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1.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(spe1): e2020663, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154153

ABSTRACT

As infecções que causam úlcera genital são um dos temas que compõem o Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas para Atenção Integral às Pessoas com Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis, publicado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil em 2020. Tal documento foi elaborado com base em evidências científicas e validado em discussões com especialistas. Este artigo aborda a síndrome clínica de úlcera genital causada por infecções sexualmente transmissíveis e seus agentes etiológicos mais comuns: Treponema pallidum (sífilis), vírus herpes simples 2 (herpes genital) e vírus herpes simples 1 (herpes perioral), Haemophilus ducreyi (cancroide), Chlamydia trachomatis sorotipos L1, L2 e L3 (linfogranuloma venéreo) e Klebsiella granulomatis (donovanose). São apresentados aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos dessas infecções, bem como orientações para seu diagnóstico e tratamento, além de estratégias para as ações de vigilância, prevenção e controle, com a finalidade de subsidiar gestores e profissionais de saúde na qualificação da assistência.


Infections that cause genital ulcers are one of the themes comprising the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2020. The Protocol and Guidelines have been developed based on scientific evidence and validated in discussions with specialists. This article addresses clinical genital ulcer syndrome caused by sexually transmitted infections, and its most common etiological agents: Treponema pallidum (syphilis), herpes simplex virus-2 (genital herpes) and herpes simplex virus-1 (perioral herpes), Haemophilus ducreyi (chancroid), Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes L1, L2 and L3 (venereal lymphogranuloma), and Klebsiella granulomatis (donovanosis). Epidemiological and clinical aspects of these infections are presented, as well as guidelines for their diagnosis and treatment, in addition to strategies for surveillance, prevention and control actions, with the purpose of supporting health managers and professionals in the qualification of care.


El tema de las infecciones que causan úlcera genital hace parte del Protocolo Clínico y Directrices Terapéuticas para Atención Integral a las Personas con Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual, publicado por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil en 2020. Dicho documento fue elaborado con base en evidencias científicas y validado en discusiones con especialistas. Este artículo trata del síndrome de úlcera genital clínica provocada por infecciones de transmisión sexual, con sus agentes etiológicos más comunes: Treponema pallidum (sífilis), virus del herpes simple-1 (herpes genital) y virus del herpes simple-2 (herpes perioral), Haemophilus ducreyi (chancro blando), Chlamydia trachomatis, serotipos L1, L2 y L3 (linfogranuloma venéreo), y Klebsiella granulomatis (donovanosis). Se presentan aspectos epidemiológicos y clínicos de esas infecciones, bien como pautas para su diagnóstico y tratamiento, además de estrategias para acciones de monitoreo epidemiológico, prevención y control, a fin de contribuir con gestores y personal de salud en la cualificación de la asistencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ulcer/therapy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Chancroid/therapy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/therapy , Genitalia/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Herpes Genitalis/therapy , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/therapy , Syphilis/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Granuloma Inguinale/therapy
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(4): 271-273, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039232

ABSTRACT

Abstract To assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Central Brazil, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the City of Goiânia, Central Brazil, using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS). All serum samples were tested for anti-HCV and also for alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Anti-HCV positive samples and/or those with elevated ALT were tested for HCV RNA and genotyped. Of the 522 participants, four were found to be anti-HCV positive, and one was also HCV RNA positive (active HCV infection). Elevated ALT was found in 14 individuals. Of these, one showed evidence of acute HCV infection (HCV RNA positive and anti-HCV negative). Therefore, five MSM were positive for either anti-HCV and/or HCV RNA, giving a crude overall HCV prevalence of 1.0%; 1.3% (95% CI: 0.3-5.5) after being weighted by RDSAT. All five individuals reported high-risk sexual behaviors, including two who showed evidence of active HCV infection (genotype 1, subtypes 1a and 1b). Although the study population reported high-risk sexual practices, HCV infection was not more frequent in MSM than in the general Brazilian population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Sexual Behavior , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(11): e00038218, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974588

ABSTRACT

Recent data from the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, shows a sharp drop in the number of reported occurrences of Zika during the summer of 2016/2017, compared to the previous summer. There is still a much higher incidence among women than men, almost certainly due to sexual transmission. An unexpected feature of the new data is that there are proportionally far more cases affecting children under 15 months than older age classes. By comparing incidence rates in 2016/2017 and 2015/2016, we were able to deduce the proportion of reported cases affecting men and women, and verify that gender disparity is still present. Women and children are still risk groups for Zika infection, even during non-epidemic seasons.


