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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 720-740, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939842

ABSTRACT

Enhancing remyelination after injury is of utmost importance for optimizing the recovery of nerve function. While the formation of myelin by Schwann cells (SCs) is critical for the function of the peripheral nervous system, the temporal dynamics and regulatory mechanisms that control the progress of the SC lineage through myelination require further elucidation. Here, using in vitro co-culture models, gene expression profiling of laser capture-microdissected SCs at various stages of myelination, and multilevel bioinformatic analysis, we demonstrated that SCs exhibit three distinct transcriptional characteristics during myelination: the immature, promyelinating, and myelinating states. We showed that suppressor interacting 3a (Sin3A) and 16 other transcription factors and chromatin regulators play important roles in the progress of myelination. Sin3A knockdown in the sciatic nerve or specifically in SCs reduced or delayed the myelination of regenerating axons in a rat crushed sciatic nerve model, while overexpression of Sin3A greatly promoted the remyelination of axons. Further, in vitro experiments revealed that Sin3A silencing inhibited SC migration and differentiation at the promyelination stage and promoted SC proliferation at the immature stage. In addition, SC differentiation and maturation may be regulated by the Sin3A/histone deacetylase2 (HDAC2) complex functionally cooperating with Sox10, as demonstrated by rescue assays. Together, these results complement the recent genome and proteome analyses of SCs during peripheral nerve myelin formation. The results also reveal a key role of Sin3A-dependent chromatin organization in promoting myelinogenic programs and SC differentiation to control peripheral myelination and repair. These findings may inform new treatments for enhancing remyelination and nerve regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Axons , Chromatin/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Myelin Sheath/metabolism , Nerve Regeneration/physiology , Rats , Schwann Cells/metabolism , Sciatic Nerve/injuries
2.
HU rev ; 48: 1-11, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379026

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A síndrome do piriforme (SP) é uma causa de dor ciática pouco entendida e conhecida, por isso, subdiagnosticada. Possui múltiplas possibilidades etiológicas e a abordagem terapêutica corrente privilegia o tratamento conservador. Objetivo: Neste estudo retrospectivo são destacados o diagnóstico, a etiologia, o diagnóstico diferencial e analisados os resultados do tratamento instituído. Métodos: 34 casos com seguimento mínimo de seis meses e máximo de 12 meses avaliados por uma escala simplificada de graduação de sintomas. Resultados: O tratamento clínico-conservador obteve excelentes resultados em 23 pacientes (67,6%), bom em nove pacientes (26,4%) e razoáveis (insatisfatórios) em dois pacientes (5,8%). Conclusões: Na dor com característica ciática, contínua ou intermitente e sem evidências de compressão radicular ou herniação discal lombar, deve-se pesquisar a possibilidade de síndrome do piriforme como um diagnóstico eminentemente clínico e de exclusão. O tratamento conservador apresenta resultados satisfatórios na maioria dos casos e a indicação cirúrgica está reservada como último recurso às falhas da terapia conservadora.


Introduction: Piriformis syndrome is a cause of sciatalgy barely understood and frequently unrecognized. It has multiple possible etiologic factors and the treatment of option is largely conservative. Objective: In this retrospective study, the diagnostic signs, the ethiology, the diferential diagnosis and the treatment results are discussed. Methods: 34 patients were followed-up for 6-12 months and evaluated by a simplified symptom rating scale. Results: Excellent results in 23 patients (67,6%), good in 9 patients (26,4%) and fair (unsatisfactory) in 2 patients (5,8%). Conclusions: In patients with sciatic pain without proved rachidian or discal lumbar disease, the possibility of Piriformis Syndrome must be investigated mainly by proper clinical examination and seen as a diagnosis of exclusion. The conservative treatment has satisfactory outcomes in most of cases and surgical procedure is reserved as a last resort in case of failure of the conservative management.


Subject(s)
Piriformis Muscle Syndrome , Pain , Sciatic Nerve , Sciatica , Nerve Compression Syndromes
3.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 265-273, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#It has been reported that local vibration therapy can benefit recovery after peripheral nerve injury, but the optimized parameters and effective mechanism were unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of local vibration therapy of different amplitudes on the recovery of nerve function in rats with sciatic nerve injury (SNI).@*METHODS@#Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to SNI and then randomly divided into 5 groups: sham group, SNI group, SNI + A-1 mm group, SNI + A-2 mm group, and SNI + A-4 mm group (A refers to the amplitude; n = 10 per group). Starting on the 7th day after model initiation, local vibration therapy was given for 21 consecutive days with a frequency of 10 Hz and an amplitude of 1, 2 or 4 mm for 5 min. The sciatic function index (SFI) was assessed before surgery and on the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days after surgery. Tissues were harvested on the 28th day after surgery for morphological, immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the SNI group, on the 28th day after surgery, the SFIs of the treatment groups were increased; the difference in the SNI + A-2 mm group was the most obvious (95% confidence interval [CI]: [5.86, 27.09], P < 0.001), and the cross-sectional areas of myocytes in all of the treatment groups were improved. The G-ratios in the SNI + A-1 mm group and SNI + A-2 mm group were reduced significantly (95% CI: [-0.12, -0.02], P = 0.007; 95% CI: [-0.15, -0.06], P < 0.001). In addition, the expressions of S100 and nerve growth factor proteins in the treatment groups were increased; the phosphorylation expressions of ERK1/2 protein in the SNI + A-2 mm group and SNI + A-4 mm group were upregulated (95% CI: [0.03, 0.96], P = 0.038; 95% CI: [0.01, 0.94], P = 0.047, respectively), and the phosphorylation expression of Akt in the SNI + A-1 mm group was upregulated (95% CI: [0.11, 2.07], P = 0.031).@*CONCLUSION@#Local vibration therapy, especially with medium amplitude, was able to promote the recovery of nerve function in rats with SNI; this result was linked to the proliferation of Schwann cells and the activation of the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sciatic Nerve/metabolism , Sciatic Neuropathy/metabolism , Vibration/therapeutic use
4.
Medisan ; 25(6)2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1356479

