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1.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(5): 405-413, oct. 31, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179032

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study evaluated the influence of sonic vibration and thermocycling on the bond strength of fiberglass posts using conventional dual-cured and self-adhesive resin cements. Material and Methods: Ninety-six single-rooted endodontically treated teeth were divided randomly into eight groups according to the cement used (dual-cured or self-adhesive resin cement), use of sonic vibration during post accommodation, and aging conditions (24h in distilled water or 5,000 thermal cycles). The fiberglass posts (White Post DC1, FGM) were cleaned with alcohol, treated with silane and cemented with dual-cured (Allcem Core, FGM) or with self-adhesive resin cement (seT, SDI). For groups in which sonic vibration was used, the posts were accommodated, and sonic vibration was applied for 10 s using a special tip placed on top of the post (Sonic Smart Device, FGM). Pull-out tests were performed after storage in distilled water for 24h at 37°C or after thermocycling (5000 cycles, at 5°C and 55°C). The results were evaluated using three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results: Significant differences were not observed between the bond strengths of dual-cured (87.93±41.81 N) and self-adhesive cement (82.53±41.43 N). Bond strength for the sonic vibration groups (100.36±42.35 N) was significantly higher than for groups without sonic vibration (70.13±34.90 N). There were significant differences between specimens subjected to thermocycling (98.33±39.42 N) and those stored for 24h in distilled water (72.16±39.67 N). Conclusion: It can be concluded that both sonic vibration and thermocycling significantly improved bond strength of fiberglass posts with the two evaluated resin cements.


Introducción: Este estudio evaluó la influencia de la vibración sónica y el termociclado en la fuerza de unión de los postes de fibra de vidrio utilizando cementos de resina autoadhesivos y de curado dual convencionales Material y Métodos: Se dividieron aleatoriamente noventa y seis dientes tratados endodónticamente de raíz única en ocho grupos según el cemento utilizado (cemento de resina de curado dual o autoadhesivo), el uso de vibración sónica durante la acomodación posterior y las condiciones de envejecimiento (24 horas agua destilada o 5.000 ciclos térmicos). Los postes de fibra de vidrio (White Post DC1, FGM) se limpiaron con alcohol, se trataron con silano y se cementaron con cemento de curado dual (Allcem Core, FGM) o con cemento de resina autoadhesivo (seT, SDI). Para los grupos en los que se utilizó vibración sónica, se acomodaron los postes y se aplicó la vibración sónica durante 10 s utilizando una punta especial colocada en la parte superior del poste (Sonic Smart Device, FGM). Las pruebas de extracción se realizaron después del almacenamiento en agua destilada durante 24 horas a 37ºC o después del termociclado (5000 ciclos, a 5ºC y 55ºC). Los resultados se evaluaron mediante ANOVA de tres vías y la prueba de Tukey (α = 0.05). Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas entre las resistencias de adhesión del cemento de curado dual (87,93 ± 41,81 N) y el cemento autoadhesivo (82,53 ± 41,43 N). La fuerza de unión para los grupos de vibración sónica (100,36 ± 42,35 N) fue significativamente mayor que para los grupos sin vibración sónica (70,13 ± 34,90 N). Hubo diferencias significativas entre los especímenes sometidos a termociclado (98,33 ± 39,42 N) y los almacenados durante 24 h en agua destilada (72,16 ± 39,67 N). Conclusión: Se puede concluir que tanto la vibración sónica como el termociclado mejoraron significativamente la fuerza de unión de los postes de fibra de vidrio con los dos cementos de resina evaluados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vibration , Post and Core Technique/instrumentation , Resin Cements/chemistry , Flexural Strength , Glass , Sonication/methods , Tooth Root , Dental Bonding , Dentin-Bonding Agents , Dentin/chemistry , Ultrasonic Waves
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17797, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132045

