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J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(2): 115-119, Apr.-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394413


Introduction: Pelvic anatomy remains a challenge, and thorough knowledge of its intricate landmarks has major clinical and surgical implications in several medical specialties. The peritoneal reflection is an important landmark in intraluminal surgery, rectal trauma, impalement, and rectal adenocarcinoma. Objectives: To investigate the correlation between the lengths of the middle rectal valve and of the peritoneal reflection determined with rigid sigmoidoscopy and to determine whether there are any differences in the location of the peritoneal reflection between the genders and in relation to body mass index (BMI) and parity. Design: We prospectively investigated the location of the middle rectal valve and of the peritoneal reflection via intraoperative rigid sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Results: We evaluated 38 patients with a mean age of 55.5 years old (57.5% males) who underwent colorectal surgery at the coloproctology service of the Hospital Santa Marcelina, São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. There was substantial agreement between the lengths of the middle rectal valve and of the peritoneal reflection (Kappa = 0.66). In addition, the peritoneal reflection was significantly lower in overweight patients (p = 0.013 for women and p < 0.005 for men) and in women with > 2 vaginal deliveries (p = 0.009), but there was no significant difference in the length of the peritoneal reflection between genders (p = 0.32). Conclusion: There was substantial agreement between the lengths of the peritoneal reflection and of the middle rectal valve, and the peritoneal reflection was significantly lower in overweight patients and in women with more than two vaginal deliveries. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Peritoneal Cavity/anatomy & histology , Rectum/blood supply , Rectum/anatomy & histology , Health Profile , Body Mass Index , Sex Characteristics , Sigmoidoscopy , Delivery, Obstetric
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e186467, fev. 2022. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380241


Objectives: The herbicide glyphosate, a pesticide used in agriculture to control weeds, both in food crops and in other agricultural areas, has been identified as an endocrine modulator through the inhibition of aromatase activity and the activation of estrogen receptors. The present study examined the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup® (GLY-BH) on sexual dimorphism of rats after perinatal exposure to low and high GLY-BH in males and females offspring. Methods: Two groups of pregnant rats were treated with two doses of GLY-BH (50 or 150 mg/kg) from day 15 of gestation (GD15) to postnatal day 7 (PND7). Play fighting behavior was observed at the juvenile stage and during social and sexual behaviors in adulthood. Results: Perinatal GLY-BH exposure reduced male and female body weight at 28, 75, and 90 days of age. The play fighting behavior was decreased in both sexes, but female rats were more affected. The sexual behaviors were reduced only in females. Conclusions: Perinatal exposure to both doses of GLY-BH promoted sexually dimorphic effects in both juvenile and adulthood stages. These effects were attributed to the inhibition of aromatase activity induced by exposure to GLY-BH in the perinatal period.(AU)

Objetivos: O glifosato é um herbicida não seletivo, usado em muitas culturas alimentares e não alimentares e em áreas não agrícolas, sendo que os produtos a base de glifosato atuam como moduladores das funções endócrinas por meio da inibição da atividade da aromatase e da ativação de receptores de estrógeno. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos do herbicida Roundup® (GLY-BH) à base de glifosato, em comportamentos sexualmente dimórficos de ratos após exposição perinatal a doses baixas e altas de GLY-BH no período perinatal. Métodos: Ratas prenhas foram tratadas com 50 ou 150 mg/kg de GLY-BH do 15º dia de gestação (GD15) ao 7º dia de lactação (LD7). O comportamento de luta/brincar foi observado na fase juvenil e os comportamentos social e sexual na idade adulta. Resultados: a exposição perinatal a GLY-BH reduziu o peso corporal de machos e fêmeas aos 28, 75 e 90 dias de idade. O comportamento de luta/brincar diminuiu em ambos os sexos, sendo as ratas foram as mais afetadas. O comportamento sexual foi reduzido apenas nas fêmeas. Conclusões: A exposição perinatal a ambas as doses do GLY- BH promoveu tanto na idade juvenil como na idade adulta, efeitos sexualmente dimórficos. Esses efeitos foram atribuídos à inibição da atividade da aromatase induzida exposição perinatal ao GLY-BH.(AU)

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Social Behavior , Aromatase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Sex Characteristics , Herbicides/administration & dosage , Herbicides/adverse effects
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 703-719, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939835


A growing number of studies have identified sex differences in response to general anesthesia; however, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. The medial preoptic area (MPA), an important sexually dimorphic structure and a critical hub for regulating consciousness transition, is enriched with estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), particularly in neuronal clusters that participate in regulating sleep. We found that male mice were more sensitive to sevoflurane. Pharmacological inhibition of ERα in the MPA abolished the sex differences in sevoflurane anesthesia, in particular by extending the induction time and facilitating emergence in males but not in females. Suppression of ERα in vitro inhibited GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons of the MPA in males but not in females. Furthermore, ERα knockdown in GABAergic neurons of the male MPA was sufficient to eliminate sex differences during sevoflurane anesthesia. Collectively, MPA ERα positively regulates the activity of MPA GABAergic neurons in males but not in females, which contributes to the sex difference of mice in sevoflurane anesthesia.