ABSTRACT

Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 26 años de edad, atendido en la consulta de Ortopedia y Traumatología del Centro de Diagnóstico Integral Salvador Allende de Caracas, en la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, quien desde hacía 6 meses había recibido un disparo de escopeta en la cara posterior de ambos muslos. Esta vez acudió a consulta con dolor intenso en el miembro inferior izquierdo, sobre todo por debajo de la rodilla, acompañado de parestesias en la zona de inervación de ambas ramas de bifurcación del nervio ciático. Se pudo comprobar que el joven presentaba múltiples impactos de proyectiles en la cara posterior de ambos muslos y marcha claudicante. Los estudios radiográficos confirmaron la presencia de 8 proyectiles, 2 en el muslo derecho y 6 en el izquierdo. En la vista lateral se observó que uno de ellos se encontraba a una profundidad que se correspondía con la región anatómica del nervio ciático izquierdo. Para la intervención quirúrgica se utilizó anestesia local, sedación y un intensificador de imágenes. Con la cooperación del paciente se pudo extraer el proyectil alojado en el epineuro del ciático sin complicaciones. A los 3 meses habían desaparecido las molestias y pudo reincorporarse a sus actividades habituales.


The case report of a 26 years patient is described. He was assisted in the Orthopedics and Traumatology Service of Salvador Allende Integral Diagnostic Center from Caracas, in the Bolivian Republic of Venezuela who had received a shotgun shot in the posterior face of both thighs 6 months ago. This time he went to visit the doctor with intense pain in the left inferior member, mainly below the knee, accompanied by paresthesias in the innervation area of both bifurcation branches of the sciatic nerve. It could be demonstrated that the young man presented multiple projectile impacts in the posterior face of both thighs and hesitating gait. The radiographic studies confirmed the presence of 8 projectiles, two in the right thigh and 6 in the left one. In the lateral view it was observed that one of them was at a depth that matched with the anatomical region of the left sciatic nerve. Local anesthesia, sedation and an images intensifier were used for the operation. The projectile located in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve could be removed with the patient cooperation without complications. After 3 months the discomfort had disappeared and he could return to his usual activities.


Subject(s)
Sciatic Nerve/surgery , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Wounds, Gunshot
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1309-1314, Nov.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355688

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a blind technique for sciatic and femoral nerve block in rabbit cadavers by evaluating the spread of 1% methylene blue at two different volumes. Nine recently euthanized rabbits weighing 2.5(0.3kg were used. The sciatic (SN) and femoral (FN) nerves of each limb were randomly assigned for injection with 1% methylene blue at 0.2mL/kg (G0.2) or 0.3mL/kg (G0.3). Nerves were dissected and measured for depth and extension of staining (cm). Mean comparisons were performed using paired t test. The relation between volume and nerve staining ( 2cm was assessed using chi-square test. The mean depth of SN was 1.9±0.2 and 1.6±0.3cm and staining 1.9±1.4 and 2.0±1.2cm, respectively in G0.2 and G0.3. No relation was found between depth and dye spread and there was no association between nerve staining ( 2.0cm and volume of solution. The FN failed to be stained in all subjects. In conclusion, SN injection can be successfully performed without guidance in rabbits. The lower volume (0.2mL/kg) is recommended to avoid systemic toxicity.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de uma técnica para bloqueio às cegas dos nervos isquiático e femoral em cadáveres de coelhos, por meio da avaliação da dispersão de azul de metileno 1% em dois volumes distintos. Nove coelhos recém-eutanasiados, com peso 2,5(0,3kg, foram utilizados. Os nervos isquiático (NI) e femoral (NF) de cada membro foram aleatoriamente designados para injeção com azul de metileno 1% a 0,2mL/kg (G0,2) ou 0,3mL/kg (G0,3). Em seguida, foram dissecados e mensurados em relação à sua profundidade e extensão corada (cm). As médias foram comparadas por meio de teste t pareado. A relação entre volume e extensão corada ( 2cm foi avaliada utilizando-se teste de qui-quadrado. A profundidade média do NI foi 1,9±0,2 e 1,6±0,3cm, e a extensão corada 1,9±1,4 e 2,0±1,2cm, respectivamente, no G0,2 e no G0,3. Não houve relação entre a profundidade e a extensão corada ou entre a extensão corada ( 2,0cm e o volume de solução. Não foi observada coloração do NF em nenhum cadáver. Concluiu-se que a injeção do NI pode ser realizada com sucesso sem auxílio de tecnologias em coelhos. O menor volume (0,2mL/kg) é recomendado para evitar toxicidade sistêmica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Peripheral Nerves , Sciatic Nerve , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods
6.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 134-137, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280057