Dados recentes do Município de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, mostram uma queda importante na notificação de casos de Zika no verão de 2016/2017, comparado ao verão anterior. A incidência ainda é muito mais alta em mulheres do que em homens, quase certamente em função da transmissão sexual. Uma característica inesperada dos novos dados é que, proporcionalmente, há muito mais casos em crianças abaixo dos 15 meses de idade, quando comparadas àquelas das faixas mais velhas. Ao comparar as taxas de incidência em 2016/2017 e 2015/2016, conseguimos deduzir a proporção de casos notificados em homens e mulheres e confirmar que a disparidade de gênero ainda existe. As mulheres e crianças ainda são grupos de risco para a infecção pelo vírus Zika, mesmo durante períodos não epidêmicos.


Datos recientes del municipio de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, muestran un descenso importante en la notificación de casos de Zika durante el verano de 2016/2017, comparado con el verano anterior. La incidencia todavía es mucho más alta en mujeres que en hombres, casi con seguridad debido a la transmisión sexual. Una característica inesperada de los nuevos datos es que, proporcionalmente, hay muchos más casos en niños por debajo de los 15 meses de edad, cuando se comparan con aquellas franjas con edad superior. Al comparar las tasas de incidencia en 2016/2017 y 2015/2016, conseguimos deducir la proporción de casos notificados en hombres y mujeres y confirmar que la disparidad de género todavía existe. Las mujeres y niños todavía son grupos de riesgo para la infección por el virus Zika, incluso durante períodos no epidémicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/transmission , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/virology , Sex Factors , Incidence , Disease Outbreaks , Age Factors , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/virology
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(6): 557-562, dic. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899759

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La infección por VPH es la infección viral de transmisión sexual más frecuente, y se encuentra asociada a diversas neoplasias. Objetivo: Describir la epidemiología, historia natural y factores de riesgo asociados a la infección oral por VPH en adultos jóvenes asintomáticos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de corte longitudinal, que incluyó sujetos sin patología oral, a los que se les tomó una muestra de la mucosa bucal. A todos los sujetos con resultados positivos se les realizó un nuevo muestreo seis meses después. Se identificó la presencia del virus por RPC; los datos demográficos y de conducta sexual fueron obtenidos con una encuesta que respondieron sin intervención del investigador. Resultados: Se recolectaron 102 muestras de sujetos de 18-26 años de edad, 60 (58,8%) correspondieron al sexo masculino. La prevalencia del virus fue de 6,9%; todos los sujetos positivos tenían vida sexual. Las relaciones sexuales entre personas del mismo sexo fue la única variable asociada a la presencia del virus (p < 0,05). A los seis meses, todos los sujetos habían eliminado al virus. Conclusión: La infección oral por VPH es transitoria y está asociada a relaciones sexuales entre personas del mismo sexo, principalmente mujeres que tienen sexo con mujeres.


Background: HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted viral infection, and is associated with several neoplasms. Aim: To describe the epidemiology, natural history and risk factors associated with oral HPV infection in asymptomatic young adults. Methods: A prospective and longitudinal study was conducted, including subjects without oral pathology, who were sampled from the oral mucosa. All subjects with positive results were re-sampled 6 months later. The presence of HPV was identified by PCR. Demographic and sexual behavior data were obtained with a survey that was responded without the intervention of the researcher. Results: 102 samples were collected from subject of 18-26 years old, 60 (58.8%) were male. The prevalence of the virus was 6.9%; all positive subjects had active sexual life. Same-gender relationships were the only variable associated with the presence of the virus (p < 0.05). At six months all subjects had eliminated the virus. Conclusion: Oral HPV infection is transient and is associated to same-gender relationships, mainly women who have sex with women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/transmission , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/transmission , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mouth/virology , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Sexual Behavior , Sex Factors , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Health Risk Behaviors , Genotype , Mexico/epidemiology
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(9): 865-868, set. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728824

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological and health aspects of sheep husbandry were assessed on 213 sheep flocks in 142 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. An updated questionnaire was filled out for each flock, requesting data on the farm, the flock and the farmer by the veterinarians of the State Government Agency for Animal Health (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária). Thirteen important variables were selected and scored to determine the technological level of the 117 farms; 0.9% of them was classified as high technological level, 45.3% as medium technological level and 53.0% as low technological level. Lamb production was the main objective of the farms and the main features were low-frequencies of individual identification of animals (16.9%), technical assistance (31.9%), use of quarantine for newly acquired animals (0.9%) the separation of animals by age group (3.7%) and requeste the sanitary certificate at purchasing of animals (11.7%). The main health problems reported were abortion (23.9%), keratoconjunctivitis (17.9%), contagious ecthyma (13.6%), pneumonia (10.3%), diarrhea (9.3%) and caseous lymphadenitis (6.1%). Information of the epidemiological situation and the mainly health measures used in the sheep farms are important to improve the productivity and quality of the lamb...


