Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.321
Filter
1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1066-1070, ago. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514352

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study investigates the relationship between the second and fourth finger ratio (2D:4D), physicians' propensity to choose an internal or surgical branch, and sex differences. On a voluntary basis, 177 physicians working in Elazig, 122 men and 55 women were enrolled in the study. Their hands were measured for 2D and 4D lengths, and the 2D:4D ratio was computed. In female doctors, the left hand's 2D:4D ratio is 1.01, compared to the right hand's 1.00. Male doctors' right 2D:4D ratio is 0.99, while their left 2D:4D ratio is 1.00. Male physicians' 2D:4D ratios were different from those of men in the general population, whereas female physicians' 2D:4D ratios were comparable to those of women in the general population. As a result, this study was the first to examine the relationship between the ratio of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D), physicians' tendency to choose an internal medicine or surgical branch, and sex differences. While the 2D:4D ratio was higher than 0.98 in all physicians, it was low in women who disliked their profession and branch. Since there aren't many studies on this subject, data from in-depth studies that will be conducted in the future will help physicians who choose internal medicine and surgery make more informed decisions.


Este estudio investiga la relación entre la proporción de los dedos segundo y cuarto (2D:4D), la propensión de los médicos a elegir una rama interna o quirúrgica y las diferencias de género. De forma voluntaria, se inscribieron en el estudio 177 médicos que trabajaban en Elazig, 122 hombres y 55 mujeres. Sus manos se midieron en longitudes 2D y 4D, y se calculó la relación 2D:4D. En las médicos mujeres, la relación 2D:4D de la mano izquierda es 1,01, en comparación con 1,00 de la mano derecha. La relación 2D:4D derecha de los médicos hombres fue 0,99, mientras que la relación 2D:4D izquierda fye 1,00. Las proporciones 2D:4D de los médicos hombres fueron diferentes de las de los hombres en la población general, mientras que las proporciones 2D:4D de las mujeres médicas fueron comparables a las de las mujeres en la población general. Como resultado, este estudio fue el primero en examinar la relación entre la proporción del segundo y cuarto dedo (2D:4D), la tendencia de los médicos a elegir una rama de medicina interna o quirúrgica y las diferencias de sexo. Mientras que la relación 2D:4D fue superior a 0,98 en todos los médicos, fue baja en las mujeres que no les gustaba su profesión y rama. Dado que no hay muchos estudios sobre este tema, los datos de estudios en profundidad que se realizarán en el futuro ayudarán a los médicos que eligen medicina interna y cirugía a tomar decisiones más informadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physicians/psychology , Choice Behavior , Fingers/anatomy & histology , Digit Ratios , General Surgery , Sex Factors , Anthropometry , Sex Characteristics , Internal Medicine
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1166-1170, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514353

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Sex determination of unknown persons plays an important role in forensic science. As most bones used for sex determination are recovered in incomplete state, it is often necessary to use bones that are recovered intact e.g., the sphenoid sinus. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of sphenoid sinuses dimensions for sex determination using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images in Chinese adults. MRI images of 79 sphenoid sinuses (from 44 men and 35 women) were retrospectively selected. The height, anterior-posterior diameter, area, and perimeter were measured in the midsagittal view of the sphenoid sinuses. All data were subjected to descriptive and discriminative functional analysis with unpaired t-test and canonical discriminant. Comparison between male and female groups showed significant statistical differences regarding the height, anterior-posterior diameter, area, and perimeter of sphenoid sinuses. The predictive accuracy rate of the sphenoid sinus to identify sex was 63.6 % in males and 62.9 % in females with an overall accuracy of 63.3 %. This study proposed the importance of sexual dimorphism of sphenoid sinus dimensions, especially if other methods are not available. It suggested using MRI in forensics science thus obviating the complete dependence on the usage of conventional computed tomography (CT) and facilitating the study of forensic anatomy at the level of soft tissue.


La determinación del sexo de personas desconocidas juega un papel importante en la ciencia forense. Como la mayoría de los huesos utilizados para la determinación del sexo se recuperan en un estado incompleto, a menudo es necesario utilizar huesos recuperados intactos, por ejemplo, el seno esfenoidal. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el valor diagnóstico de las dimensiones de los senos esfenoidales para la determinación del sexo utilizando imágenes de resonancia magnética en individuos adultos chinos. Se seleccionaron retrospectivamente imágenes de resonancia magnética de 79 senos esfenoidales (de 44 hombres y 35 mujeres). La altura, el diámetro anteroposterior, el área y el perímetro de los senos esfenoidales, se midieron en vista mediana sagital. Todos los datos se sometieron a análisis funcional descriptivo y discriminativo con prueba t no pareada y discriminante canónico. La comparación entre los grupos de hombres y mujeres mostró diferencias estadísticas significativas en cuanto a la altura, el diámetro anteroposterior, el área y el perímetro de los senos esfenoidales. La tasa de precisión predictiva del seno esfenoidal para identificar el sexo fue del 63,6 % en hombres y del 62,9 % en mujeres, con una precisión general del 63,3 %. Este estudio propuso la importancia del dimorfismo sexual de las dimensiones del seno esfenoidal, especialmente si no se dispone de otros métodos. Se sugiere utilizar la resonancia magnética en la ciencia forense, obviando así la dependencia total del uso de la tomografía computarizada convencional y facilitando con esto el estudio de la anatomía forense a nivel de los tejidos blandos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sphenoid Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Sex Determination by Skeleton/methods , Sphenoid Sinus/anatomy & histology , Discriminant Analysis , Prospective Studies , Sex Characteristics , Forensic Sciences
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 111-117, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430506

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Anatomical variation of the foramina transversaria (FT) is associated with vertebral neurovascular symptoms and can cause complications after lower spine surgery, especially cervical pedicle screw (CPS) insertion. FT variation has been documented and classified in various populations, as this information can help increase cervical stability in subaxial vertebral surgery. Although the morphometry of the upper cervical spine in Thai populations has been reported, there have yet been no studies examining the features of FT. The FT of dried cervical spines (C3-C7; left and right side; n = 107, male = 53 and female = 54) were examined for morphological variation, and their anteroposterior (AP) and transverse (T) diameters were measured using a digital vernier caliper. Morphometric data and variations were compared by sex and lateral side. It was that the C3-C6 FT in both sexes were round, and the C7 FT was elliptical with an oblique right side. FT diameters did not differ significantly by sex except for the AP diameters of C6-C7 and for T diameters of C4 and C7. The left AP diameters of C3-C6 were significantly longer than the right, as were the T diameters of C4 and C7 FT. Additionally, T diameter was significantly longer than that of the AP, except that of the left C6 in male spines, which did not differ from the AP. Most FT examined were round. These findings should be considered in the provisional diagnosis of vertebral neurovascular symptoms caused by FT variation as well as that of neurovascular damage after cervical pedicle screw placement.