Anesthesia , Animals , Estrogen Receptor alpha/metabolism , Female , Male , Mice , Preoptic Area , Sevoflurane/pharmacology , Sex Characteristics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928637


OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of sex on the clinical outcome of extremely preterm infants (EPIs)/extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) by propensity score matching.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the medical data of 731 EPIs or ELBWIs who were admitted from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2020. These infants were divided into two groups: male and female. A propensity score matching analysis was performed at a ratio of 1:1. The matching variables included gestational age, birth weight, percentage of withdrawal from active treatment, percentage of small-for-gestational-age infant, percentage of use of pulmonary surfactant, percentage of 1-minute Apgar score ≤3, percentage of mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, percentage of antenatal use of inadequate glucocorticoids, and percentage of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The two groups were compared in the incidence rate of main complications during hospitalization and the rate of survival at discharge.@*RESULTS@#Before matching, compared with the female group, the male group had significantly higher incidence rates of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), severe intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and patent ductus arteriosus (P<0.05), while after matching, the male group only had a significantly higher incidence rate of BPD than the female group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of survival at discharge between the two groups before and after matching (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Male EPIs/ELBWIs have a higher risk of BPD than female EPIs/ELBWIs, but male and female EPIs/ELBWIs tend to have similar outcomes.

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/etiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Infant, Extremely Premature , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Sex Characteristics
Psicol. USP ; 33: e210068, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1394524


Resumo Sob uma perspectiva evolutiva, as interações sexuais entre indivíduos do mesmo sexo foram por muito tempo consideradas um grande paradoxo. Isso por terem persistido no decorrer das gerações apesar de supostamente não oferecerem benefícios reprodutivos diretos, reduzindo, aparentemente, a aptidão individual. Apesar disso, são comuns em muitas espécies animais. Neste artigo, revisaremos algumas das hipóteses funcionais que tentam resolver esse quebra-cabeça evolutivo. Algumas dessas hipóteses consideram essas interações adaptativas, o que significa que trariam benefícios para os indivíduos. Outras as consideram neutras, derivadas de características realmente vantajosas. Por fim, existem as que consideram essas interações como não-adaptativas e potencialmente prejudiciais aos indivíduos. Ao final, abordaremos uma hipótese revolucionária que, de forma inédita, questiona se as interações sexuais envolvendo exclusivamente indivíduos de sexos diferentes seriam realmente o estado basal do comportamento sexual.

Abstract From an evolutionary point of view, same-sex sexual interactions have long been considered a major paradox. This is because they have persisted throughout generations despite, presumably, not offering direct reproductive benefits and, apparently, reducing individual fitness. Nonetheless, same-sex sexual interactions are common in many animal species. This paper reviews some functional hypotheses that seek to solve this evolutionary puzzle: some consider it adaptative, meaning that these behaviors would bring benefits to individuals; others see it as a neutral by-product of other advantageous characteristics. A third branch understand same-sex sexual interactions to be non-adaptative and potentially deleterious to individuals. Finally, this paper discusses a revolutionary hypothesis that, unprecedently, questions whether sexual interactions involving exclusively individuals of the opposite sex are in fact the basal state of sexual behavior.

Résumé Du point de vue de l'évolution, les interactions sexuelles entre personnes du même sexe ont longtemps été considérées comme un grand paradoxe majeur. En effet, elles ont persisté au fil des générations bien qu'elles n'offrent vraisemblablement pas d'avantages reproductifs directs et qu'elles réduisent apparemment la valeur adaptative individuelle. Néanmoins, sont courantes chez de nombreuses espèces animales. Cet article passe en revue certaines hypothèses fonctionnelles qui cherchent à résoudre cette énigme évolutive : certaines considèrent les interactions comme adaptatives, ce qui signifie que ces comportements apporteraient des avantages aux individus ; d'autres voient les comme un sous-produit neutre d'autres caractéristiques avantageuses. Une troisième branche les comprend comme étant non-adaptatives et potentiellement délétères pour les individus. Enfin, on discute d'une hypothèse révolutionnaire qui, sans précédent, remet en question le fait que les interactions sexuelles impliquant exclusivement des individus du sexe opposé serait l'état ancestral du comportement sexuel.

Resumen Desde una perspectiva evolutiva, las interacciones sexuales entre individuos del mismo sexo han sido consideradas por mucho tiempo como una enorme paradoja. Esto es debido a que han persistido generación tras generación a pesar de, supuestamente, no ofrecer beneficios reproductivos directos, reduciendo, aparentemente, la aptitud individual. Sin embargo, son comunes en muchas especies de animales. En este artículo repasaremos algunas de las hipótesis funcionales que intentan resolver este rompecabezas evolutivo. Algunas de estas hipótesis consideran que estas interacciones son adaptativas, lo que trae benefícios a los individuos. Otras hipótesis las consideran neutras, derivadas de características realmente ventajosas. Mientras que otras consideran estas interacciones como no adaptativas y potencialmente perjudiciales para los individuos. Por último, expondremos una hipótesis revolucionaria que, de manera inédita, cuestiona si las interacciones sexuales que involucran exclusivamente a individuos de diferentes sexos son realmente el estado basal del comportamiento sexual.