Os aspectos epidemiológicos e sanitários da ovinocultura foram levantados em 213 rebanhos ovinos em 142 municípios do estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. Um questionário atualizado foi preenchido para cada rebanho, com informações sobre a fazenda, o rebanho e do fazendeiro, por veterinários do Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária. Treze variáveis importantes foram selecionadas e pontuadas para determinar o nível tecnológico em 117 fazendas; 0,9% foram classificadas como de alto nível tecnológico, 45,3% como de médio nível tecnológico e 53,0% como de baixo nível tecnológico. A produção de carne de cordeiro foi o principal objetivo das fazendas amostradas e as principais características foram baixa frequência de identificação individual dos animais (16,9%), assistência técnica (31,9%), uso de quarentena para os animais recém-adquiridos (0,9%), separação de animais por faixa etária (3.7%) e solicitação de certificados sanitários na compra de animais (11,7%). Os principais problemas sanitários relatados foram o aborto (23,9%), ceratoconjuntivite (17,9%), ectima contagioso (13,6%), pneumonia (10,3%), diarreia (9,3%) e linfadenite caseosa (6,1%). Informações sobre a situação epidemiológica e das principais medidas sanitárias utilizadas nas propriedades com ovinos são importantes para melhorar produtividade e a qualidade da carne ovina...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pair Bond , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/prevention & control , Sheep , Quarantine/veterinary , Sanitary Profiles
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(6): 533-538, 02/jul. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679203

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is a major source of illness and death among women worldwide and genital infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) its principal cause. There is evidence of the influence of the male factor in the development of cervical neoplasia. Nevertheless, the pathogenic processes of HPV in men are still poorly understood. It has been observed that different HPV types can be found among couples. The objective of the present study was to investigate HPV infections in female patients (n = 60 females/group) as well as in their sexual partners and to identify the concordance of HPV genotypes among them. By using the polymerase chain reaction, we detected a 95% prevalence of HPV DNA in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) compared to 18.3% in women with normal cervical epithelium, with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). The HPV DNA prevalence was 50% in male partners of women with CIN and 16.6% in partners of healthy women. In the control group (healthy women), only 9 couples were simultaneously infected with HPV, and only 22.2% of them had the same virus type, showing a weak agreement rate (kappa index = 0.2). Finally, we observed that HPV DNA was present in both partners in 30 couples if the women had CIN, and among them, 53.3% shared the same HPV type, showing moderate agreement, with a kappa index of 0.5. This finding supports the idea of circulation and recirculation of HPV among couples, perpetuating HPV in the sexually active population, rather than true recurrences of latent infections.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/epidemiology , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Sexual Partners , Brazil/epidemiology , Colposcopy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/virology , Genotype , Human Papillomavirus DNA Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Prevalence , Papillomaviridae/classification , Penis/virology , Sex Factors , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology
8.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 22(6): 813-824, nov. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-687043

ABSTRACT

Las Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual (ITS) son infecciones causadas por diversos agentes (bacterias, virus, parásitos, protozoos, entre otros) y cuyo mecanismo de transmisión es el contacto sexual: genital, oral o anal, condición que les da su principal característica y que tiene implicancias en la prevención, pues se relaciona directamente con el "comportamiento sexual" del ser humano, y por lo tanto, con un acto de decisión personal. Las ITS son "PROBLEMA DE TODOS" en razón de ser Universales, no respetando razas, sexos, edad, cultura, creencias religiosas, situación socioeconómica, etc. Constituyen aún un importante problema de Salud Pública en todo el mundo a pesar de los esfuerzos por controlarlas y eventualmente erradicarlas como ha sucedido con otras enfermedades infecto contagiosas. Las modernas tecnologías usadas en el diagnóstico de laboratorio permiten identificar con mayor eficiencia los agentes causales, y el desarrollo de nuevos antibióticos permiten tratar con mayor eficacia, interrumpiendo así la transmisión.


Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) are sexually infections caused for many agents (bacterias, virus, parasites, protozoos, etc.) and where the transmission is the sexual contact, vaginal, anal or oral, condition who give them the principal characteristic. And that have very important implicancies in prevention, because is directed related with sexual behaviour of human being and finally with and act of personal decision. The STI are a problem of all, in reason of being universal, without respect of races, sex, age, culture, religious credences, social economical position, etc. Today are an important problem in public health in all the World in spite the efforts for control and eventually erradicate them in the way who has succeded with others infectious diseases. Moderns technologies used in the laboratory diagnosis allow us identified with more eficcacious the agents and the development of new antibiotics will be the key to treat with more eficciency our patients and by this way close the chain of transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial/therapy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/therapy , Gonorrhea/therapy , Herpes Genitalis/therapy , Syphilis/therapy , Chile/epidemiology , Syphilis, Cutaneous , Syphilis, Congenital/epidemiology
9.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2011 Jan-Mar 54(1): 96-99
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-141924