La variación anatómica del foramen transverso (FT) se asocia con síntomas neurovasculares vertebrales y puede causar complicaciones después de la cirugía de columna cervical inferior, especialmente la inserción de tornillos pediculares cervicales (TPC). La variación del FT se ha documentado y clasificado en varias poblaciones, ya que esta información puede ayudar a aumentar la estabilidad cervical en la cirugía vertebral subaxial. Aunque se ha informado sobre la morfometría de la columna cervical superior en poblaciones tailandesas, aún no se han realizado estudios que examinen las características de FT. Se examinó la variación morfológica del FT de vértebras cervicales secas (C3-C7; lado izquierdo y derecho; n = 107, hombres = 53 y mujeres = 54), y se midieron sus diámetros anteroposterior (AP) y transverso (T) usando un pie de metro digital. Se compararon datos morfométricos y variaciones por sexo y lado. Los FT de C3-a C6 en ambos sexos eran redondos, y el FT C7 era elíptico con el lado derecho oblicuo. Los diámetros del FT no difirieron significativamente por sexo excepto para los diámetros AP de C6- C7 y para los diámetros transversos de C4 y C7. Los diámetros AP izquierdos de C3-C6 eran significativamente más largos que los del lado derecho, al igual que los diámetros transversos de C4 y C7. Además, el diámetro transverso fue significativamente mayor que el AP, excepto el C6 izquierdo en las vértebras de hombres, que no difirió del AP. La mayoría de los FT examinados eran redondos. Estos hallazgos deben ser considerados en el diagnóstico provisional de síntomas neurovasculares vertebrales causados por la variación del FT, así como en el de daño neurovascular tras la colocación de tornillos pediculares cervicales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cervical Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Thailand , Sex Characteristics
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243741, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431125

ABSTRACT

Este artigo reflete sobre os modos como a cisnormatividade, conceito impulsionado pelos transfeminismos, tem auxiliado na composição da psicologia de maneira histórica. Ao elaborar uma crítica sobre como a violência de gênero está expressivamente presente no território brasileiro, discute-se como tem sido pensada a saúde mental, esfera que, uma vez inserida nesse contexto mais amplo, está sendo convocada a produzir saídas criativas em relação aos sujeitos que são alvo de discriminações transfóbicas. Na busca de deslocar o olhar do indivíduo para o social, foi realizado um estudo bibliográfico para investigar os diferentes impactos que a cisnormatividade opera em nossos currículos psicológicos, gerando efeitos na prática e na própria profissão. A aposta está em reconhecer outras epistemologias como projetos éticos e políticos a uma psicologia contemporânea, e a contribuição transfeminista a "outra" clínica. É nesse sentido que este trabalho se destina a pensar um modo de cuidado que esteja baseado na singularidade, mas que, ao mesmo tempo, seja capaz de dedicar alguma atenção ao paradigma normativo que nos guia como terapeutas.(AU)


This article reflects on the ways that cisnormativity, a concept boosted by transfeminisms, has played a historical role in the composition of psychology. Elaborating a criticism on how gender violence is expressively present in the Brazilian territory, we discuss how mental health is conceived, a sphere that, inserted in this wider context, is invited to create creative solutions related to the subjects who are the target of transphobic discrimination. Trying to shift the focus from the individual to the collective, a bibliographical study was conducted to recognize the different impacts that cisnormativity has in our psychological curriculums, having effects on the practice and on the profession itself. The goal is to recognize other epistemologies as ethical and political projects for contemporary psychology and the transfeminist contribution to "another" clinic. It is in this sense that this work aims to think about a form of care that is based on singularity, but that can also pay attention to the normative paradigm that guides us as therapists.(AU)


Este artículo reflexiona sobre las formas en que la cisnormatividad, un concepto impulsado por los transfeminismos, ha tenido un papel en la composición de la psicología de manera histórica. Al elaborar una crítica sobre como la violencia de género está expresamente presente en el territorio brasileño, se discute cómo se ha pensado la salud mental, dominio que, una vez insertado en este contexto más amplio, es convocado a producir soluciones creativas con relación a los sujetos que son objeto de discriminación transfóbica. Al desviar el enfoque del individuo hacia lo social, se realizó un estudio bibliográfico para investigar los diferentes impactos que tiene la cisnormatividad en nuestros planes de estudios psicológicos, generando efectos en la práctica y en la propia profesión. El foco está en reconocer otras epistemologías como proyectos éticos y políticos para la psicología contemporánea y la contribución transfeminista a una "otra" clínica. En este sentido, este trabajo pretende pensar en una forma de cuidado que se basa en la singularidad, al mismo tiempo que sea capaz de dedicar cierta atención al paradigma normativo que a nosotras nos guía como terapeutas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology , Feminism , Sexism , Hospitals , Anxiety , Prejudice , Psychiatry , Psychoanalysis , Psychology, Social , Psychosexual Development , Religion , Reproduction , Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena , Science , Self Concept , Sex , Sexual Behavior , Sex Offenses , Social Adjustment , Social Change , Social Justice , Social Problems , Therapeutics , Transsexualism , Transvestism , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Biology , Body Image , Adaptation, Psychological , Sex Characteristics , Civil Rights , Cultural Diversity , Sexuality , Address , Heterosexuality , Dehumanization , Aggression , Racial Groups , Sexual Development , Reproductive Rights , Gender and Health , Mental Health Assistance , Existentialism , Femininity , Masculinity , Sex Reassignment Procedures , Sex Reassignment Surgery , Sexual Health , Homophobia , Transgender Persons , Social Norms , Help-Seeking Behavior , Gender Dysphoria , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Social Construction of Gender , Cisgender Persons , Gender Binarism , Androcentrism , Gender Stereotyping , Gender Studies , Freedom , Respect , Psychological Distress , Empowerment , Intersex Persons , Psychosocial Intervention , Gender Equity , Gender Role , Genitalia , Health Disparate Minority and Vulnerable Populations , Citizenship , Guilt , Hate , Hostility , Identity Crisis , Individuation , Morale
5.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e253659, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448943

ABSTRACT

Partindo da pergunta "Como tem sido ser mulher e mãe em tempos de pandemia?", o presente estudo convidou mulheres que são mães, em redes sociais virtuais, a partilhar um relato de suas experiências com a readaptação parental em função do distanciamento social causado pela pandemia de covid-19. O objetivo foi refletir sobre a experiência de ser mulher e mãe em tempos de covid-19 e distanciamento social, apontando algumas ressonâncias do cenário pandêmico na subjetividade dessas mulheres. O estudo teve como base o referencial psicanalítico, tanto na construção da pesquisa e análise dos relatos quanto na sua discussão. A análise dos cerca de 340 relatos coletados, os quais variaram de uma breve frase a longos parágrafos, apontou para uma série de questionamentos, pontos de análise e reflexões. A pandemia, e o decorrente distanciamento social, parece ter colocado uma lente de aumento sobre as angústias das mulheres que são mães, evidenciando sentimentos e sofrimentos sempre presentes. Destacaram-se, nos relatos, a sobrecarga das mulheres com as tarefas de cuidado dos filhos e da casa, a culpa, a solidão, a exaustão, e o sentimento de que não havia espaço nesse contexto para "ser mulher", sendo isso entendido especialmente a questões estéticas e de vaidade.(AU)