Phylogeny , Sexual Behavior , Homosexuality , Sexuality , Sex Characteristics
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210624, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254431


Sex is one of the first features to be diagnosed in human identification, composing, with age, ancestry and stature, the so called "big four". Aim: The present study aimed to metrically analyze the sexual dimorphism in skulls of known age and sex from Rio Grande do Sul ­ Brazil. Methods: This was a crosssectional study of metrical analysis, which used a sample comprised of 209 human skulls (106 male and 103 female) older than 22 years old at the time of death, undamaged and without signs of trauma or abnormalities. The point nasion and the most superior points on the zygomaticotemporal sutures from each side were connected forming a triangle. This area was calculated using Heron's formula, and the results were submitted for statistical analysis. Results: All measurements showed significant values for sexual dimorphism. Through the area of the triangle, it was possible to determine sex with an accuracy of 83.97% for males and 83.50% for females. Conclusion: This simple method requires only a caliper, and still can be reliable for forensic human identification. It must be diffused and tested on other samples, and can be used as a good and inexpensive tool for experts in day-to-day practice

Skull , Sex Characteristics , Forensic Anthropology , Sex Determination by Skeleton
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e218796, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254745


Forensic physical anthropometry allows the determination of animal species and estimates sex, ancestry, age and height. Aim: To analyze the effectiveness of a cranioscopic/ morphological evaluation for sex estimation with a sample of the Brazilian mixed-race population by conducting a qualitative visual assessment without prior knowledge of sex. Methods: This is a blind cross-sectional study that evaluated 30 cranial characteristics of 192 skulls with mandible, 108 male and 84 female individuals, aged 22 to 97 years, from the Osteological and Tomographic Biobank. The qualitative characteristics were classified and compared to the actual sex information of the Biobank database. The statistical analysis was used to calculate de Cohen's kappa coefficient, total percentage of agreement, sensitivity and specificity of visual sex classification. Results: Of the 30 cranial variables analyzed, 15 presented moderate degree of agreement, achieving value of Kappa test between 0.41­0.60: Glabella (Gl), Angle and lines (At), Mental eminence (Em), Mandible size (Tm), Cranial base (Bc), Mouth depth (Pb), Nasal aperture (Anl), Supraorbital region (Rs), Orbits (Orb), Mastoid processes (Pm), Alveolar arches (Aa), Zygomatic arch (Az), Orbital edge (Bo), Supraorbital protuberances (Pts), and Supramastoid crests and rugosity (Crsm). The Facial physiognomy (Ff) presented substantial reliability (0.61-0.80) with 89.8% sensitivity for male sex and 70.2% specificity. Conclusions: Cranial morphological characteristics present sexual dimorphism; however, in this study only 15 variables showed moderate degree of agreement and can be used in sex estimation. Only one variable (Ff) 81.2% total agreement with substantial reliability. Quantitative methods can be associated for safe sex estimation

Skull , Sex Characteristics , Forensic Anthropology , Mandible
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 19(3): 212-234, sep.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357365


Resumen (analítico) Essa pesquisa identificou se os jovens e as jovens rurais que residem no Rio Grande do Sul/Brasil estão projetando seu futuro profissional no campo, pretendem ser sucessores nos estabelecimentos agropecuários familiares, além de apontar os fatores condicionantes para a tomada destas decisões. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir de questionário aplicado em 2018 e 2019. A amostra foi composta por 743 jovens, com idades de 13 a 21 anos, filhos de agricultores e estudantes do ensino médio. Constatouse que 47.9% dos e das jovens querem permanecer no campo e 45.2% querem ser sucessores. O processo sucessório tem sido comprometido pela limitação da participação dos e das jovens rurais nos processos gerenciais e na tomada de decisões nas propriedades. Conclui-se que o jovem valoriza significativamente o fato de ser sujeito atuante e autônomo na propriedade.

Abstract (analytical) This research focused on whether rural youths living in Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil are projecting their futures in agriculture and intend to be successors of family farming establishments, in addition to highlighting the conditioning factors that are used to make these decisions. The research involved the application of a questionnaire applied in 2018 and 2019. The sample consisted of 743 young people aged 13 to 21 years who are children of farmers and high school students at the time. It was found that 47.9% of the surveyed young people want to stay in the countryside and 45.2% want to be successors. The succession process has been compromised by limits on the participation of rural youth in management and decision-making processes on their family's properties. The authors conclude that these young people significantly value being active and autonomous subjects on their families' properties.

