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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982728


Objective:To explore the relationship between sleep status and the disease in children with recurrent vertigo(RVC) by analyzing the objective sleep condition of children with recurrent vertigo. Methods:According to the diagnostic criteria of RVC, 50 children with RVC and 20 normal controls without RVC were selected. According to the vertigo questionnaire score, the RVC group was divided into mild, moderate and severe groups according to severity. Continuous polysomnography(PSG) was performed for all participants, and SPSS 25.0 statistical software was used to analyze the monitoring results. Results:①There were significant differences in sleep time of each period, total sleep time and sleep efficiency between RVC group and control group(P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in sleep latency(P>0.05). The specific manifestations were that the proportion of sleep time in N1 and N2 phases increased, the proportion of sleep time in N3 and REM phases decreased, the total sleep time and sleep efficiency decreased in RVC group. ②The abnormal rate of sleep apnea hypopnea index, that is, the proportion of AHI≥5 times/h and the abnormal rate of lowest blood oxygen saturation in RVC group were higher than those in normal control group. There was significant difference between the two groups(P<0.05). ③There were significant differences in the proportion of AHI≥5 times/h and lowest SpO2 among mild group, moderate group and severe group(P<0.05). ④There was no significant correlation between the degree of vertigo and the abnormal rate of AHI in children with RVC, but there was a negative correlation between the degree of vertigo and the abnormal rate of lowest SpO2 in children with RVC. Conclusion:Children with RVC are often accompanied by sleep disorders, clinicians should pay attention to both the symptoms of vertigo and sleep condition in children. Polysomnography is non-invasive and operable, providing a new idea to the auxiliary examination of RVC in children. It is of certain clinical significance for the comprehensive treatment of children with RVC to actively improve vertigo symptoms and pay attention to improving sleep quality.

Humans , Child , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep , Dizziness , Vertigo/diagnosis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011022


Objective:This study aims to investigate the clinical effectiveness of muscle function training combined with occlusal inducers in the treatment for children's malocclusion after obstructive sleep apnea(OSA) surgery. Methods:A total of 40 pediatric patients who underwent surgery for OSA at Shanghai Children's Medical Center, affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, from January 2020 to December 2021 were involved in this study. They were divided into a treatment group(n=20) and a control group(n=20). The treatment group received muscle function training combined with occlusal inducers, while the control group received muscle function training alone. Cephalometric measurements of hard tissues were compared between the two groups before and 12 months after surgery. Additionally, the OSA-18 questionnaire, which includes 18 items to assess the life quality of children with OSA, was filled out before surgery, 6 months after surgery, and 12 months after surgery by these patients. Results:①The scores of sleep disorders, physical symptoms, emotional status, daytime sleepiness and energy status and the degree of influence on guardians in the two groups were significantly improved at 12 months after operation(P<0.05). The scores of sleep disorders, physical symptoms, emotional status and the degree of influence on guardians in the treatment group were better than those in the control group(P<0.05). ②Cephalometric data at 12 months after operation showed that the upper and lower alveolar seat angle(ANB), Overbite, upper and lower central incisor angle(U1-L1) and Overjet in the treatment group were lower than those in the control group at 12 months after operation, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion:Children with OSA can improve the dentition irregularity by muscle function training combined with occlusal inducer after operation, and the effect is better than that of muscle function training alone.

Humans , Child , China , Malocclusion , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome , Muscles
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 43(2): 55-60, maio-ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1362040


As multifatoriedades do aumento da SHAOS têm diversas causas, desdês de obesidades até sedendarismo de grande proporção. No entanto a ciência tem feito grandes esforços para isso se altere. Mesmo assim muito tem que se pesquisar para um tratamento efetivo que seja capaz de ajudar o paciente a ter um sono reparador e uma qualidade de vida mais satisfatória. A sofisticação dos CPAP, melhores alternativas para o tratamento se sofisticaram de tal em volume, barulho e tamanho que estão aumentanto em muito sua utilização. Os mini-cpaps são uma prova disso. No entanto ainda nos confrontamos com a baixa adesão do tratamento frente ao desconforto causado. Ao aparelhos intra-orais são uma alternativa viáveis para os casos de IAH (índice de apneia e hipopneia) leve, moderada e ronco primário. Importante frisar que sem um exame de polissografia e teleradiografias laterais o Cirurgião Dentista não pode fazer nada(AU)

The multifactorial causes of the increase in SHAOS have several causes, from obesity to a large sedentary lifestyle. However science has made great efforts to change this. Even so, much remains to be researched for an effective treatment that is capable of helping the patient to have a restful sleep and a more satisfactory quality of life. The sophistication of CPAP, the best alternatives for treatment, has become so sophisticated in volume, noise and size that its use is greatly increasing. The mini-cpaps are proof of that. However, we are still faced with the low adherence to the treatment due to the discomfort caused. Intraoral appliances are a viable alternative for cases of mild, moderate AHI (apnea and hypopnea index) and primary snoring. It is important to emphasize that without a polysomnography exam and lateral teleradiographies, the Dental Surgeon cannot do anything(AU)

Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(2): 163-171, jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389849


