a aceitação e o entendimento do material. De acordo com as respostas, o desenho animado apresentou boa aceitação. Todos identificaram a esquistossomose como a doença retratada e o caramujo como o transmissor do esquistossomo. Os resultados apontaram que o desenho pode ser um importante recurso pedagógico no processo educativo, auxiliando os programas de controle da endemia, especialmente quando desenvolvidos no espaço escolar.


The educators' work can be enriched with the use of pedagogical resources which are important in the teaching and learning process. With this aspect in mind, a cartoon with the theme schistosomiasis was created, so as to promote knowledge about the disease among middle school students, and exhibited in four endemic municipalities - Jaboticatubas, Malacacheta and Santa Luzia in the state of Minas Gerais; and João Pessoa in the state of Paraíba. The animation was based on the book O feitiço da lagoa by Virginia Schall and it was shown to students in those four towns. A questionnaire was answered by them after the respective exhibitions in order to verify the acceptance and understanding of the material that was shown. According to the responses, the cartoon presented good acceptance. Everyone identified schistosomiasis as the disease displayed, and the snail that transmits the schistosome. The results showed that the cartoon can be an important pedagogical resource in the educational process, helping endemic control programs, especially when these programs are developed in the school environment.


El trabajo de los educadores puede ser enriquecido con el uso de recursos pedagógicos importantes en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje. Considerando este aspecto, un dibujo animado sobre el tema esquistosomiasis fue realizado para estimular el conocimiento, entre estudiantes del ciclo básico, acerca de la enfermedad y exhibido en cuatro municipios endémicos: Jaboticatubas, Malacacheta y Santa Luzia en Minas Gerais; y João Pessoa en Paraíba. La animación fue basada en el libro O feitiço da lagoa de Virginia Schall y fue mostrada a alumnos en las cuatro localidades. Un cuestionario fue aplicado, después de cada proyección, con la finalidad de verificar la aceptación y el entendimiento del material exhibido. De acuerdo con las respuestas, el dibujo tuvo buena aceptación. Todos identificaron la esquistosomiasis como la enfermedad retratada y el caracol como el transmisor del esquistosoma. Los resultados indicaran que el dibujo animado puede ser un importante recurso pedagógico en el proceso educativo, auxiliando a los programas de control de la endemia, especialmente cuando desarrollados en el espacio escolar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis , Health Education , Education, Primary and Secondary , Educational and Promotional Materials , Health Communication , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Drawing
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e01452020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143891

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the association between genetic polymorphisms in exon 1 (A/O alleles) and promoter regions at positions -550 (H/L variant, rs11003125) and -221 (X/Y variant, rs7096206) MBL2 and periportal fibrosis regression. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study involving 114 Brazilians infected with Schistosoma mansoni, who were subjected to follow-up for three years after specific treatment for schistosomiasis to estimate the probability of periportal fibrosis regression. RESULTS: A risk association was observed between polymorphism at the exon 1 MBL2 and periportal fibrosis regression. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the polymorphism of exon 1 MBL2 may potentially be used to predict periportal fibrosis regression in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosomiasis/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Brazil , Exons/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genotype , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics
3.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(3): 224-227, 20200930.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255086

ABSTRACT

A esquistossomose mansônica é uma enfermidade parasitária causada por um trematódeo digenético da família Schistosomatidae, gênero Schistosoma, que vive na corrente sanguínea do hospedeiro definitivo, o homem. As suas formas variam quanto à evolução clínica de maneira assintomática até agudamente grave, podendo levar ao óbito. É um parasita que tem afinidade por regiões tropicais, como o Brasil, onde a temperatura é elevada, principalmente no Norte e Nordeste do país. Junto com a clínica do paciente e exames laboratoriais é possível ter-se um diagnóstico fidedigno dessa enfermidade. As formas de tratamento para essa patologia segue o farmacológico e depende da fase em que se encontra a infecção, havendo necessidade de implantação de medidas preventivas para o controle dessa doença. Com base no exposto, este estudo, por meio da revisão de literatura, tem como objetivo explorar os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais da esquistossomose mansônica, agente etiológico, tratamento e medida de profilaxia e controle. Portanto, a revisão literária foi feito a partir das bases de dados Scielo, Pubmed assim como livros, guias, textos sobre o assunto, visando conceber um apurado de publicações no sentido de sintetizar um objeto de consulta para uma melhor conscientização da comunidade médico-científica.


Schistosomiasis mansoni is a parasitic disease caused by a digenético trematódeo of the family Schistosomatidae, genus Schistosoma that lives in the sanguineous blood of the definitive host, the man. Its forms vary in clinical evolution from asymptomatic to acutely severe, leading to death. It is a parasite that has affinity for tropical regions, such as Brazil, where the temperature is high, mainly in the North and Northeas of the country. Together with the patient's clinic and laboratory tests, it is possible to have a reliable diagnosis of this disease. The forms of treatment for this pathology follow the pharmacological and depends on the stage of the infection and there is a need to implement preventive measures for the control of this disease. Based on the foregoing, this study, through the literature review, aims to explore the clinical and laboratory aspects of schistosomiasis mansoni, etiologic agent, treatment and measurement of prophylaxis and control. Therefore, the literary review was done from the Scielo, Pubmed databases as well as books, guides, texts on the subject, aiming at conceiving a publication search to synthesize an object of consultation for a better awareness of the scientific medical community.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis/diagnosis , Schistosomiasis/drug therapy , Endemic Diseases
4.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 41(2): 191-202, jun./dez. 2020. Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224294

