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1.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(3)2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292385

ABSTRACT

Information on areas colonized by snails that transmit Schistosoma mansoni is essential for planning schistosomiasis control measures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to map the natural breeding sites of Biomphalaria spp. in the municipality of Peri Mirim, Maranhão, Brazil. The snails were manually collected and the breeding sites were geo-referenced (seven in the urban area and five in flooded fields), from November 2017 to March 2018. In the laboratory, the snails were examined for the presence of larval stages of S. mansoni identified by morphology and internal anatomy analysis. While no snails were found in the urban area, sixteen B. glabrata were collected in the flooded fields. No S. mansoni or other trematode infections were detected. Wild rodents, most likely Holochilus sciureus that could act as S. mansoni reservoirs, were also found in the flooded fields. These data indicate possible risk areas for further outbreaks of schistosomiasis transmission in the municipality of Peri Mirim.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosoma mansoni , Snails , Biomphalaria , Spatial Analysis
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200574, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278437

ABSTRACT

Abstract The reproductive system has a fundamental role in population dynamics and several reproduction strategies have been shaped by the environment over time. Many environmental pressures are generated by releasing pollutants, as endocrine disruptors, that can affect the reproductive system of individuals, among them invertebrates. The freshwater snails Biomphalaria spp. are used as biomonitor in several ecotoxicological studies; however, there are few studies about gametogenesis and morphology of reproductive snail cells, which could be used as a new biomarker. In this sense, the current study aims to characterize Biomphalaria glabrata gametogenesis, bringing new histomorphometric parameters for germinative cells. Results showed that the hermaphrodite tissue is formed by several acini with simple pavement epithelium with germinative and somatic cells. Oogenesis was classified into five developmental stages (OI to OV) according to diameter, nucleus area, total area, and follicular cell development, and then classified into previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes. The spermatogenesis was classified into spermatogonia (Spg), spermatocytes (Spc) and spermatids that were subdivided into five stages (Spt I to Spt V) according to cytoplasm losing, and nucleus spiralization along with Sertoli cells development. Thus, the present study highlights the gametogenesis of B. glabrata with new histomorphometric parameters, which can be an important tool for ecotoxicological and molluscicidal developmental further studies.


Subject(s)
Oogenesis , Snails , Spermatogenesis , Hermaphroditic Organisms , Techniques, Measures, Measurement Equipment , Ecotoxicology/methods
3.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(2): 81-89, mayo-ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340776

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Evaluar el estado actual de Melongena melongena en la bahía de Cispatá, Caribe Colombiano a través de los aspectos poblacionales de la especie. Materiales y métodos. Se establecieron tres sectores de muestreo, conforme con la zonificación de los manglares en la bahía. Para la recolección del material biológico se ubicó un transecto lineal de 4 x 20 m perpendicular al área del manglar con dos replicas a una distancia de 50 m. Para la determinación del sexo, se tomó una submuestra de 10 individuos con tallas superiores a la estimada para la madurez sexual de la especie. A las conchas se les midió la longitud total, con el fin de diferenciar las tallas de hembras y machos. En cada sector, la temperatura del agua y salinidad fueron registradas in situ, empleando un medidor multiparámetro Extech EC170, mientras la trasparencia del agua se calculó mediante el disco Secchi. Resultados. Se registraron un total de 1.149 individuos de M. melongena, obteniendo la mayor abundancia el sector Caño Salado (522), seguido de Las Cagás (458) y finalmente Amaya (169). El 63% de los individuos se encontraron en un intervalo de talla entre 41-61 mm. La proporción sexual fue 1:1.2 (H:M). Las tallas registradas en hembras fueron de 55 a 92 mm y en machos de 54 a 77 mm. Conclusiones. M. melongena en la bahía de Cispatá está presentando signos evidentes de recuperación en la última década, debido a que la mayoría de los individuos registrados han alcanzado la talla media de madurez sexual.


