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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880164


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the causes, treatment options and outcomes of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients with splanchnic venous thrombosis (SVT).@*METHODS@#The clinical diagnosis, treatment and outcomes data of one 26-year-old male ITP patient with SVT as initial manifestation were collected. The possible causes and treatment options of the patients were discussed through literatures review.@*RESULTS@#The result of blood routine tests of the patient showed that Plt(17-38)×10@*CONCLUSION@#ITP combined with large scale of SVT is rare, and it is difficult to cure. It should be pay more attention to the possible thrombosis risk triggered by a transiently increased EOS in the blood stream. Promptly etiological treatment and the balance between anticoagulant therapy and bleeding risks should be taken in clinical practice.

Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Humans , Male , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Splanchnic Circulation , Venous Thrombosis
Am. j. gastroenterol ; 115(1): [18-40], Jan. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117167


Disorders of the mesenteric, portal, and hepatic veins and mesenteric and hepatic arteries have important clinical consequences and may lead to acute liver failure, chronic liver disease, noncirrhotic portal hypertension, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although literature in the field of vascular liver disorders is scant, these disorders are common in clinical practice, and general practitioners, gastroenterologists, and hepatologists may benefit from expert guidance and recommendations for management of these conditions. These guidelines represent the official practice recommendations of the American College of Gastroenterology. Key concept statements based on author expert opinion and review of literature and specific recommendations based on PICO/GRADE analysis have been developed to aid in the management of vascular liver disorders. These recommendations and guidelines should be tailored to individual patients and circumstances in routine clinical practice.

Humans , Splanchnic Circulation/physiology , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Liver Failure, Acute/complications , Liver Circulation
Neonatal Medicine ; : 121-127, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760590


The incidence of cerebral palsy has not decreased despite advances in neonatal care. Preterm infants are at a high risk of cerebral palsy. Moreover, preterm infants might experience permanent neurological sequelae due to injury in the preterm brain. Although the etiology of preterm brain injury is not fully understood, preterm brain injury is strongly associated with abnormal cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. Monitoring systemic blood pressure or arterial oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry is not enough to guarantee proper cerebral perfusion or oxygenation. Early detection of improper cerebral perfusion can prevent irreversible cerebral damage. To decrease brain injury through the early detection of under-perfusion and deoxygenation, other diagnostic modalities are needed. Near-infrared spectroscopy can continuously and noninvasively monitor regional oxygen saturation (rSO₂), which reflects the perfusion and oxygenation status of tissues at bedside. Near-infrared spectroscopy represents a balance between tissue oxygen supply and demand. Cerebral rSO₂ monitoring has been used most frequently in neonatal cardiac surgery to monitor cerebral oxygenation and prevent hypoxic damage or shock. Recently, cerebral, renal, or splanchnic rSO₂ in neonates is frequently monitored. The progression of a disease, brain injury, and death can be prevented by detecting changes in rSO₂ values using near-infrared spectroscopy. In this article, the basic principles, usefulness, and applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in neonates are discussed.

Blood Pressure , Brain , Brain Injuries , Cerebral Palsy , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Oximetry , Oxygen , Perfusion , Shock , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Splanchnic Circulation , Thoracic Surgery
Neonatal Medicine ; : 78-84, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714582


