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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 200-208, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Atopic dermatitis (AD) affects approximately 10% of adults worldwide. CM310 is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting interleukin-4 receptor alpha that blocks interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 signaling. This trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CM310 in Chinese adults with moderate-to-severe AD.@*METHODS@#This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial was conducted in 21 medical institutions in China from February to November 2021. Totally 120 eligible patients were enrolled and randomized (1:1:1) to receive subcutaneous injections of 300 mg CM310, 150 mg CM310, or placebo every 2 weeks for 16 weeks, followed by an 8-week follow-up period. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving ≥75% improvement in the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI-75) score from baseline at week 16. Safety and pharmacodynamics were also studied.@*RESULTS@#At week 16, the proportion of EASI-75 responders from baseline was significantly higher in the CM310 groups (70% [28/40] for high-dose and 65% [26/40] for low-dose) than that in the placebo group (20%[8/40]). The differences in EASI-75 response rate were 50% (high vs . placebo, 95% CI 31%-69%) and 45% (low vs . placebo, 95% CI 26%-64%), with both P values <0.0001. CM310 at both doses also significantly improved the EASI score, Investigator's Global Assessment score, daily peak pruritus Numerical Rating Scale, AD-affected body surface area, and Dermatology Life Quality Index compared with placebo. CM310 treatment reduced levels of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, total immunoglobulin E, lactate dehydrogenase, and blood eosinophils. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was similar among all three groups, with the most common TEAEs reported being upper respiratory tract infection, atopic dermatitis, hyperlipidemia, and hyperuricemia. No severe adverse events were deemed to be attributed to CM310.@*CONCLUSION@#CM310 at 150 mg and 300 mg every 2 weeks demonstrated significant efficacy and was well-tolerated in adults with moderate-to-severe AD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Severity of Illness Index , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Injections, Subcutaneous , Double-Blind Method
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(5): 472-480, oct. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521873

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La introducción progresiva de vacunas contra SARS-CoV-2 a partir de 2021, priorizando grupos de mayor edad, podría implicar un cambio en el perfil de pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19 en el tiempo. OBJETIVO: Comparar las características y evolución de pacientes adultos hospitalizados por COVID-19 en un período anterior en 2020 (PER1) y otro posterior al inicio de la vacunación masiva contra SARS-CoV-2 (PER2). PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Se registró edad, género, comorbilidades, complicaciones y evolución de los pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19 en una clínica privada, en Santiago, Chile. Se calculó el puntaje de gravedad y riesgo nutricional. RESULTADOS: En PER2, los pacientes fueron de menor edad, pero con comorbilidades similares al PER1, excepto por mayor malnutrición por exceso. Los pacientes del PER2 no vacunados requirieron más ventilación mecánica (38,9 vs. 14,3%, p = 0,03) y evolucionaron más gravemente (puntaje 6) que aquellos adecuadamente inmunizados (puntaje 5, p = 0,048). Las variables que más predijeron mortalidad fueron edad > 60 años (OR 28.995) y presencia de riesgo nutricional (OR 5.246). DISCUSIÓN: El cambio en el perfil y evolución de los pacientes hospitalizados con COVID-19 está asociado con la secuencia de priorización de vacunas contra SARS-CoV-2, cuyo efecto redujo las hospitalizaciones y gravedad de COVID-19 en adultos mayores.


BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the early prioritization of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for older adults may have affected the characteristics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients over time. AIM: To compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of adult patients admitted for COVID-19 before (PER1) and after (PER2) the initiation of mass vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Data on age, gender, comorbidities, complications, and outcomes of adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in a private clinic of Santiago, Chile, were collected. Scores for COVID-19 severity and nutritional risk were calculated. RESULTS: In PER2, patients were younger but had similar comorbidities, except for a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity compared to PER1. Unvaccinated COVID-19 patients in PER2 required more invasive ventilatory support (38.9% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.03) and had a higher severity score (six) than vaccinated patients (five, p = 0.048). The variables that best predicted mortality were age > 60 years (OR 28,995) and the presence of nutritional risk (OR 5,246). DISCUSSION: Changes in the profile and outcomes of hospitalized patients during the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with the prioritization of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and their protective effect in reducing hospitalizations and disease severity in older adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Severity of Illness Index , Comorbidity , Clinical Evolution , Nutritional Status , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
4.
RFO UPF ; 28(1): 21-37, 20230808. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1509406

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: A periodontite é uma doença infecto-inflamatória que acomete os tecidos de inserção periodontal, e ser fumante representa um risco modificável significativo para todos os graus da doença. Ainda, indivíduos fumantes apresentam uma resposta inflamatória alterada quando comparados a não fumantes. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste estudo foi reportar um relato de caso de tratamento periodontal de paciente fumante pesado. Relato de caso: O paciente DRS, sexo masculino, 22 anos, foi encaminhado à Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel) com a queixa principal de necessidade de "realização de uma limpeza dentária". Na anamnese, relatou fumar 20 cigarros ao dia, há 7 anos (7 maços-ano). Na consulta inicial, foi encontrado índice de placa visível (IPV) de 100% e índice de sangramento gengival (ISG) de 66,67%. Foi encontrado cálculo supragengival como fator retentivo de placa (FRP) em 46,30% dos sítios. Estabeleceu-se o diagnóstico de periodontite estágio III localizado grau C. Os exames periodontais foram realizados por um único pesquisador calibrado e optou-se pelo tratamento periodontal não cirúrgico. Ao exame de 12 meses, o paciente apresentou IPV de 23,45% e ISG de 22,83%. Houve ausência de FRP. De uma forma geral, foi possível constatar a diminuição significativa das bolsas periodontais, bem como o ganho significativo de inserção clínica periodontal. Considerações finais: Dessa forma, é possível concluir a efetividade da terapia periodontal não cirúrgica, aliada à manutenção periodontal e instruções de higiene para o tratamento de periodontite estágio III, grau C, em paciente fumante.(AU)


