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1.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 61-66, Dec. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352909

ABSTRACT

El tabaquismo es una importante causa de enfermedad y muerte debido a neoplasias, enfermedades cardiovasculares y pulmonares, provocando además disminución de la productividad y aumento de la pobreza. La telemedicina es una de las innovaciones principales en los servicios de salud, especialmente en el contexto de la pandemia de COVID19 que dificulta la atención presencial. Se ha evidenciado en los pacientes, un grado de satisfacción elevado, un aspecto importante al momento de valorar la calidad de la atención médica prestada y justificar las innovaciones


Smoking is an important cause of illness and death due to neoplasms, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, also causing a decrease in productivity and an increase in poverty. Telemedicine is one of the main innovations in health services, especially in the context of the COVID19 pandemic that makes face-to-face care difficult. A high degree of patient satisfaction has been evidenced, an important aspect when assessing the quality of medical care provided and justifying innovations


Subject(s)
Tobacco Use Disorder , Telemedicine , Patients , Pulmonary Medicine , Smoking , Patient Satisfaction , Efficiency
2.
Revagog ; 3(3): 104-110, Jul-Sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1344331

ABSTRACT

El climaterio es una etapa fisiológica que permite al médico reconocer tempranamente los riesgos de patologías y la gran oportunidad de revertirlas. Este trabajo examinará la evidencia actual de la terapia hormonal en la prevención primaria de la enfermedad cardiovascular en mujeres, así como la importancia que igualmente tienen la indemnidad de los ovarios, el peso normal, el uso correcto de antibióticos, la preservación de la microbiota intestinal, las dietas antioxidantes, los estilos de vida saludables y el obligatorio abandono del hábito de fumar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Climacteric/physiology , Menopause/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Andropause/physiology , Estradiol/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Healthy Lifestyle
3.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(supl.1): 112-115, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251558

ABSTRACT

Resumen La lengua negra pilosa (LNP) es una alteración benigna caracterizada por coloración oscura e hipertrofia con hiperqueratosis en las papilas filiformes de la superficie de la lengua. Han sido implicados varios factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos como causales, entre ellos la pobre higiene dental, el tabaquismo, la ingesta de bebidas oscuras, el uso de antibióticos y algunas patologías malignas. Reportamos el caso de un paciente con carcinoma escamocelular avanzado de esófago medio conjunto con LNP, asociación no encontrada previamente en la literatura.


Abstract Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign disorder characterized by dark coloration and hypertrophy with hyperkeratosis in filiform papillae on the surface of the tongue. Several intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including poor dental hygiene, smoking, drinking dark beverages, indiscriminate use of antibiotics, and some malignant diseases, have been proposed as potential causes. This is the case of a patient with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the mid esophagus in conjunction with BHT, a previously unknown association.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Tongue , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Esophagus , Oral Hygiene , Association , Tobacco Use Disorder , Smoking
4.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(1): 48-57, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1280640

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: identificar o grau de dependência à nicotina e dados sociodemográficos segundo o gênero dos pacientes atendidos pelo projeto de extensão Educando e Tratando o Tabagismo promovido por uma universidade pública. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, com dados provenientes de 361 prontuários de pacientes que participantes do projeto no período de 2014 a 2018. Realizou-se o teste de Fagerström, por meio do qual classificou-se os pacientes com grau de dependência: muito baixo, baixo, médio, elevado e muito elevado de acordo com a soma dos pontos obtidos nas questões aplicadas. RESULTADOS: a predominância no grau de dependência a nicotina foi observada no sexo feminino com maiores percentuais de classificação para dependência elevada e muito elevada, 33,5% e 25,3% respectivamente. Entre os homens verificou-se grau de dependência elevado 28,1% e baixo 21,9%. Contatou-se que o grau de dependência química a nicotina esteve associada a dependência física (valor-p=0,002) e psicológica (valor-p=0,003). CONCLUSÃO: a evidência de maior frequência de indivíduos com alto grau de dependência química à nicotina demonstra a importância da associação de terapias medicamentosas com abordagens cognitivas comportamentais por meio de intervenções de enfermagem, relacionadas ao controle e cessação do tabagismo por meio da educação em saúde.


OBJECTIVE: to identify the nicotine dependence degree and sociodemographic data according to the gender of the patients assisted by the Educating and Treating Smoking extension project promoted by a public university. METHOD: a cross-sectional study, with data from 361 medical records of patients participating in the project from 2014 to 2018. The Fagerström test was performed, through which patients with a degree of dependence were classified as follows: very low, low, medium, high, and very high, according to the sum of the points obtained in the applied questions. RESULTS: predominance in the nicotine dependence degree was observed in women with higher percentages of classification for high and very high dependence, 33.5% and 25.3% respectively. Among men, a high degree of dependence was found to be 28.1% and low, 21.9%. It was found that the degree of chemical dependence on nicotine was associated with physical (p-value = 0.002) and psychological (p-value = 0.003) dependence. CONCLUSION: the evidence for a higher frequency of individuals with a high chemical dependence degree for nicotine demonstrates the importance of combining drug therapies with cognitive behavioral approaches through Nursing interventions, related to controlling and quitting the smoking addiction through health education.


OBJETIVO: identificar el grado de dependencia a la nicotina y los datos sociodemográficos según el género de los pacientes atendidos por el proyecto de extensión Educar y tratar el tabaquismo promovido por una universidad pública. MÉTODO: estudio transversal, con datos de 361 registros médicos de pacientes que participaron en el proyecto de 2014 a 2018. Se realizó la prueba de Fagerström, a través de la cual se clasificaron los pacientes con un grado de dependencia: muy bajo, bajo, medio, alto y muy alto de acuerdo con la suma de los puntos obtenidos en las preguntas aplicadas. RESULTADOS: el predominio en el grado de dependencia a la nicotina se observó en mujeres con porcentajes más altos de clasificación de dependencia alta y muy alta, 33.5% y 25.3% respectivamente. Entre los hombres, se encontró un alto grado de dependencia del 28,1% y bajo del 21,9%. Se encontró que el grado de dependencia química de la nicotina se asoció con el físico (valor p = 0.002) y psicológico (valor p = 0.003). CONCLUSIÓN: la evidencia de una mayor frecuencia de individuos con un alto grado de dependencia química de la nicotina demuestra la importancia de combinar las terapias farmacológicas con enfoques cognitivos conductuales a través de intervenciones de enfermería, relacionadas con el control del tabaquismo y la cesación a través de la educación sanitaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Smoking , Health Education , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gender Identity , Nicotine , Smoking Cessation
5.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(1): 32-38, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1280638