PURPOSE: To investigate the hemodynamic risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), we analyzed the characteristics of descending aorta (DA) blood flow in preterm neonates, who later developed NEC. METHODS: This was an observational case-control study on 53 preterm neonates at a tertiary referral center. Clinical and echocardiographic data were collected from 23 preterm neonates with NEC (NEC group), and compared with those of 30 preterm neonates without NEC (control group). Echocardiography was done at a median (interquartile range) of 5 (3–9) days after birth and 2 (1–2.5) days before the diagnosis of NEC. RESULTS: Basic clinical characteristics including gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, breast feeding status, use of umbilical catheters, and mode of invasive ventilator care were similar between the groups. Compared with the control group, the lowest diastolic velocity of DA was significantly decreased, whereas the diastolic reverse flow and the ratio of diastolic reverse to systolic forward flows were significantly increased in the NEC group. In addition, the resistive index (RI) of DA was significantly increased in the NEC group and showed a positive association with the development of NEC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that increasing RI of DA was an independent risk factor for the development of NEC (P=0.008). CONCLUSION: Significant changes in DA flow characteristics including decreased diastolic velocity and increased diastolic reverse flow along with increased peripheral vascular resistance were observed before the development of NEC in preterm neonates. These findings may help clinicians stratify in advance neonates at a risk of developing NEC and may help improve outcomes in these neonates.

Aorta, Thoracic , Apgar Score , Birth Weight , Breast Feeding , Case-Control Studies , Catheters , Critical Care , Diagnosis , Echocardiography , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing , Gestational Age , Hemodynamics , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Logistic Models , Parturition , Risk Factors , Splanchnic Circulation , Tertiary Care Centers , Vascular Resistance , Ventilators, Mechanical
Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. 2017; 38 (6): 42-47
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-187555


Background and Objectives: Visceral thrombosis especially hepatic vein thrombosis deteriorates the disease in ciniiotic patients. Thrombophilic genotypes are seen in most cirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis. The aim of this study is the comparison of thrombophilic genes frequency in cirrhotic patients with splanchnic veins thrombosis versus cirrhotic patients without thrombosis

Materials and Methods: In a case - control study, we studied 100 patients with hepatic cirrhosis in Tabriz Imam Reza hospital after achieving inclusion criteria in the form of two groups [with and without visceral veins thrombosis]. The frequency of genetic polymorphism of thrombophilia in two groups of cirrhotic patients was assessed

Results: The mean age of the patients was 48.1 +/-18.1 years which were in the range of 15 to 85 years. 51 [51%] of patients were male and 49 [49%] were female. Thrombosis was present in portal vein in 24% of patients, in superior mesenteric vein in 7% of patients, in splenic vein in 14% and in 5% of patients in potal and splenic veins. There was no significant difference between two groups in G20210A, C677T, A1298C and PAH genes polymorphism [P=6.82, P-0.70, P-0.78 respectively]

Conclusion: With regard to the non-significant difference in frequency of thrombophilic gene polymorphism in two groups, we cannot assume prophylactic actions in cirrhotic patients for visceral vein thrombosis but we recommend more multicentric studies with more number of cases for clarifying the topic

Adult , Adolescent , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombophilia/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis , Splanchnic Circulation , Polymorphism, Genetic , Case-Control Studies
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(1): 69-77, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777331


ABSTRACT Background The unique positioning of the patient at steep Trendelenburg with prolonged and increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during robotic radical prostatectomy may increase the risk of splanchnic ischemia. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of IAP and steep Trendelenburg position on the level of ischemia modified albumin (IMA) and to test if serum IMA levels might be used as a surrogate marker for possible covert ischemia during robotic radical prostatectomies. Patients and Methods Fifty ASA I-II patients scheduled for elective robotic radical prostatectomy were included in this investigation. Exclusion criteria The patients were excluded from the study when an arterial cannulation could not be accomplished, if the case had to be converted to open surgery or if the calculated intraoperative bleeding exceeded 300ml. All the patients were placed in steep (45 degrees) Trendelenburg position following trocar placement. Throughout the operation the IAP was maintained between 11-14mmHg. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO) were continuously monitored before the induction and throughout the surgery. Blood gases, electrolytes, urea, creatinine, alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST) were recorded. Additionally, IMA levels were measured before, during and after surgery. Results (1) MAP, CO, lactate and hemoglobin (Hb) did not significantly change in any period of surgery (p>0.05); (2) sodium (p<0.01), potassium (p<0.05) and urea (p<0.05) levels decreased at postoperative period, and no significant changes at creatinine, AST, ALT levels were observed in these patients; (3) At the end of surgery (180 min) pCO2, pO2, HCO3 and BE did not change compared to after induction values (p>0.05) but mild acidosis was present in these patients (p<0.01 vs. after induction); (4) IMA levels were found to be comparable before induction (0.34±0.04), after induction (0.31±0.06) ...