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of substances to enhance sports performance among professional and amateur athletes is increasing. Such substances may either be included in the group of dietary supplements or fall into pharmacological classes. Every substance used for this purpose is called an ergogenic agent. The number of ergogenic options available increases every day, favoring overuse and use without proper guidance. Among the dietary supplements, we highlight the use of creatine, a substance widespread in sports. Among the pharmacological groups, many drugs are used. Recently the use of sildenafil citrate by professional athletes from various predominantly aerobic sports modalities was reported in the media. Objective: To compare and demonstrate the responses caused by physical training associated with the use of creatine and sildenafil citrate in mice. Methods: A swim training protocol was applied and then an electrophysiograph was used in order to obtain parameters related to contraction intensity, the area under the curve and the percentage drop. Results: The responses obtained demonstrated the ergogenic action of creatine because it altered the parameters used for measurement. The use of sildenafil citrate did not yield satisfactory results to frame the drug as an ergogenic agent. Conclusion: Creatine has an ergogenic effect, reducing the percentage drop after 10 seconds, while sildenafil demonstrated no ergogenic potential and, interestingly, resulted in weaker responses when compared to the exercise groups. Evidence level II; Comparative prospective study .


RESUMEN Introducción: El uso de sustancias con el objetivo de aumentar el rendimiento deportivo entre atletas profesionales y amateurs es creciente. Tales sustancias pueden formar parte del grupo de suplementos alimentarios o integrar clases farmacológicas. Toda sustancia empleada para ese fin es denominada agente ergogénico. El número de opciones entre los agentes ergogénicos aumenta cada día, favoreciendo así su uso excesivo y sin la debida orientación. Entre los suplementos alimentarios, se destaca el uso de creatina, sustancia muy difundida en el medio deportivo. Ya entre los grupos farmacológicos, muchas sustancias son usadas. Recientemente, fue divulgado entre los medios de comunicación el uso de citrato de sildenafil por atletas profesionales, de varias modalidades deportivas, predominantemente las aeróbicas. Objetivos: Comparar y demostrar las respuestas ocasionadas por el entrenamiento físico, asociadas al uso de creatina y citrato de sildenafil en ratones. Métodos: Se aplicó un protocolo de entrenamiento de natación y, a continuación, se usó un electrofisiógrafo con el objetivo de obtener parámetros referentes a la intensidad de contracción, al área bajo la curva y a la caída porcentual. Resultados: Las respuestas obtenidas demuestran acción ergogénica de la creatina, visto que alteraron los parámetros empleados para la medición. Ya el uso de citrato de sildenafil no presentó resultados satisfactorios para encuadrar al fármaco como agente ergogénico. Conclusión: La creatina presenta efecto ergogénico porque reduce la caída porcentual después de 10 segundos, mientras que el sildenafil no presentó potencial ergogénico y, curiosamente, demostró respuestas inferiores cuando comparado a los grupos de ejercicio. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudio prospectivo comparativo .


RESUMO Introdução: O uso de substâncias com o objetivo de aumentar o rendimento esportivo entre atletas profissionais e amadores é crescente. Tais substâncias podem fazer parte do grupo de suplementos alimentares ou integrar classes farmacológicas. Toda substância empregada para esse fim é denominada de agente ergogênico. O número de opções entre os agentes ergogênicos aumenta a cada dia, favorecendo assim o uso em demasia e sem a devida orientação. Entre os suplementos alimentares, salientamos a utilização de creatina, substância muito difundida no meio esportivo. Já entre os grupos farmacológicos, muitas substâncias são utilizadas. Recentemente, foi divulgado entre os meios de comunicação o uso de citrato de sildenafila por atletas profissionais de várias modalidades esportivas, predominantemente as aeróbicas. Objetivos: Comparar e demonstrar as repostas ocasionadas pelo treinamento físico, associadas ao uso de creatina e citrato de sildenafila em camundongos. Métodos: Aplicou-se um protocolo de treinamento de natação e, a seguir, empregou-se um eletrofisiógrafo com objetivo de obter parâmetros referentes à intensidade de contração, à área sob a curva e à queda percentual. Resultados: As respostas obtidas demonstram ação ergogênica da creatina, visto que alteraram os parâmetros empregados para a mensuração. Já a utilização de citrato de sildenafila não apresentou resultados satisfatórios para enquadrar o fármaco como agente ergogênico. Conclusão: A creatina apresenta efeito ergogênico porque reduz a queda percentual após 10 segundos, já a sildenafila não apresentou potencial ergogênico e, curiosamente, demonstrou respostas inferiores quando comparado aos grupos de exercício. Nível de evidência II; Estudo prospectivo comparativo .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Swimming , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Muscle Fatigue/drug effects , Creatine/pharmacology , Sildenafil Citrate/pharmacology , Physical Functional Performance , Sciatic Nerve/surgery , Tendons/surgery , Models, Animal , Electrophysiology/instrumentation
7.
Medisan ; 25(2)mar.-abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1250349

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 36 años de edad con antecedente patológico de enfermedad de Von Reklinghausen, quien fue asistida en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Centro Hospitalario de Kossodô en Burkina Faso por presentar un tumor gigante en la región posterior del muslo derecho. Los exámenes complementarios confirmaron el presunto diagnóstico de neurofibroma plexiforme gigante del nervio ciático. Durante el procedimiento quirúrgico se extirpó un tumor infrecuente cuyo peso excedió los 22,5 kg. Con el tratamiento rehabilitador posoperatorio del miembro operado la paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente y se le dio el alta hospitalaria 7 días después.


The case report of a 36 years patient with pathological history of Von Reklinghausen disease is presented. She was assisted in the General Surgery Service of the Hospital Center from Kossodô in Burkina Faso presenting a giant tumor in the back region of the right thigh. The complementary exams confirmed the presumed diagnosis of giant plexiform neurofibroma of the sciatic nerve. During the surgical procedure an uncommon tumor was removed which weight exceeded the 22.5 kg. With the postoperative rehabilitative treatment of the operated member the patient had a favorable clinical course and she was discharged from the hospital 7 days later.