Objective: Periodontitis is an infect-inflammatory diseases that affects the periodontal attachment tissues, and being smoker represents a significant modifiable risk for all degrees of the disease. Moreover, smokers have an altered inflammatory response when compared to non-smokers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to report a case report of periodontal treatment of a heavy smoker. Case report: A patient DRS, male, 22 years old, was referred to the School of Dentistry of the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel) with the main complaint of the need to "perform a dental cleaning". During the anamnesis, he reported smoking 20 cigarettes a day for 7 years (7 pack-years). In the initial appointment, a visible plaque index (VPI) of 100% and a gingival bleeding index (GBI) of 66.67% were found. Supragingival calculus was found as a plaque retentive factor (PRF) in 46.30% of the sites. The diagnosis of periodontitis stage III localized grade C was established. Periodontal examinations were performed by a single calibrated researcher and non-surgical periodontal treatment was chosen. At the 12-month appointment, the patient had an VPI of 23.45% and an GBI of 22.83%. There was absence of PRF. In general, it was possible to observe a significant decrease in periodontal pockets, as well as a significant gain in periodontal clinical attachment. Final considerations: Thus, it is possible to conclude the effectiveness of non-surgical periodontal therapy, combined with periodontal maintenance and hygiene instructions for the treatment of periodontitis stage III localized grade C in a smoker.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Periodontitis/etiology , Periodontitis/therapy , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Periodontal Pocket/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
5.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(2): 127-133, jun. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515470

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El seno frontal es una estructura compleja y desafiante en términos quirúrgicos, siendo descritas numerosas técnicas para su abordaje. Dentro de ellas se destaca el abordaje endoscópico extendido de seno frontal: Draf IIB y Draf III, como una importante alternativa para resolución de patología refractaria de seno frontal. Objetivo: Describir las características de pacientes sometidos a abordaje endoscópico extendido de seno frontal en Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile (HCUCH). Material y Método: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo. Se incluyeron a pacientes sometidos a abordaje endoscópico extendido de seno frontal entre los años 2013 y 2021. Se analizaron variables clínicas, intraoperatorias y de seguimiento. Resultados: Se registraron 118 pacientes, de los cuales 64 cumplieron criterios de inclusión al estudio, con una edad promedio de 48 años. La patología más frecuente fue la rinosinusitis crónica poliposa (42%) seguido del mucocele (20%). Del total de pacientes, el 68% fue sometido a cirugía Draf IIB y el resto a Draf III. Todos los pacientes fueron estudiados con endoscopía e imágenes, y seguidos con parámetros clínicos y endoscópicos. El porcentaje de estenosis postoperatoria se estimó en 10%. Conclusión: El abordaje endoscópico nasal extendido figura como una alternativa útil para manejo de patología de seno frontal refractario a tratamiento. En nuestra experiencia las indicaciones, tipos de cirugía y tasa de complicaciones son concordantes con la literatura internacional.


Introduction: The frontal sinus is a complex and challenging structure in surgical terms, numerous techniques have been described for its approach, among them the extended endoscopic approach: Draf IIB and Draf III, figures as an important alternative for the resolution of refractory pathology of frontal sinus. Aim: To describe the characteristics of patients who underwent an extended endoscopic approach to the frontal sinus at the Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile (HCUCH). Material and Method: A retrospective, descriptive study included patients who underwent an extended endoscopic approach to the frontal sinus between 2013 and 2021. Clinical, intraoperative, and follow-up variables were analyzed. Results: 118 patients were registered, of which 64 met the inclusion criteria for the study, with an average age of 48 years. The most frequent pathology was chronic polypous rhinosinusitis (42%), followed by mucocele (20%). Of the patients, 68% underwent Draf IIB surgery, while the rest received a Draf III type procedure. All patients were studied with endoscopy and images and followed up with clinical and endoscopic parameters. The percentage of post operatory stenosis was 10%. Conclusion: The extended nasal endoscopic approach appears as a valuable alternative for managing frontal sinus pathology refractory to treatment. In our experience, the indications, types of surgery, and rate of complications are consistent with the international literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Endoscopy/methods , Frontal Sinus/surgery , Severity of Illness Index , Chile/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Nasal Surgical Procedures
6.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(2): 141-149, jun. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515472

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La sialorrea es la pérdida involuntaria de saliva de la boca, ya sea debido a la producción excesiva de saliva o disminución de la frecuencia de deglución. Se habla de sialorrea patológica cuando persiste más allá de los 4 años de edad. Además de las implicaciones sociales, cambios de ropa frecuentes, puede provocar neumonías por aspiración y deshidratación. El manejo de la sialorrea requiere una evaluación completa con un enfoque de equipo multidisciplinario para el tratamiento, que incluye terapias no farmacológicas, farmacológicas y quirúrgicas. Objetivo: Presentar resultados quirúrgicos y farmacológicos en el tratamiento de sialorrea masiva. Material y Método: Se realizó revisión de historias clínicas de 7 pacientes portadores de sialorrea masiva. Todos los pacientes incluidos fueron refractarios a tratamiento médico. El diagnóstico fue obtenido por un equipo multidisciplinario. Se les realizó desfuncionalización quirúrgica y farmacológica de glándulas salivales. Se les aplicó Escala de Severidad (DSS) y escala de frecuencia (DFS), previo a cirugía y posterior a procedimiento hasta el año. Resultados: Mejoría clínica subjetiva posterior a desfuncionalización quirúrgica con disminución de DSS y DFS. Disminución promedio de baberos a 10/día. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos son buenos, si se consideran las escalas DSS, DFS y el número de baberos al día, que son mediciones tanto subjetivas y objetivas respectivamente.