Resumo (analítico) Esta investigación identificó si los jóvenes rurales residentes en Rio Grande do Sul/Brasil están proyectando su futuro profesional en el campo, pretenden ser sucesores en los establecimientos de agricultura familiar, además de señalar los condicionantes para la toma de estas decisiones. La encuesta se realizó con base en un cuestionario aplicado en 2018 y 2019. La muestra estuvo conformada por 743 jóvenes, de 13 a 21 años, hijos de agricultores y estudiantes de secundaria. Se encontró que el 47.9 % de los jóvenes quiere quedarse en el campo y el 45.2 % quiere ser sucesor. El proceso de sucesión se ha visto comprometido al limitar la participación de la juventud rural en los procesos de gestión y en la toma de decisiones sobre las propiedades. Se concluye que el joven valora significativamente el hecho de ser un sujeto activo y autónomo en la propiedad.

Adolescent , Sex Characteristics
Revagog ; 3(3): 76-77, Jul-Sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1343785


Antecedentes: A nivel mundial, la tasa de letalidad es mayor en hombres que en mujeres. Algunos estudios lo han sugerido. Se plantea la hipótesis de que la hormona estrogénica, puede disminuir la susceptibilidad al síndrome respiratorio agudo severo coronavirus 2. Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar las diferencias de género en los resultados del SARS CoV-2 y analizar si existen diferencias en los resultados en mujeres premenopáusicas en comparación con posmenopáusicas. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron en el estudio 720 pacientes que dieron positivo (+) para SARS CoV-2 a través de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) con transcripción inversa en tiempo real, mediante el ensayo Thermo Fischer Taqpath, aprobado por el Consejo Indio de Investigación Médica. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y de laboratorio de sus historias clínicas. Resultados: La tasa de mortalidad en las mujeres fue del 12,6%, mientras que la mortalidad en los hombres fue del 19,4%. En el análisis entre grupos, el 8,6% (16/185) de las mujeres murieron en el grupo de edad premenopáusica frente al 12,8% (27/211) en el grupo posmenopáusico. La proporción de mujeres que fallecieron debido a COVID difiere significativamente según la edad y el estado posmenopáusico X2 (1, n = 293) = 7,2, el valor de p es 0,007. La diferencia es estadísticamente significativa a P<0,05. Las mujeres posmenopáusicas tenían más probabilidades de fallecer debido a la infección por COVID-19 en comparación con las mujeres premenopáusicas

Humans , Female , Postmenopause , Estrogens/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Sex Characteristics , Perimenopause , COVID-19/complications
Aval. psicol ; 20(3): 341-351, jul.-set. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1345369


(AU)A Psicologia tem buscado compreender como ocorrem os processos de interesse e percepção sexual, contudo essa área ainda carece de estudos. Buscando compreender o estado da arte da área dos erros de percepção sexual, esta pesquisa realizou uma revisão integrativa da literatura utilizando o termo "sexual misperception" obtido do APA Thesaurus. Foram pesquisadas as bases PsycNet, Pubmed, Web of Science™, Lilacs, Wiley e Sage Journals. Foram obtidos, ao final dos processos de inclusão e exclusão, 19 artigos. Foi observada uma concentração das pesquisas nos Estados Unidos, com foco nas diferenças de gênero na percepção sexual. Outras variáveis investigadas estavam relacionadas ao consumo de álcool e comportamentos violentos. Os resultados apontam para poucas pesquisas realizadas nos contextos concretos e com elevada utilização de amostras WEIRD (ocidentais, com alto grau de alto escolaridade, de sociedades industrializadas, ricas e democráticas), as quais devem inspirar estudos em outras realidades. (AU)

Psychology tries to understand how the processes of sexual interest and perception occur however this area still needs further investigation. Focusing on understanding the state of the art in the field of ​​sexual perception errors, we carried out a systematic review of the literature using the term sexual misperception obtained from the APA Thesaurus. We reviewed the following databases; PsycNET, PubMed, Web of Science, Lilacs, Wiley, and Sage Journals. After the inclusion and exclusion processes, we obtained 19 articles. Most studies were performed in the United States, with a focus on gender differences in sexual perception. Other variables investigated were alcohol consumption and violent behavior. We identified a small number of studies carried out in real contexts, using exclusively WEIRD (white, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic) samples, which should inspire studies in other realities. (AU)

La psicología ha buscado comprender cómo ocurren los procesos de interés y percepción sexual, sin embargo, esta área aún carece de estudios. Buscando comprender el estado del arte en el campo de los errores de percepción sexual, esta investigación llevó a cabo una revisión integradora de la literatura, utilizando el término sexual misperception obtenido del APA Thesauros. Se realizaron búsquedas en las siguientes bases de datos: PsycNet, Pubmed, Web of Science ™, Lilacs, Wiley y Sage Journals. Al finalizar los procesos de inclusión y exclusión, se obtuvieron 19 artículos. Se observó una concentración de investigación en los Estados Unidos con enfoque en las diferencias de género en la percepción sexual. Otras variables investigadas fueron el consumo de alcohol y el comportamiento violento. Se identificó un pequeño número de investigaciones realizadas en contextos reales y con alto uso de muestras WEIRD (occidentales, con alto grado de educación, sociedades industrializadas, ricas y democráticas), que deberían inspirar estudios en otras realidades. (AU)