Starting from the question "How does it feel to be a woman and a mother in pandemic times?", this study invited women who are mothers, in virtual social networks, to share their experiences regarding parental adaptations due to social distancing caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective was to reflect on the experience of being a woman and a mother in the context of COVID-19 and of social distancing, pointing out some resonances of the pandemic scenario in the subjectivity of these women. The study was based on the psychoanalytical framework, both in the construction of the research and analysis of the reports and in their discussion. The analysis of about 340 collected reports, which ranged from a brief sentence to long paragraphs, pointed to a series of questions, analysis topics, and reflections. The pandemic, and the resulting social distancing, seems to have placed a magnifying glass over the anguish of women who are mothers, showing ever-present feelings and suffering. The reports highlighted women's overload with child and house care tasks, the guilt, loneliness, exhaustion, and the feeling that there was no space in this context to "be a woman," and it extends to aesthetic and vanity related questions especially.(AU)


A partir de la pregunta "¿cómo te sientes siendo mujer y madre en tiempos de pandemia?", este estudio invitó por las redes sociales a mujeres que son madres a compartir un relato de sus experiencias sobre la readaptación parental en función del distanciamiento social causado por la pandemia del covid-19. Su objetivo fue reflexionar sobre la experiencia de ser mujer y madre en tiempos del covid-19 y el distanciamiento social, señalando algunas resonancias del escenario pandémico en la subjetividad de estas mujeres. Este estudio se basó en el marco psicoanalítico, tanto en la construcción de la investigación y análisis de los informes como en su discusión. El análisis de los casi 340 relatos, que variaron de una pequeña frase a largos párrafos, generó en las investigadoras una serie de cuestionamientos y reflexiones. La pandemia y el consecuente distanciamiento social parece haber agrandado las angustias de las mujeres que son madres, evidenciando sentimientos y sufrimientos siempre presentes. En los relatos destacan la sobrecarga de las mujeres con las tareas de cuidado de los hijos y del hogar, la culpa, la soledad, el cansancio, así como el sentimiento de que no hay espacio em este contexto para "ser mujer", relacionado principalmente a cuestiones estéticas y de vanidad.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Psychoanalysis , Women , Parenting , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Parent-Child Relations , Paternal Behavior , Paternity , Prenatal Care , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Relaxation , Self Care , Self Concept , Social Adjustment , Social Responsibility , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Stereotyping , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological , Women's Rights , Work Hours , Body Image , Burnout, Professional , Activities of Daily Living , Pregnancy , Adaptation, Biological , Family , Marriage , Child , Child Development , Child Rearing , Quarantine , Hygiene , Mental Health , Family Health , Immunization , Sex Characteristics , Universal Precautions , Employment, Supported , Cost of Illness , Confusion , Feminism , Self Efficacy , Affect , Culture , Parturition , Depression , Postpartum Period , Educational Status , Ego , Employment , Fear , Femininity , Sexism , Work-Life Balance , Frailty , Occupational Stress , Androcentrism , Freedom , Self-Neglect , Frustration , Body Dissatisfaction , Psychological Distress , Social Comparison , Teleworking , Physical Distancing , Gender Equity , Family Support , Family Structure , Guilt , Health Promotion , Household Work , Identification, Psychological , Identity Crisis , Income , Individuation , Anger , Leisure Activities , Loneliness , Love , Maternal Behavior , Maternal Welfare , Mothers
6.
Agora (Rio J.) ; 26: e239307, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1519979

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: O artigo visa demonstrar como o aforismo Há-um, forjado e trabalhado por Jacques Lacan notadamente nos seminários O saber do psicanalista e ...ou pior, entre 1971 e 1972, fundamenta a teoria da sexuação, promovida nessa época. Discutimos como as rupturas epistemológicas implicadas no Um desembocam na escrita da impossibilidade de proporção sexual para o ser falante. O aforismo se desdobra, portanto, em: não há relação do Um com o Ser, do Um com o Outro, do Um com o Outro sexo, isto é, não há relação sexual.


ABSTRACT: The article aims to demonstrate how the aphorism Yad'lun, forged and worked out by Jacques Lacan, notably in the seminars The psychoanalyst's knowledge and …or worse between 1971 and 1972, is the basis for the theory of sexuation promoted, at that time. We discussed how the epistemological ruptures involved in the One lead to the writing of the impossibility of sexual proportion for the speaking being. The aphorism unfolds therefore in: there is no relationship between the One and the Being, the One and the Other, the One and the Other sex, that is, there is no sexual relationship.


Subject(s)
Psychoanalysis , Sex Characteristics , Sexuality
7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e248976, 2023. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422410

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste artigo é fazer avançar o debate entre a psicanálise e os estudos queer, em especial a partir da interlocução traçada por Judith Butler com os trabalhos de Freud e Lacan. Retomando o modo como Butler articula Foucault, Derrida e a psicanálise para pensar os problemas de gênero, evidenciamos que a teoria psicanalítica permite à filósofa situar, a partir de sua concepção da melancolia de gênero, os pontos de fracasso da norma em função da vida psíquica do poder. Ainda que a cisheterossexualidade normativa imponha um roteiro de identificações e escolhas de objeto a seus sujeitos, há uma imprevisibilidade na maneira pela qual cada um responderá às injunções normativas da cultura, o que aponta para uma falha das normas em determinar completamente a subjetividade. A melancolia de gênero se torna, assim, uma marca da importância da psicanálise no percurso de Butler. Em seguida, discutimos as interpelações da filósofa ao simbólico lacaniano, bem como as nuances progressivamente introduzidas em sua leitura da diferença sexual. Ao longo do percurso de Butler, a diferença sexual deixa de ser considerada uma teoria da heterossexualidade e passa a ser apresentada como um conceito-borda, uma fronteira vacilante, que tomamos aqui como um convite para produzirmos uma releitura não normativa da diferença sexual na psicanálise a partir da teoria lacaniana da sexuação. Finalmente, localizamos a estranheza do gozo e o caráter irredutível da sexualidade às normas sociais como um importante eixo partilhado entre Butler e a psicanálise.(AU)