ABSTRACT

A esquistossomose é uma doença parasitária endêmica em áreas tropicais, apresentando grande importância para a saúde pública no Brasil. Minas Gerais é um dos estados brasileiros que apresenta maior prevalência da doença. Objetivamos descrever os casos de esquistossomose nos municípios de Juatuba e Florestal, Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, e identificar o perfil dos infectados. Realizamos consulta às informações contidas nas fichas de notificação da doença, referentes ao período de 2009-2012, fornecidas pelo Setor de Epidemiologia dos dois municípios. Constatamos que no ano de 2011 houve um pico de casos da doença em Juatuba. Observamos um maior número de casos da esquistossomose em indivíduos do sexo masculino e na faixa etária de 15- 49 anos, em ambos os municípios. No município de Juatuba, os casos de esquistossomose notificados foram, em sua maioria, de moradores residentes em área urbana. Finalmente, constatamos que os cursos hídricos, prováveis focos de esquistossomose, encontram-se em pontos periféricos e distintos, em ambos os municípios. Para o sucesso no controle da doença nos municípios, e em extensão para outros municípios brasileiros, sugerimos a implantação de medidas e ações de prevenção e controle ambiental e educação em saúde para a população.(AU)


Schistosomiasis is an endemic parasitic disease in tropical areas, of great importance for public health in Brazil. Minas Gerais is one of the Brazilian states with the highest prevalence of the disease. We objectived to describe the cases of schistosomiasis in the municipalities of Juatuba and Florestal, metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, and to identify the profile of those infected. For this, we consulted the information contained in the disease notification forms provided by the epidemiology sector of the two municipalities between 2009-2012. We found that in 2011 the disease peaked in Juatuba. We observed a higher number of cases of schistosomiasis in males aged 15-49 years in both municipalities. In the municipality of Juatuba, most cases of schistosomiasis were reported to be residents of urban areas. Finally, we found that the water courses, probable foci of schistosomiasis, are in peripheral and distinct points in both municipalities. For the successful control of the disease in the municipalities, and in extension to other Brazilian municipalities, we suggest the implementation of measures and actions for prevention and environmental control and health education for the population.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis , Public Health , Epidemiology , Parasitic Diseases , Disease , Disease Notification
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190418, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057263

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious pulmonary circulation disease caused by several etiologies, including schistosomiasis. The present study retrospectively evaluated the clinical and hemodynamic characteristics of patients with schistosomal PAH (PAH-Sch) compared to those of non-Sch PAH patients (non-Sch PAH). METHODS: Patients treated at the Pronto-Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco and diagnosed by right cardiac catheterization were divided into PAH-Sch and non-Sch PAH groups. Their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, N-terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and echocardiography and hemodynamic parameters were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Among the included 98 patients (mean age, 45 ± 14 years; 68 women [69.4%]), we found 56 PAH-Sch and 42 non-Sch PAH. The age distribution was heterogeneous in the PAH-Sch group, with patients predominantly ranging from 50-59 (p <0.004). Dyspnea was the most common symptom, reported by 92 patients (93.8%), and commonly present for over two years prior to diagnosis. Clinical symptoms were similar in both groups, with no differences in functional class, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (p = 0.102), 6-minute walk test score (p = 0.234), NT-proBNP serum levels (p = 0.081), or hemodynamic parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PAH-Sch present clinical, laboratory, and hemodynamic profiles similar to those with PAH resulting from other etiologies of poor prognosis. PAH is an important manifestation of schistosomiasis in endemic regions that is often diagnosed late.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Protein Precursors/blood , Schistosomiasis/complications , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/blood , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/etiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Echocardiography , Biomarkers/blood , Retrospective Studies , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/blood , Middle Aged
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(5): 508-518, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283650

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of the essential oil (EO) from Ocotea pulchella leaves as an alternative in the control of schistosomiasis. It was tested O. pulchella EO nanoformulation to assess its activity against adult Biomphalaria glabrata, their spawning and Schistossoma mansoni cercariae. Additionally, the EO chemical composition was investigated by gas-chromatography. Nanoemulsion were elaborated by the low energy method. The adult mollusks, their spawning and cercariae were placed in contact with nanoemulsion to calculate lethal concentrations. Myristicin, bicyclogermacrene and α-Pinene were the main substances in the EO. Nanoemulsion caused mortality of adult B. glabrata, its egg embryos and S. mansoni. These results suggest the use of this nanoemulsion as an alternative in the control of the schistosomiasis cycle.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el potencial de los aceites esenciales (AE) de las hojas de Ocotea pulchellacomo una alternativa en el control de esquistosomiasis. Se probó una nanoformulación de AE de O. pulchellapara evaluar su actividad ante adultos de Biomphalaria glabrata, sus huevos y cercarías de Schistossoma mansoni. La nanoemulsión fue elaborada por el método de baja energía. Los moluscos adultos, sus huevos y cercarías se colocaron en contacto con la nanoemulsión para calcular concentraciones letales. Los compuestos mayoritarios en el AE fueron miristicina, biciclogermacreno y α-pineno. La nanoemulsión causó mortalidad en adultos de B. glabrata, sus huevos y a S. mansoni. Los resultados sugieren el uso de esta nanoemulsión como una alternativa en el control del ciclo de esquistosomiasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Ocotea/chemistry , Emulsions/administration & dosage , Mollusca/drug effects , Schistosoma mansoni/drug effects , Biomphalaria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Pest Control, Biological , Chromatography, Gas , Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane/analysis , Dioxolanes/analysis , Emulsions/pharmacology , Cercaria/drug effects , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Allylbenzene Derivatives/analysis , Bicyclic Monoterpenes/analysis
7.
Rev. patol. trop ; 49(4)2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177494

ABSTRACT

The human species has an emotional connection with nature called "biophilia" (or, love for life). This connection goes from generation to generation, being one of the reasons why green spaces are present in large cities. Quinta da Boa Vista is a municipal park in Rio de Janeiro located in the São Cristóvão neighborhood in the northern part of the city. Its main attraction is the artificial lake system, a leisure attraction for the local community. This article reports the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata and Physa acuta snails around the main lake in the Quinta da Boa Vista Municipal Park in Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Seventy-one B. glabrata and twenty-seven P. acuta snails were collected. The snails were measured and examined for the presence of trematode larvae according to standardized procedures. The prevalence rate of B. glabrata was estimated at 15.5%. Rediae and cercariae resembling those of the species Typhlocoelum cucumerinum (Typhlocoelidae, Digenea) which parasitizes aquatic birds of the order Anseriformes were found. This study reinforces the importance of monitoring park lakes and ponds to better understand the risk of helminth transmission by molluscan vectors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosomiasis , Snails , Vector Control , Helminths
8.
Rev. patol. trop ; 49(3): 177-190, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151954