ABSTRACT Objective. Evaluate the current status of Melongena melongena in Cispata Bay, Colombian Caribbean through the population aspects of the species. Materials and methods. Three sampling sectors were established, according to the zoning of the mangrove in the bay. For the collection of the biological material a linear transect of 4 x 20 m was located perpendicular to the area of the mangrove with two replicas at a distance of 50 m. For the determination of sex, a subsample of 10 individuals with sizes greater than that estimated for the sexual maturity of the species was taken. The shells were measured in total length, in order to differentiate the sizes of females and males. In each sector, the water temperature and salinity were measured in situ using an Extech EC170 multiparameter while water transparency is calculated using the Secchi disk. Results. A total of 1,149 individuals of M. melongena were recorded, obtaining the highest abundance in the Caño Salado sector (522), followed by Las Cagás (458) and finally Amaya (169). 63% of the individuals were in a size range between 41-61 mm. The sex ratio was 1:1.2 (H:M). The sizes recorded in females were from 55 to 92 mm and in males from 54 to 77 mm. Conclusions. M. melongena in Cispatá Bay is showing evident signs of recovery in the last decade, because most of the registered individuals have reached the average size of sexual maturity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails , Wetlands , Mollusca , Estuaries
5.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(2): e578, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126601

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la meningoencefalitis eosinofílica es una enfermedad inflamatoria infecciosa reportada en Cuba desde la década de los ochenta del siglo pasado y actualmente extendida al continente americano. Es producida por el parásito Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Objetivo: determinar si existen diferencias entre los pacientes que sufrieron meningoencefalitis eosinofílica antes y después de la introducción del caracol gigante africano. Métodos: se estudiaron un total de 19 muestras de líquido cefalorraquídeo y suero tomadas simultáneamente a cada paciente diagnosticados con meningoencefalitis eosinofílica, perteneciente a la seroraquioteca del Laboratorio Central del Líquido Cefalorraquídeo (LABCEL). Para la determinación de las proteínas albúmina e IgG se empleó como método de laboratorio la inmunodifusión radial. Resultados: el 14 por ciento de los pacientes fueron adultos antes de la aparición de este molusco, en contraste con el momento actual, donde el 50 por ciento son pacientes con edades superiores a 18 años. El porcentaje de síntesis de IgG intratecal media fue mayor en los enfermos actuales, aunque no de manera significativa. Conclusiones: . existen diferencias antes y después de la aparición del caracol gigante africano dado por la respuesta de síntesis intratecal en los pacientes asociados con el molusco que denota una mayor agresividad del parásito. La edad promedio mayor de los enfermos confirma que estos son los que más manipulan y dispersan el molusco(AU)


Introduction: eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is an infectious inflammatory disease reported in Cuba since the 1980s and currently extended to the American continent. This condition is caused by the parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Objective: determine whether there are differences between the patients suffering from eosinophilic meningoencephalitis before and after the introduction of the giant African snail. Methods: a study was conducted of a total 19 cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples taken simultaneously from each of the patients diagnosed with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis and kept at the sample collection of the Central Cerebrospinal Fluid Laboratory (LABCEL). Radial immunodiffusion was the laboratory method used for determination of the proteins albumin and IgG. Results: of the patients studied, 14 percent were adults before the appearance of this mollusc, in contrast with the present moment, when 50 percent are patients aged over 18 years. The percentage of mean intrathecal synthesis of IgG was higher in the current sufferers, though not significantly. Conclusions: there are differences before and after the appearance of the giant African snail, given the intrathecal synthesis response of patients associated to the mollusc, which denotes greater aggressiveness by the parasite. The higher mean age of sufferers confirms that these are the ones who most often handle and disperse the mollusc(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Strongylida Infections/complications , Meningoencephalitis/cerebrospinal fluid , Snails/parasitology , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/pathogenicity , Laboratories
6.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(1): 94-97, ene.-abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279659

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Identificar la infección natural de caracoles de agua dulce con Fasciola hepatica en una localidad del altiplano de Guatemala. Materiales y métodos. Se colectaron caracoles de agua dulce en una aldea endémica de fascioliasis, en la localidad de Paquix, en el departamento de Huehuetenango, ubicado a ~3.300 msnm. La identificación de la especie de caracol se basó en las características morfológicas observadas por estereoscopio usando una clave de identificación. La búsqueda de fases del trematodo se realizó mediante la inspección visual externa con fuente de luz y la disección e inspección visual dentro del molusco bajo estereoscopio y microscopio. Resultados. 260 caracoles fueron encontrados e identificados como Pseudosuccinea columella. Se examinaron los especímenes colectados y se encontraron dos caracoles infectados de forma natural con fases larvarias de F. hepatica. Conclusiones . Este es el primer reporte de este hospedero intermediario portando formas de F. hepatica en Guatemala. Es necesario aumentar los reportes de este parásito y de sus interacciones ecológicas en otras áreas no estudiadas de Guatemala y Centro América, debido al riesgo latente de infección para poblaciones de animales herbívoros y humanos.


ABSTRACT Objective. Identify the natural infection of freshwater snails as an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica in Guatemala. Materials and methods. Freshwater snails were collected in a high-altitude village (3.000 mamsl) from Huehuetenango department, where fasciolasis is endemic. The identification of the snail species was based on the morphological characteristics observed under the stereoscope using an identification key. The trematode phases were searched externally by visual inspection using a light source, and internally by dissection and visual inspection of the tissues under a stereoscope and microscope. Results. 260 snails were found and identified as Pseudosuccinea columella. Two were found naturally infected with larval phases of F. hepatica. Conclusions. This is the first report of P. columella carrying phases of F. hepatica in the highlands of Guatemala. It is necessary to increase the research of the ecology of this parasite in other understudied areas in Guatemala and Central America, due to the latent risk of infection for populations of herbivorous animals and humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trematode Infections , Snails , Trematoda , Zoonoses
7.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(1): e475, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126701

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El parásito Angiostrongylus cantonensis es el principal causante de meningitis eosinofílica. En el 2008 se reportó el primer caso en Ecuador y un estudio reciente en la Ciudad de Chone, Manabí, Ecuador determinó una alta prevalencia del parásito en el caracol africano (Achatina fulica). Objetivo: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a la meningitis eosinofílica causada por A. cantonensis en la ciudad de Chone. Métodos: Se entrevistaron a 500 personas residentes en la ciudad de Chone y se revisaron las historias clínicas del Hospital General de Chone. Resultados: Se observó que la población de Chone, está expuesta a los siguientes factores de riesgos: consumo de caracoles crudos (7,40 por ciento), el frecuente contacto de las personas con el caracol africano en la casa (67 por ciento), como en el trabajo (51,20 por ciento), el contacto que tienen los niños con caracoles, al jugar en el jardín (76,80 por ciento) y la incorrecta limpieza de los alimentos (54,40 por ciento). En el entorno de la población, se evidenció la presencia del caracol africano cerca de las casas en el 35,20 por ciento y las ratas, en el 50,80 por ciento. Además, el 34 por ciento de la muestra de estudio presentó sintomatología relacionada con meningitis eosinofílica. Se encontró que existía asociación entre la presencia de vectores cerca de las casas y la cantidad de síntomas manifestados por las personas. Conclusiones: Se evidenció que la población de Chone, manifiesta hábitos que exponen a la gente de esta localidad a un alto riesgo de contagio de meningitis eosinofílica(AU)


Introduction: The parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the main causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The first case in Ecuador was reported in 2008, and a recent study conducted in the city of Chone, Manabí, Ecuador, determined a high prevalence of the parasite in the African snail (Achatina fulica). Objective: Identify the risk factors associated to eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis in the city of Chone. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 500 residents from the city of Chone and a review was carried out of the medical records at Chone General Hospital. Results: It was found that the population of Chone is exposed to the following risk factors: eating raw snails (7.40 percent), frequent contact between people and African snails both at home (67 percent) and at work (51.20 percent), contact between children and snails while playing in gardens (76.80 percent) and washing food items incorrectly (54.40 percent). In the areas surrounding people's households the African snail was found in 35.20 percent and rats in 50.80 percent . Additionally, 34 percent of the study sample had symptoms of eosinophilic meningitis. An association was found between the presence of vectors near the houses and the number of symptoms occurring in people. Conclusions: It was evident that the population of Chone has habits which expose them to a high risk for eosinophilic meningitis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Snails , Strongylida Infections/complications , Eosinophilia/chemically induced , Meninges/physiopathology
9.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(1): e590, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126580

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El helminto Angiostrongylus cantonensis es un parásito habitual en los pulmones de la rata y puede ocasionar meningoencefalitis eosinofílica en el hombre cuando se pone en contacto con las larvas por ingestión accidental. En Cuba es endémico y el riesgo de contraerlo aumenta con la entrada del caracol gigante africano en el país. Objetivo: Describir las acciones desarrolladas por las autoridades sanitarias locales para el control del caracol gigante africano entre 2016 y 2018 y la aparición de un paciente en 2018 con meningoencefalitis eosinofílica causada por Angiostrongylus cantonensis vinculado epidemiológicamente con la presencia de este caracol. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo a partir de un grupo focal con el que se trabajó ante la aparición del caracol gigante africano en un área de salud del municipio San Miguel del Padrón. Se realiza una encuesta semi-estructurada. Resultados: Se trazaron las estrategias para la erradicación de la especie invasora a partir de un trabajo comunitario. Dos años después, se observa nuevamente el caracol gigante africano y un paciente con meningoencefalitis eosinofílica epidemiológicamente asociado a Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Conclusiones: Las acciones realizadas entre 2016 y 2018 resultaron ser insuficientes por el nuevo avistamiento del caracol en el área, con el agravante de encontrar un paciente con meningoencefalitis eosinofílica epidemiológicamente asociado con el molusco(AU)


Introduction: Helmint Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a natural parasite in the lungs of ratas. Ocassionally it can produced an eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in men by larvae accidental ingestion. Methods: A qualitative study was performed from a focal group by a semi-structural survey in a health area from San Miguel del Padrón municipality. Objectives: To describe the actions developed by the local sanitarian authorities for the control of African giant snails between 2016 and 2018 and the appearance of a patient suffering from eosinophilic meningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis linked to the presence of this snail. Results: It has been established an eradication strategy for the elimination of this invasive species based on a community work. Two years later, it was observed again the giant African snail in the area with a patient suffering from Angiostrongylus cantonensis eosinophilic meningoencephalitis epidemiologically associated. Conclusions: The 2016 actions were not efficient due to the emerging vector and the further finding of a patient linked with the parasite(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Snails , Introduced Species , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/pathogenicity , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Disease Eradication/methods , Meningoencephalitis/etiology , Meningoencephalitis/prevention & control
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 273-276, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1088934

ABSTRACT

Angiostrongylus cantonensis e Angiostrongylus costaricensis são nematoides parasitas que residem em roedores e usam gastrópodes como hospedeiros intermediários. Achatina fulica, conhecida como caramujo-gigante-africano, é um hospedeiro intermediário que desempenha importante papel na dispersão de A. cantonensis e A. costaricensis, patógenos zoonóticos que causam, respectivamente, meningoencefalite eosinofílica e angiostrongilíase abdominal em humanos. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de coletar caramujos (A. fulica, n=90) de oito regiões diferentes (Rudge Ramos, Baeta Neves, Planalto, Demarchi, Dos Alvarengas, Batistini, Montanhão, Rio Grande) da cidade de São Bernardo do Campo (SP) para detecção molecular de A. cantonensis ou A. costaricensis pela técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). As amostras foram processadas em pools (n=25) segundo a região de coleta. Com exceção da região de Baeta Neves, as demais apresentaram caramujos infectados com larvas de nematoides. Seis regiões apresentaram amostras positivas para A. cantonensis. Quatorze (56%) das 25 amostras em pool apresentaram larvas de nematoides, e 52% delas (13/25) foram positivas para A. cantonensis. Nenhuma amostra positiva para A. costaricensis foi encontrada. A presença de A. fulica naturalmente infectada por A. cantonensis deve servir como um alerta para as autoridades de saúde pública sobre o risco potencial de infecção para humanos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/epidemiology , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Brazil
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200115, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135228

ABSTRACT

In January and February 2019, a malacological survey was conducted in the area surrounding the residence of a 12-year-old child that had contracted cerebral angiostrongyliasis in the municipality of Macapá, capital of the Amapá State, northern Brazil. The serological examination was positive for Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection, the principal etiological agent of this parasitosis. A sample of 54 molluscs was artificially and individually digested for parasitological analysis, containing 38 specimens of Achatina fulica, nine specimens of Bulimulus tenuissimus and seven specimens of Sarasinula linguaeformis. A. fulica was the most abundant mollusc, and the only species infected with A. cantonensis, as well as presenting co-infections with other nematodes. This is the first report of cerebral angiostrongyliasis in the Amazon Region, and the first record of A. fulica infected with A. cantonensis in Amapá. These findings highlight the potential risks of human angiostrongyliasis, and the need to implement public health measures to control the spread of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Snails/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/diagnosis , Strongylida Infections/veterinary , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/isolation & purification , Brazil , Antibodies, Helminth , Cities , Strongylida Infections/parasitology , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Helminth/chemistry
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200236, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Intermediate hosts are key organisms in maintaining parasite life cycles, because they can act as amplifiers in the transmission from natural reservoirs to humans. One of the most important groups of intermediate hosts for zoonotic nematode infections are gastropods,slugs and snails. These are essential organisms in the larval development of Angiostrongylus species. OBJECTIVES The objective of this paper is to review reports of Angiostrongylus spp. in naturally infected gastropods from the Americas, taking into account the diagnostic methods used in their identification, to be able to provide more accurate list of their intermediate hosts. We also discuss the factors that aid the dispersion of Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas. METHODS This study reviews scientific publications and book sections on Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas, including original works assessing larvae of Angiostrongylus in intermediate hosts. The eligible reports were classified accordingly to their geographical location, year of first record, and the larvae identification methodologies used. Digital repositories were used for the search. The bioecological characteristics of the main intermediate hosts are summarised. FINDINGS A total of 29 gastropod species that are naturally infected with Angiostrongylus spp. have been reported as intermediate hosts, 16 of which are land snails, two are freshwater snails, and 11 land slugs. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of integrative studies, analysing both the etiological agent and its transmission dynamic in the environment, the biological and ecological characteristics of the hosts, and the impact on host populations. It is necessary to increase interdisciplinary studies to determine the potential epidemiological health risk of angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, and thus be able to establish prevention, monitoring and contingency strategies in the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Snails/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/diagnosis , Gastropoda/parasitology , Angiostrongylus/isolation & purification , Americas , Zoonoses , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Disease Vectors , Gastropoda/physiology
13.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2020. 117 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342205

ABSTRACT

A esquistossomose é uma parasitose de veiculação hídrica causada por trematódeos do gênero Schistosoma, transmitida por caramujos planorbídeos do gênero Biomphalaria. O presente estudo teve por objetivo identificar e analisar os caramujos do gênero Biomphalaria encontrados em coleções hídricas do perímetro urbano de Picos quanto à infecção por S. mansoni. O inquérito foi realizado em sete coleções hídricas durante os meses de julho, agosto e setembro de 2019. Os caramujos coletados foram encaminhados ao laboratório e separados em número de até 10 indivíduos em frascos identificados. Para detectar a infecção por S. mansoni foram realizados os testes de exposição à luz, nested-PCR e SmMIT-LAMP. Foram coletados 1.214 espécimes de Biomphalaria straminea nas sete coleções hídricas, com a seguinte distribuição: São José, n = 667 (54,94%); Centro, n = 273 (22,49%); Canto da Várzea, n = 108 (n = 8,90%); Passagem das Pedras, n = 102 (8,40%); Malvas, n = 32 (2,64%); Ipueiras, n = 12 (0,98%) e Catavento, n = 20 (1,65%). Não foram encontrados caramujos infectados por S. mansoni pelas técnicas de exposição à luz e pela nested-PCR. Através da técnica de SmMIT-LAMP houve positividade em uma amostra de B. straminea analisada em conjunto, sendo possível caracterizar a Estação São José como um foco potencial de transmissão da esquistossomose mansoni. Em relação à abundância de moluscos vetores entre os meses de coletas, o mês de setembro foi o que se destacou pelo número de exemplares coletados, com 449 indivíduos (40%). Pela técnica de exposição à luz foi possível identificar quatro tipos cercarianos diferentes: dois tipos de distoma brevifurcada faringeada, um tipo de distoma longifurcada faringeada e um de distoma brevifurcada afaringeada. Demonstramos que a combinação entre o Teste de Eliminação Clássica e métodos moleculares fornecem informações mais fidedignas acerca da positividade por S. mansoni em caramujos Biomphalaria, contribuindo assim para a detecção de focos de transmissão de esquistossomose.


Schistosomiasis is a waterborne parasitic disease caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, transmitted by planorbid snails of the genus Biomphalaria. The present study aimed to identify and analyze Biomphalaria snails found in water collections in the urban area of Picos, state of Piauí, for infection by S. mansoni. The survey was carried out in seven collecting sites from July to September 2019. The collected snails were sent to the laboratory and separated in a number of up to 10 individuals in identified jars. To detect S. mansoni infection, light exposure, nested-PCR and SmMIT-LAMP tests were performed. In all 1,214 specimens of Biomphalaria straminea were collected as the following: São José, n = 667 (54.94%); Centro, n = 273 (22.49%); Canto da Várzea, n = 108 (n = 8.90%); Passagem das Pedras, n = 102 (8.40%); Malvas, n = 32 (2.64%); Ipueiras, n = 12 (0.98%) and Catavento, n = 20 (1.65%). No snails infected by S. mansoni were found by light exposure and nested-PCR techniques. However, SmMIT-LAMP detected positivity in a sample of B. straminea specimens, making it possible to characterize the São José colleting site as a potential focus of schistosomiasis mansoni transmission. In relation to the abundance of vector mollusks between the months of collection, September was the one that stood out for the number of samples collected, with 449 individuals (40%). The light exposure technique, made possible to identify four different cercarian types: two types of distoma pharyngeal brevifurcated, one type of distoma pharyngeal longifurcated and one of distoma pharyngeal brevifurcated. We highlight that the combination of Classical Elimination Test and molecular methods provide more reliable information about positivity for S. mansoni in Biomphalaria snails, contributing to the characterization of the foci of schistosomiasis transmission.


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases , Snails , Biomphalaria , Schistosomiasis mansoni , Risk
14.
Rev. patol. trop ; 49(4)2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177494

ABSTRACT

The human species has an emotional connection with nature called "biophilia" (or, love for life). This connection goes from generation to generation, being one of the reasons why green spaces are present in large cities. Quinta da Boa Vista is a municipal park in Rio de Janeiro located in the São Cristóvão neighborhood in the northern part of the city. Its main attraction is the artificial lake system, a leisure attraction for the local community. This article reports the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata and Physa acuta snails around the main lake in the Quinta da Boa Vista Municipal Park in Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Seventy-one B. glabrata and twenty-seven P. acuta snails were collected. The snails were measured and examined for the presence of trematode larvae according to standardized procedures. The prevalence rate of B. glabrata was estimated at 15.5%. Rediae and cercariae resembling those of the species Typhlocoelum cucumerinum (Typhlocoelidae, Digenea) which parasitizes aquatic birds of the order Anseriformes were found. This study reinforces the importance of monitoring park lakes and ponds to better understand the risk of helminth transmission by molluscan vectors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosomiasis , Snails , Vector Control , Helminths
15.
Rev. patol. trop ; 49(1): 21-31, 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099703

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma mansoni whose intermediate host is the snail of the genus Biomphalaria. This snail is geographically widespread, making the disease a serious public health problem. The purpose of this study was to analyze the growth, reproductive rates and mortality of B. glabrata and B. straminea in different calcium concentrations and food types. Freshly hatched snails stored in aquariums under different dietary and calcium supplementation programs were studied. Under these conditions, all planorbids survived, so there was no mortality rate and 79,839 eggs of B. straminea and 62,558 eggs of B. glabrata were obtained during the 2 months of oviposition. The following conditions: lettuce + fish food and lettuce + fish food + powdered milk resulted in the highest reproductive rates. In addition, supplementation with calcium carbonate and calcium sulfide in three different concentrations did not significantly influenced the amount of eggs or ovigerous masses. Thus, this study shows that changes in diet are crucial for the survival/oviposition of these planorbids, being an important study tool for population control. Calcium is also a key factor in these conditions, but more work is necessary to better assess its effect on snail survival.


Subject(s)
Oviposition , Schistosomiasis , Snails , Biomphalaria , Calcium , Food
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879932

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the regulatory effect of iridoid glycoside of radix scrophulariae (IGRS) on endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion @*METHODS@#Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells were pretreated with IGRS (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) for 24h, and the @*RESULTS@#The damage caused by OGD/R to PC12 cells was significantly reduced by IGRS, with significant effect on increasing survival rate and reducing LDH release (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#IGRS has neuroprotective effect, which may alleviate cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating SERCA2, maintaining calcium balance, and inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Survival/drug effects , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Glucose , In Vitro Techniques , Iridoid Glycosides/pharmacology , Oxygen , PC12 Cells , Rats , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Snails/chemistry
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2622-2634, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878516

ABSTRACT

Freshwater snail is an important biological group in aquatic ecosystem and an intermediate host of many parasites. Intestinal flora plays an important role in animal energy metabolism and resistance to pathogens. We analyzed the intestinal microbiota diversity of Radix auricularia (RA) and Planorbella trivolvis (PL) by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. At the phylum level, RA had 23 phyla, including Proteobacteria (33.63%), Cyanobacteria (15.33%), Chloroflexi (13.95%), and Actinomycetes (12.99%). PL had 13 phyla, including Proteobacteria (54.88%), Bacteroidetes (28.49%), and Actinomycetes (7.65%). At the genus level, there were 445 genera in RA, including Pleurocapsa, Thiodictyon, Leptotrichia, and Nocardioides. There were 238 genera in PL, including Cloacibacterium, OM60NOR5_clade, Pseudomonas, and Rhodobacter. Ninety-three genera were the common core flora of the two snail species (all the samples were present), and 27 genera had an abundance greater than 0.5%. The structure of intestinal microbiota was significantly different between the two groups (P=0.027). We performed the functional prediction of intestinal microbiota using Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt), and the results show that the KEGG functional composition of the intestinal flora of the two snails was similar, and the abundance of the amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and membrane transport were large. In summary, the intestinal microbiota of the two snails was high in diversity and significantly different, but there were a large number of common core flora.


Subject(s)
Animals , Auricularia , Ecosystem , Fresh Water , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Snails
18.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 38(4): e312, oct.-dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093416

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica was introduced in Cuba in 2014 for african religious purposes and nowadays, mainly by human activity, it is widespread all over the country and, where besides a general nuisance for people it is a pest and also a public health concern, since it is one of the natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, ethiological agent of the meningoencephalitis. As in Havana is experiencing the explosive phase of the invasion, LABCEL has been receiving samples of these molluscs for identification and search for Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae. While examining samples of A. fulica different larvae were obtained, as strongylides found in the interior of the pallial cavity of A. fulica.This is the first report in San Miguel del Padron and Regla municipalities of the development of larvae in A. Fulica evidencing the health importance of this mollusc in the potential transmission of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Since the spread of A. fulica is pointed out in the literature as one of the main causative spread of the meningoencephalitis caused by A. cantonensis the authors emphasize the need of sanitary vigilance of snails and rats from vulnerable areas for A. cantonensis introduction as the port side areas like these municipalities.


RESUMEN Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica se introdujo en Cuba en 2014 con fines religiosos africanos y hoy en día, principalmente por actividad humana, está muy extendida en todo el país y, además de una molestia general para las personas, es una plaga y también un problema de salud pública, ya que es uno de los huéspedes intermedios naturales de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, agente etiológico de la meningoencefalitis. Como en La Habana está experimentando la fase explosiva de la invasión, LABCEL ha estado recibiendo muestras de estos moluscos para su identificación y búsqueda de larvas de Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Mientras se examinaban muestras de A. fulica, se obtuvieron diferentes larvas, como strongylides encontrados en el interior de la cavidad paliar de A. fulica. Este es el primer informe en los municipios de San Miguel del Padrón y Regla sobre el desarrollo de larvas en A. Fulica evidenciando La importancia para la salud de este molusco en la transmisión potencial de la meningoencefalitis eosinofílica. Dado que la propagación de A. fulica se señala en la literatura como una de las principales causas de la meningoencefalitis causada por A. cantonensis, los autores enfatizan la necesidad de vigilancia sanitaria de caracoles y ratas de áreas vulnerables para la introducción de A. cantonensis como zonas de babor como estos municipios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Snails , Health Surveillance , Research Report , Human Activities , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Mollusca
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 686-696, Nov. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001486

ABSTRACT

Abstract Snails are essential to complete the life cycle of the metastrongylid nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the causative agent of infections in domestic and wild animals, mainly rodents, and also of neural angiostrongyliasis or eosinophilic meningitis in humans. There are many reports of mollusks that can act as intermediate hosts of this parasite, especially freshwater snails and the African giant Achatina fulica. The terrestrial gastropod Bulimulus tenuissimus is widely distributed in Brazil and other species of the same genus occur in Brazil and other countries, overlapping regions in which there are reports of the occurrence of A. cantonensis and angiostrongyliasis. In spite of this, there are no records in the literature of this species performing the role of intermediate host to A. cantonensis. The present study analyzed the experimental infection with first-stage larvae of A. cantonensis, under laboratory conditions, of B. tenuissimus, by using histology and electron microscopy techniques. Three weeks after exposure to L1 larvae, it was possible to recover L3 larvae in small numbers from the infected snails. Developing larvae were observed in the cephalopedal mass (foot), ovotestis, and mantle tissues, being located inside a granulomatous structure composed of hemocyte infiltration, but there was no calcium or collagen deposition in these structures in significant amounts. In the third week post exposure, it was possible observe a sheath around the developing larvae. The infected snails presented reduction in the fibrous muscular tissue in the foot region, loss of the acinar organization in the digestive gland, with increase of amorphous material inside the acini and loss of epithelial pattern of nuclear organization in the acinar cells. However, the ovotestis seemed unaffected by the infection, since there was a large number of developing oocytes and spermatozoa in different stages of formation. The digestion of infected snails allows us the third-stage recovery rate of 17.25%, at 14 days post exposure to the L1. These L3 recovered from B. tenuissimus were used to infect rats experimentally, and 43 days post infection first-stage (L1) larvae of A. cantonensis were recovered from fresh feces. The results presented constituted the first report of the role of B. tenuissimus as an experimental intermediate host to A. cantonensis and shed some light on a possible problem, since the overlapping distribution of B. tenuissimus and A. cantonensis in Brazil and other countries where different species of Bulimulus occur enables the establishment and maintenance of the life cycle of this parasite in nature, with wild rodents as reservoirs, acting as a source of infection to humans, causing neural angiostrongyliasis.


Resumo Os moluscos são um requisito essencial para a conclusão do ciclo de vida pelo nematoide metastrogilídeo Angiostrongylus cantonensis, o agente causador de infecções em animais domésticos e selvagens, principalmente roedores, e também de angiostrongilíase neural ou meningite eosinofílica em humanos. Há muitos relatos de moluscos que podem atuar como hospedeiro para este parasito, sendo o foco dado aos moluscos de água doce e no gigante africano Achatina fulica. O gastrópode terrestre Bulimulus tenuissimus é amplamente distribuído no território brasileiro e há outras espécies do mesmo gênero que ocorrem no Brasil e outros países, sobrepondo-se às regiões em que há relatos à ocorrência de A. cantonensis e angiostornigilíase. Apesar disso, não há registro na literatura, acerca desta espécie como hospedeiro intermediário para A. cantonensis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a possibilidade de infectar experimentalmente, utilizando larvas L1 de A. cantonensis, em condições laboratoriais, o molusco B. tenuissimus, utilizando técnicas de histologia e microscopia eletrônica. Três semanas após a exposição às larvas L1, foi possível recuperar larvas L3 dos moluscos infectados, em pequena quantidade. As larvas em desenvolvimento foram observadas na massa cefalopediosa (pé), ovotestis e nos tecidos do manto, sendo localizadas dentro de uma estrutura granulomatosa constituída por infiltração hemocitária, mas não houve deposição de cálcio ou colágeno nessas estruturas em quantidade significativa. Na terceira semana pós exposição, foi possível observar uma bainha ao redor das larvas em desenvolvimento. Os caracóis infectados apresentaram redução no tecido muscular fibroso na região do pé, perda da organização acinar na glândula digestiva, com aumento de material amorfo dentro dos ácinos e perda do padrão epitelial da organização nuclear nas células acinares. No entanto, o ovotestis, pareceu não ser afetado pela infecção, uma vez que houve um grande número de oócitos em desenvolvimento e espermatozóides em diferentes estágios de formação. A digestão dos moluscos infectados nos permitiu a recuperação de larvas de terceiro estágio (17,25%), aos 14 dias após a exposição à L1 de A. cantonensis . Estas L3 recuperadas de B. tenuissimus foram utilizados para infectar ratos experimentalmente, e 43 dias após a infecção, as larvas do primeiro estágio (L1) foram recuperadas de fezes frescas. Os resultados apresentados representam o primeiro registro do papel de B. tenuissimus como hospedeiro intermediário experimental de A. cantonensis e trazem alguma luz a um problema, até então silencioso, uma vez que a sobreposição da distribuição de B. tenuissimus e A. cantonensis no Brasil, e outros países, onde as diferentes espécies de Bulimulus ocorrem, torna possível o estabelecimento e manutenção do ciclo de vida deste parasito na natureza, com roedores selvagens como reservatório, agindo como fonte de infecção para humanos e causando a angiostrongilíase neural.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails/parasitology , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/growth & development , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/physiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Larva/growth & development , Life Cycle Stages , Models, Theoretical
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 521-526, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001458

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since the foundation of the Malacological Center in 1980, Universidad Centro Americana (UCA), Managua-Nicaragua, has been monitoring and collecting the marine, terrestrial, fluvial and lake mollusk population of the country. Many specimens have been photographed by Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM), and in one of these, observation of the hairy periostracum reveals a seemingly thriving population of minute protists in possible symbiosis with their host. Adequate magnification and comparison with previous studies allowed the determination of these hosts as diatoms, testaceous amoebae, yeast, phacus, spores and other undetermined organisms which occur in tropical forests on rocks, trees and leaves. Here illustrated are diatoms and other organisms detected for the first time on the periostracum of a tropical rainforest mollusk.


Resumo Desde a fundação do Centro Malacológico em 1980, a Universidad Central Americana (UCA), Manágua-Nicarágua, vem acompanhando e coletando a população de moluscos marinhos, terrestres, fluviais e lagoas do país. Muitos espécimes foram fotografados pelo microscópio eletrônico de varredura (SEM) e, em um deles, a observação do periostracum peludo revela uma população aparentemente próspera de protistas de minuto em possível simbiose com o hospedeiro. A ampliação adequada e a comparação com estudos anteriores permitem a determinação dessas diatomáceas, amebas testaceas, leveduras, phacus, esporos e outros organismos indeterminados que ocorrem em florestas tropicais em rochas, árvores e folhas. Aqui estão as diatomeas e outros organismos pela primeira vez detectados no periostracum de um molusco tropical.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails/physiology , Symbiosis , Diatoms/physiology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Diatoms/classification , Rainforest , Nicaragua
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