Humans , Male , Aged , Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial/methods , Pressure , Prostatectomy/methods , Patient Positioning/methods , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial/adverse effects , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Reference Values , Splanchnic Circulation , Time Factors , Blood Gas Analysis , Serum Albumin , Cardiac Output , Biomarkers/blood , Analysis of Variance , Laparoscopy/methods , Head-Down Tilt , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Arterial Pressure , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Serum Albumin, Human , Hemodynamics , Ischemia/etiology , Middle Aged
ARS med. (Santiago, En línea) ; 41(3): 27-33, 2016. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016260


A pesar de los grandes avances en la cardiología en el siglo XX y XXI, la insuficiencia cardiaca sigue suponiendo la principal causa de hospitalización en las personas ancianas y presentando un pronóstico ominoso. Además, a pesar de los múltiples estudios sobre nuevas dianas farmacológicas, apenas hemos avanzado en el campo del tratamiento, tal vez porque aún existen lagunas en su fisiopatología. No debemos olvidar que la insuficiencia cardiaca es un compendio de signos y síntomas que engloban múltiples órganos y sistemas. Mucho se está investigando sobre la relación entre riñón y corazón en forma de síndrome cardiorrenal. Algo cada vez más en boga es el papel del abdomen en la disfunción orgánica de la insuficiencia cardiaca. En ese sentido, el sistema venoso contiene el 70 por ciento del volumen sanguíneo, siendo almacenado en su mayor parte dentro de las vísceras abdominales. Un aumento del tono simpático supone aumento intenso del retorno venoso tan importante como para aumentar las presiones de llenado y justificar una descompensación cardíaca. La congestión sistémica determina un aumento en la presión intraabdominal que está correlacionada con la disfunción renal en la insuficiencia cardíaca avanzada. La hipoperfusión tisular intestinal supone microtraslocación bacteriana promoviendo el status proinflamatorio típico de este síndrome. La visión holística e integrada de la insuficiencia cardiaca puede suponer un avance tanto en la estratificación del riesgo como en las estrategias terapéuticas. Grandes pasos se están dando en este sentido con estudios sobre la ultrafiltración, paracentesis, diálisis peritoneal, suero hipertónico o fármacos adsorbentes del sodio.(AU)

Despite the great progress in Cardiology during the last century, heart failure keeps being the main cause of hospitalization among elderly, with an awful prognosis. In spite of multiple studies about drug targets, we have hardly made progress regarding the treatment, maybe because there are gaps concerning physiopathology. Heart failure is a set of signs and symptoms encompassing multiple organs and systems. Lots of studies about cardiorenal syndrome are being published. In this sense, abdominal contribution to organic dysfunction in heart failure is becoming a rising topic. Therefore, venous system contains 70 percent of the total blood volume, mostly in splanchnic capacitance veins. Sympathetic stimulation suppose an important shift of blood from splanchnic veins to effective circulatory volume, rising increasing filling pressures and justifying acute decompensated heart failure. Systemic congestion may lead to a state of increased intra-abdominal pressure which is correlated with renal dysfunction in advanced heart failure. Tisular hypoperfusion leads to bacterial translocation triggering systemic inflammation typical of heart failure. This holyistic vision may suppose an important progress on risk stratification and treatment strategies. Among those under investigation are ultrafiltration, paracentesis peritoneal dialyisis, hypertonic saline or oral sodium binders.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Cardio-Renal Syndrome , Splanchnic Circulation , Abdomen , Heart , Heart Diseases
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215143


In cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplantation, reperfusion of a liver graft typically increases portal venous blood flow (PVF) because of a decrease in resistance in the liver graft to the PVF and underlying hyperdynamic splanchnic circulation, which develops due to liver cirrhosis complicated by portal hypertension and persists even after successful liver transplantation. If the liver graft has enough capacity to accommodate the increased PVF, the shear stress inflicted on the sinusoidal endothelial cells of the graft promotes hepatic regeneration; otherwise, small-for-size syndrome (SFSS) develops, leading to poor graft function and graft failure. In particular, a partial graft transplanted to patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation has less capacity to accommodate the enhanced PVF than a whole liver graft. Thus, the clinical conditions that the partial graft encounters determine either hepatic regeneration or development of SFSS. Consistent with this, this review will discuss the two conflicting effects of portal hyperperfusion (hepatic regeneration vs. portal hyperperfusion injury) on the partial grafts in cirrhotic patients suffering from hyperdynamic splanchnic circulation, in addition to normal physiology and pathophysiology of hepatic hemodynamics.

Endothelial Cells , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypertension, Portal , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Regeneration , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Living Donors , Physiology , Regeneration , Reperfusion , Splanchnic Circulation , Transplants
Acta cir. bras ; 30(6): 407-413, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749649


PURPOSE: Vogt´s antioxidant solution (red blood cells, Ringer's solution, sodium bicarbonate, mannitol, allopurinol and 50% glucose) or its modification including hydroxyethyl starch (HES) were tested for the prevention of splanchnic artery occlusion shock. METHODS: Seventy rats were distributed in treatment (3), control (1), and sham (3) groups. Ischemia and reperfusion were induced by celiac, superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric arteries occlusion for 40 min, followed by 60 min reperfusion or sham procedures. Controls received saline, both treatment and sham groups received the Vogt's solution, modified Vogt's solution (replacing Ringer's solution by HES), or HES. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), ileal malondialdehyde (MDA) and plasmatic MDA were determined, and a histologic grading system was used. RESULTS: At reperfusion, MABP dropped in all I/R groups. Only HES treatment was able to restore final MABP to the levels of sham groups. Plasmatic MDA did not show differences between groups. Ileum MDA was significantly higher in the control and treatment groups as compared to the sham group. Histology ranking was higher in the only in control group. CONCLUSIONS: Hydroxyethyl starch was able to prevent hemodynamic shock but not intestinal lesions. Both treatments with Vogt's solutions did not show any improvement. .

Animals , Male , Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives/pharmacology , Mesenteric Arteries/drug effects , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/prevention & control , Plasma Substitutes/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives/therapeutic use , Ileum/blood supply , Ileum/pathology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Isotonic Solutions/pharmacology , Isotonic Solutions/therapeutic use , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Mesenteric Arteries/pathology , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/pathology , Plasma Substitutes/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Splanchnic Circulation/drug effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Clinics ; 70(6): 446-452, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749784


OBJECTIVES: Brain death is typically followed by autonomic changes that lead to hemodynamic instability, which is likely associated with microcirculatory dysfunction and inflammation. We evaluated the role of the microcirculation in the hemodynamic and inflammatory events that occur after brain death and the effects of autonomic storm inhibition via thoracic epidural blockade on mesenteric microcirculatory changes and inflammatory responses. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Brain death was induced via intracranial balloon inflation. Bupivacaine (brain death-thoracic epidural blockade group) or saline (brain death group) infusion via an epidural catheter was initiated immediately before brain death induction. Sham-operated animals were used as controls (SH group). The mesenteric microcirculation was analyzed via intravital microscopy, and the expression of adhesion molecules was evaluated via immunohistochemistry 180 min after brain death induction. RESULTS: A significant difference in mean arterial pressure behavior was observed between the brain death-thoracic epidural blockade group and the other groups, indicating that the former group experienced autonomic storm inhibition. However, the proportion of perfused small vessels in the brain death-thoracic epidural blockade group was similar to or lower than that in the brain death and SH groups, respectively. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 was similar between the brain death-thoracic epidural blockade and brain death groups but was significantly lower in the SH group than in the other two groups. The number of migrating leukocytes in the perivascular tissue followed the same trend for all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although thoracic epidural blockade effectively inhibited the autonomic storm, it did not affect mesenteric hypoperfusion or inflammation induced by brain death. .