Resumen Introducción: El síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño (SAOS) se asocia a aumento de morbimortalidad cardiovascular y metabólica, y a mala calidad de vida. Su diagnóstico y tratamiento eficaz mejora la salud individual y pública. Objetivo: evaluar concordancia entre análisis automático versus manual del dispositivo ApneaLink para diagnosticar y clasificar SAOS en pacientes con sospecha clínica. Material y Método: Evaluación retrospectiva de 301 poligrafías respiratorias del HOSCAR. Se mide correlación, acuerdo general y concordancia entre parámetros obtenidos manual y automáticamente usando coeficiente de Pearson, coeficiente de correlación intraclase y gráfico de Bland y Altman. Resultados: En 11,3% de casos el análisis automático interpreto erróneamente la señal de flujo. No hubo diferencias significativas entre índices de apnea-hipopnea automático (AHIa 18,9 ± 17,5) y manual (AHIm 20,8 ± 19,4) r + 0,97 (95% CI: 0,9571 a 0,9728; p < 0,0001) y tampoco entre la saturación mínima de oxígeno automática (82,1 ± 7,6) y manual (83,1 ± 6,8) r + 0,85 (95% CI: 0,8108 a 0,8766; p < 0,0001). No hubo buena correlación entre análisis automático y manual en clasificación de apneas centrales, r + 0,51 (95% CI: 0,4238 a 0,5942; p < 0,0001). Hubo subestimación de gravedad de SAOS por análisis automático: en 11% de casos. Conclusión: El diagnóstico entregado automáticamente por ApneaLink podría aceptarse sin confirmación manual adicional solamente en casos clasificados como severos. Para AHI menores se requeriría confirmación mediante análisis manual de experto.

Abstract Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with increased cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity and mortality, and poor quality of life. Its effective diagnosis and treatment improve individual and public health. Aim: To evaluate concordance between automatic versus manual analysis of the ApneaLink device to diagnose and classify OSAS in patients with clinical suspicion. Material and Method: Retrospective evaluation of 301 respiratory polygraphs from HOSCAR. Correlation, general agreement and concordance between parameters obtained manually and automatically are measured using Pearson's coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland and Altman graph. Results: In 11.3% of cases, the automatic analysis misinterpreted the flow signal. There were no significant differences between automatic (AHIa 18.9 ± 17.5) and manual (AHIm 20.8 ± 19.4) apnea-hypopnea indices r + 0.97 (95% CI:0.9571 to 0.9728, p < 0.0001) and nor between automatic (82.1 ± 7.6) and manual (83.1 ± 6.8) minimum oxygen saturation r + 0.85 (95% CI: 0.8108 to 0.8766, p < 0.0001). There was no good correlation between automatic and manual analysis in the classification of central apneas, r + 0.51(95% CI:0.4238 to 0.5942, p < 0.0001). There was an underestimation of the severity of OSAS by automatic analysis in 11% of cases. Conclusion: The diagnosis delivered automatically by ApneaLink could be accepted without additional manual confirmation only in cases classified as severe. For minors AHI, confirmation through manual expert analysis would be required.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Polysomnography/instrumentation , Diagnostic Equipment/standards , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Equipment and Supplies
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(4): 450-457, abr. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409827


BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent. The STOP-BANG questionnaire is a simple and useful tool to screen for OSA. AIM: Since OSA is strongly associated with airway management troubles, we sought to determine whether the STOP-BANG can predict difficult airway management. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted including adult patients scheduled for major outpatient surgery under general anesthesia. The STOP-BANG questionnaire was preoperatively applied by a ward nurse. The Han scale mask ventilation difficulty scale, Cormack-Lehane laryngeal view scale were also applied and the need for video laryngoscopy was recorded. The number of attempts for successful insertion of a laryngeal mask airway were determined. RESULTS: We studied 993 patients, of whom 53% required tracheal intubation and 47% a laryngeal mask. Most patients had a low OSA risk, (STOP-BANG 2. The positive and negative likelihood ratios, (2.0 and 0.2) imply poor predictive capability. CONCLUSIONS: The STOP-BANG questionnaire was only able to predict difficult mask ventilation. Since its discriminative value was low, it cannot be recommended it as a single predictor.

Humans , Adult , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Anesthesia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Airway Management
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928992