ABSTRACT

Context: There are sparse data on herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection in India. HSV-2 is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and the primary cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the incidence of HSV-2 infection among young reproductive age women in Mysore, India. Setting and Design: Between October 2005 and April 2006, 898 women were enrolled into a prospective cohort study in Mysore, India, and followed quarterly for 6 months. Materials and Methods: An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect demographic and social risk factors, and physical examination was conducted for collection of biological specimens to screen for reproductive tract infections at each visit. Serologic testing was conducted for the presence of HSV-2 antibodies using HerpeSelect HSV-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using R. Incidence density rates were calculated using Poisson distributions with person-time of follow-up as denominator. Person-time was calculated as time from enrollment until time of first positive HSV-2 test. Results: There were 107 women with HSV-2 antibodies leaving 700 women with negative results at enrollment. The analysis included 696 out of which, there were 36 HSV-2 seroconversions during the study period. The study cohort accumulated roughly 348 woman-years of follow-up, yielding an HSV-2 acquisition rate of 10.4 cases/100 woman-years. All detected infections were asymptomatic. Conclusions: HSV-2 incidence is moderate in this community sample of young reproductive age monogamous women. More research is needed to establish incidence estimates in different Indian settings.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , Herpes Genitalis/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 2, Human/immunology , Herpesvirus 2, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 14(5): 427-432, Sept.-Oct. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-570554

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is general consensus that hepatitis C virus is efficiently transmitted by the parenteral route, whereas data on viral transmission by sexual or non-sexual intrafamilial contact are conflicting. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: The aim of this study was to investigate the transmission of hepatitis C virus in nine heterosexual couples. RESULT: The mean age of the couples was 43.7 years. When interviewed, all of the women denied the presence of risk factors for acquisition of the infection, whereas the cause of infection in the nine husbands could be attributed to blood transfusions in two of them (22.2 percent), use of intravenous and inhaled drugs in six (66.7 percent), acupuncture in one (11.1 percent), and tattooing in one (11.1 percent). All men and none of the women reported sexual relations with sex professionals. The mean homology score (Non Structural 5b-hepatitis C virus) was 98.4 percent. Among the nine couples with matching subtypes, one (11.1 percent) was infected with subtype 1a, three (33.3 percent) with subtype 1b, and five (55.5 percent) with subtype 3a. Shared personal hygiene items showed a much higher correlation with the possible route of transmission and were better supported by the sequence homology data than the other associated risk factors. Three (33.3 percent) couples shared toothbrushes, seven (77.8 percent) shared razor blades, eight (88.8 percent) shared nail clippers, and six (66.7 percent) shared manicure cutters. CONCLUSION: Sharing of personal hygiene items was a confounding factor in the discussion of sexual hepatitis C virus transmission and the hypothesis of male-to-female transmission was supported in this study.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/transmission , Sexual Partners , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/transmission , Spouses/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Genotype , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Risk Factors , RNA, Viral/blood , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology
11.
West Indian med. j ; 59(4): 356-361, July 2010.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672639

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This exploratory study conducted in 2008 aimed at gathering the views and opinions of leaders of the faith-based community (FBC) in Grenada about the increased incidence of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean region including their beliefs and attitudes towards persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV/AIDS). DESIGN AND METHODS: The study followed a cross-sectional design and used a qualitative approach. Telephone surveys were conducted with all faith-based organizations and semi-structured interviews done with key leaders representing the faith-based community in Grenada. RESULTS: Findings showed that perceptions of HIV/AIDS are embedded in a socio-political-cultural context where many risk behaviours and factors intertwine in complex ways. Religious beliefs are based on love, compassion and acceptance. The most prominent risk behaviours associated with the spread of HIV/AIDS identified by leaders are homosexuality, prostitution, promiscuity and substance abuse which are in direct contradiction to their beliefs and teachings. Leaders felt that these risk behaviours were exacerbated by changes in family structure and the absence of a common moral discourse shared by all sectors of society. CONCLUSION: The faith-based community has a significant presence across Grenada and it can be an effective partner in helping communities understand and prevent HIV/AIDS and overcome the stigma and discrimination associated with this disease. Training and effective strategies are needed to engage them in the national response to HIV/AIDS without threatening their ideologies and practices.