Introduction: Massive Sialorrhea is the involuntary loss of saliva from the mouth, either due to excessive saliva production or decreased swallowing frequency. We speak of pathological sialorrhea when it persists beyond 4 years old. In addition to the social implications and frequent clothing changes. It can cause aspiration pneumonia and dehydration. Treatment for sialorrhea requires a comprehensive evaluation with a multidisciplinary team approach. Including non-pharmacological, pharmacological, and surgical therapies. Aim: Presentation of the results of surgical defunctionalization of the salivary glands plus injection of Botulinum Toxin in the treatment of massive sialorrhea. Material and Method: A review of the clinical records of 7 patients with massive sialorrhea was carried out. All included patients were refractory to medical treatment. The diagnosis was obtained by a multidisciplinary team. Surgical and pharmacological dysfunctionalization of salivary glands was performed. Severity Scale (DSS) and Frequency Scale (DFS) were applied before surgery and after the procedure up to a year. Results: Subjective clinical improvement after surgical defunctionalization with decreased SHD and DFS. Average decrease in bibs to 10/day. Conclusion: The evaluated strategy presented similar benefits with respect to the literature. The SHD and DFS scales and the number of bibs per day are both subjective and objective measurements, respectively, and allow the clinical improvement and quality of life of patients undergoing surgery to be evaluated individually.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Salivary Glands/surgery , Sialorrhea/surgery , Sialorrhea/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Treatment Outcome , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(3): 147-152, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515204

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El clítoris es una de las estructuras vulvares menos examinadas, pese a su relevancia en la vida sexual y sus importantes relaciones anatómicas. Las adherencias del capuchón del clítoris han sido descritas y clasificadas según la exposición del glande, siendo relacionadas con trastornos del deseo sexual. La inervación del clítoris depende de raíces de S3-S4, siendo posible que síntomas frecuentes del piso pélvico tengan relación con esta condición. Realizamos un análisis retrospectivo de pacientes de policlínico de piso pélvico entre noviembre de 2021 y abril de 2022. Se incluyeron 100 pacientes con adherencias al ingreso. RESULTADOS: Promedio de edad 45,8 ± 15,5 años. Las adherencias fueron el 19% leves, el 62% moderadas y el 18% graves. Los principales síntomas eran mal vaciado vesical (38%), dolor (28%), disfunción sexual (39%) y síntomas irritativos vesicales (43%); solo una paciente fue asintomática. El área visible promedio del clítoris era de 20,7 ± 13,7 mm2. CONCLUSIONES: Las adherencias del capuchón del clítoris son un hallazgo común, muchas veces no diagnosticadas, por lo que su evaluación debe ser parte de la exploración física. Pueden asociarse a sintomatología de piso pélvico.


INTRODUCTION: The clitoris is one of the least examined vulvar structures despite its relevance in sexual life and important anatomical relationships. Clitoral hood adhesions have been described in the literature, classified based on glans exposure, and related to sexual desire disorders. The innervation of the clitoris depends on the roots of S3-S4, and frequent pelvic floor symptoms may be associated with this condition. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical record of patients admitted to a pelvic floor clinic between November 2021 and April 2022. One hundred patients with adhesions at the time of admission were registered. RESULTS: Average 45.8 ± 15.5 years. Clitoral hood adhesions were mild (19%), moderated (62%), or severe (18%). The main symptoms were voiding dysfunction symptoms (38%), pain (28%), sexual dysfunction (39%), and irritative bladder symptoms (43%); only one patient was asymptomatic. The visible area of the clitoris was 20.7 ± 13.7 mm2. CONCLUSIONS: Adhesions of the clitoral hood are often undiagnosed, and its analysis should be part of the physical exam. Clitoral hood adhesions could be associated with pelvic floor symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Clitoris , Pelvic Floor Disorders/diagnosis , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/etiology , Vulvar Diseases/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Retrospective Studies , Gynecological Examination
8.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 42(1): 23-30, abr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441373

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En nuestro medio, el implante percutáneo de prótesis aórtica (TAVI) se encuentra limitado a pacientes más añosos o de mayor riesgo quirúrgico, en quienes frecuentemente se retarda la intervención hasta que presenten signos avanzados de enfermedad. Objetivo: Evaluar el grado de compromiso miocárdico en pacientes sometidos a TAVI y determinar si la magnitud de este compromiso predice los resultados alejados del procedimiento. Métodos: Registro de pacientes sometidos a TAVI en 2 instituciones de Chile. Según la clasificación propuesta por Genereux el año 2017, se clasificaron desde el punto de vista ecocardiográfico como: 1) compromiso de ventrículo izquierdo; 2) compromiso de aurícula izquierda; 3) hipertensión pulmonar / insuficiencia tricuspídea significativa y 4) disfunción de ventrículo derecho. Resultados: Se incluyeron 209 pacientes. Se logró un procedimiento exitoso en 98,6%, registrándose una mortalidad intrahospitalaria de 2,9%. El compromiso cardíaco se extendió más allá de las cavidades izquierdas en 24,7% de los casos (estadíos 3 y 4). A una mediana de seguimiento de 650 días se registró una mortalidad de 26,8%. El compromiso de cavidades derechas (estadíos 3 y 4) se asoció a una mayor mortalidad (39,6% vs 22,1%, log rank p=0,015). En análisis multivariado, este compromiso fue el único factor que de forma independiente predijo mortalidad (HR 1,87, IC 1,01-3,44, p=0,044). Conclusiones: El compromiso de cavidades derechas se asocia a una mayor mortalidad alejada en pacientes sometidos a TAVI. Estos resultados debiesen estimular una derivación precoz de estos pacientes que, aunque añosos y de alto riesgo, tienen buenos resultados intervenidos precozmente.