ABSTRACT

In Latin America 96% of the cases of schistosomiasis occur in Brazil in low-socioeconomic status populations. The epidemiological characteristics and occurrence predictors of Schistosoma mansoni infection were determined in the Bananeiras community, located in Capistrano, a town in Ceará state, Brazil. Sanitary, environmental, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. An investigation to assess S. mansoni infection was conducted using the Kato-Katz and Point-of-Care Circulating Cathodic Antigen (POC-CCA) methods. From the 258 subjects were analyzed, 54.3% (n=140) were women, median age 30 years. Thirty-three (12.8%) individuals were positive by either egg- and/or CCA-positivity. The highest positivity rate was found in the 30-39 year old group. There was no piped water supply, sewage network or municipal refuse collection service. Most individuals were illiterate or had not finished elementary school (66.3%). About 29.1% of the families had a monthly income below one Brazilian minimum wage and 91.1% reported contact with natural water sources. We found an association between infection and age group of 20-40 years, illiteracy, household with 7 inhabitants or more, household with up to 3 rooms and an outhouse. Contrarily, being 40 years old or older and household with up to 6 inhabitants were not risk factors. Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in this municipality, evidencing a strong association with low socioeconomic conditions and high vulnerability. These findings reinforce the importance of identifying the factors associated with the infection for more effective guidance in actions in control programs targeting schistosomiasis prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Poverty , Schistosoma mansoni , Schistosomiasis , Epidemiology , Infections , Antigens
9.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(2): e2019252, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101128

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: descrever as ações de controle e a situação epidemiológica da esquistossomose, em Pernambuco, Brasil, 2010-2016. Métodos: estudo descritivo, com dados do Sistema de Informação do Programa de Vigilância e Controle da Esquistossomose em 116 municípios, incluindo indicadores relacionados às ações de controle (população trabalhada, exames realizados, cobertura de tratamento) e epidemiológicas (positividade, carga parasitária, outras helmintoses). Resultados: as II, III, IV, V e XII regiões de saúde do estado, tradicionalmente endêmicas, registraram maiores percentuais médios para ações de controle (população trabalhada [6,5%, 6,0%, 2,0%, 12,0% e 13,0%], exames realizados [75,0%, 75,5%, 74,0%, 74,0% e 68,5%] e cobertura de tratamento [71,0%, 82,5%, 82,0%, 91,0% e 73,0%], respectivamente), e maiores percentuais médios para variáveis epidemiológicas (positividade [3,5%, 8,0%, 1,0%, 2,0% e 6,5%], alta carga parasitária [0,1%, 0,7%, 0,02%, 0,03% e 0,5%] e outras helmintoses [4,0%, 11,0%, 4,0%, 6,0% e 8,0%], respectivamente). Conclusão: deve-se ampliar as ações de controle nas regiões tradicionalmente endêmicas.


Resumen Objetivo: describir las acciones de control y la situación epidemiológica de la esquistosomiasis, Pernambuco, Brasil, 2010-2016. Métodos: estudio descriptivo utilizando datos del Sistema de Información del Programa de Vigilancia y Control de Esquistosomiasis en 116 municipios, incluyendo indicadores relacionados con acciones de control (población trabajada, pruebas realizadas, cobertura del tratamiento) y epidemiológicas (positividad, carga parasitaria, otros helmintos). Resultados: las regiones de salud II, III, IV, V y XII del estado, tradicionalmente endémicas, registraron porcentajes promedios más altos para las acciones de control (población trabajada [6,5%, 6,0%, 2,0%, 12,0% y 13,0%], exámenes [75,0%, 75,5%, 74,0%, 74,0% y 68,5%] y tratamiento [71,0%, 82,5%, 82,0%, 91,0% y 73,0%], respectivamente), y porcentajes promedios más altos para variables epidemiológicas (positividad [3,5%, 8,0%, 1,0%, 2,0% y 6,5%], alta carga parasitaria [0,1%, 0,7%, 0,02%, 0,03% y 0,5%] y otros helmintos [4,0%, 11,0%, 4,0%, 6,0% y 8,0%], respectivamente). Conclusión: ampliar las acciones de control en regiones tradicionalmente endémicas.


Abstract Objective: to describe schistosomiasis control actions and its epidemiological situation in Pernambuco, Brazil, 2010-2016. Methods: this was a descriptive study using data from the Schistosomiasis Surveillance and Control Program Information System for 116 municipalities, including indicators related to control actions (population surveyed, tests performed, treatment coverage) and epidemiological actions (positivity, parasite load, other helminthiases). Results: Health Regions II, III, IV, V and XII, which are traditionally endemic, registered higher average percentages for control actions (population surveyed [6.5%, 6.0%, 2.0%, 12.0%, and 13.0%], tests performed [75.0%, 75.5%, 74.0%, 74.0%, and 68.5%], and treatment coverage [71.0%, 82.5%, 82.0%, 91.0%, and 73.0%], respectively), and higher average percentages for epidemiological variables (positivity [3.5%, 8.0%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 6.5%], high parasite load [0.1%, 0.7%, 0.02%, 0.03%, and 0.5%], and other helminthiases [4.0%, 11.0%, 4.0%, 6.0%, and 8.0%], respectively). Conclusion: control actions need to be expanded in traditionally endemic regions.