OBJETIVO: Este estudio exploratorio realizado en 2008 tuvo por objetivo recoger los puntos de vistas y opiniones de líderes de la comunidad de fe en Granada, acerca del aumento de la incidencia de VIH/SIDA en la región caribena, incluyendo sus creencias y actitudes hacia personas que viven con VIH/SIDA (PLVIH/SIDA). DISEÑO Y MÉTODOS: El estudio tuvo por base un diseno transversal y un enfoque cualitativo. Se llevaron a cabo encuestas telefónicas con todas las organizaciones de fe y se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a líderes importantes, representantes de la comunidad defe en Granada. RESULTADOS: Los hallazgos mostraron que las percepciones del VIH/SIDA se hallan embebidas en un contexto socio-político-cultural en el que múltiples comportamientos y factores de riesgo se entrelazan deformas complejas. Las creencias religiosas se basan en el amor, la compasión y la aceptación. Los comportamientos de riesgo más sobresalientes asociados con la diseminación del VIH/SIDA, identificados por los líderes fueron la homosexualidad, la prostitución, la promiscuidad, y el abuso de substancias que están en la contradicción directa con sus creencias y ensenanzas. Los líderes sentían que estas conductas de riesgo se hallaban exacerbadas por los cambios en la estructura de la familia y la ausencia de un discurso moral común compartido por todos los sectores de la sociedad. CONCLUSIÓN: La comunidad de fe tiene una presencia significativa en toda Granada y puede ser un aliado eficaz a la hora de ayudar a las comunidades a entender y prevenir el VIH/SIDA, así como a superar el estigma y la discriminación asociados con esta enfermedad. Se necesitan entrenamiento y estrategias efectivas para comprometer a las comunidades de fe a una respuesta nacional frente al VIH/SIDA, sin amenazar sus prácticas e ideologías.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , HIV Infections/psychology , Religion and Psychology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cultural Characteristics , Grenada/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality/psychology , Incidence , Interviews as Topic , Sex Work/psychology , Risk-Taking , Socioeconomic Factors , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 84(4): 377-389, jul.-ago. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-529083

ABSTRACT

The family of human papilloma viruses (HPV) comprises more than 100 genotypes. Approximately 30 of the genotypes are responsible for infections in the human anogenital area. A precisely defined algorithm with the goal of diagnosing and removing HPV for a prolonged or indefinite length of time, as well as to protect the patient from any malignant ransformation, does not currently exist. The identification of HPV strains by PCR or DNA hybridization in lesional tissue provides higher security for the patients. In high-risk patients additional colposcopy, rectoscopy, and rethroscopy/cystoscopy increase the probability of proper diagnosis and the application of a reliable therapeutic strategy. Removal of lesions by means of invasive methods, such as electrodessication, cryosurgery, and/or laser therapy, may be successful and could be combined pre- and postoperatively with the local application of podophyllotoxin, Trichloroacetic acid, 5-fluorouracil epinephrine gel, imiquimod, cidofovir or interferon. The administration of vaccine to young patients prevents to a significant extent the clinical manifestation of the most frequent viral strains, being HPV-6,-11 and -18. The different therapeutic methods must be applied in accordance with the clinical picture, taking into account the patient's general status, the presence of concomitant diseases, as well as the local and systematic compatibility of the side effects of each remedy. The review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment options of sexually transmitted HPV-infections and includes synopsis of the most recent literature regarding new data of epidemiology, pathogenesis, ifferential diagnosis and morphology of HPV infections in humans.


A família de papiloma vírus humano (HPV) compreende mais de 100 genótipos. Aproximadamente 30 dos genótipos são responsáveis pelas infecções na área anogenital em humanos. Não dispomos no momento de um algoritmo precisamente definido tendo como meta o diagnóstico e a remoção de HPV por períodos de tempo prolongados ou indefinidos, nem para proteção do paciente contra transformação maligna. A identificação das cepas de HPV por PCR ou hibridização de DNA em tecido lesional oferece maior segurança para os pacientes. Em pacientes de alto risco realiza-se ainda colposcopia, rectoscopia e uretroscopia/ cistoscopia, aumentando a probabilidade do diagnóstico correto e a aplicação de estratégia terapêutica confiável. A remoção das lesões por meio de métodos invasivos, como a eletrodissecção, criocirurgia, e/ou terapia com laser, pode ser bem sucedida e combinada no pré e no pós-operatório com a aplicação local de toxina podofílica, ácido tricloroacético, gel de epinefrina 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, cidofovir ou interferon. A administração da vacina em pacientes jovens é capaz de previnir as manifestações clínicas das cepas virais mais frequentes, que são HPV-6, -11 e -18. Os diferentes métodos terapêuticos devem ser aplicados de acordo com o quadro clínico, levando em consideração o estado de saúde geral do paciente, a presença de doenças concomitantes, assim como a compatibilidade local e sistêmica dos efeitos adversos em cada remédio. A revisão foca o diagnóstico e as opções de tratamento de infecções por HPV sexualmente transmitidas e inclui uma sinopse da literatura mais recente no que diz respeito aos dados de epidemiologia, patogênese, diagnóstico diferencial e morfologia de infecções por HPV em humanos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Papillomavirus Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral , Diagnosis, Differential , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/etiology , Papillomavirus Infections/therapy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/etiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/therapy
14.
West Indian med. j ; 57(3): 257-264, June 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672359

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinicopathological manifestations and outcomes of a cohort of HIV-infected Jamaican adolescents. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study to determine demographic, clinical, immunological characteristics, antiretroviral uptake and mortality in 94 adolescents aged 10-19 years followed in the Kingston Paediatric and Perinatal HIV/AIDS Programme (KPAIDS) between September 2002 and May 2007. Parametric and non-parametric tests are used to compare variables. RESULTS: The median age at initial presentation was 10.0 years (interquartile range (IQR) 7.0-12.0 years), 54.3% (51) were female (p = 0.024), transmission was primarily mother-to-child (70, 73.4%), with 87% (61) of the latter presenting as slow progressors. Sexual transmission accounted for 19.1% and there was significant female predominance (n = 15; p = 0.024). At most recent visit, perinatally infected adolescents were more likely (p < 0.0001) to reside with a non-parent (n = 42) than a biological parent (n = 19) and most had Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) category C (35/50%) disease, whereas the majority of non-perinatally infected children were classified CDC category A. Mean z scores for height-for-age was -1.47 ± 1.21 (n = 77), weight-for-age -1.06 ± 1.44 (n = 80) and BMI-for-age -0.34 ± 1.21 (n = 76) respectively; females (n = 41) were taller than males (n = 36) at their current height (p = 0.031). Lymphadenopathy (82%), dermatitis (72.0%), hepatomegaly (48%) and parotitis (48%) were the most common clinical manifestations, with significant predilection for lymphadenopathy (p # 0.0001), dermatitis (p = 0.010), splenomegaly (p = 0.008), hepatomegaly (p = 0.001) and parotitis (p = 0.007) among perinatally infected children. Median baseline CD4+ cell count was 256.0/µL (IQR 71.0 - 478.0 cells/µL); median most recent CD4+ cell count was 521/µL (IQR 271.0 - 911.0 cells/µL). Seventy-six per cent (n = 71) were initiated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 62 (87.3%) were currently receiving first-line therapy. Six behaviourally infected females became pregnant, resulting in five live births. There were seven deaths (7.4%). CONCLUSIONS: This study comprehensively characterizes HIV infection among perinatally infected teens with predominantly slow-progressor disease and an increasing population of sexually-infected adolescents. As the cohort transitions to adulthood, adolescent developmental, mental health and life planning issues must be emergently addressed.


OBJETIVO: Caracterizar las manifestaciones clínico-patológicas y la evolución clínica de una cohorte de adolescentes jamaicanos infectados por el VIH. MÉTODOS: El presente es un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo con el fin de determinar las características demográficas, clínicas, inmunológicas, así como el consumo de antiretrovirales y la mortalidad en 94 adolescentes de 10 a 19 años de edad, llevado a cabo como parte del Programa VIH/SIDA perinatal y pediátrico de Kingston (KPAIDS) entre septiembre de 2002 y mayo de 2007. Se usan pruebas paramétricas y no paramétricas para comparar las variables. RESULTADOS: La edad mediana en la presentación inicial fue 10.0 años (rango intercuartil (IQR) 7.0-12.0 años), 54.3% (51) eran hembras (p = 0.024), la transmisión fue fundamentalmente de madre a hijo (70, 73.4%), presentándose el 87% (61) de los últimos como progresores lentos. La transmisión sexual representó el 19.1% y hubo un predominio significativo de las hembras (n = 15; p = 0.024). En la visita más reciente, los adolescentes infectados perinatalmente presentaron una mayor probabilidad (p < 0.0001) de residir con personas distintas de sus padres (n = 42) que con un progenitor biológico (n = 19), y la mayor parte tenía la enfermedad categoría C (35/50%) de acuerdo con los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de las Enfermedades (CCPE), mientras que la mayoría de los niños infectados no perinatalmente fueron clasificados con la categoría A del CCE. Las puntuaciones z medias para altura por edad fue - 1.47 ± 1.21 (n = 77), peso por edad -1.06 ± 1.44 (n = 80), y el IMC por edad -0.34 ± 1.21 (n = 76) respectivamente; las hembras (n = 41) fueron más altas que los varones (n = 36) en altura corriente (p = 0.031). La linfadenopatía (82%), la dermatitis (72.0%), la hepato-megalia (48%) y la parotitis (48%) fueron las manifestaciones clínicas más comunes, con predilección significativa de la linfadenopatía (p # 0.0001), la dermatitis (p = 0.010), la esplenomegalia (p = 0.008), la hepatomegalia (p = 0.001) y la parotitis (p = 0.007) entre los niños perinatalmente infectados. La mediana de la línea de base del conteo celular CD4+ fue 256.0/µL (IQR 71.0 - 478.0 células/µL); la mediana del conteo celular CD4+ más reciente fue 521 /µL (IQR 271.0 - 911.0 células/µL). El setenta y seis por ciento (n = 71) fueron iniciadas con terapia antiretroviral altamente activa (TARAA) y 62 (87.3%) estuvieron corrientemente recibiendo terapia de primera línea. Seis hembras infectadas conductualmente fueron embarazadas, produciéndose como resultado cinco nacimientos. Hubo siete muertes (7.4%). CONCLUSIÓN: Este estudio presenta una caracterización integral de la infección por VIH entre adolescentes infectados perinatalmente predominantemente con la enfermedad de progresores lentos, y una población creciente de adolescentes infectados sexualmente. En la medida en que la cohorte transita a la adultez, el desarrollo del adolescente, la salud mental y los problemas de la planificación de la vida tienen que ser abordados con urgencia.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Young Adult , HIV Infections/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/pathology , Adaptation, Psychological , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/transmission , Jamaica/epidemiology , Patient Education as Topic , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/psychology
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-46463