ABSTRACT

Oral fast-dispersible film was prepared by utlizing donepezil hydrochloride (drug) and various cellulose derivatives such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (hypermellose) (HPMC), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) to treat Alzheimer's disease. NCC was synthesized by ultra-sonication method using MCC and this was converted to thinfilm formulation (NCC-F) using solvent casting technique. The interaction between the polymer and the drug was investigated by spectral analysis such as UV, FTIR, and 1H- NMR. FTIR confirmed that the compatibility of drug and polymer in ODF formulation. NCC-F has shown an average surface roughness of 77.04 nm from AFM and the average particle size of 300 nm from SEM analysis. Nano sized particle of NCC-F leads faster in vitro dissolution rate (94.53%) when compared with MCC-F and F3 formulation. Animal model (in vivo) studies of NCC-F formulation has reached peak plasma concentration (Cmax) up to 19.018 ng/mL in the span of (tmax) 4 h with greater relative bioavailability of 143.1%. These results suggested that high surface roughness with nanosized NCC-F formulation attained extended drug availability up to (t1/2) 70 h.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Dissolution/classification , Donepezil/agonists , Sonication/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Cellulose , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Models, Animal , Alzheimer Disease/pathology
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180045, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975882

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the efficacy of different sonic and ultrasonic devices in the elimination of debris from canal irregularities in artificial root canals. Materials and Methods A resin model of a transparent radicular canal filled with dentin debris was used. Five groups were tested, namely: Group 1 - ultrasonic insert 15.02; Group 2 - ultrasonic insert 25/25 IRRI K; Group 3 - ultrasonic insert 25/25 IRRI S; Group 4 - sonic insert 20/28 Eddy on a vibrating sonic air-scaler handpiece; Group 5 - 20.02 K-file inserted on a Safety M4 handpiece. Two different irrigants (5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA) and 3 different times of activation (20, 40, and 60 seconds) were tested. Means and standard deviations were calculated and statistically analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05). Results No statistically significant differences were found between the two irrigants used. Group 4 removed more debris than the other groups (p<0.05). Groups 1, 2, and 3 removed more debris than group 5 (p<0.05). A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was found for the time of activation in all groups and at all canal levels, except between 40 and 60 seconds in group 4 at coronal and middle third level (p>0.05). Conclusions No significant differences were found between 5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA. When the time of activation rises, the dentin debris removal increases in all groups. Both sonic and ultrasonic activation demonstrate high capacity for dentin debris removal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ultrasonic Therapy/instrumentation , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Instruments/standards , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Reference Values , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Sonication/instrumentation , Sonication/methods , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Dentin , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788815

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has been used as minimally invasive and effective neurosurgical treatment, it exhibits some limitations, mainly related to acoustic properties of the skull barrier. This study was undertaken to identify skull characteristics that contribute to optimal ultrasonic energy transmission for MRgFUS procedures.METHODS: For ex vivo skull experiments, various acoustic fields were measured under different conditions, using five non-embalmed cadaver skulls. For clinical skull analyses, brain computed tomography data of 46 patients who underwent MRgFUS ablations (18 unilateral thalamotomy, nine unilateral pallidotomy, and 19 bilateral capsulotomy) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' skull factors and sonication parameters were comparatively analyzed with respect to the cadaveric skulls.RESULTS: Skull experiments identified three important factors related skull penetration of ultrasound, including skull density ratio (SDR), skull volume, and incidence angle of the acoustic rays against the skull surface. In clinical results, SDR and skull volume correlated with maximal temperature (Tmax) and energy requirement to achieve Tmax (p<0.05). In addition, considering the incidence angle determined by brain target location, less energy was required to reach Tmax in the central, rather than lateral targets particularly when compared between thalamotomy and capsulotomy (p<0.05).CONCLUSION: This study reconfirmed previously identified skull factors, including SDR and skull volume, for successful MRgFUS; it identified an additional factor, incidence angle of acoustic rays against the skull surface. To guarantee successful transcranial MRgFUS treatment without suffering these various skull issues, further technical improvements are required.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Brain , Cadaver , High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation , Humans , Incidence , Pallidotomy , Retrospective Studies , Skull , Sonication , Ultrasonics , Ultrasonography
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788753