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: conhecer o desfecho do aleitamento materno de mães usuárias de drogas lícitas e ilícitas, verificar a gravidade da dependência e relacionar com o tempo de aleitamento. MÉTODO: estudo de coorte com 108 mulheres. Utilizou-se o Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test para estabelecer a dependência a drogas. A manutenção da amamentação foi avaliada no 7°, 15° e 30° dias de nascimento. Para avaliar a continuidade do aleitamento materno, utilizou-se análise de sobrevivência de Kaplan-Meier e de Cox. RESULTADOS: a maconha teve escore de uso abusivo para 42,6% das mães e a cocaína para 37%. A média de aleitamento foi de 28,8 dias. O uso abusivo de tabaco e álcool representou, respectivamente, 6,6 e 11 vezes mais risco de descontinuar a amamentação. Não foi possível estabelecer a mesma relação para maconha e cocaína. CONCLUSÃO: as mães usuárias de drogas praticaram o aleitamento exclusivo, mesmo aquelas que consomem maconha e cocaína de modo abusivo. O consumo de drogas, mesmo lícitas, representa um risco para o desmame precoce.


OBJECTIVE: to identify the breastfeeding outcome for mothers that use licit and illicit drugs, to verify the severity of their dependence and to relate this to the breastfeeding duration. METHOD: cohort study with 108 women. The Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was used to establish drug dependence. Breastfeeding maintenance was assessed on the 7th, 15th and 30th days of life. To assess the breastfeeding continuity, Kaplan-Meier and Cox survival analysis was used. RESULTS: 42.6% of the mothers presented an score indicative of abuse for marijuana and 37.0% for cocaine. The mean length of breastfeeding was 28.8 days. The abuse of tobacco and alcohol represented, respectively, 6.6 and 11.0 times more risk of discontinuing the breastfeeding. It was not possible to establish this relationship in relation to marijuana and cocaine. CONCLUSION: the mothers that used drugs practiced exclusive breastfeeding, even those that used marijuana and cocaine in an abusive way. Drug use, even if legal, represents a risk for early weaning.


OBJETIVO: conocer el resultado de la lactancia materna para las madres que consumen drogas lícitas e ilícitas, verificar la gravedad de la dependencia y relacionarla con la duración de la lactancia materna. MÉTODOS: estudio de cohorte con 108 mujeres. Se utilizó el Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test para establecer la adicción a las drogas. El mantenimiento de la lactancia materna se evaluó a los 7, 15 y 30 días de vida. Para evaluar la continuidad de la lactancia materna se utilizó el análisis de supervivencia de Kaplan-Meier y Cox. RESULTADOS: la marihuana tuvo una puntuación de uso abusivo para el 42,6% de las madres y la cocaína el 37%. El promedio de lactancia fue de 28,8 días. El consumo abusivo de tabaco y alcohol representaba, respectivamente, 6,6 y 11 veces más riesgo de interrumpir la lactancia materna. No fue posible establecer la misma relación para la marihuana y la cocaína. CONCLUSIÓN: las madres que consumen drogas han practicado la lactancia materna exclusiva, incluso las que abusan de la marihuana y la cocaína. El consumo de drogas, incluso las lícitas, representa un riesgo para el destete precoz.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder , Weaning , Breast Feeding , Smoking , Illicit Drugs , Cohort Studies , Maternal-Child Nursing , Substance-Related Disorders , Drug Users , Nursing Care
6.
Rev. bras. promoç. saúde (Impr.) ; 34(1): 1-13, 17/02/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152224

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of co-occurrence of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among students at a public university in a municipality in Southern Brazil, and to evaluate the factors associated with this practice. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with undergraduate students between November 2017 and July 2018, to whom a digital self-administered questionnaire was applied. The relationship between the dependent variables co-occurrence of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and co-occurrence of alcohol and illicit drug use was analyzed using binary logistic regression with a 95% confidence interval. Results: Of the 1,824 university students, 92.0% consumed alcohol in their lifetime, 11.0% smoked, 43.9% used at least one illicit drug in their lifetime, and 23.3% used at least one illicit drug in the last 30 days. The rate of co-occurrence of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use was 5.2%, and it was associated with belonging to the highest economic class (p = 0.0003), experimenting with drugs before the age of 18 (p = 0.0013), and attending an exact sciences or land/agricultural sciences program (p = 0.0386). The prevalence of co-occurrence of alcohol and illicit drug use was 13.6%, and it was associated with belonging to the highest economic class (p = 0.0000), male gender (p = 0.0323), depression (p = 0.0001), experimentation with alcohol before the age of 18 (p = 0.0000), attending a linguistics or arts and literature program (p = 0.0314) and living alone/with friends (p = 0.0000). Conclusion: The co-occurrence of alcohol and drug use was higher than the co-occurrence of use of the three substances, and factors such as experimenting with drugs before the age of 18 and being of higher economic status were associated with these patterns.


Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência do uso concomitante de álcool, tabaco e drogas ilícitas entre estudantes de uma universidade pública de um município do Sul do Brasil, bem como avaliar os fatores associados a essa prática. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com estudantes de graduação entre novembro de 2017 e julho de 2018, aos quais se aplicou questionário digital autopreenchido. A relação entre as variáveis dependentes uso concomitante de álcool, tabaco e drogas ilícitas e uso concomitante de álcool e drogas ilícitas foi analisada por meio de regressão logística binária com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Resultados: Dos 1.824 universitários, 92,0% consumiram álcool na vida, 11,0% fumavam, 43,9% utilizaram pelo menos uma droga na vida e 23,3%, pelo menos uma nos últimos 30 dias. O consumo concomitante de álcool, tabaco e drogas foi de 5,2%, associado à classe econômica mais alta (p=0,0003), experimentação de drogas antes dos 18 anos (p=0,0013) e frequentar cursos das áreas de exatas e terra/agrárias (p=0,0386). A prevalência do uso concomitante de álcool e drogas foi 13,6%, associado à classe econômica mais alta (p=0,0000), sexo masculino (p=0,0323), depressão (p=0,0001), experimentação de álcool antes dos 18 anos (p=0,0000), frequentar cursos de linguística, letras e artes (p=0,0314) e morar sozinho/com amigos (p=0,0000). Conclusão: O consumo concomitante de álcool e drogas foi superior ao consumo concomitante das três substâncias; e fatores como experimentar drogas antes dos 18 anos de idade e ser de classe econômica mais alta estiveram associados.


Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia del uso concurrente de alcohol, tabaco y drogas ilícitas entre los estudiantes de una universidad pública de un municipio del Sur de Brasil así como evaluar los factores asociados con esa práctica. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado con estudiantes de grado entre noviembre de 2017 y julio de 2018 a los cuales se les ha dado un cuestionario digital auto aplicado. La relación entre las variables dependientes uso concurrente de alcohol, tabaco y drogas ilícitas y uso concurrente de alcohol y drogas ilícitas ha sido analizada por la regresión logística binaria con intervalo de confianza del 95%. Resultados: De los 1.824 universitarios, el 92,0% ha consumido alcohol en la vida, el 11,0% fumaban, el 43,9% ha utilizado por lo menos una droga en la vida y el 23,3% por lo menos una en los últimos 30 días. El consumo concurrente de alcohol, tabaco y drogas ha sido del 5,2% y se ha asociado con la clase económica más alta (p=0,0003), la experiencia con la droga antes de los 18 años de edad (p=0,0013) y asistir a cursos de ciencias exactas y tierra/ciencias agrarias (p=0,0386). La prevalencia del uso concurrente de alcohol y drogas ha sido del 13,6% asociado con la clase económica más alta (p=0,0000), el género masculino (p=0,0323), la depresión (p=0,0001), la experiencia del alcohol antes de los 18 años de edad, asistir al curso de lingüística, letras y artes (p=0,0314) y vivir solo/con los amigos (p=0,0000). Conclusión: El consumo concurrente de alcohol y drogas ha sido más alto que el consumo concurrente de las tres sustancias; y factores como la experiencia con drogas antes de los 18 años de edad y ser de la clase económica más alta se han asociado.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Smoking , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders
7.
s.l; s.n; feb. 2021.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1254707

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN El 30 de enero de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró emergencia de salud pública de interés internacional a propósito de una nueva variante de coronavirus, denominada COVID-19 y producida por el virus SARS-CoV-2(1). Tras un año de pandemia, se han reportado más de 100 millones de casos y han fallecido alrededor de 2 millones de personas (2). En Chile el peak de la primera ola de contagio se dió entre mayo y junio del 2020 (3,4), períodos en que se aplicaron cuarentenas estrictas y se cerró la atención a público en gran parte del comercio. Actualmente el país se encuentra en periodo estival y se ha permitido la apertura de las terrazas de los restaurantes, dependiendo de los indicadores epidemiológicos y sociales de cada comuna(5). Por otro lado, Chile es uno de los países con mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo en las Américas, registrándose que el 47% de la población mayor de 15 años consume tabaco (6,7). En Chile, la actual ley del tabaco (Ley N° 20.660) prohíbe fumar dentro de bares, pubs, discotecas, restaurantes y casinos de juego, sin embargo se permite fumar en las terrazas o en lugares no cerrados (8). ¿CUÁL ES EL EFECTO DE FUMAR EN ESPACIOS PÚBLICOS AL AIRE LIBRE EN LA TRANSMISIÓN DE COVID-19?: En el marco de la actual pandemia de SARS-CoV-2, el consumo de tabaco ha sido señalado como un factor de riesgo de enfermar o de mal pronóstico. La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda a sus estados miembros prohibir su consumo en espacios públicos cerrados o abiertos. Esta síntesis de evidencia busca evaluar el efecto que tendría fumar en la transmisión de COVID-19. COMPONENTES DE LA PREGUNTA: Población: Población general (incluyendo a fumadores y no fumadores) que realizan actividades en espacios públicos al aire libre. Factor de riesgo o exposición: Fumar, entendido como actividad de inhalar y exhalar asociada al uso de distintos dispositivos tales como cigarrillos, cigarrillos electrónicos, vaporizadores, pipas, entre otros, en espacios públicos al aire libre. Comparación: No fumar. Outcome: Transmisión de COVID-19. MENSAJES CLAVE: No se identificó evidencia que evalúe el riesgo de transmisión de COVID-19 asociado a fumar en espacios abiertos. Los principales motivos detrás de restringir o prohibir el consumo de tabaco implementadas en el extranjero, apuntan a disminuir el riesgo de transmisión por gotitas, disminuir la gravedad de los casos de COVID-19, evitar la exposición al humo ya que aumentaría la susceptibilidad de contraer infecciones respiratorias y reducir el contacto estrecho de fumadores con otras personas. Se encontraron dos estudios primarios que evalúan la relación entre la exposición a fumar o no sobre el riesgo de contagio de COVID-19 en espacios públicos cerrados con los cuales no es posible esclarecer el efecto. Sus conclusiones deben considerarse con cautela. CONSIDERACIONES DE IMPLEMENTACIÓN: Para el análisis de las consideraciones de implementación, durante la selección de títulos, resúmenes y texto completo de esta síntesis, se realizó una selección de evidencia que pudiera entregar antecedentes para el análisis de la aplicabilidad de la evidencia al contexto local, consideraciones económicas, equidad y de monitoreo y evaluación. Se completó con búsquedas no sistemáticas de reportes u otro tipo de publicaciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Smoking , Smoking Areas , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19/transmission , Technology Assessment, Biomedical
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10115, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132561