The aim of this article is to branch out the debate between psychoanalysis and queer studies, focusing on the interlocution drawn by Judith Butler with the works of Freud and Lacan. Returning to the way Butler articulates Foucault, Derrida and psychoanalysis to think about gender trouble, we show that psychoanalytic theory allows the philosopher to situate, from her conception of gender melancholy, the points of failure of the norm in function of the psychic life of power. After all, even though normative cis-heterosexuality imposes a script of identifications and object-choices on its subjects, there is an unpredictability to the way in which each one will respond to the normative injunctions of culture, so that norms fail to fully determine subjectivity. Gender melancholy thus becomes a mark of the importance of psychoanalysis in Butler's path. Then, we discuss the philosopher's interpellations to the Lacanian symbolic order, as well as the nuances progressively introduced in her reading of sexual difference. Along Butler's path, sexual difference is no longer considered a theory of heterosexuality and is presented as a border-concept, a vacillating frontier, which we take here as an invitation to produce a non-normative rereading of sexual difference in psychoanalysis, resorting to the Lacanian theory of sexuation. Finally, we locate the uncanniness of jouissance and the irreducible character of sexuality to social norms as an important shared axis between Butler and psychoanalysis.(AU)


El objetivo de este artículo es hacer avanzar el debate entre el psicoanálisis y los estudios queer, enfatizando la interlocución trazada por Judith Butler con los trabajos de Freud y Lacan. Volviendo a la forma en que Butler articula a Foucault, Derrida y el psicoanálisis para pensar los problemas de género, mostramos que la teoría psicoanalítica permite a la filósofa ubicar, desde su concepción de la melancolía de género, los puntos de falla de la norma en función de la vida psíquica del poder. Aunque la cis-heterosexualidad normativa imponga identificaciones y elecciones de objeto a sus sujetos, hay una imprevisibilidad en la forma en que cada uno responderá a los mandatos normativos de la cultura, lo que apunta a un fracaso de las normas para determinar completamente la subjetividad. La melancolía de género se convierte, entonces, en una marca de la importancia del psicoanálisis en la trayectoria de Butler. En seguida, discutimos las interpelaciones de la filósofa a lo simbólico lacaniano, así como los matices progresivamente introducidos en su lectura de la diferencia sexual. A lo largo de la trayectoria de Butler, la diferencia sexual deja de ser considerada una teoría de la heterosexualidad y pasa a ser presentada como un concepto-borde, um límite vacilante, que tomamos aquí como una invitación para producirmos una relectura no normativa de la diferencia sexual en psicoanálisis a partir de la teoría lacaniana de la sexuación. Finalmente, ubicamos la rareza del goce y el carácter irreductible de la sexualidad a las normas sociales como un importante eje compartido entre Butler y el psicoanálisis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sex Characteristics , Sexuality , Pleasure , Social Norms , Gender Identity , Philosophy , Prejudice , Psychology , Psychosexual Development , Sex , Sex Education , Behavioral Sciences , Orchiectomy , Homosexuality, Female , Feminism , Neuropsychiatry , Sexism , Transgender Persons , Social Segregation , Gender Diversity , Gender Binarism , Freudian Theory , Incest , Libido , Anthropology, Cultural , Oedipus Complex
8.
The Nigerian Health Journal ; 23(1): 473-477, 2023. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1425497

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study is to determine sexual dimorphism using anterior teeth measurements and its use as an ancillary tool for sexual determination. Methods:In this study, the measurements of the anterior teeth were carried out on one hundred and forty students (80M: 60F) of the University of Port-Harcourt ranging from 15-30 years. The mesiodistal diameter of the central and lateral incisors, right and left canines and their inter-canine distance were measured. These measurements were done with the aid ofa digital Vernier caliper. Also, the percentages of sexual dimorphism were calculated. The values were subjected to statistical analysis.Results:The mean mesiodistal central incisor (MDCI) value for males was 9.78 ± 0.47mm while that of the females was 9.29±0.46mm. The mean mesiodistal lateral incisor (MDLI) value for males was 7.80 ±0.54mm while that of the females was 7.40±0.54mm. The mean mesiodistal right canine (MDRC) value for males was 7.43±0.49mm while that of the females was 7.04±0.40mm. The mean mesiodistal left canine (MDLI) value for males was 7.39±0.51mm while that of the females was 7.03±0.55mm. The mean mandibular inter-canine distance (MICD) value for males was 33.73±1.15mm while that of the females was 32.23±0.98mm. They were all statistically significantat p<0.05.Conclusion:It can be concluded that the incisors and the canines are useful tools in sex determination. The data obtained can be useful in maxillofacial reconstructive surgery


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth , Sex Characteristics , Oral Surgical Procedures , Anthropology, Medical
9.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 29(3): 833-851, jul.-set. 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405029

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo apresenta o modo como as imagens relativas aos conjuntos de química expressam as representações sobre a predominância do gênero masculino nas brincadeiras que simulam aspectos técnicos, gestuais, de laboratório, criando padrões de conduta que direcionam para a vocação profissional: o ser cientista. Foram privilegiadas as documentações produzidas pelas empresas Gilbert (1920) e Chemcraft (1922), presentes no acervo da Chemical Heritage Foundation (EUA). Discute-se o que Joan Scott chama de organização social da diferença sexual, enquanto são analisadas as ilustrações que privilegiam a dominância do gênero masculino, nas formas de "ser criança", brincando de cientista.


Abstract This article shows how images relating to chemistry sets express the predominance of the male gender in toys that simulate technical, gestural, and laboratory-related aspects of science, creating patterns of conduct towards the professional vocation of being a scientist. Priority is given to documents produced by the companies Gilbert (1920) and Chemcraft (1922) that are kept in the archives of the Chemical Heritage Foundation in the USA. What Joan Scott calls the social organization of sexual difference is discussed and the illustrations are analyzed, demonstrating a predominance of male figures showing how to "be a child," playing at being a scientist.


Subject(s)
Play and Playthings , Science/history , Social Dominance , Sex Characteristics , Sexism , Men
10.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(3): 135-141, jul./set. 2022. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1411232

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to establish the pattern of the agouti pelvis by obtaining external and radiographic internal pelvimetric values. Forty-three agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha), females and males bred in under human care were used. The parameters measured were the external biiliac diameter; the external biischiatic diameter; right and left external ilioischiatic diameters and radiographic internal measurements (true conjugated, the diagonal conjugated; the vertical, the sacral, sagittal, coxal tuberosity, upper biiliac, lower biiliac, and biischiatic diameter. The inlet pelvic area and the outlet pelvic area were calculated, as well the height/width ratios of the entrance area of the pelvis and the pelvic outlet area were calculated. The mean values for each body measurement of females and males were: weight 1.91kg and 2.04kg, external biiliac diameter 6.32cm and 6.30cm, external biischiatic diameter 4.34cm and 4.28cm, right external ilioischiatic diameter 9.01cm and 9.33cm, left external ilioischiatic diameter 9.13cm and 9.30cm, true conjugated 3.90cm and 3.68cm, diagonal conjugated 7.13cm and 6.91cm, vertical diameter 2.59cm and 2.45cm, sacral diameter 2.63cm and 2.44cm, sagittal diameter 3.30cm and 3.09cm, coxal tuberosity diameter 2.52cm and 2.43cm, upper biiliac diameter 6.28cm and 6.24cm, lower biiliac diameter 2.98cm and 2.58cm, biischiatic diameter 2.60cm and 2.70cm, height/width ratio - vertical/ lower biiliac diameter 0.88cm and 0.95cm, sagital/coxal tuberosity diameter 1.32cm and 1.28cm, inlet pelvic area 82.38cm and 77.83cm and outlet pelvic area 24.76cm and 20.07cm. Agouti are dolichopelvic animals, demonstrating the existence of a discrete sexual dimorphism in adults and low intensity correlations between the external and internal measures studied.