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is an emerging new technology with considerable potential to treat various neurological diseases. With refinement of ultrasound transducer technology and integration with magnetic resonance imaging guidance, transcranial sonication of precise cerebral targets has become a therapeutic option. Intensity is a key determinant of ultrasound effects. High-intensity focused ultrasound can produce targeted lesions via thermal ablation of tissue. MRgFUS-mediated stereotactic ablation is non-invasive, incision-free, and confers immediate therapeutic effects. Since the US Food and Drug Administration approval of MRgFUS in 2016 for unilateral thalamotomy in medication-refractory essential tremor, studies on novel indications such as Parkinson's disease, psychiatric disease, and brain tumors are underway. MRgFUS is also used in the context of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening at low intensities, in combination with intravenously-administered microbubbles. Preclinical studies show that MRgFUS-mediated BBB opening safely enhances the delivery of targeted chemotherapeutic agents to the brain and improves tumor control as well as survival. In addition, BBB opening has been shown to activate the innate immune system in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloid plaque clearance and promotion of neurogenesis in these studies suggest that MRgFUS-mediated BBB opening may be a new paradigm for neurodegenerative disease treatment in the future. Here, we review the current status of preclinical and clinical trials of MRgFUS-mediated thermal ablation and BBB opening, described their mechanisms of action, and discuss future prospects.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Essential Tremor , High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation , Immune System , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Microbubbles , Models, Animal , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurogenesis , Parkinson Disease , Plaque, Amyloid , Sonication , Therapeutic Uses , Transducers , Ultrasonography , United States Food and Drug Administration
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765389

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has been used as minimally invasive and effective neurosurgical treatment, it exhibits some limitations, mainly related to acoustic properties of the skull barrier. This study was undertaken to identify skull characteristics that contribute to optimal ultrasonic energy transmission for MRgFUS procedures. METHODS: For ex vivo skull experiments, various acoustic fields were measured under different conditions, using five non-embalmed cadaver skulls. For clinical skull analyses, brain computed tomography data of 46 patients who underwent MRgFUS ablations (18 unilateral thalamotomy, nine unilateral pallidotomy, and 19 bilateral capsulotomy) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' skull factors and sonication parameters were comparatively analyzed with respect to the cadaveric skulls. RESULTS: Skull experiments identified three important factors related skull penetration of ultrasound, including skull density ratio (SDR), skull volume, and incidence angle of the acoustic rays against the skull surface. In clinical results, SDR and skull volume correlated with maximal temperature (Tmax) and energy requirement to achieve Tmax (p<0.05). In addition, considering the incidence angle determined by brain target location, less energy was required to reach Tmax in the central, rather than lateral targets particularly when compared between thalamotomy and capsulotomy (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This study reconfirmed previously identified skull factors, including SDR and skull volume, for successful MRgFUS; it identified an additional factor, incidence angle of acoustic rays against the skull surface. To guarantee successful transcranial MRgFUS treatment without suffering these various skull issues, further technical improvements are required.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Brain , Cadaver , High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation , Humans , Incidence , Pallidotomy , Retrospective Studies , Skull , Sonication , Ultrasonics , Ultrasonography
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765324

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is an emerging new technology with considerable potential to treat various neurological diseases. With refinement of ultrasound transducer technology and integration with magnetic resonance imaging guidance, transcranial sonication of precise cerebral targets has become a therapeutic option. Intensity is a key determinant of ultrasound effects. High-intensity focused ultrasound can produce targeted lesions via thermal ablation of tissue. MRgFUS-mediated stereotactic ablation is non-invasive, incision-free, and confers immediate therapeutic effects. Since the US Food and Drug Administration approval of MRgFUS in 2016 for unilateral thalamotomy in medication-refractory essential tremor, studies on novel indications such as Parkinson's disease, psychiatric disease, and brain tumors are underway. MRgFUS is also used in the context of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening at low intensities, in combination with intravenously-administered microbubbles. Preclinical studies show that MRgFUS-mediated BBB opening safely enhances the delivery of targeted chemotherapeutic agents to the brain and improves tumor control as well as survival. In addition, BBB opening has been shown to activate the innate immune system in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloid plaque clearance and promotion of neurogenesis in these studies suggest that MRgFUS-mediated BBB opening may be a new paradigm for neurodegenerative disease treatment in the future. Here, we review the current status of preclinical and clinical trials of MRgFUS-mediated thermal ablation and BBB opening, described their mechanisms of action, and discuss future prospects.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Essential Tremor , High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation , Immune System , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Microbubbles , Models, Animal , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurogenesis , Parkinson Disease , Plaque, Amyloid , Sonication , Therapeutic Uses , Transducers , Ultrasonography , United States Food and Drug Administration
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 768-773, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762108