Animals , Male , Autonomic Nervous System/blood supply , Brain Death , Hemodynamics/physiology , Microcirculation/physiology , Splanchnic Circulation/physiology , Anesthesia, Epidural , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Autonomic Nervous System/physiopathology , Corticosterone/blood , Cytokines/blood , Inflammation/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar
Medical Principles and Practice. 2014; 23 (5): 413-420
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-149670


To evaluate the influence of stroke volume variation [SVV]-based goal-directed therapy [GDT] on splanchnic organ functions and postoperative complications in orthopedic patients. Eighty patients scheduled for major orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to one of two equal groups to receive either intraoperative volume therapy guided by SVV [GDT] or standard fluid management [control]. In the SVV group, patients received colloid boluses of 4 ml/kg to maintain an SVV <10% when in the supine position or an SVV <14% if prone. In the control group, fluids were given to maintain a mean arterial pressure >65 mm Hg, a heart rate <100 bpm, a central venous pressure of 8-14 mm Hg, and a urine output >0.5 ml/kg/h. Intraoperative organ perfusion, hemodynamic data, hospitalization, postoperative complications, and mortality were recorded. The heart rate at the end of surgery was significantly lower [p < 0.05], there were fewer hypotensive episodes [p < 0.05], the arterial and gastric intramucosal pH were higher [p < 0.05 for both], the gastric intramucosal PCO2 was lower [p < 0.05], the intraoperative infused colloids and the total infused volume were lower [p < 0.05 for both], and the postoperative time to flatus was shorter [p < 0.05] in the GDT group than in the control group. No differences in the length of hospital stay, complications, or mortality were found between the groups. SVV-based GDT during major orthopedic surgery reduced the volume of the required intraoperative infused fluids, maintained intraoperative hemodynamic stability, and improved the perioperative gastrointestinal function

Humans , Male , Female , Stroke Volume , Splanchnic Circulation , Orthopedics , Postoperative Complications
Clinics ; 68(4): 457-462, abr. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674247


OBJECTIVES: Intestinal neovascularization and abnormal abdominal arterial flow rates have been reported in Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate Doppler sonography as a method for assessing Crohn's disease activity based on changes in splanchnic hemodynamics. METHODS: Forty-eight patients with Crohn's disease, 22 healthy volunteers and 12 patients with irritable bowel syndrome were evaluated by Doppler ultrasound for flow parameters of the aorta and superior mesenteric artery. This evaluation included the cross-sectional area, maximum flow volume, peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, resistance and the pulsatility index. Disease activity was classified according to the Crohn's disease activity index. RESULTS: Most measurements in the aorta and superior mesenteric artery were significantly different between Crohn's disease patients and both control groups. Only the aortic maximum flow volume (CC = 0.37, p = 0.009) and aortic peak systolic velocity (CC = 0.30, p = 0.035) showed a significant positive correlation with the Crohn's disease activity index. The determination of cut-off points for the aortic maximum flow volume and peak systolic velocity measurements increased the sensitivity (80 and 75% for flow volume and velocity, respectively), specificity (57 and 75%), accuracy (67 and 75%) and positive (57 and 68%) and negative (80 and 81%) predictive values. These cut-off values permitted the correct classification of most of the patients with Crohn's disease with respect to disease activity. None of the superior mesenteric artery measurements were able to discriminate patients in relation to disease activity. CONCLUSION: The aortic maximum flow volume and peak systolic velocity levels estimated by Doppler sonography reflected disease activity in Crohn's disease. Doppler sonography of the aorta is therefore a novel noninvasive adjunct method that may be ...