Subject(s)
Neurofibroma, Plexiform/surgery , Neurofibroma, Plexiform/diagnosis , Neurofibroma, Plexiform/rehabilitation , Sciatic Nerve , Neurofibromatoses
8.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(1): e1122, ene.-mar. 2021. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251755

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La incontinencia pigmentaria es un trastorno neuroectodérmico sistémico que en el recién nacido se diagnostica por la presencia de lesiones cutáneas de tipo eritemato-vesiculosas o vesículo-pustulosas, con distribución según las líneas de Blaschko, asociadas a eosinofilia en muestra de sangre. Objetivo: Mostrar que es factible diagnosticar la incontinencia pigmentaria en el período neonatal, aún en casos esporádicos, mediante un adecuado ejercicio del método clínico. Presentación de los casos: Se trata de dos recién nacidas femeninas, nacidas a término, con peso adecuado para la edad gestacional y sin antecedentes pre- y perinatales de interés; la primera de las cuales se presenta al tercer día de nacida con lesiones en piel, de aspecto vesículo-pustuloso, que seguían el recorrido del nervio ciático poplíteo externo. El segundo caso se presenta al 11no día de nacida con lesiones de tipo vesículo-ampulosas, en región externa de los cuatro miembros, con mejoría a los 26 días de vida. En ambos casos se plantea el diagnóstico de incontinencia pigmentaria esporádica. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de la incontinencia pigmentaria en el período neonatal constituye un reto, el cual es posible asumir si se lleva a cabo un adecuado uso del método clínico, con un minucioso diagnóstico diferencial. Para el diagnóstico, resulta útil establecer consenso a partir de un enfoque multidisciplinario(AU)


Introduction: Pigment incontinence is a systemic neuroectodermal disorder that in the newborn is diagnosed by the presence of skin lesions of erythematous-vesiculosus or vesicle-pustulous type, with distribution according to the Blaschko lines, associated with eosinophilia in the blood sample. Objective: Show that it is feasible to diagnose pigment incontinence in the neonatal period, even in sporadic cases, through proper performance of the clinical method. Presentation of cases: These are two female newborns, born full-term, with a suitable weight for gestational age and without a pre- and perinatal history of interest; the first case occurs on the third day of life, presenting skin lesions, vesicle-pustulous in appearance, which followed the path of the external popliteal sciatic nerve. The second case occurs on the 11th day of life with vesicle-ampulose lesions in the outer region of the four limbs, with improvement at 26 days of life. Diagnosis of sporadic pigment incontinence is stated in both cases. Conclusions: Diagnosing pigment incontinence in the neonatal period is a challenge, which can be assumed if proper use of the clinical method is carried out, with a thorough differential diagnosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Peroneal Nerve , Sciatic Nerve , Incontinentia Pigmenti , Clinical Diagnosis , Gestational Age
9.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(1): 81-90, feb. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388634

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La endometriosis afecta hasta un 10-15% de las mujeres jóvenes. Se define como tejido endometrial funcional fuera de la cavidad uterina y su presentación clásica es la dismenorrea. La variedad profunda afecta a un 1-2% y las localizaciones más frecuentes son el peritoneo pélvico, ovarios, ligamentos útero-sacros y septum recto-vaginal; sin embargo, puede presentarse de forma muy infrecuente como implantes aislados localizados en relación al nervio ciático. El diagnóstico habitualmente es complejo y tardío, dado que los síntomas son inespecíficos y el examen físico puede ser indistinguible de otras etiologías. El estudio imagenológico de elección para la endometriosis profunda es la resonancia magnética (RM) de pelvis ya que una adecuada localización pre-quirúrgica de las lesiones es fundamental. CASO CLÍNICO: Paciente de sexo femenino de 46 años, con tres años de dolor pélvico, dismenorrea y dispareunia. El síntoma cardinal fue dolor ciático progresivo, con déficit motor y alteraciones sensitivas, los cuales se exacerbaban durante la menstruación y no presentaban respuesta al tratamiento farmacológico. En la RM se identifica nódulo sólido sospechoso de endometriosis en relación al nervio ciático derecho. El caso es evaluado por un comité multidisciplinario y se realiza cirugía laparoscópica. El diagnóstico de sospecha es confirmado histológicamente. La paciente presenta buena recuperación post-quirúrgica y cese completo de los síntomas descritos. DISCUSIÓN: La endometriosis profunda presenta un reto diagnóstico y habitualmente es tardío. Este caso presenta el resultado exitoso de una buena sospecha clínica, un estudio imagenológico completo y la resolución con una técnica quirúrgica compleja.