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy has become a standard treatment for medically intractable essential tremor (ET). Skull density ratio (SDR) and skull volume in patients with ET are currently considered useful indicators of the successful application of MRgFUS. We compared the clinical outcomes of MRgFUS thalamotomy with SDR above 0.4 and 0.45. We also described patterns of SDR and skull volume in Korean patients with ET who were eligible to be screened for MRgFUS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In screening 318 ET patients, we evaluated patterns of skull density and skull volume according to age and sex. Fifty patients with ET were treated with MRgFUS. We investigated the effects of SDR and skull volume on treatment parameters and the outcomes of ET. RESULTS: The mean SDR of the 318 ET patients was 0.45±0.11, and that for skull volume was 315.74±40.95 cm³. The male patients had a higher SDR than female patients (p=0.047). Skull volume significantly decreased with aging. SDR and skull volume exhibited a linear negative relationship. Among therapeutic parameters, maximal temperature was positively related to SDR, while sonication number was not related to either SDR or skull volume. Tremor outcome was also not related to SDR or skull volume. CONCLUSION: SDR varied widely from 0.11 to 0.73, and men had a higher SDR. Therapeutic parameters and clinical outcomes were not affected by SDR or skull volume.


Subject(s)
Aging , Essential Tremor , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Skull , Sonication , Tremor , Ultrasonography
9.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 7(1): 24-29, ene. 22, 2018. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119249

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to observe the penetration of an aqueous solution into the root canal dentin under sonic activation and ultrasonic activation. Materials and Method: this study consisted of experimental in vitro research. In order to achieve a closed system, the apex of 45 single-rooted teeth was sealed with wax. The step-back technique was manually performed using a K50 apical master file and 3 groups were organized according to the protocol of the final irrigant activation: group I: non-activated chinese ink for 30 seconds, group II: chinese ink sonically activated with EndoActivator for 30 seconds, and group III: chinese ink ultrasonically activated with Varios 350 equipment for 30 seconds. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally, and the samples obtained were observed under a stereomicroscope at 1X magnification in order to be photographed and scanned to calculate the penetration area using the Image J software. The tinted radicular area was evaluated in relation to the total area of the root dentin. The tukey's post-hoc test and ANOVA were used for the statistical analysis (p<0.05). Results: group I and II obtained 9.13 percent and 9.42 percent penetration respectively, while in group III the highest degree of dye infiltration was achieved (13.9 percent), being statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusions: ultrasonic activation produced a significantly higher penetration of the dye when compared to conventional activation and sonic activation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/administration & dosage , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Sonication , Ultrasonics , Intervention Studies , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716987