O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer o padrão da pelve de cutia, masculina e feminina, por meio da obtenção dos valores médios da pelvimetria externa e interna radiográfica. Foram utilizadas 43 cutias (Dasyprocta prymnolopha), fêmeas e machos criadas sob cuidados humanos. Os parâmetros medidos foram o diâmetro biilíaco externo; o diâmetro biisquiático externo; diâmetros ilioisquiáticos externos direito e esquerdo e medidas internas radiográficas (diâmetros conjugado verdadeiro, diagonal conjugado, vertical, sacral, sagital, tuberosidade coxal, biilíaco superior, biilíaco inferior e diâmetro biisquiático). A área pélvica de entrada e a área pélvica de saída foram calculadas , assim como foram calculadas as razões altura/largura da área de entrada da pelve e da área de saída da pelve. Os valores médios para as medidas das fêmeas e dos machos foram, respectivamente: peso 1,91kg e 2,04kg, diâmetro biilíaco externo 6,32cm e 6,30 cm, diâmetro ilioisquiático externo 4,34cm e 4,28cm, diâmetro ilioisquiático externo direito 9,01cm e 9,33cm, diâmetro ilioisquiático externo esquerdo 9,13cm e 9,30cm, diâmetro conjugado verdadeiro 3,90cm e 3,68cm, diâmetro conjugado diagonal 7,13cm e 6,91cm, diâmetro vertical 2,59cm e 2,45cm, diâmetro sacral 2,63cm e 2,44cm, diâmetro sagital 3,30cm e 3,09cm, tuberosidade coxal diâmetro 2,52cm e 2,43cm, diâmetro biilíaco superior 6,28cm e 6,24cm, diâmetro biilíaco inferior 2,98cm e 2,58cm, diâmetro biisquiático 2,60cm e 2,70cm, relação altura/largura - vertical/diâmetro biilíaco inferior 0,88cm e 0,95cm, diâmetro sagital/coxal tuberosidade 1,32cm e 1,28cm, área pélvica de entrada 82,38cm e 77,83 cm e área pélvica de saída 24,76cm e 20,07cm. As cutias são animais dolicopélvicos, demonstrando a existência de um discreto dimorfismo sexual em adultos e correlações de baixa intensidade entre as medidas externas e internas estudadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pelvimetry/veterinary , Pelvis/anatomy & histology , Radiography/veterinary , Sex Characteristics , Dasyproctidae/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Veterinary/statistics & numerical data
11.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(2): 115-119, Apr.-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394413

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pelvic anatomy remains a challenge, and thorough knowledge of its intricate landmarks has major clinical and surgical implications in several medical specialties. The peritoneal reflection is an important landmark in intraluminal surgery, rectal trauma, impalement, and rectal adenocarcinoma. Objectives: To investigate the correlation between the lengths of the middle rectal valve and of the peritoneal reflection determined with rigid sigmoidoscopy and to determine whether there are any differences in the location of the peritoneal reflection between the genders and in relation to body mass index (BMI) and parity. Design: We prospectively investigated the location of the middle rectal valve and of the peritoneal reflection via intraoperative rigid sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Results: We evaluated 38 patients with a mean age of 55.5 years old (57.5% males) who underwent colorectal surgery at the coloproctology service of the Hospital Santa Marcelina, São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. There was substantial agreement between the lengths of the middle rectal valve and of the peritoneal reflection (Kappa = 0.66). In addition, the peritoneal reflection was significantly lower in overweight patients (p = 0.013 for women and p < 0.005 for men) and in women with > 2 vaginal deliveries (p = 0.009), but there was no significant difference in the length of the peritoneal reflection between genders (p = 0.32). Conclusion: There was substantial agreement between the lengths of the peritoneal reflection and of the middle rectal valve, and the peritoneal reflection was significantly lower in overweight patients and in women with more than two vaginal deliveries. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Peritoneal Cavity/anatomy & histology , Rectum/blood supply , Rectum/anatomy & histology , Health Profile , Body Mass Index , Sex Characteristics , Sigmoidoscopy , Delivery, Obstetric
12.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e186467, fev. 2022. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380241

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The herbicide glyphosate, a pesticide used in agriculture to control weeds, both in food crops and in other agricultural areas, has been identified as an endocrine modulator through the inhibition of aromatase activity and the activation of estrogen receptors. The present study examined the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup® (GLY-BH) on sexual dimorphism of rats after perinatal exposure to low and high GLY-BH in males and females offspring. Methods: Two groups of pregnant rats were treated with two doses of GLY-BH (50 or 150 mg/kg) from day 15 of gestation (GD15) to postnatal day 7 (PND7). Play fighting behavior was observed at the juvenile stage and during social and sexual behaviors in adulthood. Results: Perinatal GLY-BH exposure reduced male and female body weight at 28, 75, and 90 days of age. The play fighting behavior was decreased in both sexes, but female rats were more affected. The sexual behaviors were reduced only in females. Conclusions: Perinatal exposure to both doses of GLY-BH promoted sexually dimorphic effects in both juvenile and adulthood stages. These effects were attributed to the inhibition of aromatase activity induced by exposure to GLY-BH in the perinatal period.(AU)


Objetivos: O glifosato é um herbicida não seletivo, usado em muitas culturas alimentares e não alimentares e em áreas não agrícolas, sendo que os produtos a base de glifosato atuam como moduladores das funções endócrinas por meio da inibição da atividade da aromatase e da ativação de receptores de estrógeno. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos do herbicida Roundup® (GLY-BH) à base de glifosato, em comportamentos sexualmente dimórficos de ratos após exposição perinatal a doses baixas e altas de GLY-BH no período perinatal. Métodos: Ratas prenhas foram tratadas com 50 ou 150 mg/kg de GLY-BH do 15º dia de gestação (GD15) ao 7º dia de lactação (LD7). O comportamento de luta/brincar foi observado na fase juvenil e os comportamentos social e sexual na idade adulta. Resultados: a exposição perinatal a GLY-BH reduziu o peso corporal de machos e fêmeas aos 28, 75 e 90 dias de idade. O comportamento de luta/brincar diminuiu em ambos os sexos, sendo as ratas foram as mais afetadas. O comportamento sexual foi reduzido apenas nas fêmeas. Conclusões: A exposição perinatal a ambas as doses do GLY- BH promoveu tanto na idade juvenil como na idade adulta, efeitos sexualmente dimórficos. Esses efeitos foram atribuídos à inibição da atividade da aromatase induzida exposição perinatal ao GLY-BH.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Social Behavior , Aromatase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Sex Characteristics , Herbicides/administration & dosage , Herbicides/adverse effects
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 98-101, feb. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385599