ABSTRACT

The introduction of early complementary feeding (ECF) is determined by different factors depending on when it occurs. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with the introduction of ECF in two different moments of the infant's life: from zero to three and from four to five months of age. A cohort with 3,306 dyads studied in the BRISA survey in São Luis/MA in 2010 was used. Questionnaires were applied at birth and at follow-up when the infants were 15 to 36 months of age of women with more than 20 weeks of gestational age, residing in this municipality. A multivariate model of multinomial logistic regression was used to verify associations between independent variables and ECF at 0 to 3 months and at 4 to 5 months of age. A hierarchical analysis model was used to select variables for confounding adjustment. Variables with a P-value <0.05 were considered significant. For ECF introduced between 0-3 months, the variables "use of pacifier", "maternal paid activity", "smoking", and "postpartum pregnancy" were identified as risk factors. The variables "use of pacifier" and "maternal paid activity" remained associated as a risk for ECF introduced from 4-5 months. The variable 'mother without partner' (RR=1.26 and P=0.04) represented a risk factor for ECF only for the 4-5 months period. Although each period presented specific risk factors, the use of pacifier and maternal professional activity were associated in the two periods studied, indicating their importance for the introduction of ECF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Adult , Young Adult , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Time Factors , Brazil , Breast Feeding , Smoking , Cesarean Section , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Gestational Age , Pacifiers , Employment
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To analyze the prevalence and influencing factors for drinking behavior and heavy drinking among government employees in Changsha and provide a basis for carrying out interventions for drinking behaviors and formulating public health promotion plans for government employees.@*METHODS@#Government employees were recruited consecutively from the Health Management Center of a general hospital in Changsha between December 2017 and December 2018. Information on sociodemograpic characteristics, drinking behaviors, life events, and psychosocial characteristics was collected using a standard set of questionnaire. Drinking behavior was defined as drinking once or more per week for the past 12 months. The differences in drinking rates and excessive drinking rates among groups with different characteristics were compared. Multivariate analysis was performed to analyze the associated factors of drinking behaviors and heavy drinking for government employees.@*RESULTS@#A total of 6 190 people completed this investigation. The overall drinking rate of government employees in Changsha was 21.9%, and the rate of drinking was higher in males than that in females (44.7% vs 4.0%, @*CONCLUSIONS@#The drinking and heavy drinking rates of government employees are high in Changsha. Marital status, physical exercise, and frequency of social intercourse are the common influencing factors of male drinking behavior and female drinking behavior. The life events stimulation is the influencing factor of heavy drinking.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Female , Government Employees , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Smoking
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary objectives are to (1) examine the effects that low-level environmental chemical exposures have on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders, as well as perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco.@*METHODS@#The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the progress of the Hokkaido Study, summarize recent results, and suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the latest details from questionnaire surveys, face-to-face examinations, and a collection of biological specimens from children and measurements of their chemical exposures.@*RESULTS@#The latest findings indicate different risk factors of parental characteristics on birth outcomes and the mediating effect between socioeconomic status and children that are small for the gestational age. Maternal serum folate was not associated with birth defects. Prenatal chemical exposure and smoking were associated with birth size and growth, as well as cord blood biomarkers, such as adiponectin, leptin, thyroid, and reproductive hormones. We also found significant associations between the chemical levels and neuro development, asthma, and allergies.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Chemical exposure to children can occur both before and after birth. Longer follow-up for children is crucial in birth cohort studies to reinforce the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. In contrast, considering shifts in the exposure levels due to regulation is also essential, which may also change the association to health outcomes. This study found that individual susceptibility to adverse health effects depends on the genotype. Epigenome modification of DNA methylation was also discovered, indicating the necessity of examining molecular biology perspectives. International collaborations can add a new dimension to the current knowledge and provide novel discoveries in the future.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Child , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Health , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Female , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Follow-Up Studies , Growth/drug effects , Humans , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Prevalence , Smoking/adverse effects
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#We aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms as well as suicide-related ideation among Japanese university students during the stay-home order necessitated by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Japan, and offer evidence in support of future intervention to depression and suicide prevention strategies among college and university students.@*METHODS@#The data for this cross-sectional study were derived from the Student Mental Health Survey conducted from May 20 to June 16, 2020 at a national university in Akita prefecture. Among the 5111 students recruited, 2712 participated in this study (response rate, 53%; mean age ± standard deviation, 20.5 ±3.5 years; men, 53.8%). Depressive symptoms were identified by using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9).@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of moderate depressive symptoms based on a PHQ-9 score ≥10 and suicide-related ideation based on question 9 of PHQ-9 ≥1, which encompasses thoughts of both suicide and self-harm, was 11.7% and 6.7%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that risk factors for depression included being a woman, smoking, alcohol consumption, and social network communication using either video or voice. For suicide-related ideation, alcohol consumption was the only risk factor. Exercise and having someone to consult about worries were associated with decreased risk of both depressive symptoms and suicide-related ideation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Negative lifestyles of smoking and drinking, and being a woman, may be important risk factors for depressive symptoms, whereas exercise and having someone to consult about worries may be protective factors.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Smoking , Students/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878336

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Evidence is lacking regarding the combined effects of smoking and obesity on mortality from coronary heart disease in male veterans. This study aimed to explore the combined effect of smoking and obesity on coronary heart disease mortality in male veterans in China.@*Methods@#A cohort of 1,268 male veterans from 22 veteran centers in Xi'an (Shaanxi Province, China) were followed up once every 2 years from February 1, 1987 to October 30, 2016. The endpoint was death from any cause. The hazard ratio ( @*Results@#The total follow-up was 24394.21 person-years; each subject was followed up for a mean duration of 19.24 years. By the end of the study, of the 1,268 veterans, 889 had died, 363 were alive, and 16 were lost to follow-up. Cox regression analysis results revealed that current smoking ( @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that obese veterans who smoke might be an important target population for coronary heart disease mortality control.


Subject(s)
Aged , China/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , Smoking , Veterans/statistics & numerical data
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878324

ABSTRACT

Pneumoconiosis, an interstitial lung disease that occurs from breathing in certain kinds of damaging dust particles, is a major occupational disease in China. Patients diagnosed with occupational pneumoconiosis can avail of free medical treatment, whereas patients without a diagnosis of occupational diseases cannot not claim free medical treatment in most provinces from the government before 2019. This study aimed to analyze the priority of medical facility selection and its influencing factors among patients with pneumoconiosis. A total of 1,037 patients with pneumoconiosis from nine provinces in China were investigated. The health service institutions most frequently selected by the patients were county-level hospitals (37.5%). The main reason for the choice was these hospitals' close distance to the patients' homes (47.3%). The factors for the choice of health care institutions were living in the eastern region (


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , China , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pneumoconiosis/therapy , Rural Population , Silicosis , Smoking
14.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(1): e20200098, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1124783