ABSTRACT

Lack of a region-specific brain stimulation modality having both spatial specificity and depth penetration has limited clinicians to explore novel non-pharmacological treatment options in neurorehabilitation. Focused ultrasound (FUS) has shown excitatory and suppressive modulatory effects on neural tissues in both central and peripheral nervous systems by transcranially delivering low-intensity highly focused acoustic pressure waves to region-specific neural structures in a completely non-invasive fashion. This emerging technique, with exquisite spatial selectively and depth penetration, is considered as a new mode of brain stimulation that may significantly improve existing brain stimulation modalities. This review aims to provide the perspectives of FUS-mediated brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation, along with potential pitfalls and cautions that need to be taken into consideration. When combined with the intravascular introduction of microbubble-based ultrasound contrast agents, the technique adds therapeutic potentials in delivering drug/genes/cells across the blood-brain barrier, which may open new opportunities for neurorehabilitation. Efforts are being made to construct FUS devices appropriate for routine clinical use, to investigate its fundamental mechanisms, and to optimize the sonication parameters. Repeated administration of the technique for inducing neuroplasticity, including the assessment of long-term safety, is warranted to reveal its utility in neurorehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Contrast Media , Neurological Rehabilitation , Neuronal Plasticity , Peripheral Nervous System , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sonication , Ultrasonography
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of sonication technique for microbiological diagnosis and the sterility of the recycled autoclaved femoral components from infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using a sonication method. METHODS: Nineteen femoral implants explanted from patients with infected TKA were sterilized with a standard autoclave method. Standard culture of the fluid before and after sonication of the sterilized implants was performed to detect pathogenic microorganisms. Additional experiments were performed to evaluate the sterility of the recycled implant by inducing artificial biofilm formation. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was inoculated into 10 implants and sterilization in a standard autoclave was performed, and then the fluid was cultured before and after sonication. RESULTS: Two of the 19 sterilized implants were positive for growth of bacteria after sonication, whereas no growth was detected in the cultured fluid from the sterilized implants before sonication. The bacteria were Staphylococcus species in all two cases. In one of 10 implants inoculated with MRSA, the culture was positive for growth of bacteria both before and after sonication. However, Staphylococcus epidermidis was cultured from both occasions and thus this implant was thought to be contaminated. CONCLUSIONS: We found sonication for identification of pathogens could be helpful, but this finding should be interpreted carefully because of the possibility of contamination. Sterilization of an infected femoral implant with an autoclave method could be a good method for using the temporary articulating antibiotic spacer in two-stage revision arthroplasty.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Bacteria , Biofilms , Diagnosis , Humans , Infertility , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Methods , Sonication , Staphylococcus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Sterilization
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716337

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare efficacy, sonication energy efficiency, treatment time and safety of magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) and those of ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) for ablation of uterine fibroids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 43 patients with 44 symptomatic uterine fibroids treated with MRgHIFU and 51 patients with 68 symptomatic uterine fibroids treated with USgHIFU. After therapy, contrast-enhanced MRI was conducted and complete ablation was defined as 100% non-perfused volume (NPV) of fibroids. Patients with completely ablated fibroids were selected for the comparison of the treatment data and sonication parameters between MRgHIFU and USgHIFU treated groups. RESULTS: Thirteen completely ablated fibroids in 10 patients (23.3%, 10/43) were achieved with MRgHIFU and 28 completely ablated fibroids in 22 patients (43.1%, 22/51) were achieved with USgHIFU. In completely ablated fibroids, the energy-efficiency factor (EEF) was 5.1 ± 3.0 J/mm3 and 4.7 ± 2.5 J/mm3 in the MRgHIFU and USgHIFU, respectively (p = 0.165). There was a negative linear correlation between EEF and the NPV of fibroids for MRgHIFU (p = 0.016) and USgHIFU (p = 0.001). The mean treatment time was 174.5 ± 42.2 minutes and 114.4 ± 39.2 minutes in the MRgHIFU and USgHIFU procedures, respectively (p = 0.021). There were no severe adverse events and major complications after treatment. CONCLUSION: MRgHIFU and USgHIFU are safe and effective with the equivalent energy efficiency for complete ablation of fibroids. USgHIFU has shorter treatment time than MRgHIFU.