Subject(s)
Schistosomiasis/epidemiology , Information Systems , Epidemiologic Factors , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Public Health Surveillance
10.
Rev. patol. trop ; 49(1): 21-31, 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099703

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma mansoni whose intermediate host is the snail of the genus Biomphalaria. This snail is geographically widespread, making the disease a serious public health problem. The purpose of this study was to analyze the growth, reproductive rates and mortality of B. glabrata and B. straminea in different calcium concentrations and food types. Freshly hatched snails stored in aquariums under different dietary and calcium supplementation programs were studied. Under these conditions, all planorbids survived, so there was no mortality rate and 79,839 eggs of B. straminea and 62,558 eggs of B. glabrata were obtained during the 2 months of oviposition. The following conditions: lettuce + fish food and lettuce + fish food + powdered milk resulted in the highest reproductive rates. In addition, supplementation with calcium carbonate and calcium sulfide in three different concentrations did not significantly influenced the amount of eggs or ovigerous masses. Thus, this study shows that changes in diet are crucial for the survival/oviposition of these planorbids, being an important study tool for population control. Calcium is also a key factor in these conditions, but more work is necessary to better assess its effect on snail survival.


Subject(s)
Oviposition , Schistosomiasis , Snails , Biomphalaria , Calcium , Food
11.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257711

ABSTRACT

Background: Schistosomiasis is associated with agriculture and water development schemes, and farmworkers are particularly vulnerable to this disease because of their regular contact with water. Aim: To determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of farmworkers regarding schistosomiasis. Setting: This study was conducted in Vuvha, a rural community under Makhado municipality, Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional design was used. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection, and data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Results: The majority were knowledgeable about the cause of schistosomiasis (84.3%), knew the mode of transmission of the disease (90.2%). However, about half of the participants knew the symptoms of schistosomiasis. Sixty-eight (33.4%) believed that schistosomiasis was not a problem in their community. The majority (77.9%) agreed that it was abnormal to pass blood in urine, while 85.8% agreed that medical consultation was the right thing to do when symptoms are observed. Fifty-five participants (27.0%) reported ever passing bloody urine. Among those who passed bloody urine, 43 (78.2%) consulted a doctor. Fifty-two (26.0%) participants reported ever being treated for schistosomiasis. Conclusion: The level of knowledge about the cause of schistosomiasis is high among the participants; similarly, there are positive attitudes and good practices shown in this study, but there are some gaps that need to be addressed. Efforts should be made to continue to educate farmworkers because they are at an increased risk for contracting schistosomiasis


Subject(s)
Farmers , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Schistosomiasis , Schistosomiasis/statistics & numerical data , South Africa
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190378, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Key genes control the infectivity of the Schistosoma haematobium causing schistosomiasis. A method for understanding the regulation of these genes might help in developing new disease strategies to control schistosomiasis, such as the silencing mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs). The miRNAs have been studied in schistosome species and they play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes, and in parasite-host interactions. However, genome-wide identification and characterisation of novel miRNAs and their pathway genes and their gene expression have not been explored deeply in the genome and transcriptome of S. haematobium. OBJECTIVES Identify and characterise mature and precursor miRNAs and their pathway genes in the S. haematobium genome. METHODS Computational prediction and characterisation of miRNAs and genes involved in miRNA pathway from S. haematobium genome on SchistoDB. Conserved domain analysis was performed using PFAM and CDD databases. A robust algorithm was applied to identify mature miRNAs and their precursors. The characterisation of the precursor miRNAs was performed using RNAfold, RNAalifold and Perl scripts. FINDINGS We identified and characterised 14 putative proteins involved in miRNA pathway including ARGONAUTE and DICER in S. haematobium. Besides that, 149 mature miRNAs and 131 precursor miRNAs were identified in the genome including novel miRNAs. MAIN CONCLUSIONS miRNA pathway occurs in the S. haematobium, including endogenous miRNAs and miRNA pathway components, suggesting a role of this type of non-coding RNAs in gene regulation in the parasite. The results found in this work will open up a new avenue for studying miRNAs in the S. haematobium biology in helping to understand the mechanism of gene silencing in the human parasite Schistosome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosoma haematobium/genetics , Schistosomiasis/parasitology , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , MicroRNAs/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Transcriptome/genetics
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200411, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136850

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil's southernmost state, Rio Grande do Sul (RGS), was considered schistosomiasis-free until 1998 when a low endemic focus was identified in Esteio, a city located next to the capital of RGS. In the last two decades, the control interventions applied in the region have been apparently successful, and the absence of new cases indicated the possibility of interrupted schistosomiasis transmission. The objective of this study was to update the clinical and epidemiological data of schistosomiasis in Esteio. METHODS: We reviewed all 28 individuals diagnosed with the infection since 1997 and a survey was applied to a group of 29 school-aged children residing in Vila Pedreira, one of the most affected neighborhoods. RESULTS No eggs were detected in fecal samples using the Helmintex method, and all samples were negative for serum antibodies on examination by the western blot technique using the Schistosoma mansoni microsomal antigen (MAMA- WB). In contrast, 23 individuals (79%) tested positive for the cathodic circulating antigen with the point-of-care immunochromatographic test (POC-CCA) on urine samples. Of the 28 formerly infected individuals, only eight were located, of which four tested positive, and four tested negative for serum antibodies using the MAMA-WB technique. CONCLUSIONS: Current adverse conditions for S. mansoni transmission in Esteio and the absence of a confirmed diagnosis suggests that there is (i) a lack of specificity of the POC-CCA test in low endemic settings, and (ii) a high probability that interruption of schistosomiasis has been achieved in Esteio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Schistosomiasis , Brazil , Antibodies, Helminth
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 915-922, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055038

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), found in cirrhotic patients, has been little studied in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS) and includes the occurrence of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations (IPVD). Contrast transesophageal echocardiography (cTEE) with microbubbles is more sensitive than contrast transthoracic echocardiography (cTTE) with microbubbles in the detection of IPVD in cirrhosis. Objective: To assess the performance of the cTEE, compared with that of cTTE, in detecting IPVD for the diagnosis of HPS in patients with HSS. Methods: cTEE and cTTE for investigation of IPVD and laboratory tests were performed in 22 patients with HSS. Agitated saline solution was injected in peripheral vein during the cTEE and cTTE procedures. Late appearance of the microbubbles in the left chambers indicated the presence of IPVD. Results of the two methods were compared by the Student's t-test and the chi-square test (p < 0.05). Results: cTEE was performed in all patients without complications. Three patients were excluded due to the presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO). The presence of IPVD was confirmed in 13 (68%) of 19 patients according to the cTEE and in only six (32%, p < 0.01) according to the cTTE. No significant differences in clinical or laboratory data were found between the groups with and without IPVD, including the alveolar-arterial gradient. The diagnosis of HPS (presence of IPVD with changes in the arterial blood gas analysis) was made in five patients by the cTEE and in only one by the cTTE (p = 0.09). Conclusion: In HSS patients, cTEE was safe and superior to cTTE in detecting IPVD and allowed the exclusion of PFO.