Background: Locally, Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is limited to very old or high-risk patients, whose intervention is frequently delayed until they develop signs of advanced disease. Aim: To evaluate the degree of myocardial compromise in patients undergoing TAVI and to determine whether the level of this compromise can predict results during follow-up. Methods: Registry of TAVI patients from 2 institutions in Chile. According to the classification proposed by Genereux in 2017, patients were classified based on the echocardiogram as 1) left ventricular compromise; 2) left atrial compromise; 3) pulmonary hypertension / severe tricuspid regurgitation; 4) right ventricular dysfunction. Results: The study included 209 patients. A successful procedure was achieved in 98.6% of cases, with an in-hospital mortality of 2.9%. Cardiac compromise extended beyond left chambers in 24.7% of cases (stages 3 and 4). During follow-up (median of 650 days) mortality was 26.8%. Right chambers involvement (stages 3 and 4) was associated with increased mortality (39.6% vs 22.1%, log rank p=0.015). In multivariate analysis, this compromise was the only factor that independently predicted mortality (HR 1.87, IC 1.01-3.44, p=0,044). Conclusions: Right chambers involvement was associated to increased mortality during follow-up of patients undergoing TAVI. These results should stimulate earlier referral of these high risk and older patients in order to obtain better results following the intervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Aortic Valve Stenosis/mortality , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/adverse effects , Aortic Valve Stenosis/classification , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency , Severity of Illness Index , Echocardiography , Survival Analysis , Multivariate Analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality , Forecasting , Myocardium/pathology
9.
Med. infant ; 30(1): 3-7, Marzo 2023. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1427764

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Según numerosos reportes, la pandemia por COVID­19 aumentó la incidencia de diabetes tipo 1 (DBT1) y cetoacidosis (CAD). Nuestro objetivo fue describir la frecuencia de nuevos casos de DBT1 y su severidad al ingreso en el Hospital J. P. Garrahan durante la pandemia, comparando con el periodo anterior. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional, con análisis retrospectivo. Se incluyeron todos los nuevos casos entre 19/03/20- 31/12/21, comparados con el período 19/03/18-31/12/19. El diagnóstico de DBT1, CAD y su severidad se realizó según la International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes. Se analizó el requerimiento de cuidados intensivos (UCI), presencia de COVID-19, hemoglobina glicosilada A1C (HbA1C) y autoanticuerpos (GADA, IAA, IA2, ZNT8). Se consideró significativa una p < 0,05. Resultados: En el período 2020-2021 se observó un incremento del 107% de nuevos casos, ingresando 56 pacientes con DBT1. La media y mediana de edad disminuyeron (8 vs 9,1 y 7,7 vs 10,4, respectivamente), con un incremento del 35% de menores de 5 años. Aumentó la frecuencia de CAD severa (41.1% vs 25.9%) y de requerimiento de UCI (17.9% vs 11.1%). La Hb A1C y la glucemia de ingreso mostraron incremento significativo (10.1% vs 12.32%, p<0.003 y 580 mg/dl ± 220 vs 490 mg/dl ± 188; p<0.05, respectivamente). Conclusión: En 2020-2021 se incrementó el número de nuevos casos de DBT1 en nuestra institución. Al ingreso hubo mayor proporción de niños pequeños y casos severos. Las dificultades de acceso a la consulta de atención primaria podrían relacionarse con nuestro hallazgo (AU)


Introduction: Numerous reports have shown that during the COVID-19 pandemic the incidence of type-1 diabetes (T1DB) and ketoacidosis (DKA) increased. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of new cases and their severity on admission of T1DB at Hospital J. P. Garrahan during the pandemic, compared with the previous period. Material and methods: A descriptive, observational study with a retrospective analysis was conducted. All new cases seen between 19/03/20-31/12/21 were included and compared with the period 19/03/18-31/12/19. The diagnosis of T1DB, DKA, and its severity was made according to the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes. Intensive care (ICU) requirement, presence of COVID-19, glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), and autoantibodies (GADA, IAA, IA2, ZNT8) were analyzed. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In the period 2020-2021, a 107% increase in new cases was observed including 56 patients with T1DB. Mean and median age decreased (8 vs 9.1 and 7.7 vs 10.4, respectively), with a 35% increase in children under 5 years of age. The frequency of severe DKA (41.1% vs 25.9%) and ICU requirement (17.9% vs 11.1%) increased. Hb A1C and glycemia on admission also showed a significant increase (10.1% vs 12.32%, p<0.003 and 580 mg/dl ± 220 vs 490 mg/dl ± 188; p<0.05, respectively). Conclusion: In 2020-2021 an increase in the number of new cases of T1DB was observed at our institution. On admission, a higher rate of young children and severe cases was found. Difficulties to access primary care may have been related to our finding (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Severity of Illness Index , Incidence , Retrospective Studies
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(2): 185-196, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severity assessment in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) allows to guide the site of care (ambulatory or hospitalization), diagnostic workup and treatment. AIM: To examine the performance of twelve severity predictive indexes (CRB65, CURB65, PSI, SCAP, SMART-COP, REA-ICU, ATS minor criteria, qSOFA, CALL, COVID GRAM, 4C, STSS) in adult patients hospitalized for CAP associated with SARS-CoV-2. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective clinical study conducted between April 1 and September 30, 2020 in adult patients hospitalized for CAP associated with COVID-19 in a clinical hospital. The recorded adverse events were admission to the critical care unit, use of mechanical ventilation (MV), prolonged length of stay, and hospital mortality. The predictive rules were compared based on their sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Adverse events were more common and hospital stay longer in the high-risk categories of the different prognostic indices. CURB-65, PSI, SCAP, COVID GRAM, 4 C and STSS predicted the risk of death accurately. PSI, SCAP, ATS minor criteria, CALL and 4 C criteria were sensitive in predicting the risk of hospital mortality with high negative predictive value. The performance of different prognostic indices decreased significantly for the prediction of ICU admission, use of mechanical ventilation, and prolonged hospital length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of the prognostic indices differs significantly for the prediction of adverse events in immunocompetent adult patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Pneumonia , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 35jan. 31, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526862