Subject(s)
High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation , Humans , Leiomyoma , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Sonication , Ultrasonography
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in gene expression after incubation of cells with proteins released from different silk mat layers. METHODS: A silk cocoon from Bombyx mori was separated into four layers of equal thickness. The layers were numbered from 1 to 4 (from the inner to the outer layer). The proteins were released by sonication of a silk mat layer in normal saline. The concentration of proteins was determined by spectrophotometry. They were incubated with RAW264.7 cells, and changes in the expression of genes were evaluated by cDNA microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: Layer 1 and 4 groups had higher protein concentrations compared to those in layer 2 and 3 groups. The genes associated with inflammation and angiogenesis showed significantly higher expression in layer 1 and 4 groups. The results of qRT-PCR were in agreement with those of the cDNA microarray analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The silk mat from the middle portion of the silkworm cocoon yielded a lower protein release and caused an insignificant change in the expression of genes that are associated with inflammation and angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inducing Agents , Bombyx , Gene Expression , Inflammation , Macrophages , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Silk , Sonication , Spectrophotometry
14.
Ultrasonography ; : 378-384, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731011

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish a method for ultrasound (US) contrast agent synthesis and to evaluate the characteristics of the synthesized US contrast agent. METHODS: A US contrast agent, composed of liposome and sulfur hexafluoride (SF₆), was synthesized by dissolving 21 μmol 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, C₄₀H₈₀NO₈P), 9 μmol cholesterol, and 1.9 μmol of dihexadecylphosphate (DCP, [CH₃(CH₂)15O]₂P(O)OH) in chloroform. After evaporation in a warm water bath and drying for 12-24 hours, the contrast agent was synthesized using the sonication process by the addition of a buffer and SF₆ gas. The size distribution of the bubbles was analyzed using dynamic light scattering measurement methods. The degradation curve was evaluated by assessing the change in the number of contrast agent bubbles using light microscopy immediately, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 hours after synthesis. The echogenicity of the synthesized microbubbles was compared with commercially available microbubbles (SonoVue, Bracco). RESULTS: contrast agent was synthesized successfully using an evaporation-drying-sonication method. Most bubbles had a mean diameter of 154.2 nm and showed marked degradation 24 hours after synthesis. Although no statistically significant differences were observed between SonoVue and the synthesized contrast agent, a difference in echogenicity was observed between the synthesized contrast agent and saline (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: We successfully synthesized a US contrast agent using an evaporation-dryingsonication method. These results may help future research in the fields of anticancer drug delivery, gene delivery, targeted molecular imaging, and targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Baths , Chloroform , Cholesterol , Contrast Media , Drug Delivery Systems , Dynamic Light Scattering , Liposomes , Methods , Microbubbles , Microscopy , Molecular Imaging , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided , Sonication , Sulfur Hexafluoride , Ultrasonography , Water
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(5): 468-475, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828141

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To compare cultured microorganisms identified on endotracheal tubes biofilms through sonication technique with traditional tracheal aspirate collected at extubation of pediatric intensive care unit patients. Methods Demographic and epidemiological data were analyzed to identify factors possibly related with the microbiological profile of the two collection methods. Associations between categorical and continuous variables were analyzed using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test, or Student's t test. p-Value <0.05 were considered significant. Results Thirty endotracheal tubes and tracheal aspirates samples from 27 subjects were analyzed. Only one patient presented the clinical diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Overall, 50% of bacteria were Gram-negative bacilli, followed by Gram-positive bacteria in 37%, and fungi in 10%. No statistically significant difference on the distribution of Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria (p = 0.996), and fungi (p = 0.985) were observed between the collection methods. Pseudomonas spp. was the most frequent microorganism identified (23.8%), followed by Streptococcus spp. (18.5%), Acinetobacter spp. (15.9%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (11.2%), and Klebsiella spp. (8.6%). Concordant results between methods amounted to 83.3%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii showed carbapenem resistance in 50% and 43.7% of the isolates, respectively. In general, cultures after endotracheal tubes sonication (non-centrifuged sonication fluid and centrifuged sonication fluid) yielded bacteria with higher rates of antimicrobial resistance compared to tracheal aspirates cultures. Additionally, in 12 subjects (40%), we observed discrepancies regarding microbiologic profiles of cultures performed using the collection methods. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that sonication technique can be applied to ET biofilms to identify microorganisms attached to their surface with a great variety of species identified. However, we did not find significant differences in comparison with the traditional tracheal aspirate culture approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Sonication/methods , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Biofilms/growth & development , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/microbiology , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Reference Values , Time Factors , Trachea/microbiology , Colony Count, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Reproducibility of Results , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Length of Stay , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-651481