Resumo Fundamento: A síndrome hepatopulmonar (SHP), presente em pacientes cirróticos, é pouco estudada na esquistossomose hepatoesplênica (EHE) e inclui a ocorrência de dilatações vasculares intrapulmonares (DVP). O ecocardiograma transesofágico com contraste (ETEc) de microbolhas é mais sensível que o ecocardiograma transtorácico com contraste (ETTc) de microbolhas na identificação de DVP na cirrose. Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho do ETEc comparado ao ETTc na identificação de DVP para diagnóstico de SHP em pacientes com EHE. Métodos: Incluímos 22 pacientes com EHE submetidos a ETEc e ETTc para pesquisa de DVP, além de exames laboratoriais. Os ETEc e ETTc foram realizados empregando-se solução salina agitada, injetada em veia periférica. A visualização tardia das microbolhas em câmaras esquerdas indicava presença de DVP. Os resultados foram comparados entre os dois métodos pelos testes t de Stu dent e qui-quadrado (significância p < 0,05). Resultados: Todos os 22 pacientes realizaram ETEc sem intercorrências. Foram excluídos três pela presença de forame oval patente (FOP), e a análise final foi realizada nos outros 19. A DVP esteve presente ao ETEc em 13 pacientes (68%) e em apenas seis ao ETTc (32%, p < 0,01). Não houve diferenças significativas nos dados clínicos e laboratoriais entre os grupos com e sem DVP, incluindo a diferença alveoloarterial de oxigênio. O diagnóstico de SHP (presença de DVP com alterações gasométricas) ocorreu em cinco pacientes pelo ETEc e em apenas um pelo ETTc (p = 0,09). Conclusão: Em pacientes com EHE, o ETEc foi seguro e superior ao ETTc na detecção de DVP não identificada ao ETTc, o que possibilitou adicionalmente excluir FOP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Schistosomiasis/diagnostic imaging , Splenic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Dilatation, Pathologic/diagnostic imaging , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/diagnostic imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity , Contrast Media , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/diagnosis , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Microbubbles , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnosis
16.
Arch. Health Sci. (Online) ; 26(2): http://www.cienciasdasaude.famerp.br/index.php/racs/article/view/1302, abri-set.2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045944

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A esquistossomose é uma doença endêmica em 76 países e afeta cerca de 240 milhões de indivíduos, ocupando o segundo lugar entre as doenças infecto-parasitárias de maior prevalência do mundo. Objetivo: realizar uma avaliação epidemiológica da ocorrência de esquistossomose no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, no período de 2007 a 2015. Métodos: Estudo de caráter observacional analítico, com delineamento ecológico, no qual foram utilizadas fontes de dados secundárias. Resultados: Observou-se que ocorreu um decréscimo no percentual de casos positivos no Estado de Pernambuco, de 10,31% para 3,01%. Verificou-se, de vulneráveis à pobreza, percentual da população em domicílios com densidade > 2 e taxa de desocupação; assim como associação inversa entre taxa de esquistossomose e as variáveis: percentual da população em domicílios com coleta de lixo e taxa de envelhecimento. Conclusão: São necessárias ações que contemplem aspectos socioeconômicos, tais como medidas de saneamento básico, controle dos vetores, educação em saúde e medidas que melhorem de maneira geral a qualidade de vida e de renda da população.


Introduction: Schistosomiasis is an endemic disease in 76 countries and affects about 240 million individuals. It ranks second among the most prevalent infectious and parasitic diseases in the world. Objective: To perform an epidemiological assessment of Schistosomiasis in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, from 2007 to 2015. Methods: This is an observational analytical study with an eco-design, in which secondary data sources were used. Results: It was observed a decrease in the percentage of positive cases in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, from 10.31 to 3.01%. It was found a direct association between the rate of schistosomiasis and a percentage of people vulnerable to poverty, percentage of the population in households with density > 2, and unemployment rate. We also found an inverse association between schistosomiasis and the percentage of the population in households with garbage collection, and aging rate. Conclusion: There is a need for actions that contemplate socioeconomic aspects, such as sanitation, vector control, health education and measure to improve overall quality of life and income of the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Schistosomiasis , Parasitic Diseases , Socioeconomic Factors , Schistosomiasis mansoni , Epidemiologic Studies , Solid Waste Collection , Risk Factors , Basic Sanitation
17.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 216 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005420