OBJECTIVES@#Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a common disease that seriously affects health. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is the preferred treatment for moderate-to-severe OSAHS patients. However, poor adherence to CPAP is a major obstacle in the treatment of OSAHS. Information-motivation-behavioral (IMB) skills, as a kind of mature technology to change the behavior, has been used in various health areas to improve treatment adherence. This study aims to explore the effects of the IMB skills intervention on CPAP adherence in OSAHS patients.@*METHODS@#Patients who were primary diagnosed with moderate-to-severe OSAHS were randomly divided into the IMB group (n=62) and the control group (n=58). The patients in the IMB group received CPAP therapy and the IMB skills intervention for 4 weeks. The patients in the control group received CPAP therapy and a usual health care provided by a registered nurse. We collected the baseline data of the general information, including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score, and indicators about disease severity [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), percentage of time with arterial oxygen saturation SaO2<90% (T90), average SaO2, lowest SaO2, arousal index]. After CPAP titration, we collected CPAP therapy-relevant parameters (optimal pressure, maximum leakage, average leakage, 95% leakage, and residual AHI), score of satisfaction and acceptance of CPAP therapy, and score of willingness to continue CPAP therapy. After 4 weeks treatment, we collected the ESS score, HADS score, CPAP therapy-relevant parameters, effective CPAP therapy time per night, CPAP therapy days within 4 weeks, CPAP adherence rate, score of satisfaction and acceptance of CPAP therapy, and score of willingness to continue CPAP therapy. Visual analog scale (VAS) of 0-5 was used to evaluate the satisfaction and acceptance of IMB intervention measures in the IMB group.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences in the baseline level of demographic parameters, ESS score, HADS score, disease severity, and CPAP therapy related parameters between the IMB group and the control group (all P>0.05). There were no significant differences in score of willingness to continue CPAP therapy, as well as score of satisfaction and acceptance of CPAP therapy after CPAP titration between the IMB group and the control group (both P>0.05). After 4 weeks treatment, the ESS score, HADS score, maximum leakage, average leakage, and 95% leakage of the IMB group were significantly decreased, while the score of satisfaction and acceptance of CPAP therapy and willingness to continue CPAP therapy of the IMB group were significantly increased (all P<0.05); while the above indexes in the control group were not different before and after 4 weeks treatment (all P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the ESS score, HADS score, maximum leakage, average leakage, and 95% leakage of the IMB group after 4 weeks treatment were significantly lower (all P<0.05); the effective CPAP therapy time, CPAP therapy days within 4 weeks, score of satisfaction and acceptance of CPAP therapy, score of willingness to continue CPAP therapy of the IMB group were significantly higher (all P<0.05). The rate of CPAP therapy adherence in 4 weeks of the IMB group was significantly higher than that of the control group (90.3% vs 62.1%, P<0.05). The VAS of overall satisfaction with IMB skills intervention measures was 4.46±0.35.@*CONCLUSIONS@#IMB skills intervention measures can effectively improve the adherence of CPAP therapy in OSAHS patients, and is suitable for clinical promotion.

Humans , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Motivation , Oximetry , Patient Compliance , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Syndrome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928193


Sleep apnea causes cardiac arrest, sleep rhythm disorders, nocturnal hypoxia and abnormal blood pressure fluctuations in patients, which eventually lead to nocturnal target organ damage in hypertensive patients. The incidence of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is extremely high, which seriously affects the physical and mental health of patients. This study attempts to extract features associated with OSAHS from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure data and identify OSAHS by machine learning models for the differential diagnosis of this disease. The study data were obtained from ambulatory blood pressure examination data of 339 patients collected in outpatient clinics of the Chinese PLA General Hospital from December 2018 to December 2019, including 115 patients with OSAHS diagnosed by polysomnography (PSG) and 224 patients with non-OSAHS. Based on the characteristics of clinical changes of blood pressure in OSAHS patients, feature extraction rules were defined and algorithms were developed to extract features, while logistic regression and lightGBM models were then used to classify and predict the disease. The results showed that the identification accuracy of the lightGBM model trained in this study was 80.0%, precision was 82.9%, recall was 72.5%, and the area under the working characteristic curve (AUC) of the subjects was 0.906. The defined ambulatory blood pressure features could be effectively used for identifying OSAHS. This study provides a new idea and method for OSAHS screening.

Humans , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Hypertension/complications , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cuello (En línea) ; 50(3): 186-193, 20220000. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1400885


Introducción: El método de referencia para diagnosticar el síndrome de apnea-hipopnea obstructiva del sueño (SAHOS) es la polisomnografía, esta no es diagnóstica en otros trastornos respiratorios del sueño, por lo que es necesario la implementación de puntajes predictivos para diferenciar aquellos pacientes que tienen más riesgos de padecer SAHOS y necesiten de una polisomnografía. El objetivo de este estudio fue validar el puntaje NoSAS y la escala de Berlín frente a la polisomnografía tipo 1 en pacientes con sospecha de SAHOS. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de pruebas diagnósticas. A 264 pacientes se les realizó una polisomnografía basal, la aplicación del puntaje NoSAS y la escala de Berlín; luego, se hizo el análisis de las pruebas diagnósticas y se calculó el rendimiento de cada una en relación con el índice de apnea hipopnea (IAH). Resultados: La sensibilidad del puntaje NoSAS para un IAH ≥ 20 fue 88,57% con intervalo de confianza (IC) 95% 80,4-96,74; especificidad 56,70 %; IC 95% 49,47-63,93 y valor predictivo negativo (VPN) de 93,22, IC 95% 91,70- 99,82. Para la escala de Berlín, la sensibilidad fue de 81,43%, IC 95% 71,60-91,25; especificidad de 58,76%, IC 95% 51,58-65,95 y VPN 89,76%, IC 95% 89,08-98,32. Conclusión: Se demostró que el puntaje NoSAS y la escala de Berlín tienen una buena sensibilidad para descartar a las personas con un menor riesgo de SAHOS. Un paciente clasificado de bajo riesgo probablemente está sano o tiene bajo riesgo para SAHOS moderado a severo y no requeriría de una polisomnografía inicial.