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a associação entre a adequação das orientações recebidas durante o pré-natal e o profissional que atendeu a gestante na maioria das consultas na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Método Participaram 3.111 puérperas que realizaram pré-natal pelo Sistema Único de Saúde no Estado de Santa Catarina em 2019, através de questionário aplicado em ambiente hospitalar até 48 horas pós-parto. Analisou-se associação entre a variável de exposição principal e covariáveis, e o desfecho segundo profissional que atendeu no pré-natal. Resultados As orientações mais frequentes foram os sinais de riscos na gestação (80,3%) e riscos de automedicação (76,9%). Observaram-se prevalências abaixo de 50% nas orientações sobre manejo adequado da amamentação (45,9%) e possibilidade de visitar a maternidade antes do parto (38,2%); ter recebido todas as orientações ao menos uma vez durante o pré-natal foi de 18,4%. Gestantes atendidas na maioria das consultas pelos profissionais médico e enfermeiro apresentaram chance 41,0% maior de adequação às orientações, em comparação com aquelas atendidas exclusivamente por médicos. Conclusões e implicações para a prática A prevalência de orientações dadas pelos profissionais de saúde às gestantes foi mais elevada quando o pré-natal foi mais compartilhado entre enfermeiros e médicos, em comparação ao atendimento majoritário por profissional de apenas uma profissão.


RESUMEN Objetivo analizar la asociación entre la adecuación de las directrices recibidas durante la atención prenatal y el profesional que atendió a la mujer embarazada en la mayoría de las consultas en la Atención Primaria de Salud. Método participaron 3.111 mujeres puérperas que recibieron la atención prenatal a través del Sistema Único de Salud en el Estado de Santa Catarina en 2019, a través de un cuestionario aplicado en un entorno hospitalario hasta 48 horas después del parto. Se analizó la asociación entre la variable de exposición principal y las covariables, y el resultado según el profesional que asistió en la atención prenatal. Resultados las directrices más frecuentes fueron los signos de riesgos en el embarazo (80,3%) y los riesgos de automedicación (76,9%). Se observaron prevalencias inferiores al 50% en las directrices sobre el manejo adecuado de la lactancia materna (45,9%) y la posibilidad de visitar la sala de maternidad antes del parto (38,2%); han recibido todas las directrices al menos una vez durante la atención prenatal fue del 18.4%. Las mujeres embarazadas atendidas en la mayoría de las consultas por profesionales médicos y enfermeras tuvieron un 41% más de posibilidades de adecuarse a las directrices en comparación con las que fueron atendidas exclusivamente por médicos. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica la prevalencia de las directrices otorgadas por los profesionales de la salud a las mujeres embarazadas fue mayor cuando la atención prenatal fue más compartida entre las enfermeras y los médicos en comparación con la mayoría de la atención prestada por profesionales de una sola profesión.


ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the association between the adequacy of the guidelines received during prenatal care and the professional who assisted the pregnant woman in most consultations in Primary Health Care. Method 3,111 puerperal women who underwent prenatal care by the Unified Health System in the State of Santa Catarina in 2019 participated, through a questionnaire applied in a hospital environment up to 48 hours postpartum. Association between the main exposure variable and covariates with the outcome according to the professional who carried out the prenatal care was analyzed. Results The most frequent guidelines were the signs of risks during pregnancy (80.3%) and risks of self-medication (76.9%). Prevalences below 50% were observed in the guidelines on adequate breastfeeding management (45.9%) and the possibility of visiting the maternity ward before delivery (38.2%); having received all guidelines at least once during prenatal care was 18.4%. Pregnant women assisted in most consultations by physicians and nurses had a 41,0% greater chance of adequacy in the guidelines compared to those assisted exclusively by physicians. Conclusions and implications for practice The prevalence of guidelines given by health professionals for pregnant women was higher when prenatal care was more shared between nurses and physicians in comparison to the majority of care provided by professionals from only one profession.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Patient Care Team/statistics & numerical data , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care , Self Medication , Socioeconomic Factors , Breast Feeding , Alcohol Drinking , Labor Onset , Exercise , Smoking , Health Education , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Medical Chaperones
15.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 3, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1156857

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of the 2015-2018 economic crisis on tobacco consumption in Brazil. METHODS This is an interrupted time series analysis conducted with data from 27 cities collected by VIGITEL, using linear regression models to account for first-order autocorrelation. Analyses were conducted based on gender, age group, and education level. RESULTS Smoking rates decreased between 2006 and 2018, decelerating after the crisis onset. Differently than women, men showed an immediate but transient increase in smoking, followed by a decelerated decrease. Those over 65 also showed increased smoking rates immediately after the economic crisis onset, but decline accelerated later on. In turn, we found a trend reversal among those aged 31-44. Rates also decreased among those with lower education levels, but decelerated among those with more years of schooling. CONCLUSION An economic crisis have varied impacts on the smoking habits of different population groups. Tobacco control policies should entail a detailed understanding of smoking epidemiology, especially during an economic crisis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Smoking/epidemiology , Economic Recession , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cities/epidemiology
16.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(11): e00224220, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350390

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study aims to investigate whether the intersectional identities defined by race/skin color and gender are associated with smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol in a representative sample of Brazilian adults. This is a cross-sectional study with 48,234 participants in the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS) - 2013. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were used to estimate the associations of intersectional categories of race/skin color and gender (white woman, brown woman, black woman, white man, brown man, black man) with smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol, based on the combination of weekly "days" and "servings". The prevalence of smoking varied from 10.6% for white women to 23.1% for black men, while the prevalence of elevated consumption of alcohol ranged from 3.3% to 14%, respectively. In comparison to white women, only white, brown, and black men presented greater chances of smoking, reaching the OR of 2.04 (95%CI: 1.66-2.51) in black men. As to excessive consumption of alcohol, all intersectional categories showed greater chances of consumption than white women, with the greatest magnitude in black men (OR = 4.78; 95%CI: 3.66-6.23). These associations maintained statistical significance after adjustments made for sociodemographic, behavioral, and health characteristics. Results demonstrated differences in smoking habit and excessive consumption of alcohol when the intersectional categories were compared to traditional analyses. These findings reinforce the significance of including intersectionality of race/skin color and gender in epidemiological studies.