ABSTRACT

A UGRHI-17 da bacia hidrográfica do Médio Paranapanema (São Paulo, Brasil) é reconhecidamente uma área de alta biodiversidade de espécies de Biomphalaria e possui grande vulnerabilidade a acometimentos ambientais e em saúde, no caso da esquistossomose. O objetivo do estudo foi identificar áreas de maior risco para a ocorrência da esquistossomose utilizando dados de transmissão da esquistossomose e de diversidade genética molecular, associando-os às ferramentas geoespaciais, e com isso estabelecer áreas potenciais para a vigilância malacológica e da infecção em coleções de água doce na região do Médio Paranapanema. Os moluscos do gênero de Biomphalaria foram identificados por meio de características morfológicas e moleculares; enquanto os outros grupos taxonômicos (Drepanotrema, Lymnaea, Melanoides, Physa e Pomacea) foram identificados por características conchiológicas ou morfológicas. A análise filogenética das espécies de Biomphalaria foi realizada por meio da análise de sequências dos genes mitocondriais COI, 16S rRNA e COI+16S. As sequências do gene COI referentes ao trecho DNA Barcode foram testadas quanto à similaridade com sequências depositadas no GenBank e analisadas em ABDG, bPTP e GMYC para delimitação de espécies putativas. Na análise espacial foram utilizadas as estatísticas de varredura, Gi e de fluxo. Foram utilizadas as fichas notificação e investigação dos casos de esquistossomose na região de estudo entre 1978-2016. Foi calculado as taxas de incidência e foi avaliado a dependência espacial entre os casos autóctones e importados com a função K12 de Ripley. Foram gerados mapas da distribuição espacial dos caramujos do gênero Biomphalaria; dos casos de esquistossomose ocorridos na região de estudo; e da diversidade genética em haplótipos do gene 16S. Além disso, foi realizada modelagem de nicho para estimar cenários futuros de alteração na distribuição dos caramujos, utilizado o algoritmo de máxima entropia. Foram utilizados os dados de variáveis climáticas e topográficas obtidas no WorldClim, HydroSHEDS e TOPODATA e o modelo climático regional HadGEM2-ES do período de 2041-2060, considerando dois cenários de mudança climática possíveis: RCP2.6 e RCP8.5. Foram identificados aglomerados de alto risco para ocorrência de esquistossomose em Ourinhos, Assis e Ipaussu. Entretanto, ao longo dos anos, os casos passaram a ocorrer em baixa densidade em Ourinhos e deixaram de ocorrer nos demais municípios da região. Dos caramujos coletados, 75.5% eram Biomphalaria, 11.2% Drepanotrema e 13.3% de outros gêneros não planorbídeos. O modelo de máxima entropia mostrou que há probabilidade futura da espécie B. glabrata permanecer nos municípios de Ourinhos e Assis, e uma probabilidade em torno de 50% de a espécie expandir sua colonização a corpos de água doce de outros municípios da região de estudo, isto em função das mudanças climáticas. Os resultados para B. straminea mostram que esta espécie tem maior probabilidade de expansão de colonização no futuro, especialmente nos municípios próximos a Ourinhos. A análise filogenética mostrou árvores com cinco ramos monofiléticos com alto suporte estatístico. A diversidade de haplótipos está distribuída de forma diferente em cada um dos cinco taxa analisados. Conclui-se, em um dos resultados deste trabalho, que atualmente a esquistossomose, como problema de saúde pública no Médio Paranapanema, está restrita a Ourinhos. Tal fato pode estar relacionado à presença de B. glabrata em pontos específicos e à cobertura deficiente do saneamento básico. Desta forma, o estudo contribuiu para eleger áreas prioritárias para o combate aos caramujos e à doença para evitar ou reduzir transmissões futuras nesta região


The UGRHI-17 of the Middle Paranapanema watershed (São Paulo, Brazil) is recognized as an area of high biodiversity of Biomphalaria species and great vulnerability to environmental and health impacts for schistosomiasis. The objective of the study is to identify areas of greatest risk for the occurrence of schistosomiasis using transmission data from schistosomiasis and molecular genetic diversity, associating them with the geospatial tools, and thereby establishing potential areas for malacological surveillance and infection in collections of freshwaters in the region of Middle Paranapanema. Molluscs of the genus Biomphalaria were identified by morphological and molecular characteristics; while the other taxonomical groups (Drepanotrema, Lymnaea, Melanoides, Physa and Pomacea) were identified through conchiological or morphological characteristics. Molecular genetic analysis of the species was done through sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genes COI, rRNA16S and COI+16S. The COI gene sequences related to DNA Barcode portions were tested for similarity to sequences deposited in GenBank and analyzed ABDG, BPTP and GMYC for delimiting putative species. In the spatial analysis we used the scan statistics, Gi and flow maps. Reporting and investigation records of cases schistosomiasis in the study regions between 1978 and 2016 were used. Incidence were calculated and the existence of spatial dependence between autochthonous and imported cases was evaluated using Ripley's K12-function. Maps of the spatial distribution of snails of the genus Biomphalaria; cases of schistosomiasis occurred in the study region; and the genetic diversity in haplotypes of the 16S gene were generated. In addition, the ecological niche modeling to estimate future scenarios of alteration in the distribution of snails, used the maximum entropy algorithm in MaxEnt software. Climate and altitude data obtained from WorldClim, HydroSHEDS and TOPODATA and the regional climate model HadGEM2-ES from the period of 2041-2060 were used, considering two possible scenarios of climate change: Representative Concentration Pathways - RCP2.6 and RCP8.5. High-risk clusters were identified for the occurrence of schistosomiasis in Ourinhos, Assis and Ipaussu. However, over the years, cases occurred in low density in Ourinhos and ceased to occur in other municipalities in the region. Of the snails collected, 75.5% were Biomphalaria, 11.2% Drepanotrema and 13.3% of other non-planorbid genera. The maximum entropy model showed that B. glabrata is a future likely to remain in the municipality of Ourinhos and Assis and a probability around 50% of species to expand their colonization to freshwater bodies of other municipality of the study region, due to the climatic changes. The results for B. straminea showed that this is the species most likely to expand colonization in the future, especially in the municipalities near Ourinhos. The phylogenetic analysis showed trees with five monophyletic branches with high statistical support. The diversity of haplotypes is distributed differently at each of the five taxa analyzed. As one of the results of this work it was concluded that, currently, schistosomiasis as a public health problem in the Middle Paranapanema is restricted to Ourinhos. This may be related to the presence of B. glabrata at specific point and poor coverage of basic sanitation. In this way, the study contributed to the selection of priority areas for combating snails and disease in order to avoid or reduce future transmissions in this region