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: To investigate the correlation between the anatomical morphology of palatal rugae and sex. The study sample consisted of 120 students studying from Shanxi Medical University, of which 60 were females and 60 were males. The digital model of the palatal rugae was obtained by the 3 Shape TRIOS intraoral scanner. And the shapes of palatal rugae were recorded. Association between palatal rugae shape and sex were tested using Chi-square analysis. And logistic regression analysis (LRA) was carried out to calculate the accuracy of gender prediction using rugae shapes. There was a statistically significant difference between males and females in terms of the distribution of wavy and circular palate rugae. The use of logistic regression analysis obtained a sex predictive value of 65 % when all the rugae shapes were analyzed. Digital images of the palatal rugae morphology contribute to more accurate and convenient for data collection and transformation. It was found that rugae patterns can moderately identify the sex of the specific population when multivariate statistics such as LRA is applied. The palatal rugae morphology can be utilized as an assistant measure for sex identification.


RESUMEN: Investigar la correlación entre la morfología anatómica de las rugas palatinas y el sexo. En la muestra de este estudio se incluyeron 120 estudiantes de la Universidad Médica de Shanxi, (60 mujeres y 60 hombres). El modelo digital de las rugas palatinas se obtuvo mediante escáner intraoral 3 Shape TRIOS, y se registraron las formas de las rugas palatinas. La asociación entre la forma de las rugas palatinas y el sexo se evaluó mediante un análisis de Chi-cuadrado; para calcular la precisión de la predicción de sexo se llevó a cabo un análisis de regresión logística (ARL) Se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre hombres y mujeres en términos de la distribución de las rugas palatinas onduladas y circulares. El uso de análisis de regresión logística obtuvo un valor predictivo de sexo del 65 % cuando se analizaron todas las formas de las rugas. Las imágenes digitales de la morfología de las rugas palatinas contribuyen a una recopilación de datos más precisa. En este análisis se determinó que los patrones de rugas pueden identificar relativamente el sexo de una población específica, cuando se aplican estadísticas multivariadas como ARL. La morfología de las rugas palatinas se puede utilizar como medida de ayuda para la identificación de sexo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sex Characteristics , Forensic Anthropology , Palate, Hard/anatomy & histology , Chi-Square Distribution , Predictive Value of Tests , Regression Analysis , Sex Determination by Skeleton
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928637

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of sex on the clinical outcome of extremely preterm infants (EPIs)/extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) by propensity score matching.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the medical data of 731 EPIs or ELBWIs who were admitted from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2020. These infants were divided into two groups: male and female. A propensity score matching analysis was performed at a ratio of 1:1. The matching variables included gestational age, birth weight, percentage of withdrawal from active treatment, percentage of small-for-gestational-age infant, percentage of use of pulmonary surfactant, percentage of 1-minute Apgar score ≤3, percentage of mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, percentage of antenatal use of inadequate glucocorticoids, and percentage of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The two groups were compared in the incidence rate of main complications during hospitalization and the rate of survival at discharge.@*RESULTS@#Before matching, compared with the female group, the male group had significantly higher incidence rates of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), severe intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and patent ductus arteriosus (P<0.05), while after matching, the male group only had a significantly higher incidence rate of BPD than the female group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of survival at discharge between the two groups before and after matching (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Male EPIs/ELBWIs have a higher risk of BPD than female EPIs/ELBWIs, but male and female EPIs/ELBWIs tend to have similar outcomes.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/etiology , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Infant, Extremely Premature , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Sex Characteristics
15.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 703-719, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939835

ABSTRACT

A growing number of studies have identified sex differences in response to general anesthesia; however, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. The medial preoptic area (MPA), an important sexually dimorphic structure and a critical hub for regulating consciousness transition, is enriched with estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), particularly in neuronal clusters that participate in regulating sleep. We found that male mice were more sensitive to sevoflurane. Pharmacological inhibition of ERα in the MPA abolished the sex differences in sevoflurane anesthesia, in particular by extending the induction time and facilitating emergence in males but not in females. Suppression of ERα in vitro inhibited GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons of the MPA in males but not in females. Furthermore, ERα knockdown in GABAergic neurons of the male MPA was sufficient to eliminate sex differences during sevoflurane anesthesia. Collectively, MPA ERα positively regulates the activity of MPA GABAergic neurons in males but not in females, which contributes to the sex difference of mice in sevoflurane anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , Anesthesia , Estrogen Receptor alpha/metabolism , Preoptic Area , Sevoflurane/pharmacology , Sex Characteristics
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(2): 466-473, 2022. ilus, tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385627

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Descriptive observational cross-sectional study to determine the AOP of the second molars (55, 65, 75, 85) and the first permanent molars (16, 26, 36 and 46) in 459 study models corresponding to six ethnic groups in Colombia, Embera indigenous of Alto Baudó (Chocó), Caucasoid mestizos of Cali (Valle del Cauca), African descent of Cali (Valle del Cauca), Misak indigenous of Silvia (Cauca), Nasa indigenous of Morales (Cauca), and indigenous of Leticia (Amazonas). There were no significant differences of AOP among the six ethnic groups except when compared to the Amazon Indians with African descent of Cali, Embera indigenous and Nasa indigenous. There was no sexual dimorphism except tooth 65 for all ethnic groups. There was bilateral symmetry except between teeth 16 and 26. The distance matrix showed that Caucasoid mestizos of Cali were grouped with microdont populations, Amazon indigenous, Embera indigenous, Misak indigenous and Nasa indigenous, and African descendants of Cali were grouped with mesodont populations. The Embera and Amazon indigenous had the highest values of OAP associated with the relative isolation and less mestizaje. Overall, there was no sexual dimorphism or bilateral asymmetry. This study coincides with the different theories about reducing the size of the teeth as evolutionary characteristic of hominids.