Resumo: O estudo teve como objetivo investigar se as interseções de identidades definidas por raça/cor e gênero estão associadas ao tabagismo e ao consumo excessivo de álcool em uma amostra representativa de adultos brasileiros. Este foi um estudo transversal com 48.234 participantes da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) de 2013. Foram usadas odds ratio (OR) brutas e ajustadas com os respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%) para estimar as associações entre interseções de categorias de raça/cor e gênero (mulher branca, mulher parda, mulher preta, homem branco, homem pardo, homem preto) com tabagismo e consumo excessivo de álcool, derivados da combinação de "dias" e "doses" semanais. A prevalência de tabagismo variou de 10,6% em mulheres brancas a 23,1% em homens pretos, enquanto a prevalência de consumo elevado de álcool variou de 3,3% a 14%, respectivamente. Em comparação com mulheres brancas, apenas homens brancos, pardos e pretos apresentaram risco maior de tabagismo, chegando a um OR de 2,04 (IC95%: 1,66-2,51) em homens pretos. Quanto ao consumo excessivo de álcool, todas as categorias mostraram maior risco de consumo em comparação com as mulheres brancas, com a maior magnitude em homens pretos (OR = 4,78; IC95%: 3,66-6,23). As associações mantiveram a significância estatística depois de ajustar para fatores sociodemográficos, comportamentais e de saúde. Os resultados revelam diferenças no hábito de fumar e no consumo excessivo de álcool quando as categorias de interseções foram comparadas a análises tradicionais. Os achados reforçam a importância da inclusão de raça/cor e gênero em estudos epidemiológicos.


Resumen: El objetivo fue investigar si las identidades interseccionales, definidas por raza/color de piel y género, están asociadas con el consumo de tabaco y excesivo consumo de alcohol en una muestra representativa de adultos brasileños. Se trata de un estudio trasversal con 48.234 participantes en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud Brasileña (PNS) - 2013. Las odds ratio (OR) crudas y ajustadas y los respectivos intervalos de 95% confianza (IC95%) fueron usados para estimar las asociaciones de categorías interseccionales de raza/color de piel y género (mujer blanca, mujer mestiza, mujer negra, hombre blanco, hombre mestizo, hombre negro) con el consumo de tabaco y el excesivo consumo de alcohol, derivado de la combinación semanal de "días" y "cantidades consumidas". La prevalencia de consumo de tabaco varió de 10.6% en mujeres blancas al 23,1% en hombres negros, mientras que la prevalencia de consumo elevado de alcohol fue de un 3,3% al 14%, respectivamente. En comparación con las mujeres blancas, solo blancos, mestizos, y hombres negros presentaron oportunidades mayores de fumar, alcanzando la OR de 2,04 (95%CI: 1,66-2,51) en hombres negros. Así como que, para el excesivo consumo de alcohol, todas las categorías interseccionales mostraron oportunidades mayores de consumo que las mujeres blancas, con una magnitud más grande en hombres negros (OR = 4,78; 95%CI: 3,66-6,23). Estas asociaciones mantuvieron significancia estadística, tras los ajustes realizados para características sociodemográficas, comportamentales, y características de salud. Los resultados demostraron que el hábito de fumar y el excesivo consumo de alcohol mostraron diferencias cuando se compararon las categorías interseccionales con los análisis tradicionales. Estos resultados refuerzan la importancia de incluir la interseccionalidad de raza/color de piel y género en estudios epidemiológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Skin Pigmentation , Brazil/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys
17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(4): e00050120, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285834

ABSTRACT

Resumo Estudo de tendência temporal com o objetivo de avaliar as desigualdades no tabagismo e no consumo abusivo de álcool, considerando a escolaridade como proxy de nível socioeconômico, de acordo com sexo e regiões brasileiras. Foram utilizados dados do Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel) coletados entre 2006 e 2017. Os desfechos foram o consumo abusivo de bebidas alcoólicas e o fumo. As desigualdades foram avaliadas com base na escolaridade, com dupla estratificação por sexo e regiões brasileiras. Para avaliar a tendência das prevalências dos desfechos e suas desigualdades foi usada a regressão linear ponderada pelos quadrados mínimos da variância. A prevalência de consumo abusivo de álcool aumentou em mulheres, de 7,8% (2006) para 12,2% (2017), e foi maior sempre entre os mais escolarizados. A prevalência de tabagismo diminuiu para homens e mulheres e foi maior sempre entre os menos escolarizados. A desigualdade no consumo de álcool entre os grupos de escolaridade parece ter aumentado ao longo do tempo, com maior magnitude entre as mulheres, mas a desigualdade no tabagismo parece estar diminuindo. Em algumas regiões do país, as medidas de desigualdade sugerem estabilidade e em outras um aumento da desigualdade para o consumo de álcool (Sudeste, Sul e Centro-oeste, entre as mulheres) e diminuição para o tabagismo (todas as regiões, exceto Sudeste, entre os homens; Nordeste e Centro-oeste, entre as mulheres). Apesar dos avanços na redução do tabagismo, as desigualdades na escolaridade persistem e estão presentes também em relação ao álcool. Os desfechos têm comportamentos opostos, portanto, estratégias devem ser focadas em cada um dos problemas, a fim de reduzir as desigualdades existentes.


Abstract: This was a time trend study aimed at assessing inequalities in smoking and abusive alcohol consumption, considering schooling as a proxy for socioeconomic status, according to sex and region of Brazil. The study used data from the Risk and Protective Factors Surveillance System for Chronic Non-Comunicable Diseases Through Telephone Interview (Vigitel) survey collected from 2006 to 2017. The outcomes were abusive alcohol consumption and smoking. The inequalities were assessed based on schooling, with double stratification by sex and major geographic region. Weighted linear least squares regression was used to assess the trend in prevalence of outcomes and their inequalities. Prevalence of abusive alcohol consumption increased in women, from 7.8% in 2006 to 12.2% in 2017 and was consistently higher among individuals with more schooling. Prevalence of smoking decreased in both men and women and was consistently higher among those with less schooling. Inequality in alcohol consumption between schooling groups appears to have increased over time, higher in women, but inequality in smoking appears to have decreased. In some regions of Brazil, the measures of inequality suggest stability and in others an increase in inequality in alcohol consumption (Southeast, South, and Central regions in women) and a decrease in smoking (all regions except the Southeast in men; Northeast and Central in women). Despite the strides in smoking reduction, inequalities persist in schooling and are also present in alcohol consumption. The outcomes show opposite trends, so strategies should focus on each of the problems in order to reduce existing inequalities.