INTRODUCTION: Endometriosis is a disease that affects 10-15% of young women. It is characterized as functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The most common form of presentation is dysmenorrhea. Deep endometriosis affects 1-2% of the patients, and is frequently located in the pelvic peritoneum, ovaries, utero-sacral ligaments and recto-vaginal septum. The isolated endometriosis of the sciatic nerve is a very uncommon presentation of this disease. Late diagnosis is frequent, mainly because the symptoms are non-specific, and the physical examination may be indistinguishable from other etiologies. The imaging study of choice is the pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and an accurate pre-surgical location of the lesions is critical for a successful surgical outcome. CLINICAL CASE: 46-year-old female patient with 3 years of pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia. The cardinal symptom was progressive sciatic pain, with motor deficit and sensory alterations. The pain was persistent despite pharmacological treatment and exacerbated during menstruation. MRI identifies a nodule located in the pelvic portion of the right sciatic nerve, suggestive of an endometriosis implant. The case was discussed by a multidisciplinary committee and laparoscopic surgery was performed. The diagnosis was confirmed with histology. The patient recovered well from surgery with significant improvement of the previously described symptoms. DISCUSSION: The diagnosis of deep endometriosis is challenging and usually delayed. This rare disease had a successful outcome, due to an early clinical suspicion, a thorough imaging study and an effective resolution with a complex surgical technique.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Sciatic Nerve/surgery , Sciatic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/surgery , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Endometriosis/surgery , Endometriosis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Laparoscopy , Pelvic Pain/etiology
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e10842, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249339

ABSTRACT

Regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is an extremely complex process. Nogo-A (neurite outgrowth inhibitor-A) inhibits axonal regeneration by interacting with Nogo receptor in the myelin sheath of the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Nogo-A and its receptor on the repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=96) were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (control), sciatic nerve transection group (model), immediate repair group (immediate repair), and delayed repair group (delayed repair). The rats were euthanized 1 week and 6 weeks after operation. The injured end tissues of the spinal cord and sciatic nerve were obtained. The protein expressions of Nogo-A and Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The protein expressions of Nogo-A, NgR, and Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) were detected by western blot. At 1 week after operation, the pathological changes in the immediate repaired group were less, and the protein expressions of Nogo-A, NgR, and RhoA in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve tissues were decreased (P<0.05) compared with the model group. After 6 weeks, the pathological changes in the immediate repair group and the delayed repair group were alleviated and the protein expressions decreased (P<0.05). The situation of the immediate repair group was better than that of the delayed repair group. Our data suggest that the expression of Nogo-A and its receptor increased after sciatic nerve injury, indicating that Nogo-A and its receptor play an inhibitory role in the repair process of sciatic nerve injury in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Receptors, Cell Surface , Myelin Proteins , Sciatic Nerve , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , GPI-Linked Proteins , Nogo Proteins , Nerve Regeneration
11.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 223-232, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878251

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to investigate the role of GluN2B-BDNF pathway in the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (CSF-CN) in neuropathic pain. Intra-lateral ventricle injection of cholera toxin subunit B conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (CBHRP) was used to label the CSF-CN. Double-labeled immunofluorescent staining and Western blot were used to observe the expression of GluN2B and BDNF in the CSF-CN. Chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve (CCI) rat model was used to duplicate the neuropathic pain. Pain behavior was scored to determine the analgesic effects of GluN2B antagonist Ro 25-6981 and BDNF neutralizing antibody on CCI rats. GluN2B and BDNF were expressed in the CSF-CN and their expression was up-regulated in CCI rats. Intra-lateral ventricle injection of GluN2B antagonist Ro 25-6981 or BDNF neutralizing antibody notably alleviated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in CCI rats. Moreover, the increased expression of BDNF protein in CCI rats was reversed by intra-lateral ventricle injection of Ro 25-6981. These results suggest that GluN2B and BDNF are expressed in the CSF-CN and alteration of GluN2B-BDNF pathway in the CSF-CN is involved in the modulation of the peripheral neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Hyperalgesia , Neuralgia , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sciatic Nerve
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of moxibustion at "Huantiao" (GB 30) on the expression of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in the sciatic nerve trunk and ventral horn of spinal cord (L@*METHODS@#A total of 48 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a sham operation group, a model group and a moxibustion group, 12 rats in each group. The rat model of primary sciatic pain was established by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in the model group and the moxibustion group. On the 8th day of the experiment, moxibustion was adopted at "Huantiao" (GB 30) in the moxibustion group for 5-10 min, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Sciatic nerve function index (SFI) was measured and compared in each group at day 1, 7, 14 and 21. On the 21st day of the experiment, HE staining was used to observe the morphology of ventral horn of rat spinal cord and sciatic nerve trunk. Immunohistochemical method and real-time PCR were used to detect mRNA and protein expressions of GAP-43 in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve trunk of rats.@*RESULTS@#On day 7, 14 and 21, there was no statistical difference in SFI between the sham operation group and the normal group (@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion at "Huantiao" (GB 30) could improve the sciatic nerve function in rats with primary sciatica and its mechanism may be related to improving the expression of GAP-43 and enhancing the self-repair ability of the sciatic nerve after injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electroacupuncture , GAP-43 Protein/genetics , Male , Moxibustion , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sciatic Nerve , Sciatica/therapy , Spinal Cord
13.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 374-382, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922704