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Schistosomiasis/epidemiology , Climate Change , Biomphalaria , Demography , Genetic Phenomena
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180489, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND This work describes a chemical study of the essential oil from leaves of Xylopia ochrantha, an endemic Annonaceae species from Brazil, and its activity against Biomphalaria species. Considering its poor solubility in aqueous medium, the essential oil was nanoemulsified to evaluate its action on controlling some mollusc species of genus Biomphalaria, snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni that causes schistosomiasis, which mainly affects tropical and subtropical countries. OBJECTIVES The main aims of this work were to analyse the chemical composition of essential oil from X. ochrantha, and to evaluate the effect of its nanoemulsion on molluscs of genus Biomphalaria and their oviposition. METHODS Chemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Nanoemulsions were prepared by a low energy method and characterised by particle size and polydispersity index. Biological assays evaluating the mortality of adult species of B. glabrata, B. straminea and B. tenagophila and their ovipositions upon contact with the most stable nanoemulsion during 24 and 48 h were performed. FINDINGS Chemical analysis by mass spectrometry revealed the majority presence of bicyclogermacrene and germacrene D in the essential oil. The formulation with a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of 9.26 was the most suitable for the oil delivery system. This nanoemulsion caused the mortality in B. tenagophila, B. straminea and B. glabarata of different sizes at levels ranging from 50 to 100% in 48 h. Additionally, the formulation could inhibit the development of deposited eggs. CONCLUSION Thus, these results suggest the use of nanoemulsified essential oil from X. ochrantha as a possible alternative in controlling some Biomphalaria species involved in the schistosomiasis cycle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , Biomphalaria , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Xylopia
19.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 245 p. ilus..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1095946

ABSTRACT

As doenças negligenciadas são caracterizadas por um grupo de enfermidades infecciosas que atingem principalmente a população de baixa renda nos países em desenvolvimento, com poucos investimentos em pesquisa e tecnologia para avançar no controle, na prevenção e tratamento medicamentoso. São assim denominadas também pelo fato de não despertarem o interesse econômico e financeiro das grandes indústrias farmacêuticas proporcionando a continuidade do ciclo da pobreza e diminuição da qualidade de vida das pessoas. O objetivo geral foi analisar as representações sociais acerca das doenças negligenciadas para os profissionais de saúde com ênfase nas dimensões conceitual e prática destas representações. Trata-se de uma pesquisa de natureza qualitativa, com sustentação na Teoria das Representações Sociais, em suas abordagens processual e estrutural, realizada com 90 profissionais de saúde que atuam em instituições de atenção primária e secundária à saúde, no município de Jequié/BA. A pesquisa aconteceu em três fases distintas, a saber: na primeira fase aplicou-se a técnica de evocações livres, com uso do termo indutor: doenças negligenciadas, sendo analisadas pela técnica do quadrante de quatro casas, com auxílio do EVOC, versão 2005; na segunda etapa, retornou-se ao campo de pesquisa, para aplicar ao um total de 27 participantes do mesmo grupo anterior, os instrumentos de testes de centralidade: a constituição de pares pareados e os esquemas cognitivos de base. Foram analisados pela análise de similitude e pelos índices de valência, respectivamente. Na terceira fase aplicou-se o instrumento da entrevista em profundidade, para 27 profissionais de saúde, sendo analisados com auxílio do IRAMUTEQ através da análise lexical mecanizada. Na análise estrutural, identificou-se o núcleo central, com os elementos descaso e ignorância, que organizaram as representações sociais dos profissionais de saúde em um contínuo que foi da dimensão individual à político-social, perpassando pelas dimensões socioindividual e imagética. Com relação ao conteúdo, no âmbito da abordagem processual, encontrou-se um corpus geral constituído por 27 entrevistas, separados em 1.076 segmentos de textos (ST) com aproveitamento de 1.043 STs (96,93 %). Emergiram 38.421 ocorrências (palavras, formas ou vocábulos), sendo 2.349 palavras distintas e 978 com uma única ocorrência. O conteúdo analisado foi categorizado em 07 classes distintas que evidenciaram as dimensões teórica e prática das representações sociais. As representações sociais dos profissionais de saúde sobre as doenças negligenciadas possuem uma atitude normativa, apesar de conviverem cotidianamente em seu ambiente de trabalho com estas enfermidades. Isto implicou na construção de julgamentos com elementos negativos, por parte dos profissionais de saúde, sobre as condutas e práticas dos sujeitos que compõem a tríade (indivíduo, equipe de saúde e gestores) no enfrentamento das doenças negligenciadas. Conclui-se que, as representações sociais dos profissionais de saúde acerca das doenças negligenciadas gerenciam e influenciam suas práticas de cuidado, modificando a realidade que os cerca e protagonizando novos saberes e conhecimentos indispensáveis para o controle, a prevenção e o tratamento destas entidades mórbidas.


Neglected diseases are characterized by a group of infectious diseases that mainly affect low-income people in developing countries, with little investment in research and technology to enhance their control, prevention and drug treatment. Their denomination is due to the fact that they do not arouse the economic and financial interest of the big pharmaceutical industries, maintaining the continuity of the poverty cycle and diminishing the quality of life of the people. Our general objective was to analyze the social representations about neglected diseases in health professionals, with emphasis on the conceptual and practical dimensions of these representations. It is a research of a qualitative nature, supported by the Theory of Social Representations, in its procedural and structural approaches, carried out with 90 health professionals who work in primary and secondary health care institutions, in the municipality of Jequié, Bahia, Brazil. The research was carried out in three distinct phases: in the first stage we used the technique of free evocations, with the inductor term: neglected diseases, being analyzed by the four quadrants technique, with the help of EVOC, 2005 version; in the second stage, we returned to the field of research, to apply to a total of 27 participants of the same previous group the instruments of the centrality tests: the constitution of matched pairs and the basic cognitive schemes. They were analyzed by the similitude analysis and by the valence indices, respectively. In the third phase, we applied the instrument of the in-depth interview to 27 health professionals, being analyzed with the help of IRAMUTEQ through the mechanized lexical analysis. In the structural analysis, the central nucleus was identified, with the elements neglect and ignorance, which organized the social representations of health professionals in a continuum that went from the individual to the social-political dimension, spanning the social-individual and imagery dimensions. Regarding the content, in the scope of the procedural approach, a general corpus was composed of 27 interviews, separated into 1,076 text segments (TS) from which 1,043 TS (96.93%) were used. 38,421 occurrences (words, forms or terms) emerged, being 2,349 distinct words and 978 with a single occurrence. The analyzed content was categorized into 07 distinct classes that showed the theoretical and practical dimensions of social representations. The social representations of the health professionals on neglected diseases show that they have a normative attitude, although they interact daily with these diseases in their work environment. This implied the construction of judgments with negative elements, by the health professionals, about the behaviors and practices of the subjects that make up the triad (individual, health team and managers) in coping with neglected diseases. It is concluded that the social representations of the health professionals on neglected diseases manage and influence their care practices, modifying the reality that surrounds them and playing a leading role in new and indispensable knowledge for the control, prevention and treatment of these morbid entities.


Las enfermedades descuidadas son caracterizadas por un grupo de enfermedades infecciosas que afectan principalmente a la populación de baja renta en los países en desarrollo, con pocas inversiones en investigación y tecnología para avanzar en el control, en la prevención y tratamiento medicamentoso. Son así denominadas también por el hecho de no despertar el interés económico y financiero de las grandes industrias farmacéuticas proporcionando la continuidad del ciclo de pobreza y la disminución de la calidad de vida de las personas. El objetivo general fue analizar las representaciones sociales acerca de las enfermedades descuidadas para los profesionales de la salud con énfasis en las dimensiones conceptual y práctica de estas representaciones. Se trata de una investigación de naturaleza cualitativa, sustentada en la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales, en sus abordajes procesual y estructural, realizada con 90 profesionales de la salud que actúan en instituciones de atención primaria y secundaria a la salud, en el municipio de Jequié, Bahia, Brasil. La investigación aconteció en tres fases distintas, a saber: en la primera fase se aplicó la técnica de evocaciones libres, con uso del término inductor: enfermedades descuidadas, siendo analizadas por la técnica del cuadrante de cuatro casas, con auxilio del EVOC, versión 2005; en la segunda etapa, se retornó al campo de investigación, para aplicar a un total de 27 participantes del mismo grupo anterior los instrumentos de pruebas de centralidad: la constitución de pares pareados y los esquemas cognitivos de base. Fueron analizados por el análisis de similitud y por los índices de valencia, respectivamente. En la tercera fase, se aplicó el instrumento de la entrevista en profundidad, para 27 profesionales de la salud, siendo analizado con auxilio del IRAMUTEQ a través del análisis lexical mecanizado. En el análisis estructural, se identificó el núcleo central, con los elementos descaso e ignorancia, que organizaron las representaciones sociales de los profesionales de la salud en un continuo que fue de la dimensión individual a la político-social, pasando por las dimensiones socio individual e imagética. Con relación al contenido, en el ámbito del abordaje procesual, se encontró un corpus general constituido por 27 entrevistas, separadas en 1.076 segmentos de textos (ST) con aprovechamiento de 1.043 STs (96,93 %). Emergieron 38.421 ocurrencias (palabras, formas o vocablos), siendo 2.349 palabras distintas y 978 con una única ocurrencia. El contenido analizado fue categorizado en 07 clases distintas que evidenciaron las dimensiones teórica y práctica de las representaciones sociales. Las representaciones sociales de los profesionales de la salud sobre las enfermedades descuidadas tienen una actitud normativa, a pesar de convivir cotidianamente en su ambiente de trabajo con estas enfermedades. Esto implicó la construcción de juicios con elementos negativos, por parte de los profesionales de la salud, sobre las conductas y prácticas de los sujetos que componen la tríade (individuo, equipo de salud y gestores) en el enfrentamiento de las enfermedades descuidadas. Se concluye que las representaciones sociales de los profesionales de la salud acerca de las enfermedades descuidadas gerencian e influencian sus prácticas de cuidado, modificando la realidad que los rodea y protagonizando nuevos saberes y conocimientos indispensables para el control, la prevención y el tratamiento de esas entidades mórbidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nursing , Health Personnel , Neglected Diseases/nursing , Schistosomiasis , Tuberculosis , Nursing Methodology Research , Leishmaniasis , Chagas Disease , Dengue , Leprosy , Malaria
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761728

ABSTRACT

There have been some reports on schistosomiasis of school children in Sudan’s Nile River basin area; however, information about the infection status of Schistosoma species and intestinal helminths among village residents of this area is very limited. Urine and stool samples were collected from the 1,138 residents of the Al Hidaib and Khour Ajwal villages of White Nile State, Sudan in 2014. The prevalence of overall schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiasis was 36.3% and 7.7%, respectively. Egg positive rates were 35.6% for Schistosoma haematobium, 2.6% for S. mansoni, and 1.4% were mixed. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher in men (45.6%) than in women (32.0%), in Khou Ajwal villagers (39.4%) than in Al Hidaib villagers (19.2%), and for age groups ≤15 years old (51.5%) than for age groups >15 years old (13.2%). The average number of eggs per 10 ml urine (EP10) of S. haematobium infections was 18.9, with 22.2 eggs in men vs 17.0 in women and 20.4 in Khou Ajwal villagers vs 8.1 in Al Hidaib villagers. In addition to S. mansoni eggs, 4 different species of intestinal helminths were found in the stool, including Hymenolepis nana (6.6%) and H. diminuta (1.0%). Collectively, urinary schistosomiasis is still prevalent among village residents in Sudan’s White Nile River basin and was especially high in men, children ≤15 years, and in the village without a clean water system. H. nana was the most frequently detected intestinal helminths in the 2 villages.


Subject(s)
Child , Eggs , Female , Helminthiasis , Helminths , Humans , Hymenolepis nana , Male , Ovum , Prevalence , Rivers , Schistosoma , Schistosoma haematobium , Schistosoma mansoni , Schistosomiasis haematobia , Schistosomiasis , Sudan , Water
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