Perceptual Distortion , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sex Offenses/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Sex Characteristics , Periodicals as Topic , Sex Factors , Databases, Bibliographic , Individuality
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(2): e1000, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341414


Introducción: Se desconocen las características sexuales, biológicas y psicosociales de mujeres con menopausia fisiológica, en la consulta de climaterio y menopausia. Esta información resulta importante para realizar acciones de promoción de salud. Objetivo: Determinar las características sexuales, biológicas y psicosociales más frecuentes en mujeres climatéricas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal en 300 mujeres climatéricas, con menopausia fisiológica confirmada. Se recogió la edad (agrupada en 40-44, 45-49 y más de 49 años), el tiempo de menopausia (agrupada en menos de 3 años, 3-5 años, 6-10 años y más de 10 años), por cientopresencia de afecciones genitourinarias, síntomas físicos, psicosociales y sexuales. Resultados: Predominaron mujeres mayores de 49 años (56 por ciento) con 33,4 por ciento de 3 a 5 años de menopausia, 6,7 por ciento de atrofia genitourinaria, síntomas de sofocos 75 por ciento, dolores óseos, 70 por ciento, depresión-ansiedad y sequedad vaginal, 50 por ciento; 45 por ciento de insatisfacción sexual y dificultad en la toma de decisiones, 40 por ciento con dificultades en la comunicación con la pareja y desinterés, 38,6 por ciento tuvo disminución del deseo sexual, mientras que el 16 por ciento incrementó su apetencia sexual. Conclusiones: Las mujeres climatéricas estudiadas fueron mayores de 49 años, con menopausia entre 3 y 5 años, con bajo porcentaje de atrofia genitourinaria, con sofocos, dolores óseos, sequedad vaginal, depresión, ansiedad, dificultad en la comunicación de pareja y disminución del deseo sexual(AU)

Introduction: The sexual, biological and psychosocial characteristics of women with physiological menopause in the climacteric and menopause consultation are not known. This information is important to carry out health promotion actions. Objective: To determine the most frequent sexual, biological and psychosocial characteristics in climacteric women. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in 300 climacteric women with confirmed physiological menopause. Age (grouped in 40-44, 45-49 and more than 49 years), time of menopause (grouped in less than 3 years, 3-5 years, 6-10 years and more than 10 years), presence of genitourinary affections, physical, psychosocial and sexual symptoms. Results: Women older than 49 years (56 percent o) predominated with 33.4 percent of 3 to 5 years of menopause, 6.7 percent of genitourinary atrophy, symptoms of hot flashes 75 percent o, bone pain, 70 percent o, depression-anxiety and dryness vaginal, 50 percent o; 45 percent o of sexual dissatisfaction and difficulty in making decisions, 40 percent o with difficulties in communication with the partner and disinterest, 38.6% had a decrease in sexual desire, while 16 percent o increased their sexual desire. Conclusions: The climacteric women studied were older than 49 years, with menopause between 3 and 5 years, with a low percentage of genitourinary atrophy, with hot flashes, bone pain, vaginal dryness, depression, anxiety, difficulty in partner communication and decreased desire sexual(AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Anxiety , Menopause , Health Promotion , Climacteric/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Characteristics
J. psicanal ; 54(100): 175-188, jan.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1279345


A autora propõe considerar a categoria "corpo" como um tema de fronteira. Aborda problemáticas referidas aos corpos virtuais, biotecnológicos e da diferença sexual. Defende que a heterogeneidade anatômica adota, na maioria das culturas, uma forma dualística que se enfrenta com os desafios apresentados pelas sexualidades e identidades plurais das sociedades contemporâneas. Enfatiza que o sexo biológico se organiza através de ficções filosóficas e médicas, e propõe pensar em uma anatomia interpretada em relação com os outros e com os discursos vigentes. Ressalta que o corpo sempre tem um núcleo de heterogeneidade radical a respeito da subjetividade. Aponta o fato de que o corpo da mulher encarna a diferença em um deslizamento que demanda ser desconstruído. Propõe pensar os corpos como categorias de intersecção com disjunções e concordâncias entre a heterogeneidade dos corpos sexuados, o campo desejante e os discursos vigentes sobre a diferença sexual.

The author proposes to consider the category "body" as a frontier theme. She addresses issues related to virtual bodies, biotechnology and sexual difference. She argues that anatomical heterogeneity adopts, in most cultures, a dualistic form that faces the challenges presented by the sexualities and plural identities of contemporary societies. Emphasizes that biological sex is organized through philosophical and medical fictions, and proposes to think of an anatomy interpreted in relation to others and to current discourses. Points out that the body always has a nucleus of radical heterogeneity regarding subjectivity. Points out that the woman's body embodies the difference in a slide that demands to be deconstructed. She proposes to think of bodies as categories of intersection with disjunctions and concordances between the heterogeneity of sexualized bodies, the desiring field and the current discourses on sexual difference.

La autora propone considerar la categoría "cuerpo" como una temática de borde. Aborda problemáticas referidas a los cuerpos virtuales, biotecnológicos y de la diferencia sexual. Sostiene que la heterogeneidad anatómica adopta en la mayoría de las culturas una forma dualística que en la actualidad se enfrenta con los desafíos que presentan las sexualidades e identidades cambiantes de las sociedades contemporáneas. Enfatiza que el sexo biológico está organizado a través de ficciones filosóficas y médicas y propone pensar en una anatomía siempre interpretada, en relación con los otros, con los discursos vigentes. Remarca que el cuerpo siempre tiene un núcleo de heterogeneidad radical con respecto a la subjetividad. Señala que, tradicionalmente, el cuerpo de mujer aparece como encarnación de la diferencia en un desplazamiento que demanda ser deconstruído. Propone pensar los cuerpos como categorías de intersección con disyunciones y concordancias entre la heterogeneidad de los cuerpos sexuados, el campo deseante y los discursos vigentes sobre la diferencia sexual.

L'auteur propose de considérer la catégorie « corps ¼ comme un thème frontière. Elle aborde des questions liées aux corps virtuels, à la biotechnologie et à la différence sexuelle. Elle soutient que l'hétérogénéité anatomique adopte, dans la plupart des cultures, une forme dualiste qui fait face aux défis posés par les sexualités et les identités plurielles des sociétés contemporaines. Souligne que le sexe biologique s'organise à travers des fictions philosophiques et médicales, et propose de penser une anatomie interprétée en relation avec les autres et avec les discours actuels. Elle fait remarquer que le corps a toujours un noyau d'hétérogénéité radicale en matière de subjectivité. Elle mettre en évidence que le corps de la femme incarne la différence dans une diapositive qui demande à être déconstruite. Propose de penser les corps comme des catégories d'intersection avec disjonctions et concordances entre l'hétérogénéité des corps sexués, le champ désirant et les discours actuels sur la différence sexuelle.

Psychoanalysis , Sexuality , Sex Characteristics
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): e473-e479, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292124


Ante una enfermedad o carencia nutricional, la curva de crecimiento puede desviarse del percentil que recorría, y cuando el daño es neutralizado, hay una fuerza regulatoria que tiende a restaurar su trayectoria. Este fenómeno, llamado crecimiento compensatorio o catch-up, es un ejemplo de canalización del crecimiento. Las niñas se ven favorecidas respecto de los niños porque, ante un mismo daño, su crecimiento (y también su desarrollo psicomotor) se desvía menos que el de los niños. Esta diferencia también se expresa en una mayor prevalencia masculina de retraso del desarrollo en general y de algunos trastornos del desarrollo, como trastorno del espectro autista y parálisis cerebral, entre otros. La mortalidad infantil es menor en niñas a todas las edades y la esperanza de vida es varios años mayor en mujeres en todos los países. La causa de estas diferencias a favor de las niñas tiene un fuerte componente genético y enriquece la interpretación de estudios clínicos y epidemiológico

In case of a disease or nutritional deficit, the growth curve may show deviations from the percentile it was depicting, and once damage is removed, a strong regulatory force tends to restore its path. Such phenomenon is known as catch-up growth and is an example of canalization of growth. Girls are more favored than boys because, when faced with the same damage, their growth (and also their psychomotor development) shows less deviation than that of boys. Such difference is also shown in a higher prevalence among boys of growth retardation in general and some developmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder and cerebral palsy. Infant mortality is lower in girls at all ages and life expectancy is several years longer in women from all countries. The cause of such differences in favor of girls has a strong genetic component and is enriching for the interpretation of clinical and epidemiological studies.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Sex Characteristics , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Family , Sex Factors , Infant Mortality
Rev. Bras. Odontol. Leg. RBOL ; 8(1): [55-65], 20210427.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281476


Buscou-se estimar o sexo por meio de medidas lineares obtidas em 200 tomografias computadorizadas (TCs) de crânios e mandíbulas do Biobanco Osteológico e Tomográfico da Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba. Foram realizadas sete medidas lineares (parede posterior da sela turca à espinha nasal anterior; parede posterior da sela turca ao zígio direito; parede posterior da sela turca ao zígio esquerdo; zígio direito ao zígio esquerdo; forame infra-orbitário direito ao forame infra-orbitário esquerdo; forame infra-orbitário esquerdo à espinha nasal anterior e; forame infra-orbitário direito à espinha nasal anterior) utilizando o software OnDemand3D™. Para calibração foi usado o Teste estatístico ICC (coeficiente de correlação intraclasse), segundo Szklo e Nieto (2000) e a análise dos dados utilizou o teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, teste t, o teste de Pearson e uma regressão logística pelo método de Stepwise-Forward (Wald) e teste de Shapiro-Wilke e Levene para analisar a distribuição e a igualdade de variâncias das variáveis, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que as medidas realizadas apresentaram dimorfismo, exceto a medida forame infra-orbitário direito ao forame infra-orbitário esquerdo. Foi possível criar um modelo de regressão logística [Logito Almeida=36.560+(-0.088*PPST-ENA)+(-0.233*ZD-ZE)+0.140*FIO E-FIO D+(-0.194*FIOE-ENA)], este resulta em 79.1% de sensibilidade, 84.4% de especificidade e 82.0% de acurácia. Concluiu-se que o modelo de regressão logística obtido permite a estimativa do sexo em TCs de brasileiros, podendo ser utilizado como metodologia auxiliar no processo de identificação humana.