ABSTRACT

The effects of C-phycocyanin (C-pc), a phycobiliprotein, on the expression of pro-fibrotic mediators in hyper-tropic scarring such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and α-smooth muscle actins (α-SMA) were investigated in relation to trans-differentiation of fibroblast to myo-fibroblast, an icon of scar formation. C-pc was isolated from Spirulina Platensis extract using sonication method and C-pc concentration was determined by Bennet and Bogorad equation. α-SMA and CTGF levels in wounded primary human dermal fibroblasts were determined by western blot analysis and immuno-fluorescence confocal microscope was employed. Fibroblast contractility was examined by three-dimensional collagen lattice contraction assay. There was an elevation of α-SMA (121%) and CTGF (143%) levels in wound cells as compared with non-wound cells. The does-response profiles of down regulation demonstrated that the maximum inhibitions of α-SMA by 63% (p<0.05) and CTGF by 50% (p<0.1) were achieved by C-pc (6 nM) treated cells. In confocal assay, non-wound fibroblasts exhibited basal level of α-SMA staining, while wounded cells without C-pc treatment showed strong up-regulation of α-SMA by 147% (p<0.05). C-pc (6 nM) inhibited α-SMA expression by 70% (p<0.05) and reduced collagen contraction by 29% (p<0.05). C-pc seemed to lessen the over expression of CTGF, α-SMA, subsequently alleviating the fibrotic contracture. This study suggests the potential application of C-pc to regulation of the expression of pro-fibrotic mediators in scarring process and its potential usage as an efficient means for anti-fibrosis therapy.


Subject(s)
Actins , Blotting, Western , Cicatrix , Collagen , Connective Tissue Growth Factor , Connective Tissue , Contracture , Down-Regulation , Fibroblasts , Humans , Methods , Myofibroblasts , Phycocyanin , Sonication , Spirulina , Up-Regulation , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided high intensity focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) is a newly emerging non-invasive technique for the treatment of uterine fibroids. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical impact of MRgFUS. METHODS: This study examined 157 patients. The high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) utilized in this study was Philips Achieva 1.5 Tesla MR (Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands) and Sonalleve HIFU system. The patients were followed in post-operative Month 1, Month 3, and Month 6 to investigate any change. Then, these were further classified according to the use of uterine stimulant (oxytocin) in parallel, Funaki Type of uterine fibroid, HIFU intensity, and non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio. RESULTS: When the uterine stimulant was utilized, the HIFU intensity was measured at significantly lower levels, compared with the group not using uterine stimulant, and treatment duration was significantly. The NPV ratio was found significantly higher in the group using uterine stimulant. Concerning the correlation between Funaki Type of uterine fibroid and average sonication power, it was found that the closer to Type I, the lower the sonication power, the shorter the treatment duration, and the higher the NPV ratio significantly. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, it was found that the lower the Funaki Types of uterine fibroids, and the higher the NPV ratio immediately after the operation, the larger the uterine fibroid volume decrease and SSS change were. Also, if uterine stimulant was used in parallel in treatment, treatment duration and HIFU intensity could become shorter and lower.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation , Humans , Leiomyoma , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myoma , Oxytocin , Sonication , Ultrasonography
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) should demonstrate catheter colonization of the same organism as the isolate from peripheral blood cultures, by catheter tip culture or by differential time to positivity (DTP) of catheter-drawn blood cultures versus peripheral blood cultures. The purpose of this study was to compare the sonication and the roll-plate methods of catheter tip culture. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-one catheter tips from 122 patients were submitted for catheter tip culture. Distal segments of the catheter were first inoculated using a roll-plate, and then inoculated by sonication. Sonication was performed using a BactoSonic device (Bandelin GmbH, Germany). A total of 1,018 sets of blood cultures from 7 days before to 1 day after catheter removal were analyzed for isolated organisms and DTP. Cutoffs of catheter colonization were > or =15 CFU for the roll-plate method, > or =100 CFU for sonication, and > or =2 h for DTP. RESULTS: Twenty-four catheter tips (14.9%) showed colonization with at least one of the two methods: 21 (13.0%) with the roll-plate method and 22 (13.7%) with sonication. The positivity rates for the two methods showed no significant difference, and the concordance rate for the two methods was 96.9% (k=0.866, P<0.001). Blood culture was positive in 56 episodes in 44 patients, and 14 episodes of CRBSI were diagnosed in 12 patients: 10 by tip culture (two by sonication only) and 8 by DTP. Of the 122 specimens that were negative according to both methods, 4 were from the episodes of CRBSI diagnosed by DTP. CONCLUSION: Roll-plate and sonication methods are comparable in diagnostic sensitivity for catheter colonization. The roll-plate and sonication catheter tip culture methods and DTP are complementary for diagnosis of CRBSI.