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Wallerian degeneration (WD) is an antegrade degenerative process distal to peripheral nerve injury. Numerous genes are differentially regulated in response to the process. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear, especially the early response. We aimed at investigating the effects of sciatic nerve injury on WD via CLDN 14/15 interactions in vivo and in vitro.@*METHODS@#Using the methods of molecular biology and bioinformatics analysis, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which claudin 14/15 participate in WD. Our previous study showed that claudins 14 and 15 trigger the early signal flow and pathway in damaged sciatic nerves. Here, we report the effects of the interaction between claudin 14 and claudin 15 on nerve degeneration and regeneration during early WD.@*RESULTS@#It was found that claudin 14/15 were upregulated in the sciatic nerve in WD. Claudin 14/15 promoted Schwann cell proliferation, migration and anti-apoptosis in vitro. PKCα, NT3, NF2, and bFGF were significantly upregulated in transfected Schwann cells. Moreover, the expression levels of the β-catenin, p-AKT/AKT, p-c-jun/c-jun, and p-ERK/ERK signaling pathways were also significantly altered.@*CONCLUSION@#Claudin 14/15 affect Schwann cell proliferation, migration, and anti-apoptosis via the β-catenin, p-AKT/AKT, p-c-jun/c-jun, and p-ERK/ERK pathways in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study may help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the tight junction signaling pathway underlying peripheral nerve degeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Claudins , Nerve Regeneration , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Rats , Schwann Cells/pathology , Sciatic Nerve , Wallerian Degeneration/pathology
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2710-2720, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Histological and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is of significant clinical value as delayed surgical repair and longer distances to innervate terminal organs may account for poor outcomes. Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (LiESWT) has already been proven to be beneficial for injured tissue recovery on various pathological conditions. The objective of this study was to explore the potential effect and mechanism of LiESWT on PNI recovery.@*METHODS@#In this project, we explored LiESWT's role using an animal model of sciatic nerve injury (SNI). Shockwave was delivered to the region of the SNI site with a special probe at 3 Hz, 500 shocks each time, and 3 times a week for 3 weeks. Rat Schwann cells (SCs) and rat perineurial fibroblasts (PNFs) cells, the two main compositional cell types in peripheral nerve tissue, were cultured in vitro, and LiESWT was applied through the cultured dish to the adherent cells. Tissues and cell cultures were harvested at corresponding time points for a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Multiple groups were compared by using one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey-Kramer test for post hoc comparisons.@*RESULTS@#LiESWT treatment promoted the functional recovery of lower extremities with SNI. More nerve fibers and myelin sheath were found after LiESWT treatment associated with local upregulation of mechanical sensitive yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional co-activator with a PDZ-binding domain (TAZ) signaling pathway. In vitro results showed that SCs were more sensitive to LiESWT than PNFs. LiESWT promoted SCs activation with more expression of p75 (a SCs dedifferentiation marker) and Ki67 (a SCs proliferation marker). The SCs activation process was dependent on the intact YAP/TAZ signaling pathway as knockdown of TAZ by TAZ small interfering RNA significantly attenuated this process.@*CONCLUSION@#The LiESWT mechanical signal perception and YAP/TAZ upregulation in SCs might be one of the underlying mechanisms for SCs activation and injured nerve axon regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Axons , Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy , Nerve Regeneration , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/therapy , Rats , Schwann Cells , Sciatic Nerve , Signal Transduction
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e11207, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285643

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in neuropathic pain, a complicated condition after nerve tissue lesion. Vitamin D appears to improve symptoms of pain and exhibits antioxidant properties. We investigated the effects of oral administration of vitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D, on nociception, the sciatic functional index (SFI), and spinal cord pro-oxidant and antioxidant markers in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, a model of neuropathic pain. Vitamin D3 (500 IU/kg per day) attenuated the CCI-induced decrease in mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency (indicators of antinociception) and SFI. The vitamin prevented increased lipid hydroperoxide levels in injured sciatic nerve without change to total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Vitamin D3 prevented increased lipid hydroperoxide, superoxide anion generation (SAG), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in the spinal cord, which were found in rats without treatment at 7 and 28 days post-CCI. A significant negative correlation was found between mechanical threshold and SAG and between mechanical threshold and H2O2 at day 7. Vitamin D3 also prevented decreased spinal cord total thiols content. There was an increase in TAC in the spinal cord of vitamin-treated CCI rats, compared to CCI rats without treatment only at 28 days. No significant changes were found in body weight and blood parameters of hepatic and renal function. These findings demonstrated, for first time, that vitamin D modulated pro-oxidant and antioxidant markers in the spinal cord. Since antinociception occurred in parallel with oxidative changes in the spinal cord, the oxidative changes may have contributed to vitamin D-induced antinociception.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Antioxidants , Sciatic Nerve , Spinal Cord , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Reactive Oxygen Species , Rats, Wistar , Nociception , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hyperalgesia/drug therapy
16.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020239, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153181

ABSTRACT

The gluteal region contains important neurovascular and muscular structures with diverse clinical and surgical implications. This paper aims to describe and discuss the clinical importance of a unique variation involving not only the piriformis, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, obturator internus, and superior gemellus muscles, but also the superior gluteal neurovascular bundle, and sciatic nerve. A routine dissection of a right hemipelvis and its gluteal region of a male cadaver fixed in 10% formalin was performed. During dissection, it was observed a rare presentation of the absence of the piriformis muscle, associated with a tendon fusion between gluteus and obturator internus, and a fusion between gluteus minimus and superior gemellus muscles, along with an unusual topography with the sciatic nerve, which passed through these group of fused muscles. This rare variation stands out with clinical manifestations that are not fully established. Knowing this anatomy is essential to avoid surgical iatrogeny.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Buttocks/pathology , Piriformis Muscle Syndrome/complications , Anatomic Variation , Sciatic Nerve , Tendons , Dissection , Muscles/abnormalities
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1197-1200, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134424

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Histological techniques are the study of animal and human tissues through staining and examining them under a microscope. To demonstrate the axonal degeneration and demyelination in histological studies, the Luxol Fast Blue staining is gold standard techniques. In this study, a new histochemical method based on modified Luxol Fast Blue for the staining of the myelin sheath in sciatic nerve tissues described. The sciatic nerves of rats were removed and then the sciatic nerve was immersed in 10 % formaldehyde for one week and embedded in paraffin block. Next, thin sections (5 µm) were cut, using a microtome and stained with conventional and modified Luxol Fast Blue. Our results showed that a new method of modified Luxol Fast Blue staining can accurately identify the myelin in the sciatic nerve fibers. The current study showed that the Luxol Fast Blue combination with Light Green has a good effect on myelin coloration, and the results of this study are comparable to LFB combination with Sirius red.