Humans , Male , Female , Skull , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Sex Characteristics , Forensic Anthropology
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 126-136, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248811


ABSTRACT Objective: There are discrepancies about the relationship of IL-6, clusterin and irisin with obesity and obesity associated insulin resistance and also about their sexual dimorphism. This study aimed at evaluating the circulating levels of IL-6, clusterin and irisin in obese subjects of both sexes who had different grades of obesity and examining their sexual dimorphism and their association with insulin resistance. Subjects and methods: This study included 176 non-diabetic subjects of both sexes who were classified according to their sex into two groups; the male and the female groups. The male group (88 men) was classified according to BMI into; group 1 (22 lean men), group 2 (22 class I obese men), group 3 (22 class II obese men) and group 4 (22 class III obese men). The female group (88 women) was classified according to BMI exactly as the male group. Metabolic parameters, IL-6, clusterin, and irisin levels were measured. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test, post hoc Tukey's test and independent t-test. Pearson correlation was used to assess the association between variables. Results: In obese subjects of both sexes, circulating IL-6, clusterin and irisin levels were significantly elevated and positively correlated with HOMA-IR. Obese males showed significantly higher HOMA-IR, IL-6, clusterin and irisin levels than obese females. Conclusion: Obesity in both sexes, especially in males was associated with high levels of IL-6, clusterin and irisin and worsened the metabolic pattern. Circulating IL-6, clusterin and irisin may represent possible therapeutic targets for insulin resistance in obese subjects.

Humans , Male , Female , Insulin Resistance , Fibronectins/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Sex Characteristics , Clusterin/blood , Obesity/blood , Body Mass Index , Obesity/classification
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 29(1): 66-75, enero-mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251061


Resumen El presente trabajo expone una interpretación sexual dimórfica de las diferencias biológicas en la especie humana, que resulta de la lectura androcéntrica de los cuerpos que caracterizó la ciencia moderna. En contraste con esta lectura, se muestra cómo las prácticas sociales asociadas con los roles de género pueden traducirse en diferencias biológicas que "se ajustan" a una lectura dimórfica. Sobre la base de estos hechos, se propone que, si existen ciertos correlatos entre genitalidad y diferencias biológicas, los mismos no necesariamente son causados por los procesos de diferenciación sexual, sino por vínculos estadísticos dados por los estereotipos normativos de género. Las conductas implicadas en tales estereotipos se expresan biológicamente, y los roles de género crean muchas de las diferencias biológicas que hoy se asumen como naturalmente dimórficas.

Abstract This text argues that the dimorphic interpretation of biological differences in the human species results from an androcentric reading of bodies that have characterized modern science. In contrast to this perspective, the article shows how social practices associated with gender roles can produce biological differences that "adjust" themselves to a dimorphic reading. Based on these facts, we propose that if correlations between genitality and biological differences exists, they are not caused by the processes of sexual differentiation, but by statistical links given by normative gender stereotypes. The behaviors implied in such stereotypes are expressed biologically, and gender roles create many of the biological differences currently assumed as innate and sexually dimorphic.

Resumo O presente trabalho expõe a interpretação sexual dimórfica das diferenças biológicas na espécie humana resultante da leitura androcêntrica dos corpos que caracterizou a ciência moderna. Em contraste com esta leitura, mostra-se como práticas sociais associadas aos papéis de gênero podem se traduzir em diferenças biológicas que se encaixam na leitura dimórfica. Com base nisso, propõe-se que, se existem certos correlatos entre genitalidade e diferenças biológicas, estes não são causados necessariamente por processos de diferenciação sexual, mas por vínculos estatísticos dados por estereótipos normativos de gênero. Os comportamentos envolvidos em tais estereótipos são biologicamente expressos, e os papéis de gênero criam muitas das diferenças biológicas hoje assumidas como naturalmente dimórficas.