Introduction: The gold standard for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is the polysomnography, and it is not a diagnostic tool for another sleep breathing disorders, so that it is necessary to implement predictive scores to differentiate those patients who have more risk of suffering OSAHS, therefore they need a polysomnography. The aim to this study was to validate the NoSAS score and Berlin scale in relation to the polysomnography type 1, in patients who have the clinical suspicion of OSAHS. Material and methods: Diagnostic tests study. 264 patients underwent polysomnography, and the NoSAS score and Berlin scale were applied to them. After that, the diagnostic tests analysis was done and the performance of each one of them was calculated in relation to the apnea- hypopnea index (AHI). Results: The sensitivity of the NoSAS score for an AHI ≥ 20 was 88.57%, confidence interval (CI) 95% (80.4-96.74), specificity 56.70 %, CI 95% (49.47-63.93), and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 93.22, CI 95% (91.70-99.82). For Berlin scale the sensitivity was 81.43%, CI 95% (71.60-91.25), specificity 58.76%, CI 95% (51.58-65.95) and NPV 89.76%, CI 95% (89.08-98.32). Conclusions: It was shown that NoSAS score and Berlin scale have a good sensitivity to rule out people who have less OSAHS risk. A patient classified as low risk, probably is healthy or at low risk for moderate to severe OSAHS and would not require an initial polysomnography.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Octogenarians
São Paulo med. j ; 139(6): 643-647, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352294


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent pharyngeal wall collapse during sleep caused by anatomical or functional changes associated with obesity or dislocation of maxillofacial structures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the major risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea monitored in the home. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in a private clinic in Fortaleza (CE), Brazil. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2018, 427 patients were screened for OSA with home-based monitoring, yielding 374 positives. Information was collected on age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes (DM), dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease (CAD), arrhythmia, peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD), heart failure (HF) and lung disease. The home sleep apnea test result was then compared with the clinical diagnosis. Lastly, parameters identified as significant in the univariate analysis were subjected to multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Male sex predominated, although not significantly. OSA was associated with hypertension, DM, dyslipidemia, age and BMI. The risk of OSA being associated with these parameters was 2.195 (hypertension), 11.14 (DM), 2.044 (dyslipidemia) and 5.71 (BMI). The association was also significant for BMI categories (normal, overweight or obese). No significant association was observed for CAD, arrhythmia, PAOD, HF or lung disease. After multivariate logistic analysis, only age and BMI (and its categories) remained significant. CONCLUSION: OSA was associated with hypertension, DM, dyslipidemia, age and BMI in univariate analyses, but only with age and BMI (and its categories) in multivariate logistic analysis.

Humans , Male , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Polysomnography , Overweight
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 32(5): 577-583, sept.-oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526070


El síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño (SAOS) es uno de los trastornos respiratorios del sueño más prevalente con consecuencias cardiovasculares y de calidad de vida conocidas. El presente artículo describe el uso de herramientas sencillas aplicables en la práctica clínica para el reconocimiento y objetivación de signos y síntomas para un correcto diagnóstico y seguimiento de pacientes con SAOS

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most prevalent sleep respiratory disorders with well known cardiovascular disease and quality of life outcomes. This article describes a simple toolkit intended for clinical screening, diagnosis and follow up in OSA patients

Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Physical Examination , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Telemedicine , Risk Assessment , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Sleepiness
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 32(5): 561-569, sept.-oct. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526060


El sueño es fundamental para una serie de funciones corporales, incluyendo el metabolismo de radicales libres, secreción hormonal y fijación de la memoria. Existen evidencias crecientes de que la simple restricción en el número de horas de sueño puede ser perjudicial para el sistema cardiovascular. Por ejemplo, estudios de cohorte sugieren que dormir menos de 5 horas/noche puede aumentar el riesgo de desarrollar hipertensión arterial sistémica (HAS), infarto agudo del miocardio (IAM) y accidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Otro creciente foco de interés en la medicina actual son los trastornos respiratorios del sueño. En este artículo, nos enfocaremos a los trastornos respiratorios del sueño de mayor interés para el cardiólogo, el síndrome apnea obstructiva del sueño (SAOS) y la apnea central asociada a la respiración de Cheyne-Stokes. Además de extremadamente comunes, existen evidencias de que estos trastornos respiratorios del sueño, una vez presentes, pueden contribuir al desarrollo o empeoramiento de las enfermedades cardiovasculares

Sleep is essential for several physiological functions, including free radical metabolism, hormone secretion, and memory. There is growing evidence that restricting the number of hours of sleep can be harmful to the cardiovascular system. For example, cohort studies suggest that sleeping less than 5 hours/night may increase the risk of developing systemic arterial hypertension, acute myocardial infarction and strokes. Another growing focus of interest in current medicine is sleep respiratory disturbances. In this article, we will focus on the respiratory sleep disorders of greatest interest to the cardiologist, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and central Cheyne-Stokes respiration-associated apnea. In addition, there is evidence that breathing sleep disorders are extremely common and once present can contribute to the development or worsening of cardiovascular disease

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cheyne-Stokes Respiration , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 32(5): 554-560, sept.-oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526045