RESUMEN: Las técnicas histológicas son el estudio de tejidos animales y humanos mediante tinción y examen bajo un microscopio. Para demostrar la degeneración axonal y la desmielinización en estudios histológicos, la tinción Luxol Fast Blue es una técnica estándar de oro. En este estudio, se describe un nuevo método histoquímico basado en Luxol Fast Blue modificado para la tinción de mielina en los tejidos del nervio ciático. Se seccionaron los nervios ciáticos de ratas y luego el nervio ciático se sumergió en formaldehído al 10 % durante una semana y se fijó en bloque de parafina. Posteriormente, se cortaron secciones delgadas (5 µm) usando un microtomo y se tiñeron con Luxol Fast Blue convencional y modificado. Nuestros resultados mostraron que un nuevo método de tinción Luxol Fast Blue modificado puede identificar con precisión la mielina en las fibras del nervio ciático. El estudio actual mostró que la combinación Luxol Fast Blue con Light Green es un buen efecto sobre la coloración de mielina, y los resultados de este estudio son comparables a la combinación LFB con Sirius red.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/anatomy & histology , Staining and Labeling/methods , Myelin Sheath , Paraffin , Histological Techniques , Formaldehyde , Microscopy/methods
18.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(3): 323-328, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138032

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the effects of swimming on nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injury in Wistar rats. Methods A total of 30 Wistar rats was divided into 3 groups: Sham + Nat group animals that were not submitted to graft surgery and were submitted to swimming (n = 10); Graft group: animals submitted to autologous sciatic nerve graft (n = 10); and Graft + Nat group: animals submitted to autologous sciatic nerve graft surgery and to swimming (n = 10). The results were analyzed on the software (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA). Results In the first evaluation, all sciatic functional index (SFI) values were similar (p = 0.609). Thirty days after the surgical procedure, we observed differences between all the comparisons: Sham + Nat (−34.64 ± 13.89) versus Graft (−145.9 ± 26.06); Sham + Nat versus Graft + Nat (−89.40 ± 7.501); Graft (−145.9 ± 26.06) versus Graft + Nat (−89.40 ± 7.501). In the measurements (60 and 90 days), there was no statistical difference between the Graft and Graft + Nat groups, with significantly lower values in relation to the control group (p < 0.001). The number of motor neurons presented differences in the comparisons between the Sham + Nat and Graft groups (647.1 ± 16.42 versus 563.4 ± 8.07; p < 0.05), and between the Sham + Nat and Graft + Nat groups (647.1 ± 16.42 versus 558.8 ± 14.79; p < 0.05). There was no difference between the Graft and Graft + Nat groups. Conclusion Animals submitted to the swimming protocol after the sciatic nerve grafting procedure did not present differences in the SFI values and motor neuron numbers when compared to the control group. Therefore, this type of protocol is not efficient for the rehabilitation of peripheral nerve lesions that require grafting. Therefore, further studies are needed.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos da natação na regeneração nervosa após a lesão do nervo ciático em ratos Wistar. Métodos Um total de 30 ratos Wistar foram divididos em 3 grupos: grupo Sham + Nat: animais que não foram submetidos à cirurgia de enxerto e foram submetidos à natação (n = 10); grupo Enxerto: animais que foram submetidos à cirurgia de enxerto autólogo de nervo ciático (n = 10); e grupo Enx + Nat: animais submetidos à cirurgia de enxerto autólogo de nervo ciático e à natação (n = 10). Os resultados foram analisados pelo software GraphPad Prism 5.0 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, EUA). Resultados Na primeira avaliação, todos os valores do índice funcional do ciático (IFC) foram semelhantes (p = 0.609). Após 30 dias do procedimento cirúrgico, foram observadas diferenças entre todas as comparações: Sham + Nat (−34,64 ± 13,89) versus Enxerto (−145,9 ± 26,06), grupos Sham + Nat versus Enx + Nat (−89,40 ± 7,501), grupos Enxerto (−145,9 ± 26,06) versus Enx + Nat (−89,40 ± 7,501). Nas medidas (60 e 90 dias), não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos Enxerto e Enx + Nat, com valores significativamente menores em relação ao grupo controle (p < 0,001). O número de motoneurônios apresentou diferenças nas comparações entre os grupos Sham + Nat e Enxerto (647,1 ± 16,42 versus 563,4 ± 8,07; p < 0,05) e Sham + Nat e Enx + Nat (647,1 ± 16,42 versus 558,8 ± 14,79; p < 0,05), não havendo diferença entre os grupos Enxerto e Enx + Nat. Conclusão Os animais submetidos ao protocolo de natação após o procedimento de enxerto do nervo ciático não apresentaram diferenças nos valores de IFC e nos números de motoneurônios quando comparados com grupo controle. Portanto, este tipo de protocolo não é eficiente para reabilitação de lesões nervosas periféricas que necessitam de enxerto, sendo necessários novos estudos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rehabilitation , Sciatic Nerve , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Swimming , Rats, Wistar , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Nerve Regeneration
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(3): 202-208, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137174