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Crohn Disease , Splanchnic Circulation/physiology , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color/methods , Aorta/physiopathology , Aorta , Blood Flow Velocity/physiology , Crohn Disease/physiopathology , Epidemiologic Methods , Hemodynamics , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/physiopathology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/physiopathology , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Predictive Value of Tests , Pulsatile Flow
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1771-1778, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350427


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Based on the observation that coagulation necrosis occurs in the majority of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) patients, it is clear that intestinal ischemia is a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of NEC. However, the published studies regarding the role of intestinal ischemia in NEC are controversial. The aim of this paper is to review the current studies regarding intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction and NEC, and try to elucidate the exact role of intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction in NEC.</p><p><b>DATA SOURCES</b>The studies cited in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in Medline and PubMed. The search terms used were "intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction" and "neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis".</p><p><b>STUDY SELECTION</b>Mainly original milestone articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators in the field were selected.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Immature regulatory control of mesentery circulation makes the neonatal intestinal microvasculature vulnerable. When neonates are subjected to stress, endothelial cell dysfunction occurs and results in vasoconstriction of arterioles, inflammatory cell infiltration and activation in venules, and endothelial barrier disruption in capillaries. The compromised vasculature increases circulation resistance and therefore decreases intestinal perfusion, and may eventually progress to intestinal necrosis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Intestinal ischemia plays an important role through the whole course of NEC. New therapeutic agents targeting intestinal ischemia, like HB-EGF, are promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of NEC.</p>

Endothelin-1 , Physiology , Endothelium, Vascular , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Therapeutic Uses , Intestines , Ischemia , Microcirculation , Physiology , Nitric Oxide , Physiology , Splanchnic Circulation
Clinics ; 67(1): 69-75, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610626


OBJECTIVE: Experimental findings support clinical evidence that brain death impairs the viability of organs for transplantation, triggering hemodynamic, hormonal, and inflammatory responses. However, several of these events could be consequences of brain death-associated trauma. This study investigated microcirculatory alterations and systemic inflammatory markers in brain-dead rats and the influence of the associated trauma. METHOD: Brain death was induced using intracranial balloon inflation; sham-operated rats were trepanned only. After 30 or 180 min, the mesenteric microcirculation was observed using intravital microscopy. The expression of Pselectin and ICAM-1 on the endothelium was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The serum cytokine, chemokine, and corticosterone levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. White blood cell counts were also determined. RESULTS: Brain death resulted in a decrease in the mesenteric perfusion to 30 percent, a 2.6-fold increase in the expression of ICAM-1 and leukocyte migration at the mesentery, a 70 percent reduction in the serum corticosterone level and pronounced leukopenia. Similar increases in the cytokine and chemokine levels were seen in the both the experimental and control animals. CONCLUSION: The data presented in this study suggest that brain death itself induces hypoperfusion in the mesenteric microcirculation that is associated with a pronounced reduction in the endogenous corticosterone level, thereby leading to increased local inflammation and organ dysfunction. These events are paradoxically associated with induced leukopenia after brain damage.

Animals , Male , Rats , Brain Death/physiopathology , Corticosterone/blood , Hemodynamics/physiology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Splanchnic Circulation/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/physiology , Leukopenia/blood , Leukopenia/etiology , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Microcirculation/physiology , P-Selectin/physiology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 704-708, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187688


Gastrointestinal ischemia happens by splanchnic artery stenosis, thrombus, or physiological vasoconstriction during a low-blood-stream state. However, even if arterial stenosis exists in the upper gastrointestinal tract, ischemic injury is very rare due to rich collateral circulation. The authors experienced 92-year-old female patient with vomiting, epigastric pain, and hematemesis. An electrocardiogram showed paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. The patient had diffuse and segmental mucosal edema, erythema, and hemorrhage in the second part of the duodenum on esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). On abdomen computed-tomography angiography, stenosis of the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries was observed, and segmental concentric wall thickness was seen from the proximal second portion of the duodenum to the proximal jejunum. The patient was treated with PPI and fluid therapy for one week. At follow-up EGD, the mucosa had improved compared with the previous EGD examination. In conclusion, ischemic injury rarely affects the duodenum and jejunum; however, it can develop in the presence of inducing factors.