El síndrome de apnea e hipopnea obstructiva del sueño se caracteriza por episodios repetitivos de obstrucción de vía aérea superior y es reconocida cada vez más, como un trastorno heterogéneo y complejo, proponiéndose múltiples fenotipos en base a su mecanismo patogénico, alteraciones polisomnográficas y la presentación clínica. El fenotipo clínico se enfoca en identificar características de un paciente basándose en signos, síntomas, antropometría, comorbilidades, medidas fisiológicas, anatómicas o respuesta al tratamiento. Al ser una enfermedad sub diagnosticada, de alta prevalencia y que produce elevada morbi-mortalidad, se debe estar atento a la pesquisa precoz y en las poblaciones de riesgo. Su diagnóstico se basa en el índice de apnea-hipopnea (IAH) y se requiere un IAH •5 eventos/hora para confirmar el diagnóstico. Sin embargo, cada vez hay más evidencia que el IAH por sí solo es insuficiente para comprender la presentación clínica, respuesta al tratamiento, calidad de vida y mortalidad de los pacientes con apnea del sueño. El fenotipo clínico puede servir de este modo, para entender mejor las diferentes formas de presentación teniendo como finalidad la medicina personalizada con el objetivo de favorecer la conducta terapéutica individualizada. El objetivo de esta revisión es abordar los fenotipos clínicos y proponer una huella digital en los pacientes con apnea del sueño

Obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction and is increasingly recognized as a heterogeneous and complex disorder, proposing multiple phenotypes based on its pathogenic mechanism, polysomnographic alterations, and clinical presentation. The clinical phenotype focuses on identifying a patient's characteristics based on signs, symptoms, anthropometry, comorbidities, physiological, anatomical measures or response to treatment. As it is an underdiagnosed disease of high prevalence associated to high morbidity and mortality, we must be alert to early screening and risk populations. Diagnosis is based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) AHI •5 events/hour is required to confirm it, however, there is increasing evidence that AHI alone is insufficient to understand the clinical presentation, the response to treatment, the quality of life and the mortality of patients with sleep apnea. In this way, the clinical phenotype can serve to better understand the different forms of presentation and looks for a personalized medicine that favors an individualized therapeutic behavior. The aim of this review is to address clinical phenotypes and propose a fingerprint in patients with sleep apnea

Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Phenotype , Cluster Analysis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/classification , Dermatoglyphics , Precision Medicine
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 32(5): 543-553, sept.-oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526040


El ronquido es un problema altamente prevalente, que afecta a millones de personas a nivel mundial. Impacta negativamente en la calidad de vida al afectar la relación de pareja y la calidad de sueño, además de constituir un factor de riesgo cardiovascular. El objetivo de esta revisión es analizar y discutir los aspectos más relevantes de esta condición, desde su etiopatogenia hasta las diferentes alternativas terapéuticas disponibles. En la evaluación del paciente roncador se debe realizar un minucioso examen de nariz, boca, faringe, cuello y esqueleto facial, además de estimar el riesgo de que exista una apnea obstructiva del sueño asociada. Son de utilidad una serie de cuestionarios que permiten asignar puntaje a la sintomatología del paciente y evaluar su impacto en la vida diaria. En general, el estudio deberá incluir exámenes radiológicos, endoscopías de la vía aérea superior (con el paciente despierto y bajo sueño inducido por medicamentos) y estudios del sueño, que se pueden realizar tanto en forma ambulatoria como hospitalizado. Existe una amplia gama de tratamientos disponibles para el ronquido, los que han demostrado una alta efectividad en diferentes subgrupos de pacientes: bajar de peso, dejar de fumar, medicamentos antialérgicos, terapia postural, ejercicios faríngeos, dispositivos de avance mandibular y procedimientos quirúrgicos que van desde intervenciones mínimamente invasivas hasta procedimientos avanzados como cirugía robótica, avances máxilo-mandibulares y la estimulación del nervio hipogloso. Es clave para manejar exitosamente el ronquido el realizar una evaluación detallada del paciente y establecer un plan terapéutico personalizado.

Snoring is a highly prevalent problem, affecting millions of people worldwide. It negatively impacts quality of life by affecting couple relationships and sleep quality, as well as being a cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of this review article is to analyze and discuss the most relevant aspects of this condition, ranging from its etiology and pathogenesis to the different available therapeutic options. When evaluating a snoring patient, a thorough examination of the nose, mouth, pharynx, neck and facial skeleton should be performed, and the risk of having an associated obstructive sleep apnea must be estimated. A series of questionnaires are useful to assign scores to the patient's symptoms and assess their impact on daily life. In general terms, patient evaluation should include radiological examinations, upper airway endoscopies (awake and under drug-induced sleep) and sleep studies, which can be performed both on an outpatient or inpatient basis. There is a wide range of treatments available for snoring, which have shown high effectiveness in different patient subgroups: weight loss, quitting smoking, anti-allergic medications, postural therapy, pharyngeal exercises, mandibular-advancement devices and surgical procedures ranging from minimally invasive interventions to advanced procedures such as robotic surgery, maxillomandibular advancement and hypoglossal nerve stimulation. The cornerstone for a successful snoring management is to perform a detailed patient evaluation and to establish a personalized therapeutic plan.