Subject(s)
Catheters , Central Venous Catheters , Colon , Diagnosis , Humans , Sonication
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79189

ABSTRACT

To understand the functions of the kidney, the transcriptome of each part of the nephron needs to be profiled using a highly sensitive and unbiased tool. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has revolutionized transcriptomic research, enabling researchers to define transcription activity and functions of genomic elements with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Recently, RNA-seq for polyadenylated messenger RNAs [poly(A)'-mRNAs] and classical microdissection were successfully combined to investigate the transcriptome of glomeruli and 14 different renal tubule segments. A rat kidney is perfused with and incubated in collagenase solution, and the digested kidney was manually dissected under a stereomicroscope. Individual glomeruli and renal tubule segments are identified by their anatomical and morphological characteristics and collected in phosphate-buffered saline. Poly(A)'-tailed mRNAs are released from cell lysate, captured by oligo-dT primers, and made into complementary DNAs (cDNAs) using a highly sensitive reverse transcription method. These cDNAs are sheared by sonication and prepared into adapter-ligated cDNA libraries for Illumina sequencing. Nucleotide sequences reported from the sequencing reaction are mapped to the rat reference genome for gene expression analysis. These RNA-seq transcriptomic data were highly consistent with prior knowledge of gene expression along the nephron. The gene expression data obtained in this work are available as a public Web page (https://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/NephronRNAseq/) and can be used to explore the transcriptomic landscape of the nephron.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , Collagenases , DNA, Complementary , Gene Expression , Gene Library , Genome , Kidney , Microdissection , Nephrons , Rats , Reverse Transcription , RNA , RNA, Messenger , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Sonication , Transcriptome
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202427

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using erythrosine and a green light emitting diode (LED) light source on biofilms of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans attached to resorbable blasted media (RBM) and sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) titanium surfaces in vitro. METHODS: RBM and SLA disks were subdivided into four groups, including one control group and three test groups (referred to as E0, E30, E60), in order to evaluate the effect of PDT on each surface. The E0 group was put into 500 microL of 20 microM erythrosine for 60 seconds without irradiation, the E30 group was put into erythrosine for 60 seconds and was then irradiated with a LED for 30 seconds, and the E60 group was put into erythrosine for 60 seconds and then irradiated with a LED for 60 seconds. After PDT, sonication was performed in order to detach the bacteria, the plates were incubated under anaerobic conditions on brucella blood agar plates for 72 hours at 37degrees C, and the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) was determined. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between the control group and the E30 and E60 groups (P<0.05). A significantly lower quantity of CFU/mL was found in the E30 and E60 groups on both titanium disk surfaces. In confocal scanning laser microscopy images, increased bacterial death was observed when disks were irradiated for a longer period of time. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that PDT using erythrosine and a green LED is effective in reducing the viability of A. actinomycetemcomitans attached to surface-modified titanium in vitro.


Subject(s)
Agar , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Bacteria , Biofilms , Brucella , Erythrosine , Microbial Viability , Microscopy, Confocal , Photochemotherapy , Sonication , Stem Cells , Titanium
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