Sex Characteristics , Gender Identity , Sex
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e54202, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368056


This research study aimed at applying the morphometric quantification of the canine index for sexual dimorphism in a Brazilian sample. This was an observational study and the convenience sample consisted of 90 adult participants (45 male subjects and 45 female subjects), aging from 18 to 35 years. With the aidof a digital caliper, the intraoral mesiodistal measurement of the permanent mandibular right canine (MD43) and the intercanine distance (IC) were taken by three examiners. The measurements were applied to the mandibular canine index formula to estimate sex based on the morphometric features of human canines. The applicability of this approach for sexual dimorphism was assessed based on the mandibular canine index (MCI) calculated by the formula. The MCI was higher in male than in female subjects. In the total sample, the MCI overall mean accuracy rate for sexual dimorphism was 52.22%. In male subjects, the MCI was able to properly differentiate sex in 82.22% of the sample, while in female subjects the accuracy rate decreased to 22.22%. These results call the attention to the careful use of MCI especially for Forensic Anthropology. In particular, the accuracy of the method was close to the random of a sample that contained both sexes. Thus, the MCI should not be used as the only tool for sexual dimorphism.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Sex Characteristics , Cuspid , Bone and Bones , Pilot Projects , Forensic Anthropology , Forensic Dentistry , Odontometry
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 32: e3272, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360525


ABSTRACT For children with motor delays, the intervention effectiveness regarding children's routine, overall self-perceptions, and engagement in the lessons, have been understudied. Furthermore, specific sex differences still lack evidence. This study examines the effectiveness of mastery Climate (MC) motor intervention on girls' and boys' daily routine, motor performance, BMI, self-perceptions, and engagement, and the sex differences across these variables. Children with motor delays were randomly assigned to MC Group or Comparison Group. We assessed children's routine at home; perceived competence, social acceptance, and global self-worth; BMI; motor skills; and qualitative engagement in the lesson. Results show girls and boys increased the playtime, motor scores, perceptions of cognitive and motor competence, social acceptance, global self-worth, and engagement with success in the lessons; and, decreased TV time and free play, changing tasks, distraction, and conflicts in the lesson. In conclusion the MC intervention was effective in fostering girl's and boys' achievement.

RESUMO Para crianças com atrasos motores, a eficácia da intervenção motora em relação à rotina, autoconceito e engajamento tem sido pouco estudada. Diferenças específicas de sexo ainda carecem de evidências. Este estudo examina a eficácia da intervenção motora com o Clima para a Maestria (MC) na rotina diária de meninas e meninos, e no desempenho motor, IMC, autoconceito e engajamento; e, as diferenças entre sexo nessas variáveis. Crianças com atrasos motores foram alocadas aleatoriamente no Grupo MC ou Grupo de Comparação. Avaliamos a rotina em casa, competência percebida, aceitação social e autoestima global, IMC, habilidades motoras, e engajamento na aula. Os resultados mostraram que meninas e meninos aumentaram o tempo de brincar e os escores motores, as percepções de competência cognitiva e motora, a aceitação social, o autovalor global e o engajamento com sucesso; e diminuíram o tempo assistindo TV, e as brincadeiras livres, o mudar a tarefa, e as distrações e os conflitos na aula. Conclui-ise que a intervenção MC foi eficaz em promover o desempenho de meninas e meninos.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Efficacy , Early Intervention, Educational , Motor Skills/physiology , Play and Playthings/psychology , Self Concept , Exercise/physiology , Body Mass Index , Child Development/physiology , Health Status , Sex Characteristics , Video Games , Failure to Thrive/diagnosis , Social Skills , Learning/physiology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888370


OBJECTIVE@#To explore gender difference in the clinical manifestations of two children with Keishi-Bukuryo-Gan syndrome (KBGS).@*METHODS@#Clinical manifestations of the two children were reviewed. Genetic testing was carried out through next generation sequencing (NGS). Treatment was summarized, and the prognosis was followed up.@*RESULTS@#Both children showed particular appearance including megatooth, abnormal hair distribution, hands' abnormality and language development delay. NGS revealed that both children have carried pathogenic variants of the ANKRD11 gene (c.1903_1907del and c.4911delT), which resulted in shifting of amino acid sequences starting from the Lysine and Proline at positions 635 and 1638, respectively. The female patient exhibited central precocious puberty. Her height has increased by 13 cm, and sex characteristics has retracted after treatment with leuprorelin for 23 months and recombinant human growth hormone for 1 month.@*CONCLUSION@#Comparison of the two cases with different genders and summary of previously reported cases found that male KBGS patients have more obvious dysmorphisms such as triangular face, synophrys, ocular hypertelorism and vertebral body abnormality, with higher morbidity of epilepsy, mental retardation, autism, congenital heart disease, immune thrombocytopenia and other complications. KBGS is an autosomal dominant disease featuring more evident peculiar appearance and global development delay. Male patients often have multi-system involvement, and multidisciplinary cooperation is required for early recognition of particular features in order to improve the prognosis.

Abnormalities, Multiple , Bone Diseases, Developmental , Child , Facies , Female , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Male , Phenotype , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Sex Characteristics , Tooth Abnormalities
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887738


Objective@#This study aims to assess the dose-response relationship between serum ferritin (SF) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the two sexes.@*Methods@#We searched for articles on PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and the Web of Science databases that were published from 1950 to 2020. The summary odds ratio ( @*Results@#This study included 14 studies and 74,710 samples. The results of the classical meta-analysis showed that SF was positively associated with MetS ( @*Conclusions@#Our study shows that SF is significantly and positively associated with MetS, and the risk in the male population is higher than that in the female population. This finding also supports the recommendation of using SF as an early warning marker of MetS.

Biomarkers/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Characteristics