Resumen: Estudio de tendencia temporal, con el objetivo de evaluar las desigualdades en el tabaquismo y consumo abusivo de alcohol, considerando la escolaridad como proxy de nivel socioeconómico, de acuerdo con el sexo y regiones brasileñas. Se utilizaron datos de Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo y Protección para Enfermedades Crónicas No Transmisibles por Entrevista Telefónica (Vigitel), recogidos entre 2006 y 2017. Los resultados fueron el consumo abusivo de bebidas alcohólicas y tabaco. Las desigualdades se evaluaron a partir de la escolaridad, con doble estratificación por sexo y regiones brasileñas. Para evaluar la tendencia de las prevalencias de los resultados y sus desigualdades se utilizó la regresión lineal por mínimos cuadrados ponderados de la variancia. La prevalencia de consumo abusivo de alcohol aumentó en mujeres de 7,8% (2006) a 12,2% (2017) y fue siempre mayor entre los más escolarizados. La prevalencia de tabaquismo disminuyó en hombres y mujeres, y siempre fue mayor entre los menos escolarizados. La desigualdad en el consumo de alcohol entre los grupos de escolaridad parece que ha aumentado a lo largo del tiempo, con mayor magnitud entre las mujeres, pero la desigualdad en el tabaquismo parece estar disminuyendo. En algunas regiones del país, las medidas de desigualdad sugieren estabilidad y en otras un aumento de la desigualdad en el consumo de alcohol (Sudeste, Sur y Centro-oeste, entre las mujeres) y disminución en el tabaquismo (todas las regiones, excepto la Sudeste, entre los hombres; Nordeste y Centro-oeste, entre las mujeres). A pesar de los avances en la reducción del tabaquismo, las desigualdades en la escolaridad persisten y están presentes también en relación con el alcohol. Los resultados tienen comportamientos opuestos, por lo tanto, las estrategias deben centrarse en cada uno de los problemas, a fin de reducir las desigualdades existentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Telephone , Smoking/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Prevalence , Educational Status
18.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(3): e00038820, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249410

ABSTRACT

Smoking is the main cause of avoidable death and a major public health problem worldwide, with primary healthcare being a strategic setting for treating this problem. Aims: to evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing associated with the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in smoking groups in primary healthcare. A community-based cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted in Brazil, starting in July 2016. Professionals in the test group were trained in motivational interviewing for eight hours to associate it with the CBT. The usual treatment for smoking cessation in groups consists of four structured weekly sessions of 90 minutes each using a CBT. Taylor's linearization was used to correct the p-values; the chi-square test with Pearson correlation was used for categorical variables, and analysis of variance as well as the Student t-test were used for continuous variables. In total, 44 smoking groups were conducted, totaling 329 patients (178 in the motivational interviewing group and 151 in the control group). The smoking cessation rate with motivational interviewing was 61.8%, with RR = 1.25 (95%CI: 1.01-1.54, p = 0.043), and 47.7% in the control group, in the fourth weekly group treatment session. Mean session attendance was 3.1 (95%CI: 2.9-3.3) in the motivational interviewing group and 2.9 (95%CI: 2.5-3.4) in the control group. The completion rate for the motivational interviewing group was 65.2% and for the control group, 57.6%. Motivational interviewing associated with the CBT was shown to be effective and superior to only CBT to smoking cessation in groups in the fourth weekly session and for the population profile of the study (women with an average age of 50.6 years).


O tabagismo é a principal causa de morte evitável, e é um problema de saúde pública global. A atenção primária representa um contexto estratégico para enfrentar o problema. O objetivo foi avaliar a efetividade da entrevista motivacional associada à terapia cognitiva-comportamental (TCC) em grupos de tabagistas tratados na atenção primária. Foi realizado um estudo clínico randomizado de clusters comunitários, iniciado em julho de 2016. Os profissionais no grupo experimental foram treinados durante 8 horas na técnica de entrevista motivacional , com o propósito de associar a técnica à TCC. O tratamento usual para cessação de tabagismo em grupos consiste em quatro sessões estruturadas com duração de 90 minutos, uma por semana, com o uso da TCC. Foi aplicada a linearização de Taylor para corrigir os valores de p; o teste qui-quadrado de Pearson foi usado para variáveis categóricas e análise de variância, e o teste t de Student para variáveis contínuas. Foram organizados 44 grupos de tabagistas, com um total de 329 pacientes (178 no grupo entrevista motivacional e 151 no grupo controle). A taxa de cessação do tabagismo com entrevista motivacional foi 61,8%, com RR = 1,25 (IC95%: 1,01-1,54; p = 0,043), comparado com 47,7% no grupo controle, depois da quarta sessão semanal de terapia de grupo. A média de frequência foi de 3,1 sessões (IC95%: 2,9-3,3) no grupo entrevista motivacional e 2,9 (IC95%: 2,5-3,4) no grupo controle. A proporção de participação integral nas sessões foi 65,2% no gruo entrevista motivacional e 57,6% no grupo controle. A entrevista motivacional associada à TCC mostrou ser efetiva e superior à TCC isoladamente para cessação de tabagismo em grupos com quatro sessões semanais e para o perfil da população do estudo (mulheres com média de idade de 50,6 anos).


Fumar es la principal causa de muerte evitable, y uno de los mayores problemas de salud pública alrededor del mundo, siendo la atención primaria un eje estratégico para el tratamiento de este problema. El objetivo fue evaluar la efectividad de las entrevistas motivacionales, asociadas con la terapia comportamental cognitiva (TCC), en grupos de fumadores dentro de la atención primaria. El ensayo clínico grupal aleatorio basado en comunidades se realizó en Brasil, empezó en julio de 2016. Los profesionales en el grupo de prueba fueron entrenados en entrevistas motivacionales durante 8 horas para asociarlo con el TCC. El tratamiento habitual para dejar de fumar en grupos consistía en cuatro sesiones semanales, estructuradas en 90 minutos cada una, usando la TCC. Se aplicó la linealización de Taylor para corregir los valores de p; el test de chi-cuadrado con la correlación de Pearson se usó para las variables categóricas y se utilizaron el análisis de variancia y el test Student t para las variables continuas. Se monitorizaron 44 grupos de fumadores, totalizando 329 pacientes (178 en el entrevistas motivacionales grupo y 151 en el grupo de control). La tasa de abandono del tabaco con entrevistas motivacionales fue 61,8%, con RR = 1,25 (95%CI: 1,01-1,54; p = 0,043), y 47,7% en el grupo de control, en la cuarta sesión grupal de tratamiento semanal. La media de asistencia a sesiones fue 3,1 (95%CI: 2,9-3,3) en el grupo entrevistas motivacionales y 2,9 (95%CI: 2,5-3,4) en el grupo de control. La tasa de finalización para el grupo entrevistas motivacionales fue 65,2%, y para el grupo de control 57,6%. Las entrevistas motivacionales asociadas con la TCC demostró ser efectiva y superior para solamente la TCC de abandonar el tabaco en grupos en la cuarta sesión semanal y para el perfil de la población en estudio (mujeres con una media de edad de 50,6 años).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Smoking Cessation , Motivational Interviewing , Primary Health Care , Brazil , Smoking , Middle Aged
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1679-1684, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143668

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the prevalence of smoking rates and comorbidities and evaluate the relationship between them and disease severity and mortality in inpatients with COVID-19. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were divided into the following groups: clinic group, intensive care unit (ICU) group, survivors, and non-survivors. Non-COVID-19 patients were included as a control group. The groups were compared. RESULTS: There was no difference between patients with and without COVID-19 in terms of smoking, asthma, diabetes, dementia, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, chronic renal failure and arrhythmia (p>0.05). Older age (Odds ratio (OR), 1.061; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.041-1.082; p< 0.0001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR, 2.775; 95% CI: 1.128-6.829; p=0.026) and CAD (OR, 2.696; 95% CI: 1.216-5.974; p=0.015) were significantly associated with ICU admission. Current smoking (OR, 5.101; 95% CI: 2.382-10.927; p<0.0001) and former smoking (OR, 3.789; 95% CI: 1.845-7.780; p<0.0001) were risk factors for ICU admission. Older age (OR; 1.082; 95% CI: 1.056-1.109; p<0.0001), COPD (OR, 3.213; 95% CI: 1.224-8.431; p=0.018), CAD (OR, 6.252; 95% CI: 2.171-18.004; p=0.001) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (OR, 5.917; 95% CI 1.069-32.258; p=0.042), were significantly associated with mortality. Current smoking (OR, 13.014; 95% CI: 5.058-33.480; p<0.0001) and former smoking (OR, 6.507; 95% CI 2.731-15.501; p<0.0001) were also risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Smoking, older age, COPD, and CAD were risk factors for ICU admission and mortality in patients with COVID-19. CHF was not a risk factor for ICU admission; however, it was a risk factor for mortality.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Buscamos explorar as taxas de prevalência de tabagismo e de comorbidades e avaliar a relação entre elas e a severidade e mortalidade da doença em pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Pacientes com COVID-19 foram divididos nos seguintes grupos: grupo clínico, grupo da unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI), grupo de sobreviventes e não-sobreviventes. Pacientes sem COVID-19 foram incluídos em um grupo de controle. Os grupos foram comparados. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os pacientes com e sem COVID-19 em termos de tabagismo, asma, diabetes, demência, doença arterial coronariana (DAC), hipertensão arterial, insuficiência renal crônica e arritmia (p>0,05). Idade mais avançada (odds ratio (OR), 1,061; 95% de intervalo de confiança (IC): 1,041-1,082; p< 0,0001), doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) (OR, 2,775; 95% IC: 1,128-6,829; p=0,026) e DAC (OR, 2,696; 95% IC: 1,216-5,974; p=0,015) estavam significativamente associados com a admissão na UTI. O tabagismo atual (OR, 5,101; 95% IC: 2,382-10,927; p < 0,0001) e tabagismo prévio (OR, 3,789; 95% IC: 1,845-7,780; p< 0,0001) foram fatores de risco para admissão na UTI. Idade mais avançada (OR; 1,082; 95% IC: 1,056-1,109;< 0,0001), DPOC (OR, 3,213; 95% IC: 1,224-8,431; p=0,018), DAC (OR, 6,252; 95% IC: 2,171-18,004; p=0,001) e insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC) (OR, 5,917; 95% IC 1,069-32,258; p=0,042) estavam significativamente associados com mortalidade. O tabagismo atual (OR, 13,014; 95% IC: 5,058-33,480; p<0,0001) e o tabagismo prévio (OR, 6,507; 95% IC 2,731-15,501; p<0,0001) também foram fatores de risco para mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: O tabagismo, a idade avançada, DPOC e DAC foram fatores de risco para admissão na UTI e mortalidade em pacientes com COVID-19. ICC não foi um fator de risco para admissão na UTI; no entanto, foi um fator de risco para mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Smoking/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Turkey/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
20.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 20(4): 305-320, dic 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150708

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Entre 2014 y 2016, se realizó en Argentina el estudio EPOC.AR, a fin de determinar la prevalencia de EPOC en el país. El presente trabajo se realizó para comparar las características de tabaquismo en fumadores con y sin EPOC de dicho estudio, conocer cuántos recibieron Consejo Médico, las características de sus intentos previos de abandono y la exposición a humo de tabaco de segunda mano. Material y Métodos: La asociación entre tabaquismo y sus características y EPOC se evaluó por Odds Ratio, su intervalo de confianza del 95% y valor p correspondiente al test de hipótesis, utilizando la técnica de chi cuadrado. Resultados: Se incluyeron 3469 encuestas en mayores de 39 años, 42.2% hombres. Fueron fumadores actuales o anteriores 70.7% y el 53.3% de ellos tenía características espirométricas de EPOC. El 34.7% es fumador actual, de los que 73,4% piensa en dejar de fumar, 64% recibió consejo y sólo 7.3% refiere haber utilizado algún tratamiento. El 40.2% de los encuestados refirió exposición a humo ambiental y el 56.1% refirió exposición laboral a humo de tabaco: Entre los fumadores del EPOC.AR, la mayoría fuman menos de 20 cigarrillos por día, hay mayor prevalencia de EPOC en hombres y mayor porcentaje de nunca fumadores con EPOC en mujeres. Alto porcentaje piensa dejar de fumar, algo menor en los que tienen EPOC, que tuvieron más intentos previos de dejar. Casi la mitad no recibió consejo médico y muy bajo porcentaje utilizó fármacos para dejar. Existe alta exposición a humo de segunda mano en casas y trabajo. Conclusiones: los fumadores del EPOC.AR fuman menos de 20 cigarrillos/día, hay más hombres, una alto porcentaje quiere dejar y muy pocos reciben consejo médico o fármacos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Tobacco Use Disorder , Smoking , Smoking Cessation , Smokers
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