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is now a global scourge of mankind. Nevertheless, Bangladesh is categorized as a low HIV prevalence country, from an epidemiological point of view, the HIV epidemic in Bangladesh is evolving rapidly. The majority of the studies on HIV/AIDS and condom use were carried out among the risk segment of people in the country. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of AIDS and use of condoms among general population for prevention of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh. METHODS: Both quantitative and qualitative study designs were adopted in this study. Cross-sectional data were collected from rural and urban areas. Married males aged 20 years and above constituted the study population. Data on 524 male respondents were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.5. For qualitative data, selective in-depth interview was done using unstructured guidelines. RESULTS: Analysis indicated that 26 of the respondents had no knowledge about AIDS. More than one-fifth 23 had poor, 26 had well and 25 had excellent knowledge on AIDS. Only 29 reportedly mentioned that condom might be a preventive measure against AIDS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that urban residents with access to electronic and printed media, better socioeconomic condition and service holders appeared to be significantly associated with knowledge of condom as a preventive measure for AIDS p<0.05. However, in the social context, the respondents had different views about use of condom as a preventive measure against AIDS. CONCLUSION: Useful and fruitful media campaigns to educate the people regarding the health consequences of STDs including HIV/AIDS and integrated approach is strongly suggested for disseminating knowledge and awareness to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among people in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Condoms/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Marriage , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology
17.
Indian J Med Sci ; 2007 May; 61(5): 269-77
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-65950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: India is at present facing an emergence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus. Community-based studies on the prevalence of STIs among males are scanty. AIM:(i) To study the prevalence of STIs and (ii) to assess the level of awareness about STIs among males belonging to the reproductive age group residing in an urban slum. SETTING AND DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in selected areas of Delhi, using a camp approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred ninety-six males in the reproductive age group were interviewed regarding their awareness about STIs, past history and present complaints of any symptoms suggestive of an STI. This was followed by a clinical examination. Required samples were also collected for microbiological tests. STATISTICAL TESTS: Simple proportions and Chi-square test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: As many as 70% of the study participants were unable to mention even one symptom of an STI. About 73.4% of the study participants stated that staying in a monogamous relationship could help prevent STI, while only 39.2% were aware that condoms could afford protection against an STI. As many as 8.7% complained of urethral discharge, while 5.6% complained of itching, 2.5% reported presence of genital ulcer and 1.0% complained of groin swelling. We found a seroprevalence rate of 1.5% for trichomoniasis and 3.6% for syphilis. Thus the overall awareness level about STIs and their prevention was rather low. Poor treatment-seeking behavior was also observed. The actual prevalence rate in the general population might be higher due to the likelihood of presence of an asymptomatic infection. The present study calls for a multipronged approach which also includes targeted interventions and strategies to be adopted in the reproductive health programs for males who have been neglected by the program managers so far.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Poverty Areas , Prevalence , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Urban Population
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37588