Humans , Snoring/diagnosis , Snoring/etiology , Pharynx/anatomy & histology , Physical Examination , Quality of Life , Snoring/therapy , Anthropometry , Risk Factors , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Medical History Taking
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 37(3): 203-210, sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388148


La apnea obstructiva del sueño (AOS) se ha asociado a deterioro cognitivo. OBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados a bajo rendimiento cognitivo (BRC) en adultos con sospecha de AOS. MÉTODO: Se realizó evaluación cognitiva empleando la Evaluación Cognitiva de Montreal (MoCA); se consideró BRC un puntaje inferior a 21. El diagnóstico de AOS fue mediante poligrafía respiratoria de 5 canales, según índice de apnea-hipopnea (IAH). Se evaluó también calidad de sueño, síntomas depresivos, entre otros. RESULTADOS: En 91,5% de 320 pacientes consecutivos se confirmó el diagnóstico de AOS. El promedio de MoCA fue 20,6 puntos. El grupo con BRC tenía mayor edad, menor escolaridad; mayor frecuencia de hipertensión arterial y diabetes mellitus, y desaturaciones de la oxihemoglobina de mayor magnitud. No hubo diferencias de gravedad según IAH entre ambos grupos. COMENTARIO: Los pacientes con BRC presentan factores de riesgo asociados a deterioro cognitivo, y mayor magnitud de desaturaciones de la oxihemoglobina.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with low cognitive performance (LCP) in adults with suspected OSA. MATHOD: Cognitive evaluation was performed using Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and scores lower than 21 were considered LCP. The diagnosis of OSA was made using 5-channel respiratory polygraphy, according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Sleep quality, depressive symptoms, among others, were also evaluated. RESULTS: In 91.5% of 320 consecutive patients the diagnosis of OSA was confirmed. The MoCA average was 20.6 points. The group with LCP was older, less educated, were more likely to have hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and with more severe oxyhemoblobin desaturations. There were no differences in severity according to AHI between both groups. COMMENT: Patients with LCP have risk factors associated with cognitive impairment, besides more severe oxyhemoglobin desaturations.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Oxyhemoglobins/analysis , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Polysomnography , Depression/diagnosis , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Sleep Quality
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(4): 422-427, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285716


Abstract Introduction There is evidence that trauma caused by snoring in the pharynx could result in dysphagia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, but the literature is still scarce to define the factors associated with the presence of dysphagia in these patients. Objectives To analyze the occurrence of dysphagia and its clinical and polysomnographic features in patients with moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea, in addition to verifying the impact of dysphagia on the quality of life of these patients. Methods Seventy patients with moderate or severe apnea (apnea and hypopnea index - AHI > 15/hour) were selected. The patients underwent a sleep questionnaire, a quality of life in dysphagia questionnaire and a fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Results A total of 70 patients were included in the study, of which 49 were men (70 %), with a mean age of 48.9 years. The fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing was altered in 27.3 % and the most frequent alteration was the premature oral leakage with fluid. Comparing the groups with and without dysphagia, the female gender was the only clinical parameter that showed a trend of statistical significance in the group with dysphagia (p = 0.069). There was no statistical difference regarding the polysomnographic features and in the global quality of life score in dysphagia in the comparison between the groups. Conclusions The presence of dysphagia in patients with moderate to severe apnea is frequent and subclinical, reinforcing the need to investigate this symptom in this group of patients. However, the presence of dysphagia did not result in worsening in patients' quality of life, suggesting that, although frequent, its effect is mild. There was no relevance regarding the association of clinical and polysomnographic parameters with the presence of dysphagia.

Resumo Introdução Existem evidências de que o trauma ocasionado pelo ronco na faringe poderia ocasionar disfagia em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono, mas a literatura ainda é escassa para definir quais seriam os fatores associados à presença da disfagia nesses pacientes. Objetivo Avaliar a ocorrência de disfagia e seu perfil clínico e polissonográfico em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono moderada e grave, além de verificar o impacto da disfagia na qualidade de vida desses pacientes. Método Foram selecionados 70 pacientes com apneia moderada ou grave (índice de apneia e hipopneia - IAH > 15 hora). Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionário de sono, qualidade de vida em disfagia e videoendoscopia da deglutição. Resultados Foram incluídos no estudo 70 pacientes, 49 do sexo masculino (70%), com média de 48,9 anos. A videoendoscopia da deglutição apresentou alteração em 27,3% dos pacientes. A alteração mais encontrada foi o escape oral precoce com líquido. Quando comparados os grupos com e sem disfagia, o sexo feminino foi o único parâmetro clínico que mostrou tendência à significância no grupo com disfagia (p = 0,069). Não houve diferença estatística quanto aos achados polissonográficos e quanto ao escore global da qualidade de vida em disfagia na comparação entre os grupos. Conclusão A presença de disfagia em pacientes com apneia moderada a grave é frequente e subclínica, reforça a necessidade de investigação desse sintoma nesse grupo de pacientes. Porém, a presença de disfagia não mostrou pioria na qualidade de vida dos pacientes, sugeriu que, apesar de frequente, sua repercussão é leve. Não houve relevância na associação dos parâmetros clínicos, polissonográficos com a presença de disfagia.