RESUMEN: Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal en el que se determinó el APO de los segundos molars deciduos (55, 65, 75, 85) y de los primeros molares permanentes (16, 26, 36, 46) en 459 modelos de estudio correspondientes a seis grupos étnicos de Colombia: Indígenas embera del Alto Baudó (Chocó), mestizos caucasoides de Cali (Valle del Cauca), afrodescendientes de Cali (Valle del Cauca), indígenas misak de Silvia (Cauca), indígenas nasa de Morales (Cauca) e indígenas de Leticia (Amazonas). No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el APO de los seis grupos étnicos, excepto entre indígenas del Amazonas y de afrodescendientes de Cali, e indígenas embera e indígenas nasa. No se evidenció dimorfismo exual en ninguno de los seis grupos. Hubo simetría bilateral, excepto entre los dientes 16 y 26. La matriz de distancias demostró que los mestizos caucasoides de Cali se agrupan con poblaciones microdontes, indígenas del amazonas, indígenas embera, indígenas misak e indígenas nasa; mientras que los afrodescendientes de Cali se agrupan con poblaciones mesodentes. Los indígenas embera y del Amazonas presentaron altos valores del APO, asociado a su aislamiento relativo y bajo mestizaje. En términos generales, no hubo dimorfismo sexual ni asimetría bilateral. Los resultados de este estudio concuerdan con diferentes teorías sobre la reducción del tamaño dental como una característica evolutiva de los himínidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dental Occlusion , Racial Groups , Molar/anatomy & histology , Ethnicity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Characteristics , Colombia , Forensic Dentistry
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1128-1133, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405237

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Identification of fragmentary human remains is an integral par of medico legal investigations. Occipital region is commonly not affected in traumatic injuries and accidents due to its secluded position which makes it the integral part in determination of sex in the absence of entire skeleton. Occipital condylar region is also the most common area for degenerative and neoplastic diseases. So thorough knowledge of anatomy of occipital condyle is very essential during surgical interventions. 86 skulls were studied from osteological collections of Department of Anatomy, Yenepoya Medical College. Maximum length and breadth of the occipital condyle, anterior intercondylar distance and posterior intercondylar distance was measured with the help of vernier callipers. Descriptive statistics was calculated for the parameters considered. Metric data of right and left sides were compared with student t test and p value was calculated.All data obtained was subjected for discriminant function analysis to derive the statistical model. All the measurements were significantly high in males compared to females. Condylar length and width, anterior and posterior intercondylar distance can be used to derive formula for determination of sex in south Indian population with an accuracy of 66.3 %.


RESUMEN: La identificación de restos humanos fragmentarios es una parte integral de las investigaciones médico legales. La región occipital comúnmente no se ve afectada en lesiones traumáticas y accidentes debido a su posición apartada que la convierte en parte integral en la determinación del sexo en ausencia de un esqueleto completo. La región condilar occipital es también el área más común de enfermedades degenerativas y neoplásicas. Por lo tanto, el conocimiento integral de la anatomía del cóndilo occipital es esencial durante las intervenciones quirúrgicas. Se estudiaron 86 cráneos de colecciones osteológicas del Departamento de Anatomía, Facultad de Medicina de Yenepoya. Se midió el largo y ancho máximo del cóndilo occipital, la distancia intercondilar anterior y la distancia intercondilar posterior con la ayuda de un calibrador vernier. Se calculó la estadística descriptiva para los parámetros considerados. Los datos métricos de los lados derecho e izquierdo se compararon con la prueba t de Student y se calculó el valor de p. Todos los datos obtenidos se sometieron a análisis de función discriminante para derivar el modelo estadístico. Todas las medidas fueron significativamente altas en los hombres en comparación con las mujeres. La longitud y el ancho del cóndilo, la distancia intercondilar anterior y posterior se pueden utilizar para derivar la fórmula para determinar el sexo en la población del sur de la India con una precisión del 66,3 %.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sex Characteristics , Sex Determination by Skeleton , Occipital Bone/anatomy & histology , Discriminant Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Forensic Medicine
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 883-894, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405260

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Sex estimation is the first step in human identification. The mandibular ramus and the condyle have been widely used as indicators for sexual diagnosis because they are regions that undergo important morphological changes which increase sexual dimorphism. The object of the present study was to carry out a systematic review to determine the metric parameters of the mandibular ramus that present the greatest sexual dimorphism, and to sex estimation from the angle of mandible (MA). We included documents in English, Spanish and Portuguese which analysed sex estimation or sex diagnosis by metric analysis of the mandibular ramus in humans. The search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, up to December 2020. The risks of bias were analysed using the AQUA tool. The search identified 538 studies. After exclusion of duplicates and irrelevant articles, 39 studies were included for qualitative analysis. Of these, 18 studies were carried out on dry mandibles and 21 by imaging techniques, totalling 7270 participants of 14 different nationalities. We found 14 sex-estimation parameters in the mandibular ramus, plus the MA. Sex estimation by the MA is variable; it is a good predictor only for some populations. The height of the mandibular ramus, the angle of mandible, the bicondylar angle and the height of the coronoid process were the estimation parameters cited in the greatest number of studies. The mandibular ramus presents great sexual dimorphism and can be used as a sex predictor in different populations. Although some parameters of the mandibular ramus can present accuracy of almost 80 % when analysed in isolation, more accurate sex estimation is achieved when the parameters are analysed in conjunction.


RESUMEN: La estimación sexual es el primer paso en la identificación humana. La rama mandibular y el cóndilo se han utilizado ampliamente como indicadores para el diagnóstico sexual debido a que son regiones que sufren cambios morfológicos importantes, aumentando el dimorfismo sexual. El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática a fin de determinar los parámetros métricos de la rama mandibular que presentan mayor dimorfismo sexual, bien estimar el sexo a través del ángulo de la mandíbula (AM). Se incluyeron artículos en Inglés, Español y Portugués que analizaron la predicción sexual o el diagnóstico sexual mediante análisis métrico de la rama mandibular en humanos. La búsqueda fue realizada a través de PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, con límite hasta Diciembre 2020. El análisis de los riesgos de sesgos se realizó con la herramienta AQUA. Fueron identificados 538 estudios. Tras la exclusión de duplicados y estudios fuera del tema fueron incluidos 39 estudios para análisis cualitativa. De estos, 18 estudios fueron realizados en mandíbulas secas y 21 en exámenes de imagen, totalizando 7270 participantes de 14 nacionalidades distintas. Fueron encontrados 14 parámetros predictores del sexo en la rama mandibular más el AM. La predicción sexual a través del AM es variable, siendo un buen predictor solamente para algunas poblaciones. La altura de la rama mandibular, ángulo bigoníaco, ángulo bicondilar y la altura del proceso coronoides fueron los parámetros predictivos citados en mayor número de estudios. La rama mandibular presenta gran dimorfismo sexual y puede ser utilizada como predictor del sexo en diferentes poblaciones. A pesar que algunos parámetros de la rama mandibular pueden presentar una precisión de casi 80 % cuando analizadas de forma aislada, una mayor predicción sexual es alcanzada cuando los parámetros son analizados en conjunto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sex Determination by Skeleton , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Sex Characteristics
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1219-1227, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405274

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Adipose tissue morphology of different fat tissue depots can be described using the number of adipocytes and cell surface of adipocytes. This study deals with characteristics and morphometric analysis of white and brown adipose tissue depots in healthy adult laboratory mice, hamsters and rats of both sexes. The number of unilocular adipocytes in white adipose tissue differs from one adipose tissue depot to another, with the largest number of adipocytes in mice and a similar number in hamsters and rats. The smallest surface area and the largest percentage of small unilocular adipocytes were found in mice. White adipose tissue in hamsters and rats was predominantly made out of a larger percentage of medium-sized adipocytes and a smaller percentage of small and medium-sized adipocytes. Uncoupling protein 1 positive multilocular adipocytes were found in classic brown adipose tissue depots with larger percentages in mice (93.20 %) and hamsters (91.30 %), while rats had a smaller percentage (78.10 %). In white and brown adipose tissue, significant differences between species and both sexes within the same species were found, indicating the influence of sexual dimorphism. The presented morphometric results could serve as a basis for further studies concerning experimental animal models of metabolic disorders and obesity.