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the histological outcome of cervix with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the association of risk factors with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) development in Northeast Thai women. The study population (n=210) comprised 71 cases of normal cervix, 71 cases of CIN and 68 cases of ICC. The histological outcome of HPV infection was determined for 9.5% of the study population. Increased risk factors for CIN were observed for more than one partner (odds ratio (OR)=3.75, p<0.05), history of sexually transmitted disease (STD) (OR=2.28, p<0.05), menarche under 14 years of age (OR=0.31, p<0.05) and partners' smoking history (OR=3.98, p<0.01). Increased risk for ICC was observed for those with a history of STDs (OR=0.14, p<0.01) and multiparity (OR=2.53, p<0.01). Age at first sexual intercourse was not a risk factor in this study population. Further studies with HPV-DNA tests should more precisely quantify the risks.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Female , Humans , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Sexual Behavior , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology
19.
West Indian med. j ; 54(6): 360-363, Dec. 2005.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-472803

ABSTRACT

Persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may have protean clinical manifestations. These characteristics have not been described for adult patients in Jamaica. This study was conducted to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of adult and adolescent persons newly diagnosed with HIV presenting at a specialized clinic for sexually transmitted infections (STI). A retrospective analysis of the medical records of adult and adolescent patients newly diagnosed with HIV was undertaken over a 12-month period. The results showed that most patients (64) were between 20 and 39 years old (age range 14-68 years, M:F ratio 1.4:1). Heterosexual practice was admitted to by 77of patients. At the time of presentation most patients (53) were asymptomatic while 24had some symptoms and 21had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The most common presentation was generalized lymphadenopathy (67) which was significantly higher than skin rash (27), oral candidiasis (24), cough (24), weight loss (24) and pallor of mucous membranes (19, p < 0.001). This study affirms that young people account for the majority of new cases of HIV infection. The heterosexual route was the predominant mode of transmission. Generalized lymphadenopathy was the commonest presenting feature of persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection.


Las personas infectadas con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) pueden presentar manifestaciones clínicas proteicas. Estas características no han sido descritas en relación con pacientes adultos en Jamaica. Este estudio se llevó a cabo con el propósito de determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de personas adultas y adolescentes diagnosticadas recientemente con VIH, quienes acudieron a una clínica especializada en infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). Por espacio de 12 meses, se llevó a cabo un análisis retrospectivo de los archivos médicos de pacientes adultos y adolescentes recientemente diagnosticados con VIH. Los resultados mostraron que la mayoría de los pacientes (64%) tenían entre 20 y 39 años de edad (rango de edad 14-68, ratio M:F igual a 1.4: 1). El 77% de los pacientes dijo ser heterosexual. En el momento de manifestación, la mayoría de los pacientes (53%) eran asintomáticos, mientras que el 24% tenía algunos síntomas, y el 21% había adquirido el síndrome de la inmunodeficiencia (SIDA). La manifestación más común fue la linfadenopatía generalizada (67%), que fue significativamente más alta que la erupción cutánea (27%), la candidiasis oral (24%), la tos (24%), la pérdida de peso (24%) y la palidez de las membranas mucosas (19%) (p < 0.001). Este estudio afirma que la mayoría de los nuevos casos de infección de VIH esta constituida por personas jóvenes. La ruta heterosexual era el modo predominante de transmisión. La linfadenopatía generalizada fue el rasgo más común presente en las personas recientemente diagnosticadas con la infección del VIH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/diagnosis , HIV-1 , HIV Infections/diagnosis , AIDS Serodiagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Jamaica/epidemiology , Condoms , Retrospective Studies , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners
20.
West Indian med. j ; 51(1): 37-39, Mar. 2002.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-333297

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted retrospectively at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital and a private laboratory in Barbados to determine the types of epithelial abnormalities in cervico-vaginal Papanicolaou (Pap)-stained smears, and their clinical implications in Barbadian girls, 18 years and under, during the five-year period January 1995 to December 1999. Two hundred and sixty-five Pap smears from 236 patients were examined and the gynaecological history, initial and repeat Pap smear diagnoses, and histology reports of these patients were analyzed. Of the 236 first-visit smears, 94 (39.8) were abnormal with 36 (15.3) displaying cytologic features of squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL), (33 low grade and 3 high grade). A diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) was reported in the remaining 58 (24.5) abnormal smears, of which 35 (60.3) were suspected to be related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Twenty-two (23.4) of these 94 patients, who had abnormal smears of either ASCUS or low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (LSIL) were re-evaluated within six to twelve months of the initial abnormal Pap smear diagnosis. Eight of these 22 patients (36.4) had histological diagnosis of LSIL inclusive of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1) and condylomata. High-risk HPV DNA types were detected in two of these eight patients (25). The study confirms that sexually active teenage girls are at risk of developing SIL and high-risk HPV infection. Screening of sexually active teenaged girls by Pap smears followed by other appropriate investigative procedures is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Tumor Virus Infections/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Barbados , Colposcopy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Tumor Virus Infections/diagnosis , Biomarkers , Papillomaviridae , Retrospective Studies , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia , Vaginal Smears
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