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Maternal and child health are essential to public health, especially during pregnancy, where urogenital infections can affect mothers and fetuses. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase obstetric risks and have complex connections with the human immunodeficiency virus ­ HIV. In Brazil, pregnant women with HIV are a growing concern, requiring focus and appropriate interventions. Objective: This study aimed to examine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of urogenital infections in pregnant women with and without HIV and to assess whether there are notable differences between these groups. Methods: A scoping review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses ­ Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) and Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. Databases such as Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) were explored using relevant terms. Inclusion/exclusion criteria selected nine studies for analysis. A Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Study Design (PICOS) approach directed the search. Results: Pregnant women with HIV had a high prevalence of STIs, including Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and bacterial vaginosis. HIV infection appears to influence the risk and severity of urogenital infections. Pregnancy increases the risk of STIs, regardless of HIV status. Male partners may also influence the presence of STIs in pregnant women, especially those with HIV. Conclusion: This study highlights the association between HIV status and urogenital infections in pregnant women, indicating the need for appropriate screening and care. Prevention and treatment of STIs in pregnant women are essential for maternal and child health, regardless of HIV status. An in-depth understanding of these issues can improve public policies, clinical practices, and preventive interventions that target the overall health of these vulnerable populations.Keywords: HIV. Signs and symptoms. Female urogenital diseases and pregnancy complications. Pregnant women. Sexually transmitted infections


Introdução: A saúde materna e infantil é essencial na saúde pública, especialmente durante a gravidez, quando infecções urogenitais podem afetar mães e fetos. Infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) aumentam riscos obstétricos e têm conexões complexas com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). No Brasil, gestantes com HIV são uma preocupação crescente, requerendo foco e intervenções adequadas. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo examinar as características clínicas e epidemiológicas das infecções urogenitais em mulheres grávidas com e sem HIV, avaliando se há diferenças notáveis entre esses grupos. Métodos: Uma revisão de escopo foi conduzida, seguindo as diretrizes Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses - Extension for Scoping Reviews(PRISMA-ScR) e Joanna Briggs Institute. Bases de dados como Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) foram exploradas com termos relevantes. Os critérios de inclusão/exclusão selecionaram nove estudos para análise. Uma abordagem do tipo População, Intervenção, Comparação, Desfecho e Desenho do Estudo (PICOS) direcionou a pesquisa. Resultados: Mulheres grávidas com HIV apresentaram alta prevalência de IST, incluindo Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis e vaginose bacteriana. A infecção por HIV parece influenciar o risco e a gravidade das infecções urogenitais. A gravidez aumentou o risco de IST, independentemente do status de HIV. Os parceiros masculinos também podem influenciar a presença de IST em mulheres grávidas, especialmente aquelas com HIV. Conclusão: A associação entre o status de HIV e as infecções urogenitais em mulheres grávidas indica a necessidade de rastreamento e cuidado adequado. A prevenção e o tratamento de IST em gestantes são essenciais para a saúde materno-infantil, independentemente do status de HIV


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Urinary Tract Infections , HIV Infections/complications , Reproductive Tract Infections , Severity of Illness Index
12.
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 35: e23351382, jan. 31, 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513227

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Congenital syphilis is a serious public health problem that causes high rates of intrauterine morbidity and mortality, revealing flaws and weaknesses in the health system. Objective: to report a case of congenital syphilis in a university hospital in the Center-South Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Case report: A pregnant woman, aged between 19 and 23 years old, carrying a Pregnant Woman's Handbook with a record of seven prenatal consultations and a note of the serological reaction for positive syphilis, but without any treatment, hospitalized at the University Hospital of Vassouras (RJ), in labor, gave birth to a newborn (NB) with a clinical picture and serological test of congenital syphilis. The NB required care in an intensive care unit and was discharged 28 days after birth. Scraping of skin lesions of the NB and placenta was performed for analysis by molecular biology (PCR in house) and genetic material of Treponema pallidum was detected. Conclusion: Congenital syphilis is a serious outcome of syphilis during pregnancy, consuming high financial resources and significant emotional distress for the mother, father, the whole family, as well as for the health teams. Our case report was the first that we are aware of in Brazil with a diagnosis by PCR for positive Treponema pallidum of skin scraping and placental fragment. It also showed poor quality prenatal care, a common factor in most cases of CS in our reality


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Young Adult , Placenta/microbiology , Syphilis, Congenital/diagnosis , Treponema pallidum/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 22(1): 1-7, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444907

ABSTRACT

La exóstosis del conducto auditivo externo (ECAE), también conocida como oído de surfista, es una alteración del tejido óseo del oído externo, principalmente causada debido a la sobrexposición al frío. Considerando que los practicantes de deportes acuáticos como el surf y bodyboard de las costas del pacífico sur se exponen a aguas con temperaturas entre 12-16 °C, se busca determinar, en este estudio, la prevalencia y grado de ECAE en practicantes de surf y bodyboard de las localidades de Reñaca y Concón durante el año 2018. Se realizó una evaluación del CAE mediante video-otoscopía a 67 personas (134 oídos) practicantes de surf y bodyboard de las playas de Reñaca y Concón, y se les aplicó un cuestionario respecto a sus hábitos de práctica. Como resultado, se observó una prevalencia de ECAE del 77,6%, siendo el 61,2% ECAE bilateral y el 16,4% ECAE unilateral. Se pudo determinar, además, que el 62,3%de los participantes no usa protecciones. A partir de estos hallazgos, es posible concluir que existe una alta prevalencia de la ECAE en practicantes de surf y bodyboard en las costas centrales chilenas, lo que debería alertar tanto a la población practicante como a profesionales de la salud auditiva con el fin de promover una vida saludable en esta población.


External auditory canal exostosis (ECAE), also known as surfer's ear, is an alteration of the bone tissue of the external ear, mainly caused due to overexposure to cold. Considering that those who practice water sports such as surfing and bodyboarding on the Pacific coast are exposed to waters with temperatures between 12-16 °C,. We seek to determine, in this study, the prevalence and degree of ECAE in surfers and bodyboarders from the coast of the south of Pacific Ocean, Reñaca and Concón, during the year 2018. An evaluation of the ECAE was carried out by means of video-otoscopy in 67 people (134 ears) who practiced surfing and bodyboarding from the beaches of Reñaca and Concón, and a questionnaire was used to collect information about their practice habits. As a result, a prevalence of ECAE of 77.6% was observed, with 61.2% bilateral ECAE and 16.4% unilateral ECAE. It was also possible to determine that 62.3% of the participants do not use protections. Based on these findings, it is possible to conclude that there is a high prevalence of ECAE in surfers and bodyboarders on the central Chilean coasts, which should alert both the practicing population and hearing health professionals to promote a healthy life in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Exostoses/epidemiology , Water Sports , Severity of Illness Index , Chile , Exostoses/diagnosis , Exostoses/prevention & control , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Ear Canal
14.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 39(2): 152-168, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515115

ABSTRACT

Las sibilancias recurrentes del preescolar son un problema prevalente. 50% de todos los niños tiene al menos un episodio de sibilancias en los primeros 6 años. Sin embargo, solo 4% de los menores de 4 años tiene diagnóstico de asma. Por este motivo es fundamental realizar una adecuada anamnesis y examen físico tendientes a descartar causas secundarias, lo que debe ser complementado con exámenes de laboratorio de acuerdo con la orientación clínica. En la actualidad se recomienda indicar tratamiento de mantención con corticoides inhalados en aquellos niños que tengan episodios repetidos de obstrucción bronquial y que tengan una alta probabilidad de respuesta favorable a esta terapia. Se ha demostrado que aquellos pacientes que tienen un recuento de eosinófilos en sangre > 300 células por mm3 o aquellos que presentan una prueba cutánea positiva o IgE específicas positivas para alergenos inhalados responderán adecuadamente al tratamiento con esteroides inhalados.


Recurrent wheezing in preschoolers has a high prevalence. 50% of all children have at least one wheezing episode in the first six years of life. However, only 4% of children under four years of age are diagnosed with asthma. Therefore it is essential to carry out an adequate medical history and physical examination to rule out secondary causes, which must be complemented with laboratory tests in accordance with clinical guidance. It is recommended to indicate maintenance treatment with inhaled corticosteroids to those children who have repeated episodes of wheezing and who have a high probability of a good response to this therapy. It has been demonstrated that those patients who have blood eosinophil count > 300 cells per mm3 or those who have a positive skin test or positive specific IgE for inhaled allergens will have a good response to inhaled corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Respiratory Sounds , Phenotype , Recurrence , Severity of Illness Index , Consensus
15.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(1): e801, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | UY-BNMED, LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1439312

ABSTRACT

La hernia diafragmática congénita es un defecto en el diafragma que lleva a la herniación del contenido abdominal a la cavidad torácica durante el período intrauterino. La morbimortalidad está determinada por la asociación con otras malformaciones, el grado de hipoplasia pulmonar y la presencia de hipertensión pulmonar secundaria. Presenta una incidencia estimada de 1 cada 2.500-3.000 recién nacidos vivos, constituyendo en un 60% una malformación aislada. Es una patología evolutiva que puede ser diagnosticada a partir de la semana 20-24, la ubicación más habitual es la posterolateral izquierda. Se trata de una patología que requiere ingreso a cuidados intensivos al nacimiento y luego de lograda la estabilización del paciente es de sanción quirúrgica. Los objetivos de este trabajo son conocer las características generales de la patología para sistematizar el manejo logrando así un óptimo asesoramiento de los padres a nivel prenatal y seguimiento postnatal del recién nacido.


Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a defect in the diaphragm that leads to herniation of theabdominal contents of the thoracic cavity during the intrauterine period. Morbidity and mortality are determined by the association with other malformations, the degree ofpulmonary hypoplasia and the presence of secondary pulmonary hypertension.It has an estimated incidence of 1 every 2,500-3,000 live newborns, and in 60% of the cases it is an isolated malformation. It is an evolutionary pathology that can be diagnosed from week 20-24; it is most commonly located in the left posterolateral. It is a pathology that requires intensive care at birth and after delivery and once the patient has been stabilized, surgical action is required. The objectives of this work are to understand the general characteristics of the pathology in order to refine its manipulation and achieve optimal counseling for parents at the newborn's prenatal and postnatal stages.


A hérnia diafragmática congênita é um defeito no diafragma que leva à herniação doconteúdo abdominal para a cavidade torácica durante o período intrauterino. A morbimortalidade é determinada pela associação com outras malformações, pelo grau de hipoplasia pulmonar e pela presença de hipertensão pulmonar secundária. Apresenta uma incidência estimada de 1 a cada 2.500-3.000 nascidos vivos, constituindo-se em 60% uma malformação isolada. É uma patologia evolutiva que pode ser diagnosticada a partir da semana 20-24 e a localização mais comum é o póstero-lateral esquerdo. É uma patologia que requer internação em terapia intensiva ao nascimento e após o parto. Uma vez que o paciente for estabilizado, é necessária ação cirúrgica. Os objetivos deste paper são conhecer as características gerais da patologia para melhorar o seu manejo, obtendo assim um aconselhamento ideal para os pais no nível pré-natal e no acompanhamento do crescimento pós-natal do recém-nascido.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Postnatal Care/standards , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital/therapy , Postoperative Period , Prenatal Diagnosis/standards , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Patient Transfer/standards , Critical Care/standards , Preoperative Period , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital/surgery , Analgesia/standards , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy , Monitoring, Physiologic/standards
16.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(1): e202, 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1420113

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las infecciones respiratorias agudas virales suelen ser más frecuentes en niños que en adultos. Sin embargo, en el caso de la COVID-19 la mayoría de los casos pediátricos son leves o asintomáticos. Objetivo: describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los niños con COVID-19 asistidos en un prestador de salud de Montevideo durante el primer año de la pandemia. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Inclusión: pacientes menores de 15 años con reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (RT-PCR) positiva para SARS-CoV-2 entre el 13/3/2020 y el 31/03/2021. Principales variables: sintomatología, comorbilidades, nexo epidemiológico y generación de casos secundarios. Resultados: se realizaron 6.642 RT-PCR para SARS-CoV-2, 486 fueron positivas (7%). El 94% se diagnosticaron entre 12/2020 y 3/2021. Los síntomas respiratorios fueron los más frecuentes en el 98% de los casos sintomáticos. Un 60% presentaron fiebre. El 94% habían tenido contacto con un caso confirmado de COVID-19, 57% intradomiciliario, 31% en centro educativo, y 10% en actividades sociales. El 86% de los contactos eran adultos. Doscientos quince niños fueron el caso índice en el hogar y 73 (34%) generaron casos secundarios intradomiciliarios. Conclusiones: los resultados describen la situación clínica y epidemiológica de una población pediátrica de Montevideo durante el primer año de la pandemia. Dado los cambios constantes en la dinámica de transmisión y de casos es necesario continuar con la vigilancia y realización de este tipo de estudios para ajustar las definiciones de caso sospechoso y racionalizar la indicación de testeo.


Introduction: viral acute respiratory infections are usually more frequent and severe in children than in adults. However, in the case of COVID-19, most pediatric cases are mild or asymptomatic. Objective: describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children with COVID-19 assisted by a health provider in Montevideo, during the first year of the pandemic. Materials and methods: retrospective descriptive study. Sample: patients under 15 years of age with positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 between 3/13/2020-03/31/2021. Main variables: symptomatology, comorbidities, epidemiological link and generation of secondary cases. Results: 6,642 RT-PCR tests were performed for SARS-CoV-2, 486 positive (7%). 94% were diagnosed between 12/2020 and 3/2021. Respiratory symptoms were the most frequent in 98% of symptomatic cases. 60% had fever. 94% had had contact with a confirmed case of COVID-19, 57% intra-domiciliary, 31% at educational centers, and 10% got infected during social activities. 86% of the contacts were adults. Two hundred and fifteen children were the initial case at the household and 73 (34%) generated secondary intra-domiciliary cases. Conclusions: the results describe the clinical and epidemiological situation of a pediatric population in Montevideo during the first year of the pandemic. Given the constant changes in the transmission dynamics and cases, it is necessary to continue to monitor and perform this type of study to adjust the definitions of suspected cases and rationalize testing prescriptions.


Introdução: as infecções respiratórias virais agudas são, geralmente, mais frequentes e graves em crianças do que em adultos. No entanto, no caso da COVID-19, a maioria dos casos pediátricos é leve ou assintomática. Objetivo: descrever as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de crianças com COVID-19 atendidas por uma Assistência de Saúde em Montevidéu, durante o primeiro ano da pandemia. Materiais e métodos: estudo descritivo retrospectivo. Amostra: pacientes menores de 15 anos de idade com RT-PCR positivo para SARS- CoV-2 entre 13/03/2020-31/03/2021. Variáveis principais: sintomatologia, comorbidades, vínculo epidemiológico e geração de casos secundários. Resultados: 6.642 RT-PCR foram realizados para SARS- CoV-2, 486 positivos (7%). 94% foram diagnosticados entre 12/2020 e 3/2021. Os sintomas respiratórios foram os mais frequentes em 98% dos casos sintomáticos. 60% tiveram febre. 94% tiveram contato com caso confirmado de COVID-19, 57% intradomiciliar, 31% em centros educacionais e 10% durante atividades sociais. 86% dos contatos foram adultos. Duzentas e quinze crianças foram o caso inicial do lar e 73 (34%) geraram casos secundários intradomiciliares. Conclusões: os resultados descrevem a situação clínica e epidemiológica de uma população pediátrica em Montevidéu durante o primeiro ano da pandemia. Dadas as constantes mudanças na dinâmica de transmissão e de casos, é necessário continuar monitorando e realizando esse tipo de estudo para ajustar as definições de casos suspeitos e racionalizar a indicação de testagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Uruguay , Severity of Illness Index , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Facilities, Proprietary
17.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29(spe1): e2022_0187, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394856

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction As college basketball continues to develop, more and more college students are joining the sport, and the resulting sports injuries have also gradually increased, affecting the quality of life and academic performance. Objective Analyze the most common sports injuries and offer solutions for the safe practice of college basketball. Methods This article studies, through interviews and literature review, the basketball injuries of college students, analyze the main causes of sports injuries, and presents corresponding countermeasures to promote the safe development of sports education in colleges. Results The main injuries were during training, excessive force, and inadequate preparation. Deficient muscle work is also associated with most of these injuries. Conclusion Basketball is highly competitive and popular on college campuses. It is a sport that can exercise and enrich the extracurricular life of college students, requiring from its practitioners greater attention in the pre-training warm-up phase and parallel muscle strengthening to reduce its major injuries in college students. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes


RESUMO Introdução Com o desenvolvimento contínuo do basquetebol universitário, cada vez mais estudantes universitários aderem ao esporte e as lesões esportivas resultantes também tem aumentado gradualmente, afetando a qualidade de vida e o desempenho nos estudos. Objetivo Analisar as lesões esportivas mais comuns e oferecer soluções visando a prática segura do basquetebol universitário. Métodos Este artigo estuda por meio de entrevistas e revisão literária as lesões no basquetebol dos estudantes universitários, analisa as principais causas das lesões no esporte e apresenta as contramedidas correspondentes para promover o desenvolvimento seguro do ensino esportivo em faculdades. Resultados As principais lesões encontradas foram durante o treino, excesso de força e preparo inadequado. O trabalho muscular deficitário também está associado a maior parte dessas lesões. Conclusão O basquetebol é um esporte altamente competitivo, muito popular nos campi universitários. É um esporte que pode exercitar e enriquecer a vida extracurricular dos estudantes universitários, requerendo de seus praticantes uma maior atenção na fase de aquecimento pré-treino e fortalecimento muscular paralelo para redução das suas principais lesões em universitários. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción Con el continuo desarrollo del baloncesto universitario, cada vez más estudiantes universitarios se incorporan a este deporte y las lesiones deportivas resultantes también han aumentado gradualmente, afectando a la calidad de vida y al rendimiento en los estudios. Objetivo Analizar las lesiones deportivas más comunes y ofrecer soluciones orientadas a la práctica segura del baloncesto universitario. Métodos Este artículo estudia, mediante entrevistas y revisión de la literatura, las lesiones de baloncesto de los estudiantes universitarios, analiza las principales causas de las lesiones deportivas y presenta las correspondientes contramedidas para promover el desarrollo seguro de la enseñanza deportiva en los colegios. Resultados Las principales lesiones encontradas fueron durante el entrenamiento, la fuerza excesiva y la preparación inadecuada. El trabajo muscular deficiente también está asociado a la mayoría de estas lesiones. Conclusión El baloncesto es un deporte altamente competitivo, muy popular en los campus universitarios. Es un deporte que puede ejercitar y enriquecer la vida extraescolar de los universitarios, requiriendo de sus practicantes una mayor atención en la fase de calentamiento previo al entrenamiento y el fortalecimiento muscular paralelo para reducir sus principales lesiones en los universitarios. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Athletic Injuries/etiology , Basketball/injuries , Athletic Injuries/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Interviews as Topic
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2587-2595, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2017 proposed a new classification that reclassified many chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients from group D to B. However, there is a paucity of data related to the comparison between reclassified and non-reclassified COPD patients in terms of long-term prognosis. This study aimed to investigate long-term outcomes of them and determine whether the GOLD 2017 revision improved the assessment of COPD patients.@*METHODS@#This observational, multicenter, prospective study recruited outpatients at 12 tertiary hospitals in China from November 2016 to February 2018 and followed them up until February 2022. All enrolled patients were classified into groups A to D based on GOLD 2017, and the subjects in group B included patients reclassified from group D to B (group DB) and those remaining in group B (group BB). Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for the exacerbation of COPD and hospitalization in each group.@*RESULTS@#We included and followed up 845 patients. During the first year of follow-up, the GOLD 2017 classification had a better discrimination ability for different risks of COPD exacerbation and hospitalization than GOLD 2013. Group DB was associated with a higher risk of moderate-to-severe exacerbation (HR = 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37-2.59, P  <0.001) and hospitalization for COPD exacerbation (HR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.29-3.85, P  = 0.004) than group BB. However, during the last year of follow-up, the differences in the risks of frequent exacerbations and hospitalizations between group DB and BB were not statistically significant (frequent exacerbations: HR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.51-2.03, P  = 0.955; frequent hospitalizations: HR = 1.66, 95% CI = 0.58-4.78, P  = 0.348). The mortality rates of the two groups were both approximately 9.0% during the entire follow-up period.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The long-term prognosis of patients reclassified into group B and of those remaining in group B was similar, although patients reclassified from group D to group B had worse short-term outcomes. The GOLD 2017 revision could improve the assessment of Chinese COPD patients in terms of long-term prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prospective Studies , East Asian People , Disease Progression , Severity of Illness Index , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology
19.
Singapore medical journal ; : 563-566, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007294

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), originally designed in the United States of America, contains items on dysphasia and dysarthria that are deemed culturally unsuitable for the Singapore context. We compared the error rates of dysphasia objects, dysphasia phrases and dysarthria words between the original and alternative items in a cohort of Singaporean subjects without dysphasia or dysarthria.@*METHODS@#In this prospective study, 140 English-speaking Singaporean subjects without impairments of dysphasia or dysarthria had an assessment of NIHSS items 9 and 10 using the original and alternative items. Paired analyses were conducted for comparison of error rates.@*RESULTS@#The error rates were high for four original dysphasia objects (Hammock: 62.9%, Cactus: 38.6%, Feather: 23.6%, Glove: 20.7%) and significantly lower for alternative items (Snail: 5%, Horse: 1.4%, Hanger: 1.4%, Car: 0%) (P < 0.001). For dysphasia phrases and dysarthria words, the error rates were low and there were no differences in error rates between the original and alternative items.@*CONCLUSION@#There are cultural issues with several dysphasia objects in the original NIHSS as evidenced by the high error rates, which were lowered with more culturally suitable alternatives. This study formed a basis to derive a more suitable version of the NIHSS for English-speaking subjects in Singapore.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , United States , Horses , Stroke/diagnosis , Singapore , Dysarthria/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Aphasia/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 765-769, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986209

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has replaced chronic hepatitis B as the most common chronic liver disease in China and has now been renamed metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). The Brunt, the American NASH Clinical Research Network (NASH-CRN), the European Steatosis, Activity, and Fibrosis/Fatty Liver Inhibition of Progression (SAF/FLIP), and the Pediatric NAFLD are currently the four semi-quantitative grading systems for histological evaluation. This paper reviews these four scoring systems for the clinical selection of appropriate systems for diagnosis and prognosis assessment. This article is a review, and in order to coordinate the evaluation criteria of various scoring systems, the old name "NAFLD" is used.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Liver/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Biopsy , Fibrosis
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