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: The lumbar plexus block (LPB) is a key technique for lower limb surgery. All approaches to the LPB involve a number of complications. We hypothesized that Chayen's approach, which involves a more caudal and more lateral needle entry point than the major techniques described in the literature, would be associated with a lower rate of epidural spread. Method: We reviewed the electronic medical records and chart of all adult patients who underwent orthopedic surgery for Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) and hip hemiarthroplasty due to osteoarthritis and femoral neck fracture with LPB and Sciatic Nerve Block (SNB) between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2017, in our institute. The LPB was performed according to Chayen's technique using a mixture of mepivacaine and levobupivacaine (total volume, 25 mL) and a SNB by the parasacral approach. The sensory and motor block was evaluated bilaterally during intraoperative and postoperative period. Results: A total number of 700 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I to IV who underwent LPB met the inclusion criteria. The LPB and SNB was successfully performed in all patients. Epidural spread was reported in a single patient (0.14%;p < 0.05), accounting for an 8.30% reduction compared with the other approaches described in the literature. No other complications were recorded. Conclusions: This retrospective study indicates that more caudal and more lateral approach to the LPB, such as the Chayen's approach, is characterized by a lower epidural spread than the other approach to the LPB.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O bloqueio do plexo lombar (BPL) é uma técnica fundamental para a cirurgia de membros inferiores. Todas as abordagens do BPL são associadas a uma série de complicações. Nossa hipótese foi de que a abordagem de Chayen, que envolve um ponto de entrada da agulha mais caudal e mais lateral do que as principais técnicas descritas na literatura, estaria associada a menor incidência de dispersão peridural. Método: Revisamos os prontuários médicos eletrônicos e em papel de todos os pacientes adultos submetidos à artroplastia total do quadril (ATQ) e hemiartroplastia do quadril devido a osteoartrite ou fratura do colo do fêmur empregando-se BPL associado ao bloqueio do nervo ciático (BNC), entre 1 de janeiro de 2002 e 31 de dezembro de 2017 em nossa instituição. Realizamos o BPL usando a técnica de Chayen e uma mistura de mepivacaína e levobupivacaína (volume total de 25 mL) e o BNC pela abordagem parassacral. Testes sensorial e motor bilaterais foram realizados no intra e pós-operatório. Resultados: Os critérios de inclusão foram obedecidos pelo total de 700 pacientes classe ASA I a IV submetidos ao BPL. Os BPL e BNC foram realizados com sucesso em todos os pacientes. A dispersão peridural foi relatada em um único paciente (0,14%; p < 0,05), representando uma redução de 8,30% quando comparada às outras abordagens descritas na literatura. Nenhuma outra complicação foi registrada. Conclusões: Este estudo retrospectivo indica que a abordagem mais caudal e mais lateral do BPL, como a técnica de Chayen, é caracterizada por menor dispersão peridural do que outras abordagens do BPL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sciatic Nerve , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Hemiarthroplasty , Hip Joint/surgery , Lumbosacral Plexus , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Nerve Block/methods , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Epidural Space , Middle Aged
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 199-202, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056421

ABSTRACT

El músculo piriforme es un músculo pelvitrocantérico que recibe su nombre debido a su forma de pera, cuyo origen es de varios fascículos que se encuentran entre los forámenes anteriores del sacro, correspondiente a las segunda, tercera y cuarta vértebra. Estos fascículos se funden constituyendo un músculo aplanado, que se inserta en el trocánter mayor del fémur. Presenta una relación bien conocida con el nervio isquiático, el cual comúnmente emerge hacia la región glútea por el margen inferior de este músculo, sin embargo a través del tiempo, autores han descrito variaciones del paso de este nervio que podrían asociarse a alguna patología de compresión del nervio isquiático. En una disección rutinaria de dos individuos formolizados, uno femenino y otro masculino de la región glútea, encontramos que el músculo piriforme se originaba a través de dos cabezas, cada una con su propia fascia que se unían en un vientre común, en forma de bíceps y a través de un tendón cilíndrico se insertaban en la parte medial del trocánter mayor del fémur. El nervio isquiático se encontraba dividido, el nervio fibular común emergía a la región glútea a través de las cabezas, en tanto el nervio tibial por el margen inferior del músculo piriforme. Es importante comunicar las variaciones anatómicas para complementar el conocimiento de las mismas, las que pueden explicar ciertos trastornos físicos y dolorosos como el denominado síndrome del músculo piriforme.


The piriform muscle is a pelvitrochanteric muscle that gets its name due to its pear shape, whose origin are several fascicles located between the anterior foramina of the sacrum, corresponding to the second, third and fourth vertebrae. These fascicles are fused forming a flattened muscle, which is inserted into the greater trochanter of the femur. It has a well-known relationship with the sciatic nerve, which commonly emerges towards the gluteal region through the lower margin of this muscle, however over time, authors have described variations in the course of this nerve that could be associated with some compression pathology of the sciatic nerve. In a routine dissection of two formalized individuals, one female and one male, we found that the piriformis muscle originated through two heads, each with its own fascia that joined in a bicep-shaped common belly. Through a cylindrical tendon it is inserted into the medial part of the greater trochanter of the femur. The sciatic nerve was divided, the common fibular nerve emerged to the gluteal region through the heads, while in the tibial nerve divided through the inferior margin of the piriformis muscle. It is important to report on the anatomical variations to complement knowledge of these variations, which may explain certain physical and painful disorders such as the socalled piriformis muscle syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sciatic Nerve/anatomy & histology , Buttocks/anatomy & histology , Piriformis Muscle Syndrome/pathology , Cadaver , Anatomic Variation
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