RESUMEN: La morfología del tejido adiposo de diferentes depósitos de tejido graso se puede describir utilizando el número de adipocitos y la superficie celular de los adipocitos. Este estudio analiza las características y el análisis morfométrico de los depósitos de tejido adiposo blanco y marrón en ratones, hamsters y ratas de laboratorio, adultos sanos de ambos sexos. El número de adipocitos uniloculares en el tejido adiposo blanco difiere de un depósito de tejido adiposo a otro, con el mayor número de adipocitos en ratones y un número similar en hámsteres y ratas. La superficie más pequeña y el mayor porcentaje de adipocitos uniloculares pequeños se encontraron en ratones. El tejido adiposo blanco en hámsteres y ratas estaba compuesto predominantemente por un mayor porcentaje de adipocitos de tamaño mediano y un porcentaje menor de adipocitos de tamaño pequeño y mediano. Los adipocitos multiloculares positivos para la proteína desacopladora 1 se encontraron en depósitos de tejido adiposo marrón clásico con mayores porcentajes en ratones (93,20 %) y hámsters (91,30 %), mientras que las ratas tenían un porcentaje menor (78,10 %). En el tejido adiposo blanco y pardo se encontraron diferencias significativas entre especies y entre ambos sexos dentro de una misma especie, lo que indica la influencia del dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados morfométricos presentados podrían servir como base para futuros estudios sobre modelos animales experimentales de trastornos metabólicos y obesidad.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Rats , Adipose Tissue, Brown/anatomy & histology , Subcutaneous Fat/anatomy & histology , Adipose Tissue, White/anatomy & histology , Viscera/anatomy & histology , Cricetinae , Sex Characteristics , Models, Animal
20.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 70 p. graf, ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416423

ABSTRACT

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a group of inflammatory conditions of unknown etiology whose underlying molecular pathophysiology is still not well characterized. Several studies have attempted to fill this gap by characterizing the gene expression profiles of JIA patients. However, there is a lack of systematic assessment of the reliability of these transcriptome results on the disease classification, prescription, and monitoring. In addition, despite this disease is more common in females, none of these studies have tried to assess the impact of sex on disease pathophysiology. In this project, we performed a comprehensive systematic review and a gene expression meta-analysis to reveal the core molecular JIA pathophysiology taking into consideration the patient sex. We gathered and cataloged more than 60,000 entries of genomic features reported as JIA-related in the functional genomics literature, and found a dramatic disparity among the JIA transcriptome studies. Near 15,000 genes have been reported as perturbed in JIA leukocytes. Less than one percent of these genes were reported in at least a quarter of the reviewed studies. We then removed the study-specific analytical bias by re-analyzing more than 700 unique pediatric transcriptome profiles from nine JIA studies using a common analytical framework. The differential expression results from different studies were combined using a random effect model meta-analysis approach. We implemented this differential gene expression meta-analysis methodology in the MetaVolcanoR R package that we made available in Bioconductor. Using this package, we confirmed several gene expression signatures previously associated with JIA and uncover new genes whose expression was perturbed in JIA patients. The effect sizes of the topmost reported perturbed genes coincide with our meta-analysis results. Through a meta-coexpression approach, we characterized the cell type signatures of circulating leukocytes in the JIA affected children. Additionally, we characterized the JIA sexual dimorphism. We found that systemic JIA female patients over-activate a gene expression signature which comprises early myelocytes and band neutrophil expression markers. This signature is correlated with the disease status and response to IL-1 receptor blockade. This suggests that sJIA pathophysiology is characterized by a sexually dimorphic neutrophilia that impacts disease progression and the response to anti-IL-1 treatments. We further assessed this immature neutrophil and female-biased signature in other contexts. We found that this signature presents a sex-dependent expression over human lifetime, in other inflammatory diseases, and its expression increases during pregnancy


A Artrite Idiopática Juvenil (AIJ) é um grupo de condições inflamatórias de etiologia desconhecida, cuja patofisiologia molecular subjacente ainda não está bem caracterizada. Vários estudos tentaram preencher essa lacuna, caracterizando os perfis de expressão gênica de pacientes com AIJ. No entanto, há uma falta de avaliação sistemática desses resultados transcriptômicos na classificação, prescrição e monitoramento da doença. Além disso, apesar de esta doença ser mais comum em mulheres, nenhum desses estudos tentou avaliar o impacto do sexo na fisiopatologia da doença. Neste projeto, realizamos uma revisão sistemática abrangente e uma metanálise de expressão gênica para revelar a fisiopatologia molecular da AIJ levando em consideração o sexo do paciente. Reunimos e catalogamos mais de 60.000 entradas de características genômicas reportadas como relacionadas à AIJ na literatura. Entre os estudos de transcriptoma, encontramos uma disparidade dramática. Cerca de 15.000 genes foram reportados como perturbados nos leucócitos da AIJ, sendo que menos de um por cento desses genes foram relatados em pelo menos um quarto dos estudos revisados. Em seguida, re-analisamos mais de 700 transcriptomas pediátricos de nove estudos usando uma abordagem analítica comum. Os resultados de expressão diferencial foram combinados usando meta-análise de modelo de efeitos aleatórios. Implementamos esta abordagem de meta-análise de expressão gênica diferencial no pacote MetaVolcanoR R que disponibilizamos no Bioconductor. Usando este pacote, confirmamos várias assinaturas de expressão gênica previamente associadas à AIJ e descobrimos novos genes cuja expressão está perturbada em pacientes com AIJ. Os tamanhos dos efeitos dos genes mais reportados como perturbados coincidem com os resultados da nossa meta-análise. Por meio de uma análise de meta-co-expressão, caracterizamos as assinaturas dos tipos de leucócitos circulantes. Além disso, caracterizamos o dimorfismo sexual da AIJ. Descobrimos que pacientes do sexo feminino com AIJ sistêmica super-ativam genes característicos de mielócitos precoces e neutrófilos bastonetes. Esta assinatura está correlacionada com o estado clínico da doença e à resposta ao tratamento por bloqueio do receptor de IL-1. Isto sugere que a fisiopatologia da AIJs é caracterizada por uma neutrofilia sexualmente dimórfica que afeta a progressão da doença e a resposta aos tratamentos anti-IL-1. Avaliamos ainda esta assinatura neutrofílica em outros contextos. Descobrimos que essa assinatura apresenta uma expressão dependente do sexo ao longo da vida humana, em outras doenças inflamatórias, e sua expressão aumenta durante a gravidez


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile/metabolism , Gene Expression , Sex Characteristics , Patients/classification , Disease Progression , Network Meta-Analysis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL