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1.
Rev. bras. saúde ocup ; 49: e11, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550781

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: mensurar o impacto da pandemia de COVID-19 nas notificações de acidentes do trabalho (AT) no Brasil, por atividade econômica e ocupação. Métodos: estudo ecológico que utilizou os casos de AT registrados entre 2015 e 2020 no Anuário Estatístico da Previdência Social. Os AT foram analisados por setor de atividade econômica, ocupação e códigos da 10ª revisão da Classificação Estatística Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados à Saúde (CID-10). Uma adaptação do p-score foi aplicada para comparar os casos de AT pré-pandemia com os do primeiro ano da pandemia. Resultados: os p-scores variaram de -60,2%, para AT por nexo técnico epidemiológico, a -13,9%, para AT típico. As doenças do trabalho apresentaram p-score de 151,1%. Houve aumento notável nos casos de doenças ocupacionais dos capítulos I e X da CID-10. As notificações de AT diminuíram em todas as categorias de atividades econômicas, exceto nas de saúde humana e serviços sociais (p-score = 8,0%). Na maioria das categorias, os valores foram negativos, exceto nos subgrupos forças de segurança e profissionais de saúde de nível superior, técnico e gestores. Conclusão: houve redução geral na notificação de AT durante a pandemia de COVID-19 no Brasil, que evidenciou desigualdades entre diferentes setores de atividades e ocupações, além de mudança no perfil de adoecimento dos trabalhadores.


Abstract Objective: to assess the COVID-19 pandemic impact on Occupational Accident (OA) notifications in Brazil by economic activity and occupation. Methods: an ecological study was conducted using OA cases recorded in the Statistical Yearbook of Social Security from 2015 to 2020. Accidents were analyzed by sector of economic activity, occupation, and ICD-10 codes. Pre-pandemic cases were compared with the first year of the public health emergency scenario caused by Sars-Cov-2 using an adapted p-score. Results: p-scores ranged from -60.2% for technical-epidemiological Occupational Accidents to -13.9% for typical OA. Occupational diseases had a p-score of 151.1%. Cases of occupational diseases from ICD-10 chapters I and X showed a significant increase. OA notifications decreased in all CNAE sections, except for human health and social services activities (p-score = 8.0%). P-score values were negative in most CBO categories, except in subgroups such as security forces and high-level health professionals, technicians, and managers. Conclusion: Brazil registered a general reduction in OA notifications due to the pandemic, which evinced inequalities in different sectors and occupations, as well as changes in the illness profile of workers.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Social Security , Accidents, Occupational
2.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 40(2)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | SaludCR, LILACS | ID: biblio-1514478

ABSTRACT

La historia de los servicios médicos penitenciarios se remonta hace aproximadamente medio siglo, en la extinta Penitenciaria Nacional, donde al igual que, durante mucho tiempo estuvo a cargo de personeros de la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS). No es, hasta que al finalizar la década de los 80's, con el cierre del centro penal ubicado en la Isla San Lucas, se logra concretar la creación de plazas de salud propias del Ministerio de Justicia y Paz (MJP). En 1993 se logra el primer convenio interinstitucional entre la CCSS y el MJP, actualizado en 1998, el cual aún se encuentra refrendado por la Procuraduría General de la República. Actualmente, el MJP cuenta con 87 plazas asignas a puestos relacionados con servicios de salud a lo largo y ancho del territorio costarricense.


The history of prison medical services goes back approximately half a century, in the now extinct National Penitentiary, where, for a long time, it was in charge of representatives of CCSS. It is not, until at the end of the 80's, with the closure of the penal center located on San Lucas Island, the creation of health centers belonging to the Ministerio de Justicia y Paz (MJP) is achieved. In 1993, the first inter-institutional agreement between the CCSS and the MJP was reached, updated in 1998, which is still endorsed by the Attorney General's Office. Currently, the MJP has 87 positions assigned to positions related to health services throughout the Costa Rican territory.


Subject(s)
Prisons/history , Social Security , Delivery of Health Care , Prisoners/history , Costa Rica
3.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(4): 505-509, abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1560190

ABSTRACT

This article deals with the regulatory violation of issuing sick leave with an evident absence of medical grounds. Two problematic aspects present in the sanctioning practice of the Social Security Regulatory Agency are analyzed: the discrepancy between the wording of the regulation and its application, and the multiplicity of duties that can configure the behavior defined by the law, although they do not constitute fraud against the sick leave system. The context of this study is the bill that seeks to lower the standard for the regulator to impose administrative penalties on offenders who issue unjustified sick leave and aggravate those penalties.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sick Leave/legislation & jurisprudence , Sick Leave/statistics & numerical data , Social Security/legislation & jurisprudence , Work Capacity Evaluation , Chile
4.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 69(2): e-223814, abr.-jun. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1452608

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Apesar da importância econômica da Região, ainda existem poucos estudos na literatura sobre o câncer ocupacional na Região Sudeste do Brasil. Objetivo: Comparar a distribuição do câncer entre os benefícios concedidos pelo Regime Geral da Previdência Social (RGPS), por ramo de atividade econômica do segurado, no período de 2008 a 2014, na Região Sudeste do Brasil. Método: Foram calculadas as proporções de benefícios acidentários (relacionados ao trabalho) e previdenciários (geral) concedidos por câncer, segundo o ramo de atividade econômica do segurado (bancário, comerciário, transporte e carga, ferroviário, industriário, marítimo, serviço público, rural e não preenchido). Resultados: O câncer representou 3,07% (271.086) dos benefícios concedidos por todas as causas. Os ramos de atividades comerciário e rural tiveram as maiores proporções de benefícios concedidos por câncer, em todos os Estados. Para ambos, as principais localizações de câncer que motivaram a concessão de benefícios previdenciários foram mama e próstata, e as outras neoplasias malignas da pele foram a principal localização para os benefícios acidentários. Conclusão: A desproporcionalidade entre o número de benefícios previdenciários e acidentários concedidos por câncer sugere erro em muitos benefícios, desfavorecendo os acidentários. O aprimoramento das anamneses do trabalhador pelo médico perito, com a utilização de documentos complementares, pode auxiliar no estabelecimento do nexo causal entre a atividade profissional e o câncer, concedendo benefícios acidentários quando houver esse nexo. Adicionalmente, ainda são necessárias estratégias de vigilância para subsidiar a implementação de ações de prevenção do câncer ocupacional na Região Sudeste do Brasil


Introduction: Despite the economic importance of the Region, there are still few studies in the literature about occupational cancer in Brazil's Southeast Region. Objective: Compare the distribution of cancer-related benefits granted by the Brazilian Social Security System (RGPS) by economic activity of the insured individual, between 2008 and 2014, at Brazil's Southeast Region. Method: The proportions of cancer-related accidental (work-related) and social security (general) benefits granted, according to the economic activity of the insured individual (bank cashier, salesperson, transport and freight worker, railway worker, industrial worker, sailor, public servant, rural worker, and blank) were calculated. Results: Cancer represented 3.07% (271,086) of the benefits granted for all causes. Commercial and rural activities showed the largest proportions of cancer-related benefits granted in all States. For both activities, breast and prostate cancers were the main locations that justified the approval of social security benefits, and other malignant skin neoplasms were the main locations for accidental benefits. Conclusion: The disproportionality between the number of cancer-related social security and accidental benefits granted suggests an error in many benefits, disfavoring accidental benefits. The improvement of the anamneses of the worker by the medical expert, with the use of additional documents, can aid the establishment of the causal link between the professional activity and the cancer developed, granting accidental benefits when this link exists. Moreover, surveillance strategies to boost the implementation of actions to prevent occupational cancer are still necessary at that Region


Introducción: A pesar de la importancia económica de la Región, todavía hay pocos estudios en la literatura sobre el cáncer ocupacional en la Región Sudeste del Brasil. Objetivo: Comparar la distribución del cáncer entre los beneficios otorgados por el Sistema General de Seguridad Social (RGPS), según la actividad económica del asegurado, de 2008 a 2014, en la Región Sudeste del Brasil. Método: Se calcularon las proporciones de los beneficios accidentales (laborales) y previsionales (generales) otorgados por cáncer, de acuerdo con la actividad económica del asegurado (bancaria, comercial, transporte y carga, ferroviaria, industrial, marítima, servicio público, rural y no llenado). Resultados: El cáncer representó el 3,07% (271.086) de los beneficios por todas las causas. Las actividades comerciales y rurales tuvieron las mayores proporciones de beneficios otorgados por cáncer, en todos los estados. Para ambos, las principales localizaciones de cáncer que motivaron el otorgamiento de los beneficios de la seguridad social fueron las de mama y próstata, y otras neoplasias malignas de la piel fueron la principal localización de los beneficios accidentales. Conclusión: La desproporción entre el número de beneficios de seguridad social y de accidentes otorgados por cáncer sugiere un error en muchos beneficios, desfavoreciendo los por accidentes. El perfeccionamiento de las anamnesis del trabajador por parte del perito médico, con el uso de documentos complementarios, puede ayudar a establecer el nexo de causalidad entre la actividad profesional y el cáncer, otorgando beneficios accidentales cuando exista dicho nexo. Además, todavía se necesitan estrategias de vigilancia para apoyar la implementación de acciones de prevención del cáncer ocupacional en la Región Sudeste del Brasil


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Security , Occupational Health , Occupational Cancer , Brazil
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986011

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the social security situation of current cases of pneumoconiosis in non-coal mine industries in Jiangsu Province, and to provide reference for the treatment and security work of pneumoconiosis patients. Methods: From January to October 2020, a follow-up survey was conducted on 4038 cases of pneumoconiosis in non-coal mine industries of the province from October 1949 to December 2019. The age, type of pneumoconiosis, industry type, and social security status of the patients were collected. Namely, work-related injury insurance, employer compensation, basic medical insurance for urban and rural residents, major illness insurance, etc. SPSS 19.0 was used for statistical description and analysis. Results: The cases of pneumoconiosis in non-coal mine industries in Jiangsu Province ranged in age from 36 to 105 (70.78±8.43) years old, and had been exposed to dust for 1 to 55 (19.27±9.29) years. Silicosis was the main form (3875 cases, 95.96%), and non-metallic mining and dressing industry was the main form (2618 cases, 64.83%). A total of 3991 cases (98.84%) of pneumoconiosis patients enjoyed social security, most of them were urban and rural residents with basic medical insurance (3624 cases, 89.75%), but there were still 47 patients without any social security. 15 cases (0.37%) enjoyed the subsistence allowance, with the monthly allowance amount ranging from 104 to 3960 yuan, with the average amount of 954.87 yuan/month. Conclusion: In Jiangsu Province, the proportion of pneumoconiosis patients in non-coal mine industries enjoying social security is relatively high, but there are still patients who do not enjoy any social security, and the difference in the amount of subsistence allowance is slightly larger. It is necessary to further improve the medical security of pneumoconiosis patients and improve their quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Social Security , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Silicosis/epidemiology , Etoposide , Ifosfamide , Mesna , Coal Mining , China/epidemiology
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250490, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448944

ABSTRACT

As dificuldades e barreiras enfrentadas no processo de inclusão de pessoas com deficiência (PcD) nas organizações incitam o desenvolvimento de pesquisas. Este estudo compreendeu a percepção de psicólogos organizacionais sobre a inclusão de PcD em empresas. Dezoito psicólogos atuantes na área de gestão de pessoas de empresas das sete regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul responderam a uma entrevista individual. A média de idade dos participantes foi de 33,17 anos, atuavam em empresas de diferentes segmentos, eram predominantemente do sexo feminino e possuíam pós-graduação em áreas relacionadas. Os relatos dos psicólogos alertaram para o fato de que, em suas graduações, o conteúdo sobre deficiência humana e, especificamente, inclusão no mercado de trabalho foi escasso ou inexistente. Essa lacuna na formação, de egressos de diferentes instituições de ensino superior, é relatada desde os anos de 1990. Para esses psicólogos, barreiras atitudinais e organizacionais são frequentemente enfrentadas no processo de inclusão, tais como o despreparo das empresas, gestores e colaboradores para receber as PcD, os poucos programas voltados a uma prática efetiva de inclusão e não somente ao cumprimento da legislação, além das dificuldades dos próprios profissionais em identificar os potenciais e as limitações que a PcD apresenta e de adaptá-la de maneira correta ao trabalho. O psicólogo organizacional pode contribuir para um processo adequado de inclusão por meio de práticas, tais como treinamentos e sensibilizações, que fomentem a informação e diminuam a discriminação e as dificuldades.(AU)


Difficulties and barriers to including people with disabilities (PwDs) in organizations drives research development. This study sought to understand how organizational psychologists perceived the inclusion of PwDs in organizations. Eighteen organizational psychologists who work in people management for companies in the seven regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul participated in an individual interview. Most interviewees were female, with average age of 33.17 years, had a postgraduate degree in the field, and worked in companies from different segments. During the interviews, the psychologists called attention to the little or nonexistent content on human disability and, specifically, inclusion in the labor market covered in the graduate course. This gap has been reported by graduates from different higher education institutions since the 1990s. According to the respondents, attitudinal and organizational barriers are often faced in the inclusion process, such as the unpreparedness of companies, managers, and employees to welcome PwD, the few programs aimed at an effective inclusion and not only to comply with the law, as well as the difficulties of the professionals themselves to identify the potentials and limitations that PwD present and to adapt them correctly to the work. Organizational psychologists can contribute to an adequate inclusion process by developing training and sensibilization activities that foster information and reduce discrimination and difficulties.(AU)


Las dificultades y barreras enfrentadas en el proceso de inclusión de personas con discapacidad (PcD) en las organizaciones fortalecen el desarrollo de la investigación. Este estudio entendió la percepción de los psicólogos organizacionales acerca de la inclusión de las PcD en las empresas. Dieciocho psicólogos que trabajan en el área de gestión de personas en empresas de las siete regiones del estado de Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil) respondieron a una entrevista individual. Los participantes tenían una edad promedio de 33,17 años, trabajaban en empresas de diferentes segmentos, eran predominantemente mujeres y tenían un posgrado en el área. Los informes de los psicólogos alertaron sobre el hecho de que el contenido sobre discapacidad humana y, específicamente, su inclusión en el mercado laboral era escaso o inexistente durante su formación académica. Esta brecha en la formación de los egresados de diferentes instituciones de educación superior se reporta desde los 1990. Para estos psicólogos, a menudo ocurren barreras organizacionales y de actitud en el proceso de inclusión de las PcD, como la falta de preparación de las empresas, gerentes y empleados para recibirlas, pocos programas destinados a una práctica efectiva de la inclusión, no solo al cumplimiento de la ley, y las dificultades de los profesionales para identificar las potencialidades y limitaciones y adecuarlas correctamente al trabajo. El psicólogo organizacional puede contribuir a un proceso de inclusión adecuado, con prácticas de capacitación y sensibilización que brindan información y reducen la discriminación y dificultades.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Personnel Management , Architectural Accessibility , Organizations , Disabled Persons , Social Inclusion , Organization and Administration , Organizational Innovation , Personnel Selection , Prejudice , Psychology , Psychology, Industrial , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Self Concept , Social Behavior , Social Environment , Social Justice , Social Responsibility , Social Security , Social Welfare , Socialization , Societies , Stereotyping , Awareness , Task Performance and Analysis , Unemployment , Vocational Guidance , Occupational Health Program , Decision Making, Organizational , Handicapped Advocacy , Adaptation, Psychological , Organizational Culture , Occupational Health , Staff Development , Civil Rights , Employment, Supported , Workplace , Efficiency, Organizational , Constitution and Bylaws , Cultural Diversity , Legislation , Personal Autonomy , Whistleblowing , Disability Evaluation , Absenteeism , Economics , Education , Ego , Employee Grievances , Employee Incentive Plans , Employment , Workforce , Health of Specific Groups , Health of the Disabled , Job Market , Occupational Health Policy , Social Stigma , Social Discrimination , Work Performance , Social Workers , Occupational Stress , Work Engagement , Respect , e-Accessibility , Public Nondiscrimination Policies , Social Integration , Right to Work , Empowerment , Teleworking , Disinformation , Sociodemographic Factors , Citizenship , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Working Conditions , Health Promotion , Ergonomics , Human Rights , Job Application , Job Satisfaction , Labor Unions , Leadership , Life Change Events
7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244670, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448956

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi testar um modelo teórico-explicativo para as representações sociais sobre o cenário sociopolítico brasileiro de 2017, de acordo com as seguintes relações: as representações seriam influenciadas diretamente pela confiança nas instituições, e essa confiança, determinada pelas simpatias ideológicas. Participaram 164 estudantes universitários - cuja idade média era 24 anos - que responderam a escalas intervalares. Realizaram-se modelagens de equações estruturais para testar o modelo teórico proposto. Os resultados indicaram: adequabilidade do modelo; dois grupos de variáveis apresentando relações positivas entre as variáveis do mesmo grupo e negativas na comparação intergrupos. No primeiro grupo constaram as variáveis: ideias-força de esquerda, confiança nos movimentos sociais, avaliação do governo Dilma e avaliação das políticas de esquerda; no segundo: ideias-força de direita, confiança nas instituições de controle, confiança na mídia, avaliação do governo Temer e avaliação das políticas de esquerda. Concluiu-se que a confiança institucional e a simpatia ideológica ancoravam as representações sociais do cenário brasileiro na população universitária estudada.(AU)


The aim of this study was to test an explanatory theoretical model about the social representations about Brazilian social-political scenario in 2017, based on the following relations: representations were directly influenced by the trust in institutions, and this trust, determined by ideological sympathies. A sample of 164 college students - whose average age was 24 years - answered interval scales. We performed structural equation modeling to test the proposed model. The results indicated: the suitability of the model; two groups of variables presenting positive relations in the in-group comparison and negative relations in the comparisons between groups. The first group showed the variables: Leftist ideas-forces, trust in social movements, evaluation of Dilma's administration, and evaluation of Leftist policies; the second: Rightist ideas-forces, trust in control institutions, trust in the media, evaluation of Temer's administration, and evaluation of Leftist policies. In conclusion, the institutional trust and ideological sympathies anchored the social representations of the Brazilian scenery for the studied university population.(AU)


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo probar un modelo teórico explicativo de las representaciones sociales en el escenario sociopolítico brasileño de 2017 según las siguientes relaciones: las representaciones estarían directamente influenciadas por la confianza en las instituciones, y esta confianza, determinada por las simpatías ideológicas. Participaron en este estudio 164 estudiantes universitarios, con edad media de 24 años, quienes respondieron a escalas intervalares. Se llevaron a cabo modelos de ecuaciones estructurales para probar el modelo teórico propuesto. Los resultados indicaron: adecuación del modelo; dos grupos de variables que presentaban relaciones positivas entre las variables del mismo grupo y negativas en la comparación intergrupal. El primer grupo incluía las variables: ideas-fuerza de la izquierda, confianza en los movimientos sociales, evaluación del gobierno de Dilma y evaluación de las políticas de la izquierda; el segundo: ideas-fuerza de la derecha, confianza en las instituciones de control, confianza en los medios de comunicación, evaluación del gobierno Temer y evaluación de las políticas de la izquierda. Se concluyó que la confianza institucional y la simpatía ideológica funcionaron como fundamentos de las representaciones sociales del escenario político brasileño en la población universitaria estudiada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Politics , Students , Universities , Culture , Trust , Ethics, Institutional , Social Representation , Morals , Ownership , Philosophy , Political Systems , Poverty , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Rationalization , Safety , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Science , Authoritarianism , Social Change , Social Problems , Social Responsibility , Social Sciences , Social Security , Social Values , Socialism , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Technology , Technology, Industry, and Agriculture , Thinking , Unemployment , Women , Behavior , Labor Relations , Black or African American , Brazil , Ill-Housed Persons , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude , Ethnicity , Economic Development , Child Advocacy , Child Welfare , Surveys and Questionnaires , Liability, Legal , Civil Rights , Negotiating , Public Sector , Private Sector , Disabled Persons , Communication , Communism , Privacy , Constitution and Bylaws , Feminism , Guideline Adherence , Modernization of the Public Sector , Crime , Civil Conflicts , Personal Autonomy , Capitalism , Access to Information , State , Legislative , Democracy , Aggression , Human Rights Abuses , French Revolution , Economics , Education , Emotions , Employee Grievances , Employment , Environment , Job Market , Population Studies in Public Health , Sanitary Supervision , Agribusiness , Industrial Development , Diplomacy , Work-Life Balance , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Fascism , Political Activism , Stakeholder Participation , Extremism , Social Oppression , Freedom , Gender-Inclusive Policies , Respect , Leadership and Governance Capacity , Corruption , Solidarity , Outdated Modernization , Social Programs , Indigenous Peoples , Environmentalism , Environmental Justice , Sociodemographic Factors , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Socio-Environmental Responsibility , Hierarchy, Social , Human Rights , Individuation , Jurisprudence , Leadership , Lobbying , Mass Behavior , Mass Media , Military Personnel , Occupational Groups
8.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250951, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448948

ABSTRACT

Este artigo tem por objetivo identificar e discutir alguns estratagemas psicológicos utilizados por movimentos conservadores e autoritários recentemente difundidos no Brasil - em especial, pelo Movimento Escola sem Partido -, em relação a temas como sexualidade e gênero, que atualmente foram incluídos como essenciais à formação escolar. Com esse propósito, empenhamo-nos em compreender a perspectiva cultural em que se apoiam e o modo como a articulam, ideologicamente, para inviabilizar o debate sobre eles. A partir da análise dos Projetos de Lei 246/2019 e 1859/2015, identificamos estratégias conservadoras que, autoritariamente, deslegitimam sua inclusão na formação escolar. Dentre elas, pareceu-nos urgente investigar a instrumentalização da religião, pois favorece a subordinação da crença religiosa, sobretudo associada ao conservadorismo moral imbricado na tradição cristã brasileira, ao discurso político autoritário. Assim como os movimentos fascistas que, nos Estados Unidos da década de 1930, reivindicavam um ordenamento autoritário e opressor da sociedade por meio do apelo a conteúdos religiosos instrumentalizados para esse fim, atualmente, o discurso religioso também é utilizado como forma de suscitar adesão ao conservadorismo social e político e de justificar preconceitos arraigados. Constatamos que a instrumentalização da religião é uma forma de justificar a permanência de valores conservadores na escola e na sociedade, bem como de reiterar o modelo de família heterossexual monogâmica e a ordem patriarcal. Por meio de estratagemas como esses, os movimentos conservadores e autoritários, articulados em função da negação da diversidade sexual e de gênero, impedem que a escola se constitua como espaço democrático e diverso.(AU)


This paper identifies and discusses the psychological ploys employed by recent conservative and authoritarian movements in Brazil, particularly the School without Party movement, against topics like sexuality and gender, which are currently included as essential to school education. To do so, we sought to understand their cultural basis and how they are ideologically articulated to prevent school debate around these topics. By analyzing Bills 246/2019 and 1859/2015, we identified some conservative strategies that authoritatively delegitimize their inclusion in school education. Chief among them is the instrumentalization of religion, since it favors subordinating religious belief, mainly associated with traditional Christian moral conservatism, to authoritarian political discourse. Similar to the fascist movements in the 1930s United States that claimed an authoritarian and oppressive ordering of society by appealing to religious content, religious speech is currently instrumentalized to encourage social and political conservatism adherence and to justify deep-seated prejudices. Religion instrumentalization is used to justify upholding conservative values at school and in society, as well as to reiterate the monogamous heterosexual family model and patriarchy. Through such ploys, authoritarian and conservative movements, articulated around denying sexual and gender diversity, prevent the school from becoming a democratic and diverse environment.(AU)


Este artículo tiene por objetivo identificar y discutir algunas de las estratagemas psicológicas que utilizan los movimientos conservadores y autoritarios, difundidas recientemente en Brasil, en particular por el Movimiento Escuela sin Partido, con relación a temas como sexualidad y género, que actualmente se incluyeron en la formación escolar. Con este propósito, se pretende comprender la base cultural en la que se han apoyado y cómo la articulan ideológicamente para hacer inviable el debate sobre ellas. A partir de análisis de los Proyectos de Ley 246/2019 y 1859/2015, se identificaron estrategias conservadoras que, autoritariamente, deslegitiman la inclusión de estos temas en la formación escolar. Entre ellas, parece urgente analizar la instrumentalización de la religión, porque favorece la subordinación de la creencia religiosa al discurso político autoritario, sobre todo asociada al conservadurismo moral presente en las vertientes del cristianismo brasileño. Al igual que los movimientos fascistas en los Estados Unidos en los años 1930 que reivindicaban una planificación autoritaria de la sociedad mediante un llamado a contenidos religiosos instrumentalizados, actualmente se utiliza el discurso religioso como forma de promover la adhesión al conservadurismo social y político y de justificar los prejuicios. Se constata que la instrumentalización de la religión es un modo de justificar la permanencia de valores conservadores en la escuela, así como de confirmar el modelo de familia heterosexual monógama y el orden patriarcal. Estos estratagemas que son utilizados por los movimientos conservadores y autoritarios, articulados en función de la negación de la diversidad sexual y de género, impiden que la escuela sea democrática y diversa.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Politics , Religion , Schools , Sexuality , Gender Identity , Political Systems , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Rationalization , Role , Science , Sex Education , Authoritarianism , Social Class , Social Environment , Social Security , Socioeconomic Factors , Stereotyping , Teaching , Thinking , Transsexualism , Mainstreaming, Education , Bisexuality , Technological Development , Mental Health , Ethics Committees , Communism , Cultural Diversity , Feminism , Life , Address , Modernization of the Public Sector , Culture , Capitalism , Public Power , Delivery of Health Care , Democracy , Protestantism , Racial Groups , Reproductive Rights , Economics , Education , Education, Professional , Educational Status , Methodology as a Subject , Population Studies in Public Health , Reproductive Health , Sexism , Mentoring , Fascism , Political Activism , Interdisciplinary Placement , Ethnocentrism , Extremism , Social Oppression , Gender Mainstreaming , Sexual Vulnerability , Gender Norms , Gender Binarism , Gender Studies , Gender-Inclusive Policies , Respect , Public Nondiscrimination Policies , Freedom of Religion , COVID-19 , Government , Hierarchy, Social , Human Rights , Individuality , Lobbying , Morals
9.
Mastology (Online) ; 332023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1443723

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer treatment is associated with functional sequelae that limit patients in their daily activities or work, impacting their quality of life. This fact becomes more noticeable in the Public System, the tumors are more advanced, leading to more aggressive treatments. Women with low education generally perform menial activities, playing an important role in family income. After cancer treatment, many are unable to carry out their usual activities, having difficulties with their work activities, requiring rehabilitation. These dysfunctions make it difficult or unfeasible to return to work, limiting family income. Knowledge of the Laws, the main sequelae and evaluation methodologies facilitates a more accurate diagnosis of functional conditions, determining the need for rehabilitation. Social Security provides economic support, but to have access to the benefit, a good report is necessary. This, well directed, helps the social security expert and the patients, who are generally so fragile by the disease and the treatment. In this article we discuss the main functional sequelae, how to evaluate them, and how to make a good report to be sent to an expert (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Quality of Life , Social Security , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Statistics on Sequelae and Disability , Breast Neoplasms/therapy
10.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(6): 369-374, dic. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423746

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El porcentaje nacional de cesárea supera las recomendaciones internacionales, alcanzando altos niveles, con consecuencias significativas en la salud de la mujer. Por esta razón es un problema necesario de analizar. Objetivo: Describir la situación epidemiológica de las cesáreas en la Provincia de Concepción, periodo 2001-2019, según establecimiento y previsión. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, ecológico, transversal. Incluye universo de partos en la Provincia de Concepción 2001-2019, datos del Departamento de Estadísticas e Información de Salud (DEIS). Recopilación y análisis según técnicas descriptivas en Microsoft Excel® Resultados: En establecimientos públicos, el número de partos disminuyó un 60.6%. En establecimientos privados aumentó 4.8 veces, junto al 39% de incremento en las cesáreas. Las pacientes pertenecientes al grupo A de menores ingresos de la aseguradora de salud pública, Fondo Nacional de Salud (FONASA), presentaron un porcentaje estable de cesáreas, en torno al 25%, mientras que el grupo D (de mayores ingresos) aumentó un 47.8% entre los años 2005 y 2009. Entre 2002 y 2019 el porcentaje promedio de cesáreas de pacientes pertenecientes a las aseguradoras privadas, Instituciones de Salud Previsional (ISAPRE), fue del 66.5%. Conclusiones: Se observó un aumento de cesáreas muy especialmente en recintos privados. La previsión de salud es un factor que considerar, particularmente el grupo FONASA-D, que presentó la mayor alza en las cesáreas, incluso más que las gestantes de ISAPRE. El porcentaje alarmante de cesáreas, especialmente en establecimientos privados, debe ser preocupación prioritaria para nuestro sistema de salud.


Introduction: The national caesarean section rate exceeds international recommendations, reaching elevated levels, with significant consequences on women's health. For this reason it is a necessary problem to analyze. Objective: To describe the epidemiological situation of caesarean sections in the Province of Concepción, period 2001-2019, according to establishment and forecast. Material and methods: Observational, descriptive, ecological, longitudinal study. Includes universe of births in the Province of Concepción 2001-2019, data from the Department of Statistics and Health Information (DEIS). Collection and analysis according to descriptive techniques in Microsoft Excel®. Results: In public establishments, the number of deliveries decreased by 60.6%. In private establishments it increased 4.8 times, together with the 39% increase in cesarean sections. Patients belonging to group A with the lowest income of the public health insurer, National Health Fund (FONASA), presented a stable percentage of caesarean sections, around 25%, while group D (with the highest income) increased 47.8% between 2005 and 2009. Between 2002 and 2019, the average percentage of caesarean sections of patients belonging to private insurers, Institutions of Social Security (ISAPRE), was 66.5%. Conclusions: An increase in caesarean sections was observed, especially in private facilities. Health insurance is a factor to consider, particularly the FONASA-D group, which presented the highest increase in cesarean sections, even more than ISAPRE pregnant women. The alarming percentage of caesarean sections, especially in private establishments, should be a priority concern for our health system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Social Security , Chile/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Public Sector , Private Sector
11.
Rev. colomb. neumol ; 34(2): 38-46, July-Dec. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1412775

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la tuberculosis es considerada como un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial, siendo la decimotercera causa de muerte y la enfermedad infecciosa más mortífera detrás del COVID-19 y por encima de la infección por VIH, llegando a un total de 1.5 millones de muertes en el 2020. Colombia es el quinto país de la región con mayor carga de casos de tuberculosis, reportándose en el Programa Nacional de Tuberculosis un total de 13.037 casos preliminares en el 2020, representando una importante carga para el Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional de corte retrospectivo con una población de 130 pacientes con diagnóstico de tuberculosis en una institución de tercer nivel en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el fin de identificar posibles factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de complicaciones en estos pacientes. Resultados y discusión: en el grupo total encontramos que la presencia de desnutrición es un factor de riesgo independiente para presentar complicaciones asociadas a la infección por tuberculosis; mediante análisis de regresión condicionada por método exacto se identifica un HR de 2.53 [1.008;6.378] (p 0.002) y HR ajustado de 1.47 [0.400-2.556] (p 0.007). El resto de condiciones no presentaron asociación estadísticamente significativa con el desarrollo de complicaciones en pacientes con diagnóstico de tuberculosis. Conclusiones: en los pacientes con diagnóstico de tuberculosis que asistieron al hospital Santa Clara entre 2017 y 2018, encontramos que un estado nutricional inadecuado tuvo una asociación significativa a la presencia de complicaciones relacionadas con infección por tuberculosis. Otros factores como el nivel de educación, estrato socioeconómico o la presencia de comorbilidades no demostraron una influencia significativa en el objetivo del estudio.


Introduction: Tuberculosis is considered a public health problem worldwide, being the thirteenth cause of death and the deadliest infectious disease behind COVID-19 and above HIV infection, reaching a total of 1, 5 million deaths in 2020. Colombia is the fifth country in the region with the highest burden of tuberculosis cases, reporting a total of 13,037 preliminary cases in 2020 in the National Tuberculosis Program, representing a significant burden for the General System of Social Security in Health. Materials and methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out with a population of 130 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis in a third level institution at Bogotá city, to identify factors associated with the development of complications in tuberculosis patients. Results and discussion: In the total group, the presence of malnutrition is found to be an independent risk factor for tuberculosis complications by means of a conditioned regression analysis using the exact method we found an OR of 2.53 [1.008;6.378] (p 0.00202) and adjusted OR of 1.47 [0.400-2.556] (p 0.007), neither of the other conditions can't be associated with the presence of complications in patients diagnosed with tuberculosis. Conclusions: In patients diagnosed with tuberculosis who attended the Santa Clara hospital between 2017 and 2018, we found that an inadequate nutritional status is associated with the presence of major complications. Other factors such as level of education, socioeconomic status or the presence of comorbidities do not show a significant influence on the objective of the study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis , Communicable Diseases , Risk Factors , Social Security , Public Health , Regression Analysis , Malnutrition
12.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 10(1): [1-16], 20220600.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399696

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCION: la mitad de los pacientes hipertensos abandona la terapia a partir del primer año del diagnóstico. El uso del teléfono para mejorar la adherencia es aceptado por los pacientes, a través del envío de mensajes a sus celulares o de llamadas telefónicas concertadas, para hacerles recordar la toma de medicación o información sobre su enfermedad. OBJETIVO: evaluar la adherencia al tratamiento mediante recordatorio por teléfono en pacientes hipertensos que retiran sus medicamentos de una Clínica de la seguridad social en Paraguay. METODOLOGÍA: estudio cuasi experimental; aplicando una encuesta y seguimiento mediante contacto telefónico para evaluar la adherencia a la terapia. RESULTADOS: el 50% (n=11) de los pacientes se clasificaron como no adherentes a la terapia farmacológica; al final de las intervenciones se redujo a 9,1%. La causa principal de la falta de adherencia fue el olvido, 90,9%. La adherencia al tratamiento mejoro significativamente luego de las intervenciones. CONCLUSIÓN: la utilización de la tecnología podría constituirse en una herramienta para la prevención primaria en la población con factores de riesgo, y el seguimiento de pacientes con hipertensión arterial.


INTRODUCTION: half of hypertensive patients drop out of therapy from the first year of diagnosis. The use of the telephone to improve adherence is accepted by patients, through sending messages to their cell phones or concerted phone calls, to remind them of taking medication or information about their disease. OBJECTIVE: This work evaluated the use of technology to optimize the adherence of hypertensive patients who withdraw their medicines from a social security clinic in Paraguay. METHODOLOGY: quasi-experimental study; applying a survey and follow-up through telephone contact to evaluate adherence to therapy. RESULTS: 50% (n=11) of patients were classified as non-adherent to drug therapy; at the end of the interventions it was reduced to 9.1%. The main cause of the lack of adherence was forgetfulness, 90.9%. Adherence to treatment improved significantly after interventions. CONCLUSION: the use of technology could be a tool for primary prevention in the population with risk factors, and the monitoring of patients with blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Patients , Primary Prevention , Social Security , Cell Phone
13.
Rev. ADM ; 79(3): 156-159, mayo-jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378813

ABSTRACT

La seguridad social es un derecho encaminado a asegurar el bienestar de los ciudadanos que forman parte de una comunidad, y su objetivo principal es brindar a las personas aseguradas un conjunto de medidas públicas que ayuden a la protección de su salud por accidentes de trabajo o enfermedad laboral, desempleo, invalidez, vejez o muerte. De acuerdo con nuestra legislación, toda persona que preste servicios laborales a otro, tiene derecho a ser registrado ante el seguro social para que, en caso de accidente o enfermedad laboral, exista una ins- tancia que asista al trabajador afectado a recuperar su salud sin afectar su economía familiar. Es bastante frecuente que el odontólogo tenga trabajadores a su cargo, quien al fungir como patrón tiene obligaciones específicas ante el Instituto de Seguridad Social que de no cumplir, puede traer consigo sanciones y amonestaciones al profesional. El objetivo del presente artículo es informar al odontólogo sus derechos y obligaciones ante el seguro social mediante una revisión de las normas y leyes que lo imponen (AU)


Social security is a right aimed at ensuring the well-being of citizens who are part of community, and its main objective is to provide insured persons with a set of public measures that help protect their health, due to accidents at work and occupational disease, unemployment, disability, old age or death. In accordance with our legislation, any person who provides labor services to another has the right to registered with the social security so that, in the event of an accident or occupational disease, there is an instance that assists the affecter worker to recover his health without affecting his familiar economy. It is quite common for the dentist to have workers under his charge, who, acting as an employer, have specific obligations with the Social Security Institute, which, if not fulfilled, can bring sanctions and reprimands to the professional. The aim of this article is to inform dentists about their rights and obligations with the Social Security Institute through a review of the laws that impose it (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Security , Insurance, Dental , Legislation, Dental , Social Responsibility , Occupational Risks , Patient Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Dental Staff/legislation & jurisprudence
14.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 104-106, abr. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367060

ABSTRACT

La creación de una organización tan grande como el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) requirió de mucha planeación para lograr administrar todas las prestaciones que se brindan a la población. Siendo así una necesidad contar con personal de salud con conocimientos y experiencia en administración en servicios de salud. El presente manuscrito es un reconocimiento a los doctores Manuel Barquín Calderón, Antonio Ríos Vargas y Carlos Zamarripa Torres, pioneros y protagonistas reconocidos en la planeación y organización (administración) de los servicios médicos del IMSS entre 1945 y 1955, quienes además tuvieron iniciativas racionales y constructivas, cumpliendo con su deber. Por otro lado, el Instituto expuso y proyectó que las actividades médico-administrativas eran una tarea compleja, y que su práctica necesitaba conocimientos especializados que no podían dejarse al azahar, al empirismo, a la buena voluntad, a las creencias o a la imaginación no objetiva.


The creation of an institution as large as the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) required a lot of planning to manage all the benefits provided to the population. Thus, it is necessary to have health personnel with knowledge and experience in health services administration. This manuscript is an acknowledgment to doctors Manuel Barquín Calderón, Antonio Ríos Vargas and Carlos Zamarripa Torres, pioneers and recognized protagonists in the planning and organization (administration) of the IMSS medical services between 1945 and 1955, who also had rational initiatives and constructive, doing their duty. On the other hand, the Institute exposed and projected that medical-administrative activities were a complex task, and that its practice required specialized knowledge that could not be left to chance, empiricism, good will, beliefs or nonobjective imagination.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Social Security/history , Health Services Administration/history , Hospital Administration/history , Mexico
15.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 107-115, abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367226

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el costo económico del tratamiento de cáncer de mama (CM) y el aumento en su incidencia y prevalencia desafía la estabilidad financiera de cualquier sistema de salud. Objetivo: determinar los costos médicos directos (CMD) del tratamiento de CM y los factores asociados a estos costos. Material y métodos: evaluación económica parcial en una cohorte retrospectiva de 160 pacientes con diagnóstico conf irmado de CM. Se consideraron CMD desde la perspectiva del IMSS. Se utilizó análisis de bootstrapping para tratar incertidumbre y el modelo lineal generalizado para identificar factores asociados a costos. Resultados: el costo promedio anual (CPA) del tratamiento de CM fue de $ 251,018 pesos. En estadio 1, $ 116,123; estadio II, $ 242,132; estadio III, $ 287,946, y estadio IV, $ 358,792 pesos. El CPA fue mayor en progresión del CM ($ 380,117 frente a no progresión $ 172,897), y en pacientes que fallecieron durante el seguimiento ($ 357,579) frente a aquellas que sobrevivieron ($ 218,699). Conclusiones: el CPA del tratamiento de CM fue de $ 251,018 pesos. Los CMD aumentan significativamente conforme las pacientes presentan estadios más avanzados de la enfermedad. Los factores asociados al CMD fueron edad, estadios II, III y la progresión del CM.


Background: The economic cost of breast cancer (BC) treatment and the increase in incidence and prevalence challenges the financial stability of any healthcare system. Objective: To determine direct medical costs (DMC) of BC treatment and factors associated with DMC. Material and methods: Partial economic evaluation in a retrospective cohort of 160 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of BC. DMC was considered from the IMSS perspective. Bootstrapping analysis was used to deal with uncertainty and generalized linear model to identify factors associated with DCM Results: The total average annual cost of BC treatment was $251,018 mexican pesos. In clinical stage I was $116,123, stage II $242,132, stage III $287,946, and stage IV $358,792 pesos. In progression disease, DMC were more elevate ($380,117) vs. without progression ($172,897), (p < 0.0001). In patients who died, DMC were $357,579 mexican pesos compared to those who survived ($218,699) (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The average annual cost of CM treatment was $251,018 pesos. DMCs increase significantly as patients present more advanced stages of the disease. Factors associated with costs were age, stages II, III and the progression of BC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tertiary Healthcare/economics , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Costs and Cost Analysis , Social Security/economics , Breast Neoplasms/economics , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Cost of Illness , Mexico , Neoplasm Staging/economics
16.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 149-155, abr. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367230

ABSTRACT

Introducción: los programas PrevenIMSS son una estrategia para promover la salud en los tres niveles de prevención, con especial énfasis en el primer nivel de atención. Uno de sus objetivos es impactar en la morbimortalidad de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, como obesidad, diabetes e hipertensión, cuya prevención requiere de conocimientos para el autocuidado de la salud contenidos en estas guías. Objetivo: identificar la información que tienen los derechohabientes del IMSS sobre el autocuidado de la salud contenida en las guías PrevenIMSS. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal. Previa firma de consentimiento informado se entrevistó a mil derechohabientes de una unidad de medicina familiar; 200 por cada grupo etario PrevenIMSS. Se formularon preguntas acerca de: 1. Promoción de la salud, 2. Prevención y control de enfermedades, 3. Detección de enfermedades, 4. Nutrición, 5. Salud sexual y reproductiva, y una pregunta abierta para identificar sus necesidades sobre el autocuidado de la salud. Resultados: los encuestados respondieron tener conocimientos acerca de los componentes PrevenIMSS en: Promoción de la salud, el 62%; Nutrición, 43%; Prevención de enfermedades, 55.3%; Detección y control de enfermedades, 51.9%, y Salud sexual y reproductiva, 49.9%. El puntaje total obtenido por grupo etario fue: 0-9 años: 46.35 ± 14.36; 10-19 años: 46.02 ± 12.06; mujeres de 20 a 59 años: 46.79 ± 8.19, hombres de 20 a 59 años: 52.19 ±14.58, y adultos mayores de 60 años y más: 46.65 ± 13.34. Conclusiones: la menor información se tiene en nutrición. El grupo de adolescentes fue el más afectado.


Background: The PrevenIMSS programs are a strategy to promote health self-care at the three levels of prevention, with special emphasis on primary health care. One of its objectives is to have an impact on the morbidity and mortality of chronic non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension, the prevention of these illnesses requires knowledge for health self-care contained in these guidelines. Objective: To identify the information that the IMSS beneficiaries have on self-care of health contained in the PrevenIMSS guidelines. Material and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study. After signing the informed consent, one thousand beneficiaries of a UMF were interviewed, 200 for each PrevenIMSS age group. Questions were asked about: 1. Health promotion, 2. Prevention and control of diseases, 3. Detection of diseases, 4. Nutrition, 5. Sexual and reproductive health, and an open question, to identify their needs for self-care of health. Results: The respondents answered having knowledge about the PrevenIMSS components in: Health promotion: 62%. Nutrition: 43%. Disease prevention: 55.3%. Detection and control of diseases: 51.9%. Sexual and reproductive health: 49.9%. The total score obtained by age group was: 0-9 years 46.35 ± 14.36; 10-19 years 46.02 ± 12.06; women from 20 to 59 years old 46.79 ± 8.19, men from 20 to 59 years old 52.19 ± 14.58; adults aged 60 and over 46.65 ± 13.34. Conclusions: The least information is in nutrition. The group of adolescents was the most affected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Self Care , Social Security , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Promotion , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Age Distribution , Educational Status , Disease Prevention , Mexico
17.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 156-163, abr. 2022. mapas, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367310

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en un contexto donde la prevalencia de diabetes mellitus e hipertensión arterial ha aumentado significativamente en años recientes, las enfermedades renales adquieren importancia por la potencial demanda de atención especializada y de recursos en salud que requieren. Objetivo: analizar la distribución geográfica de la nefropatía diabética (ND) y la insuficiencia renal (IR) con base en las consultas otorgadas en unidades de primer nivel del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) durante 2019, para identificar las unidades médicas con mayor carga de atención. Material y métodos: estudio ecológico-exploratorio en el que se estimaron indicadores por cada mil derechohabientes en relación a las consultas otorgadas por ND e IR según la ocasión de servicio, la unidad médica familiar (UMF) de primer nivel y la representación. Se utilizó estadística espacial para analizar dichos indicadores. Resultados: el 45% de las consultas otorgadas fue por ND y el 52.4% por IR. La mayor carga por ND se registró en la UMF No. 50 de Cd. Juárez (Chihuahua) y en la No. 49 Gabino Barreda (Veracruz Sur), con 1.7 consultas de primera vez y 148.3 subsecuentes por mil derechohabientes, respectivamente. Mientras que en la UMF No. 40 Manlio Fabio Altamirano y No. 25 Cotaxtla, en Veracruz Norte, la mayor carga fue por IR, con 4.9 consultas de primera vez y 134.2 subsecuentes por mil derechohabientes, respectivamente. Conclusiones: los resultados podrían contribuir al fortalecimiento de las unidades médicas que así lo requieran y en la distribución eficiente de los recursos disponibles para atender la demanda de servicios de salud de ND e IR en el IMSS


Background: In a context where the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension has increased significantly in recent years, kidney diseases become important for the potential demand for specialized health care and resources required. Objective: To analyze the geographical distribution of Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) and Renal Insufficiency (RI) based on the medical consultations given in first-level units of IMSS during 2019, to identify the medical units with the highest burden of care. Material and methods: Ecological-exploratory study in which indicators were estimated for every thousand persons in relation to medical consultations given by ND and RI according to service time, first-level medical unit (UMF) and representation to analyze the magnitude and geographic distribution at the national level. Results: 45% of medical consultations were by ND and 52.4% by RI. The highest burden per DN was registered in UMF No. 50 Cd. Juarez (Chihuahua) and No. 49 Gabino Barreda (Veracruz Sur), with 1.7 first-time medical consultations and 148.3 subsequent medical consultations per 1,000 persons, respectively. While in UMF No. 40 Manlio Fabio Altamirano and No. 25 Cotaxtla, in Veracruz Norte, the highest burden was for RI, with 4.9 first-time medical consultations and 134.2 subsequent medical consultations per 1000 persons, respectively. Conclusions: The results could contribute to strengthening of medical units where it is necessary and the efficient allocation of resources available to meet the demand for health services of ND and RI in IMSS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Diabetic Nephropathies/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Geographic Information Systems , Spatial Analysis , Mexico/epidemiology
18.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 33-42, ene. 28, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1354418

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus es una de las enfermedades crónicas endémicas no transmisibles que debido a su alta frecuencia se ha llegado a posicionar entre las principales enfermedades que afectan a cientos de millones de personas en todo el mundo, con incidencia, morbilidad y mortalidad en aumento. La información sobre atenciones ambulatorias, disponible en el Departamento de Actuariado y Estadística del Instituto Salvadoreño del Seguro Social (ISSS), indica que en 2019 se brindaron 4 871 908 consultas y 170 230 fueron por diabetes mellitus (3,5 %). El 60,7 % de las atenciones (103 429) se brindaron a mujeres. Debido a la magnitud y proporciones de la diabetes en esta población, se hace necesario realizar en el ISSS investigaciones para actualizar la situación de su condición y que al mismo tiempo permita saber el origen de estas personas. El objetivo principal del estudio consiste en definir las características epidemiológicas y clínicas de pacientes diabéticos manejados de manera ambulatoria.


Diabetes mellitus is one of the chronic endemic noncommunicable diseases that, due to its high frequency, has come to position itself among the main diseases that affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, with increasing incidence, morbidity and mortality. The information on outpatient care, available at the Department of Actuarial Science and Statistics of the Salvadoran Social Security Institute (ISSS), indicates that in 2019, 4,871,908 consultations were provided and 170,230 were for diabetes mellitus (3.5%). 60.7% of the services (103,429) were provided to women. Due to the magnitude and proportions of diabetes in this population, it is necessary to carry out research at the ISSS to update the situation of their condition and at the same time allow knowing the origin of these people. The main objective of the study is to define the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of diabetic patients managed on an outpatient basis


Subject(s)
Outpatients , Social Security , Diabetes Mellitus , Ambulatory Care , Noncommunicable Diseases , Chronic Disease , Incidence
19.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 39: e0207, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387850

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este trabalho analisa como a aposentadoria pode ser impactada pela maternidade, dado que pode afetar os fluxos de renda, contribuições e benefícios. Emprega-se um modelo atuarial com densidades contributivas diferenciadas por nível de renda. Como o número de contribuições varia em função destas densidades, a idade de aposentadoria é calculada de forma endógena, com a realização de um conjunto de simulações. Foram calculados cinco indicadores previdenciários em diferentes cenários, dados por combinações do evento da maternidade, idade no nascimento do filho, duração do afastamento do mercado de trabalho e salário no retorno ao mercado de trabalho. Os cálculos foram feitos para a regra antiga do Regime Geral de Previdência Social (RGPS), que vigorou até 2019, e para a regra nova, que passou a valer em 2020, após a aprovação da Emenda Constitucional n. 103/2019. Observou-se queda no caráter progressivo das aposentadorias do RGPS devido à reforma de 2019, bem como redução na maioria dos indicadores, particularmente na taxa interna de retorno. Mas a taxa de reposição pode aumentar para alguns grupos devido à extensão do período contributivo. Trabalhadoras sem filhos e aquelas que não deixam o mercado de trabalho devido à maternidade são afetadas de maneira razoavelmente similar pela reforma. Trabalhadoras que precisam deixar o mercado de trabalho são mais afetadas, com redução nos indicadores que dependem do período de recebimento do benefício de aposentadoria.


Abstract This paper analyzes how retirement can be affected by motherhood, as it can affect the flow of income, contributions and benefits, using an actuarial model with contribution densities differentiated by income level. As the number of contributions varies depending on these densities, retirement age is calculated endogenously, through a set of simulations. Five pension indicators were calculated in different scenarios, given by combinations of the motherhood event, age at birth of the child, duration of absence from the labor market and salary on return to the labor market. Calculations were made for the old rule of the RGPS, which was in force until 2019 and the new rule, which came into effect in 2020, after the approval of Constitutional Amendment 103/2019. There is a decrease in the progressive aspects of RGPS old-age benefits due to the 2019 reform. There is a reduction in most indicators, particularly in the internal rate of return. However, the replacement rate may increase for some groups due to the extension of the contribution period. Childless workers and those who do not leave the labor market due to motherhood are affected in a similar way by the reform. Workers who need to leave the labor market are more affected, with a reduction in indicators that depend on the period of receiving the retirement benefit.


Resumen Este artículo analiza cómo la maternidad puede afectar a la jubilación, ya que puede incidir en el flujo de ingresos, las cotizaciones y los beneficios. Se utiliza un modelo actuarial con densidades de cotización diferenciadas por nivel de ingresos. Como el número de cotizaciones varía en función de estas densidades, la edad de jubilación se calcula de forma endógena, mediante un conjunto de simulaciones. Se calcularon cinco indicadores de pensión en diferentes escenarios, dados por combinaciones del evento de maternidad, edad al nacimiento del hijo, duración de la ausencia del mercado laboral y salario al regreso al mercado laboral. Los cálculos se hicieron para la antigua regla de la RGPS, vigente hasta 2019, y la nueva regla, que entró en vigor en 2020 tras la aprobación de la Enmienda Constitucional 103/2019. Hay una disminución en los aspectos progresivos de las prestaciones de vejez del RGPS debido a la reforma de 2019, y una reducción en la mayoría de los indicadores, particularmente en la tasa interna de retorno, pero la tasa de reemplazo puede aumentar para algunos grupos debido a la extensión del período de contribución. Las trabajadoras sin hijos y las que no abandonan el mercado laboral debido a la maternidad se ven afectadas de manera razonablemente uniforme por la reforma. Las trabajadoras que necesitan salir del mercado laboral se ven más afectadas, con una reducción de los indicadores que dependen del período de percepción de la prestación por jubilación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retirement , Social Security , Women , Pensions , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Parenting , Employment , Job Market
20.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 31(2): e2021777, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384895

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Caracterizar o perfil sociodemográfico de beneficiários da seguridade social brasileira com doença de Chagas e identificar fatores associados à concessão de benefícios assistenciais, 2004-2016. Métodos: Estudo transversal, com dados secundários do Ministério do Trabalho e Previdência Social. Empregou-se regressão logística para estimar as razões de chances (OR: odds ratios), brutas e ajustadas, e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%). Resultados: Foram concedidos 36.023 benefícios: 62,5% a pessoas do sexo masculino; 67,0% para residentes de áreas urbanas; 46,7% para moradores da macrorregião Sudeste; 56,7% para pessoas com forma cardíaca crônica; e 42,7% para a faixa etária de 50-59 anos. Residir em áreas urbanas (OR = 134,9; IC95% 78,0;233,2), residir no Nordeste (OR = 2,9; IC95% 2,5;3,1), ser do sexo feminino (OR = 2,0; IC95% 1,8;2,1) e ter idade de 60 anos ou mais (OR = 1,6; IC95% 1,3;1,7) estiveram associados aos benefícios assistenciais. Conclusão: Fatores relacionados a zona de residência, macrorregião, sexo e faixa etária aumentaram a chance de concessão de benefícios assistenciais.


Objetivo: Caracterizar el perfil sociodemográfico de los beneficiarios de la seguridad social brasileña con enfermedad de Chagas e identificar los factores asociados a la concesión de beneficios asistenciales, de 2004 a 2016. Métodos: Estudio transversal con datos del Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social. Se utilizó la regresión logística para estimar las razones de probabilidad (OR) brutas y ajustadas. Resultados: Se otorgaron 36.023 beneficios; 62,5% para el sexo masculino; 67,0% para residentes en áreas urbanas; 46,7% residentes del Sudeste; 56,7% para personas con insuficiencia cardiaca crónica; y 42,7% para personas de 50-59 años. Residir en áreas urbanas (OR = 134,9; IC95% 78,0;233,2), en el Nordeste (OR = 2,9; IC95% 2,5;3,1), ser de sexo femenino (OR = 2,0; IC95% 1,8;2,1) y tener de 60 años o más (OR = 1,6; IC95% 1,3;1,7) fueron factores asociados a las prestaciones asistenciales. Conclusión: Los factores relacionados con el local de residencia, sexo y grupo de edad aumentaron la posibilidad de otorgar beneficios asistenciales.


Objective: To characterize the sociodemographic profile of beneficiaries of Brazilian social welfare affected by Chagas disease and identify factors associated with the granting of assistance benefits, 2004 to 2016. Methods: Cross-sectional study based on secondary data from the Ministry of Labor and Social Security. Logistical regression was performed to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: 36,023 benefits were granted; 62.5% were to male; 67.0% to residents of urban areas; 46.7% to residents of Southeast region; 56.7% to people with chronic cardiac form; and 42.7% to the 50-59 age group. Residents of urban areas (OR = 134.9; 95%CI 78.0;233.2), Northeast macro-region (OR = 2.9; 95%CI 2.5;3.1), female (OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.8;2.1) and age group 60 years or older (OR = 1.6; 95%CI 1,3;1,7) were factors associated with assistance benefits. Conclusion: Factors related to the area of residence, macro-region, sex and age group increased the chance of granting assistance benefits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Social Welfare , Chagas Disease/economics , Social Determinants of Health , Social Security , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
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