Humans , Male , Female , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Quality of Life , Snoring , Polysomnography , Middle Aged
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942226


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy of an electro-mechanical film-based(EMFi) multi-parameter pressure sensitive sleep monitor(MPSSM)on clinical diagnosis and research significance of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome(OSAHS).@*METHODS@#Retrospective analysis was made of 58 test subjects at Peking University Third Hospital with suspected OSAHS who were simultaneously monitored by MPSSM and polysomnography(PSG). The PSG test results were used as the gold standard in evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of OSAHS diagnosis of MPSSM. The test result consistency of sleep apnea and hypopnea index(AHI)and total apnea time of the two methods was evaluated. Real-time waveform comparison of sleep respiratory events of a randomly selected patient diagnosed with OSAHS was performed.@*RESULTS@#For 58 test subjects, 48 were male, 10 were female, with an average age of(40.6±12.2)years. Thirty-nine out of the 58 test subjects were diagnosed with OSHAS by PSG. The sensitivity of MPSSM for OSAHS diagnosis was 92.3%, with 95% confidence interval of 79.1%-98.4%, and the specificity of MPSSM for OSAHS diagnosis was 100%, with 95% confidence interval of 82.3%-100%. Kappa test k=0.887 (P < 0.001) showed OSAHS diagnosis results of the two methods were almost identical. The AHI measured by MPSSM [12.0(2.6-32.2) times/h] and PSG [13.4(3.1-38.8) times/h] were highly correlated (ρ=0.939, P < 0.001). The total apnea time measured by MPSSM [37.9(9.9-80.5) min] and PSG [32.3(8.6-93.0) min] were highly correlated(ρ=0.924, P < 0.001). Bland-Altman plot showed that the consistency between the test results of the two methods was very high.@*CONCLUSION@#As a portable, non-contact, fully automatic monitoring device, MPSSM is reliable in the screening of OSAHS compared with PSG. It is suitable to be promoted and applied in primary medical institutions, nursing homes and domestic usage. However, further research is required in improving the analysis of different sleep phase and the differentiation of central sleep apnea syndrome respiratory events in order to effectively assist medical personnel in making an accurate sleep apnea diagnosis.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polysomnography , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sleep , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis
Clinics ; 76: e3056, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339714


OBJECTIVES: Owing to the fact that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an underreported disease, the strategy used for the diagnosis of OSA has been extensively dissected to devise a simplified process that can be accessed by the public health services. Polysomnography (PSG) type I, the gold standard for the diagnosis of OSA, is expensive and difficult to access by low-income populations. In this study, we aimed to verify the accuracy of the oxyhemoglobin desaturation index (ODI) in comparison to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) using a portable monitor. METHODS: We evaluated 94 type III PSG home test results of 65 elderly patients (69.21±6.94 years old), along with information, such as the body mass index (BMI) and sex, using data obtained from a clinical trial database. RESULTS: A significant linear positive correlation (r=0.93, p<0.05) was observed between ODI and AHI, without any interference from sex, BMI, and positional component. The sensitivity of ODI compared to that of AHI increased with an increase in the severity of OSA, while the specificity of ODI in comparison to that of AHI was high for all degrees of severity. The accuracy of ODI was 80.7% for distinguishing between patients with mild and moderate apnea and 84.4% for distinguishing between patients with moderate and severe apnea. CONCLUSION: The ODI values obtained in uncontrolled conditions exhibited high sensitivity for identifying severe apnea compared to the AHI values, and correctly identified the severity of OSA in more than 80% of the cases. Thus, oximetry is promising strategy for diagnosing OSA.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Oximetry , Body Mass Index , Polysomnography
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(9): 561-569, Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131752


ABSTRACT Background: Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is a public health problem of high prevalence and impacts on quality of life, anesthetic complications and cardiovascular diseases. In view of the difficulty in accessing the polysomnography, it is necessary to validate other methods for OSAS diagnostic screening in clinical practice in our country, such as the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Objective: To validate the STOP-Bang questionnaire in Brazilians and evaluate optimal cutoff points. Methods: After translation and back-translation, STOP-Bang questionnaire was applied to 71 individuals previously submitted to polysomnography and classified into control, mild, moderate or severe OSAS. Results: The majority of patients was male (59.2%), white (79%), aged 48.9±13.9 years, and with neck circumference >40 centimeters (73.8%). STOP-Bang score was higher in OSAS mild (median/inter-quartis 25-75%: 5/3.5-6), moderate (4.5/4-5) and severe (5/4-6), versus control (2.5/1-4). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicate that scores 3, 4 and 6, present the best specificity values (100, 80 and 92.9%) with acceptable sensitivity (60, 66.7 and 50%) in the mild, moderate and severe OSAS subgroups, respectively. In OSAS group analysis (Apnea Hypopnea Index [AHI] ≥5, <15, ≥15 - <30, ≥30), STOP-Bang cutoff point of 6 was optimal to detect OSAS. Conclusion: STOP-Bang Brazilian version identified OSAS patients with lower sensitivity and higher specificity compared to previous studies. Different cutoff points would improve the performance to detect patients with more severe OSAS.