Abdomen , Angiography , Arteries , Atrial Fibrillation , Collateral Circulation , Constriction, Pathologic , Duodenitis , Duodenum , Edema , Electrocardiography , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Enteritis , Erythema , Female , Fluid Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Hematemesis , Hemorrhage , Humans , Ischemia , Jejunum , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Mucous Membrane , Splanchnic Circulation , Thrombosis , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract , Vasoconstriction , Vomiting
Repert. med. cir ; 20(2): 83-91, 2011. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-795524


Debido a la alta incidencia y graves consecuencias que produce, la isquemia mesentérica representa un reto para el terapeuta que la enfrenta. Las consecuencias fisiopatológicas que comprometen muy rápido todo el sistema orgánico, hacen de su diagnóstico precoz no sólo un reto sino la clave del éxito en su manejo. Esta revisión pretende describir en detalle las características de la circulación esplácnica y así mismo revisa las principales estrategias diagnósticas y su manejo.

Mesenteric ischemia is a significant challenge for clinicians because of its high incidence and serious consequences. The pathophysiologic consequences which rapidly involve the entire organ system make its early diagnosis not only a challenge but the key to successful management. This review intends to thoroughly describe the splanchnic circulation and reviews mayor diagnostic and management strategies.

Humans , Ischemia , Mesentery , Splanchnic Circulation , Ischemia/diagnosis
Acta cir. bras ; 25(4): 318-321, July-Aug. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-553236


PURPOSE: To evaluate the histopathology alterations of the intestinal mucosa of rabbits submitted to different times of mesenteric artery ischemia and reperfusion with and without celiac artery collateral circulation supply. METHODS: Two groups of eight male New Zealand white rabbits (weight 2.2-3.5 kg) were used in this study. In the Group 1 animals, the proximal mesenteric artery was occluded for 60 min with an atraumatic vascular clamp, followed by reperfusion for 60 min. In the Group 2 animals the small bowel and mesentery were cut 30cm and 60cm far from the gastroduodenal pyloric transition before the proximal mesenteric artery occlusion. Small bowel biopsies were obtained before ischemia (control), after 30 min and 60 min of mesenteric ischemia and at 30 and 60 min. of mesenteric artery reperfusion. RESULTS: In the Group I animals, the followings histopathology grade results were observed: t1, mean 0.4 + 0.29; t2, mean 1.9 ± 0.38; t3, 1.9 ± 0.33; t4, 1.2 ± 0.36 and t5, 1.2 ± 0.32. Differences between t0 and t2 and between t3 and t4 were statistically significant (p<0.05). Differences between t2 and t3 and t4 and t5 were not significant (p>0.5). In the Group II animals, it was observed: t1, mean 1.6 ± 0.33; t2, 2.4 ± 0.36; t3, 3.0 ± 0.35; t4 3.4 ± 0.31; t5, 3 ± 031. Differences between t0 and t1, t1 and t2, and t2 and t3 were significant (p<0.05). Differences between histopathology grades results of samples t1 to t5 in Group 1 and 2 were statistically significant (p<0.5). CONCLUSION: Microscopic examination of the biopsies revealed significant evidence of worse small bowel wall ischemia-reperfusion lesions by exclusion of the celiac artery collateral circulation supply.

OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações histopatológicas da mucosa intestinal de coelhos submetidos à isquemia-reperfusão com e sem exclusão da circulação mesentérica colateral. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados dois grupos de oito coelhos Nova Zelândia machos com pesos variáveis entre 2,2 e 3,5 kg de peso corpóreo. Nos animais do Grupo 1, a artéria mesentérica proximal foi ocluida por pinçamento atraumático durante 60 min, seguido de reperfusão por 60 min. No Grupo 2 o intestino delgado e o mesentério foram seccionados 30 cm e 60 após a transição pilórica gastroduodenal antes da oclusão da artéria mesentérica cranial. Biópsias da parede intestinal foram obtidas antes da isquemia (controle), após 30 e 60 min. de isquemia. RESULTADOS: No Grupo I foram observados os seguintes graus de lesões: t1,média de 0.4 + 0.29; t2, média 1.9 ± 0.38; t3, 1.9 ± 0.33; t4, 1.2 ± 0.36 e t5, 1.2 ± 0.32. As diferenças entre t0 e t2 e entre t3 e t4 foram significantes (p<0.05). As diferenças entre t2 e t3 e t4 e t5 não foram significantes (p>0.5). No Group II observou-se: t1, média de 1.6 ± 0.33; t2, 2.4 ± 0.36; t3, 3.0 ± 0.35; t4 3.4 ± 0.31; t5, 3 ± 031. As diferenças entre t0 e t1, t1 e t2, e t2 e t3 foram significantes (p<0.05). As diferenças entre os resultados histopatológicos das biopsies de t1 a t5 dos Grupos 1 e 2 foram significantes (p<0.5). CONCLUSÃO: A exclusão da circulação mesentérica colateral agravou significantemente a degeneração histopatológica na isquemia-reperfusão da parede intestinal.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Collateral Circulation , Intestine, Small/blood supply , Mesenteric Arteries/physiology , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/pathology , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Splanchnic Circulation/physiology , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Intestine, Small/pathology
Rev. colomb. cir ; 25(2): 158-163, abr.-jul. 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-560912


Los aneurismas del tronco celíaco son un problema clínico infrecuente. La mayoría de los pacientes son sintomáticos al momento del diagnóstico; sin embargo, ocasionalmente se detectan de manera incidental durante estudios imagenológicos para otras enfermedades. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 54 años con aneurisma sintomático del tronco celíaco, diagnosticado por tomografía e intervenido quirúrgicamente de manera satisfactoria.

Aneurysm of the celiac artery is an uncommon clinical problem; fewer than 180 cases have been reported in the world's medical literature. Most patients are symptomatic at the time of diagnosis. However, occasionally such aneurysms are detected incidentally during diagnostic imaging for other diseases. We present of a 54 years-old man who had a symptomatic celiac artery aneurysm detected by Computed tomography. The patient underwent successful resection of the aneurysm and revascularization of the celiac artery – common hepatic and splenic arteries with use of an PTFE graft.

Humans , Aneurysm , Celiac Artery , Celiac Plexus , Splanchnic Circulation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8336


Portal hypertension (PHT) is associated with hemodynamic changes in intrahepatic, systemic, and portosystemic collateral circulation. Increased intrahepatic resistance and hyperdynamic circulatory alterations with expansion of collateral circulation play a central role in the pathogenesis of PHT. PHT is also characterized by changes in vascular structure, termed vascular remodeling, which is an adaptive response of the vessel wall that occurs in response to chronic changes in the environment such as shear stress. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, also occurs with PHT related in particular to the expansion of portosystemic collateral circulation. The complementary processes of vasoreactivity, vascular remodeling, and angiogenesis represent important targets for the treatment of portal hypertension. Systemic and splanchnic vasodilatation can induce hyperdynamic circulation which is related with multi-organ failure such as hepatorenal syndrome and cirrhotic cadiomyopathy.

Collateral Circulation/physiology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Hemodynamics , Hepatic Stellate Cells/metabolism , Hypertension, Portal/etiology , Liver Circulation/physiology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Splanchnic Circulation/physiology