RESUMO Introdução: A Síndrome da Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono (SAOS) é um problema de saúde pública de alta prevalência e com impacto na qualidade de vida, complicações anestésicas e doenças cardiovasculares. Diante da dificuldade de acesso à realização da polissonografia, é necessário validar outros métodos para a triagem diagnóstica da SAOS na prática clínica no cenário brasileiro, como o questionário STOP-Bang. Objetivos: Validar o questionário STOP-Bang em brasileiros e avaliar os melhores pontos de corte. Método: Após tradução e retrotradução, o STOP-Bang foi aplicado em 71 indivíduos previamente submetidos à polissonografia e classificados em controles e em SAOS leve, moderada e grave. Resultados: A maioria da amostra foi de homens (59,2%), com 48,9±13,9 anos, brancos (79%) e com circunferência do pescoço >40 cm (73,8%). O escore STOP-Bang foi maior na SAOS leve (mediana/interquartis 25-75%: 5/3,5-6), moderada (4,5/4-5) e grave (5/4-6) versus controles (2,5/1-4). A Curva Característica de Operação do Receptor (ROC) indicou que os escores 3, 4 e 6 apresentam os melhores valores de especificidade (100, 80 e 92,9%) e sensibilidade aceitável (60, 66,7 e 50%) nos subgrupos de SAOS leve, moderada e grave, respectivamente. Na análise da amostra com SAOS (IAH ] ≥5, <15, ≥15 - <30, ≥30), o ponto de corte de 6 no STOP-Bang detectou melhor a SAOS. Conclusão: A versão brasileira do STOP-Bang identificou pacientes apneicos com menor sensibilidade e maior especificidade em relação a estudos anteriores. Diferentes pontos de corte melhorariam o desempenho para detectar pacientes com SAOS mais grave.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(2): 137-146, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115828


INTRODUCCIÓN: La planificación de cirugías para el manejo del síndrome de apneahipopnea obstructiva del sueño (SAHOS) ha incrementado su precisión desde la introducción de la endoscopía del sueño inducido por fármacos (DISE). OBJETIVO: Evaluar la técnica de faringoplastía de reposición con suturas barbadas (BRP) para el colapso velofaríngeo y/o de paredes laterales orofaríngeas evaluado mediante DISE en pacientes con SAHOS. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Ochenta y ocho pacientes fueron evaluados para cirugía mediante antropometría, escala de somnolencia de Epworth (ESS) y poligrafía respiratoria. Veinte y seis de 88 pacientes fueron seleccionados. De los 26, 14 accedieron al tratamiento quirúrgico, el que se seleccionó en base a la DISE. En todos los casos, se realizó BRP. RESULTADOS: A los 3 meses de la cirugía hubo mejoría en 10/14 pacientes (criterios de Sher, disminución del índice de apnea-hipoapnea a <20 o 50% del basal). La ESS bajó en promedio de 12 a 5 puntos (p <0,05). No se reportaron incidentes en el posoperatorio y no han ocurrido eventos adversos. CONCLUSIÓN: La técnica de BRP es una técnica sencilla y útil para la expansión anterior y lateral del paladar blando y orofaringe, con una tasa de éxito similar en esta cohorte a la reportada internacionalmente.

INTRODUCTION: Surgical planning for the management of obstructive sleep apneahypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) has changed since the introduction of drug induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). AIM: To evaluate the technique of barbed sutures reposition pharyngoplasty (BRP) for velopharyngeal collapse and/or oropharyngeal lateral walls after DISE evaluation in OSAHS patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 88 patients were evaluated for surgery by anthropometry, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and respiratory polygraphy. 26 of 88 patients were selected. Of the 26, 14 agreed to surgical treatment, which was selected on DISE findings. In all cases, BRP was performed. RESULTS: Three months after surgery there was improvement in 10/14 patients (Sher criteria, apnea-hypopnea index reduction at <20 or 50% of baseline). The ESS improved on average 12 to 5 (p <0.05). No incidents were reported in the post-operative period and no adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: The BRP technique is a simple and useful technique for the anterior and lateral expansion of the soft palate and oropharynx, with a similar success rate in this cohort to that internationally reported.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pharynx/surgery , Suture Techniques , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/surgery , Endoscopy/methods , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/surgery , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleepiness , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 41(1): 63-68, jan.-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1102382


Os distúrbios do sono vem sendo cada dia mais estudados e evidenciados perante a medicina, sendo que muitos destes estão atrelados a fatores etiológicos ligados a diversas doenças sistêmicas, tais como, hipertensão arterial, problemas cardíacos e fator de risco para diabetes. Sendo assim, a utilização de Índices como o de Epworth, Berlim e Pittsburgh como auxiliadores anamnésicos, é de grande valia para um correto diagnóstico. Por meio deste, pudemos concluir que tais índices são de extrema importância por serem referências iniciais para a solicitação de exames mais complexos e de alto custo. Portanto, este trabalho tem por objetivo fazer uma revisão da literatura sobre a essência científica de tais índices, analisando a eficácia dos mesmos(AU)

Sleep wake disorders see being increasingly studied day and evidenced before the medicine, and many of these disorders are linked to etiological factors related to various systemic diseases such as, hypertension, heart disease and a risk factor for diabetes. Thus, the use of indices such as the Epworth, Berlin and Pittsburgh as amnesic helpers, is of great value to a correct diagnosis. Through this we can conclude that such indices are extremely important because they are initial references to the request for more complex tests and costly. Therefore, this study aims to review the literature on the scientific essence of such indices, analyzing effectiveness(AU)

Snoring/diagnosis , Index , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Wake Disorders , Snoring , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive