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1.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(2): 18-24, 20220801.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380292

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la primera causa de muerte. El accidente cerebrovascular isquémico es un problema de salud pública. Objetivos: Determinar las características clínicas de los pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular de tipo isquémico admitidos durante el periodo de ventana terapéutica en el Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital de Clínicas en el periodo 2018 - 2020. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo, transversal. Los sujetos fueron los pacientes de sexo masculino y femenino, mayores de 18 años admitidos en la Unidad de Ictus del Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital de Clínicas en el periodo de ventana terapéutica comprendido entre junio del año 2018 y septiembre del año 2020. Resultados: Se incluyó en el estudio 512 pacientes. La media de edad fue 65 ± 12,1 años. El sexo más frecuente fue el masculino con (58,7%) y la mayoría proceden del Departamento Central (61,3%). Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial (83,3%), el sobrepeso (34,7%) y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (27,3%). Presentaron infarto moderado (41,8%) y la trombólisis fue realizada en el (16%) de los pacientes. Conclusión: Los pacientes que presentaron accidente cerebrovascular de tipo isquémico admitidos en el periodo de ventana terapéutica fueron en su mayoría del sexo masculino, edad media de 65 años, los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial, el sobrepeso y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2, el infarto moderado fue la más frecuente y escasa cantidad recibieron trombólisis.


Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. Ischemic stroke is a public health problem. Objectives: To determine the clinical characteristics of patients with ischemic stroke admitted during the therapeutic window period in the Emergency Department of the Hospital de Clínicas in the period 2018 - 2020. Materials and methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The subjects were male and female patients, over 18 years of age admitted to the Stroke Unit of the Emergency Service of the Hospital de Clínicas in the therapeutic window period between June 2018 and September 2020. Results: Included 512 patients in the study. The mean age was 65 ± 12,1 years. The most frequent sex was male with (58.7%), most of them come from the central department (61.3%). The most frequent risk factors were arterial hypertension (83.3%), overweight (34.7%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (27.3%). They presented moderate infarction (41,8%). Thrombolysis was performed in (16%) of the patients. Conclusion: The patients who presented ischemic stroke admitted in the therapeutic window period were mostly male, mean age 65 years, the most frequent cardiovascular risk factors were arterial hypertension, overweight and mellitus diabetes type 2, moderate infarction was the most frequent and few received thrombolysis.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Overweight , Ischemic Stroke , Hypertension , Cardiovascular Diseases , Public Health , Risk Factors , Cause of Death , Stroke
2.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7645-7661, abr.2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372585

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:identificar o conhecimento de idosos sobre acidente vascular cerebral relacionado à busca pelo atendimento emergencial. Método:revisão integrativa realizada em maio e junho de 2021,na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health, Scientific Eletronic Library Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS e Web of Science, empregados Descritores de Ciências da Saúde, Medical Subject Headings e termos alternativos, publicados em 2016 a 2021.Resultados:compuseram 33 artigos o corpus da revisão, categorizados em duas vertentes: os conhecimentos sobre fatores de risco, prevenção e identificação do AVC; e a busca pelo atendimento precoce no serviço de urgência e emergência. Conclusão:idosos geralmente desconhecema doença e a necessidade de busca precoce doatendimento, o que ressalta a importância de ações de promoção à saúde e orientações relacionadas ao AVC, sejam elas por meio das mídias ou de pessoas que compõem a rede de apoio(AU)


Objective: to identify the knowledge of the elderly about stroke related to the search for emergency care. Method: integrative review carried out in May and June 2021 at the Virtual Health Library, National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS and Web of Science, employees Health Sciences, Medical Subject Headings and alternative terms, published in the years 2016 to 2021. Results: the review corpus comprised 33 articles, categorized into two aspects: knowledge about risk factors, prevention and identification of stroke; and the search for early care in the urgency and emergency service. Conclusion: the elderly are generally unaware of the disease and the need to seek care early, which highlights the importance of health promotion actions and guidelines related to stroke, whether through the media or people who make up the support network.(AU)


Objetivo: identificar el conocimiento de los ancianos sobre el accidente cerebrovascular relacionado con la búsqueda de atención de emergencia. Método: revisión integradora realizada en mayo y junio de 2021 en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina e Institutos Nacionales de Salud, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS y Web of Science, empleados Ciencias de la Salud , Medical Subject Headings y términos alternativos, publicados en los años 2016 a 2021. Resultados: el corpus de revisión comprendió 33 artículos, categorizados en dos aspectos: conocimiento sobre factores de riesgo, prevención e identificación del ictus; y la búsqueda de atención temprana en el servicio de urgencias y emergencias. Conclusión: los ancianos generalmente desconocen la enfermedad y la necesidad de buscar atención temprana, lo que destaca la importancia de las acciones y directrices de promoción de la salud relacionadas con el accidente cerebrovascular, ya sea a través de los medios de comunicación o de las personas que componen la red de apoyo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Stroke , Emergencies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/prevention & control , Ambulatory Care
3.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7540-7552, abr.2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372419

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a cognição e presença de dor em idosos após AVE que residem no interior de Coari, Amazonas. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal e observacional realizado com 50 idosos pós-AVE no município de Coari, Amazonas. A coleta de dados foi realizada no período de outubro e dezembro de 2019 até janeiro de 2020. Resultados: No MEEM, 78,0% (39) apresentam grave déficit cognitivo demonstrando estarem abaixo da nota de corte para analfabetos (≥20). Sobre o teste de fluência verbal, a maioria dos idosos apresentaram dificuldades de linguagem e memória e não conseguiram no tempo estipulado falar e/ou lembrar de nomes de frutas e animais. 72% (36) dos idosos relataram sentir dor, maioria apresentou dor de intensidade moderada a forte 68,0% (34). Os locais mais referidos de dor foram os membros inferiores 26,0% (13). Conclusão: Após o AVE os idosos deste estudo apresentaram consideráveis alterações cognitivas e piora da dor.(AU)


Objective: To evaluate cognition and presence of pain in elderly people after CVA living in the countryside of Coari, Amazonas. Method: This is a cross-sectional and observational study conducted with 50 post-CVA elderly in the municipality of Coari, Amazonas. Data collection was performed in the period from October and December 2019 to January 2020. Results: In the MMSE, 78.0% (39) present severe cognitive deficit demonstrating to be below the cutoff score for illiterate (≥20). On the verbal fluency test, most of the elderly presented language and memory difficulties and were unable in the stipulated time to speak and/or remember names of fruits and animals. 72% (36) of the elderly reported feeling pain, majority presented pain of moderate to strong intensity 68.0% (34). The most referred sites of pain were the lower limbs 26.0% (13). Conclusion: After the CVA, the elderly in this study presented considerable cognitive changes and worsening of pain.(AU)


Objetivo: Evaluar la cognición y la presencia de dolor en ancianos después del ACV que viven en el campo de Coari, Amazonas. Método: Se trata de un estudio transversal y observacional realizado con 50 ancianos post-CVA en el municipio de Coari, Amazonas. La recogida de datos se realizó en el periodo comprendido entre octubre y diciembre de 2019 y enero de 2020. Resultados: En el MMSE, el 78,0% (39) presentan un déficit cognitivo severo demostrando estar por debajo de la puntuación de corte para analfabetos (≥20). En la prueba de fluidez verbal, la mayoría de los niños presentaban dificultades de lenguaje y memoria y no conseguían, en el tiempo estipulado, decir y/o memorizar nombres de frutas y animales. El 72% (36) de los ancianos dijeron sentir dolor, la mayoría presentó dolor de intensidad moderada a fuerte 68,0% (34). Los lugares de dolor más referidos fueron las extremidades inferiores 26,0% (13). Conclusión: Tras el ACV, los ancianos de este estudio presentaron considerables cambios cognitivos y empeoramiento del dolor(AU)


Subject(s)
Pain , Aged , Cognition , Stroke
4.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 38(1): 2-11, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374126

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: La evaluación de la calidad de la atención del ataque cerebrovascular (ACV) es una prioridad para los sistemas de salud, debido a su relación con la disminución de la discapacidad y la muerte. En este estudio se analizan los marcadores de calidad en ACV en un hospital de referencia en Nariño, Colombia. OBJETIVO: Evaluar los marcadores de calidad de atención en ACV en el Hospital Universitario Departamental de Nariño E. S. E., entre junio del 2018 y diciembre del 2019. Como referencia se comparó con los registros de Colombia en la plataforma RES-Q. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de pacientes con ACV atendidos intrahospitalariamente. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante la plataforma RES-Q, en tanto que el análisis se efectuó por medio de estadísticos descriptivos y frecuencias absolutas y relativas y las diferencias con pruebas analíticas. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron 457 pacientes con predominio de ACV isquémico y se llevó a cabo trombólisis endovenosa al 7,2% en el 2018 y al 9,2 % en el 2019, el 27,7 % con tiempo puerta aguja menor a 60 minutos en el 2018 y el 42,8 % en el 2019. Entre los marcadores de calidad, se encontró mejoría en realización de NIHSS, evaluación de disfagia en las primeras 24 horas, realización de doppler carotideo en los primeros siete días. En comparación con Colombia, se encontró un porcentaje inferior en trombólisis endovenosa y trombectomía. La mayoría de los indicadores de atención en ACV es similar al promedio nacional. CONCLUSIONES: La mejoría en el cumplimiento de marcadores de calidad en ACV refleja el impacto de programas de atención en ACV. El monitoreo de los parámetros de calidad permite generar programas para fortalecer la atención integral del ataque cerebrovascular en la región.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of the quality of care for Stroke is a priority for health systems, given its relationship with disability and death. In this study, Stroke quality markers are analyzed in stroke in a referral hospital in Narino, Colombia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the markers of quality of care in stroke in the Hospital Departamental Universitario de Narino E.S.E between June 2018 and December 2019. As a reference, the outcomes were compared with the Colombian registries on RES-Q platform. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of patients treated in-hospital with stroke, data collection was performed using the RES-Q platform. The analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics and absolute and relative frequencies and the differences with analytical tests. RESULTS: 457patients were evaluated, with ischemic stroke predominance, endovenous thrombolysis was performed in 7.2 % in 2018, and 9.2 % in 2019, 27.7 % of patients had door to needle time less than 60 minutes in 2018 and 42.8 % in 2019. Among the quality markers evaluated, an improvement was found in the performance of NIHSS, dysphagia evaluation, and carotid doppler performance in ischemic stroke. Compared with Colombian registry, a lower percentage was found in endovenous thrombolysis and thrombectomy. Most of Stroke Care Markers are similar to national average. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in compliance of standard of Stroke Care Quality Markers reflects the impact of stroke care programs. The monitoring of quality parameters allows the generation of comprehensivestroke care programs in the region.


Subject(s)
Quality of Health Care , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Colombia , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Stroke , Developing Countries
5.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 38(1): 12-22, ene.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374127

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCION: El ataque cerebrovascular (ACV) de etiología isquémica es una patología cuya incidencia y mortalidad aumentaron en la última década. Cuando se maneja oportunamente, mediante trombólisis como terapia inicial, mejora su desenlace y funcionalidad. En el departamento del Tolima (Colombia) no hay registros de esta patología y en el país la bibliografía al respecto es limitada. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar los desenlaces clínicos del manejo agudo con r-tPA en los pacientes que presentaron ACV isquémico en dos instituciones de la ciudad de Ibagué, capital de dicho departamento, entre junio del 2019 y junio del 2020, e identificar los tiempos de atención hospitalaria y las principales variables asociadas con el grupo de pacientes que fallecieron. MATERIALES Y METODOS: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal del manejo del ACV isquémico con r-tPA, en el que se describen las variables sociodemográficas, la escala NIHSS como evaluación neurológica inicial, los tiempos de atención (inicio-aguja, puerta-tac y puerta-aguja), los desenlaces postoperatorios y el Rankin modificado al egreso. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 38 pacientes con una media de 67,37 años, el 60,53 % fueron mujeres. La escala NIHSS al ingreso fue 13,47 puntos (DE 5,24). Los tiempos de atención fueron 183 minutos (DE 72,63) inicio-aguja, 41 minutos (RIQ 17-72) puerta-TAC y 101,50 minutos (RIQ 77 - 137,25) puerta-aguja. La mortalidad fue del 23,68 %. CONCLUSION: La mortalidad y el desenlace funcional del ACV en nuestra población fueron similares a los reportados en la literatura nacional e internacional, sin embargo, es preciso implementar protocolos de atención del infarto cerebral para incrementar el número de pacientes con desenlace favorable, acortando los tiempos de atención en toda la cadena del tratamiento adecuado del infarto cerebral.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Ischemic stroke is a growing disease in the last decade, increasing both its incidence and its mortality. However, timely thrombolysis management as initial therapy can improve both disease progression as well as an individual's functionality. In Tolima, there are no registries of this disease and in Colombia in general, the literature is limited. The objective of this study is to investigate the clinical outcomes of the acute management of ischemic stroke using r-tPA as well as identifying in-hospital treatment times, at two institutions in Ibague between 2019 and 2020. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Using a cross-sectional descriptive study, we describe the management of ischemic stroke using r-tPA, describing sociodemographic variables, NIHSS scale as the initial neurological evaluation, in-hospital treatment times (symptoms-to-needle, door-to-TAC, door-to-needle), the clinical outcomes, and lastly the modified Rankin score upon discharge. RESULTS: We included 38 patients with median age of 67,37 years, 60,53 % were females. The initial average NIHSS scale upon admission was 13,47 (DE 5,24). In-hospital attention time averages were: symptoms-to-needle 183 minutes (DE 72,63), door-to-CAT 41 minutes (RIQ 17-72), and door-to-needle 101,50 minutes (RIQ 77-137,25). Overall the rate of mortality was 23,68 %. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality and functionality outcomes of the stroke population observed was similar to previously reported, both nationally and internationally. However, protocols should be implemented for the timely ischemic stroke management to improve the number of patients with favorable outcomes, by reducing the in-hospital attention times in all areas of the management chain.


Subject(s)
Mortality , Colombia , Stroke
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 173-179, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364376

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Loss of teeth has been associated with neurological and sleep disorders. It is considered to be a predictor of stroke and leads to modifications of airway patency and predisposition to obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To investigate sleep quality, risk of obstructive sleep apnea and excessive sleepiness among post-stroke patients with tooth loss attending the Neurovascular Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo. Methods: The prevalence rates of different types of stroke were assessed among 130 patients with different degrees of tooth loss, along with the presence of sleep disturbances, risk of obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. Results: The prevalence of ischemic stroke was 94.6%, with either no significant disability or slight disability. Our sample had poor sleep quality, and a high risk of obstructive sleep apnea, but without excessive daytime sleepiness. Half of our sample had lost between 9 and 31 teeth, and more than 25% had edentulism. The majority used full removable dental prostheses, and more than half of these individuals slept without removing the prosthesis. Conclusions: We found high prevalence of poor sleep quality and high risk of obstructive sleep apnea among post-stroke patients with tooth loss. This indicates the need for further studies on treating and preventing sleep disturbances in stroke patients with tooth loss.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A perda de dentes tem sido associada a distúrbios neurológicos e do sono. É considerada um preditor de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC), com modificações na permeabilidade das vias aéreas e predisposição à apneia obstrutiva do sono. Objetivo: Investigar a qualidade do sono, o risco de apneia obstrutiva do sono e a sonolência excessiva em pacientes pós-AVC com perda dentária, atendidos na Clínica Neurovascular da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Métodos: O estudo avaliou a prevalência de diferentes tipos de AVC em 130 pacientes com diferentes graus de perda dentária e a presença de distúrbios do sono, risco de apneia obstrutiva do sono e sonolência excessiva. Resultados: A prevalência de AVC isquêmico foi de 94,6%, sem deficiência significativa ou deficiência leve. Nossa amostra tinha má qualidade de sono e alto risco de apneia obstrutiva do sono, sem sonolência diurna excessiva. Metade de nossa amostra perdeu entre nove e 31 dentes, e mais de 25% tiveram edentulismo. A maioria usava próteses dentárias totalmente removíveis e, desses pacientes, mais da metade dormia com elas. Conclusões: Encontramos alta prevalência de má qualidade do sono e alto risco de apneia obstrutiva do sono em pacientes pós-AVC com perda dentária. Isso indica a necessidade de mais estudos sobre o tratamento e a prevenção de distúrbios do sono em pacientes com AVC e perda dentária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Loss/complications , Tooth Loss/etiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Stroke/complications , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Sleep
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 117-124, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364375

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Stroke is a public health problem. For patients with ischemic stroke, venous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy are effective therapeutic options. However, even after the National Stroke Treatment Guidelines were published in 2012, the number of cases treated is still lower than expected. Objective: To identify the determining factors for obtaining access to acute-phase therapies in the state of Espírito Santo (ES) and investigate the profile of stroke patients treated at the Central State Hospital (HEC). Methods: Retrospective data from the medical records of 1078 patients from May 2018 to December 2019 were analyzed. Results: Among the 1,078 patients, 54.9% were men and the most prevalent age group was 60 to 79 years. Systemic arterial hypertension was the main single risk factor. Regarding treatment modality among the patients who arrived at the HEC within the therapeutic window, 47% received some type of acute-phase therapy. Waking up with the deficit was the main contraindication for venous thrombolysis in these cases. Conclusions: Application of the flowchart established by SESA-ES seemed to be effective for enabling responsiveness of care for stroke victims. Public emergency transport services had a fundamental role in this process. In addition, the care provided by the tertiary stroke center provided excellent access to acute-phase therapies. However, despite the efficiency of the service provided at the HEC, it only reached a maximum of 50% of the ES population. This service model therefore needs to be expanded throughout the state.


RESUMO Antecedentes: O acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) é um problema de saúde pública. Nos casos de AVC isquêmico, a trombólise venosa e a trombectomia mecânica são efetivas opções terapêuticas de fase aguda. Entretanto, mesmo com a Diretriz Nacional de AVC publicada desde 2012, o número de casos tratados ainda é baixo. Objetivo: Apurar os fatores determinantes para o acesso às terapias de fase aguda na realidade espírito-santense e investigar o perfil dos pacientes de AVC atendidos no Hospital Estadual Central de Vitória (HEC). Métodos: O presente estudo analisou dados retrospectivos de prontuários de 1.078 pacientes no período de maio de 2018 a dezembro de 2019. Resultados: Dos 1.078 pacientes, 54,9% eram homens e a faixa etária mais prevalente foi a de 60 a 79 anos. A hipertensão arterial sistêmica foi o principal fator de risco isolado. Quanto ao tratamento, identificou-se que entre os pacientes que chegaram ao HEC na janela terapêutica 47% receberam terapia de fase aguda e que acordar com o déficit foi a principal contraindicação para trombólise venosa nesses casos. Conclusões: As análises demonstraram que a aplicação do fluxograma estabelecido pela Secretaria de Estado da Saúde do Espírito Santo parece ser eficaz na agilidade de atendimento das vítimas de AVC e que o Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência tem um papel fundamental nesse processo. Além disso, a assistência de um centro terciário de AVC permite acesso às terapias de fase aguda com excelência. Todavia, mesmo que o modelo de serviço prestado no HEC seja eficiente, ele atinge no máximo 50% da população do ES, sendo necessária a sua ampliação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Stroke , Thrombolytic Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Middle Aged
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 125-128, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364367

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Language tests are important in the assessment and follow up of people with aphasia (PWA). However, language assessment in the low literacy population is still a challenge. Objective: To investigate whether a formal evaluation of aphasia is able to distinguish the neurological effect from the effect of low educational level in people with post-stroke aphasia. Methods: The sample consisted of a group of 30 aphasic subjects (AG) and a control group (CG) of 36 individuals, both with an educational level of 1-4 years. The Brazilian Montreal-Toulouse Language Assessment battery was applied to all subjects. Results: There were statistically significant differences between the groups in 19 out of the 20 tasks analyzed. Conclusions: These results suggest that formal evaluation procedures are able to detect language disorders resulting from stroke, even in subjects with low educational level.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Os testes de linguagem são importantes para a avaliação e o acompanhamento de pacientes afásicos. Apesar disso, a avaliação de linguagem em indivíduos com baixa escolaridade ainda é um desafio. Objetivo: Investigar se a avaliação formal da afasia é capaz de diferenciar o efeito da lesão neurológica versus o efeito da baixa escolaridade em pacientes afásicos, acometidos por acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Métodos: A amostra foi composta de um grupo de 30 sujeitos afásicos (AG) e um grupo controle (CG) de 36 indivíduos, todos com um a quatro anos de escolaridade. A Bateria Montreal-Toulouse de Avaliação da Linguagem foi administrada a todos os participantes. Resultados: Das 20 tarefas analisadas, 19 apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os grupos. Conclusões: Os resultados sugerem que procedimentos formais de avaliação são capazes de identificar as alterações linguísticas ocasionadas por um AVC, também em pacientes com baixa escolaridade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke/complications , Aphasia/diagnosis , Aphasia/etiology , Aphasia/pathology , Brazil , Educational Status , Language Tests
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 112-116, Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364362

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: There is a high demand for stroke patient data in the public health systems of middle and low-income countries. Objective: To develop a stroke databank for integrating clinical or functional data and benchmarks from stroke patients. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional, prospective study. A tool was developed to collect all clinical data during hospitalizations due to stroke, using an electronic editor of structured forms that was integrated with electronic medical records. Validation of fields in the electronic editor was programmed using a structured query language (SQL). To store the results from SQL, a virtual table was created and programmed to update daily. To develop an interface between the data and user, the Embarcadero Delphi software and the DevExpress component were used to generate the information displayed on the screen. The data were extracted from the fields of the form and also from cross-referencing of other information from the computerized system, including patients who were admitted to the stroke unit. Results: The database was created and integrated with the hospital electronic system, thus allowing daily data collection. Quality indicators (benchmarks) were created in the database for the system to track and perform decision-making in conjunction with healthcare service managers, which resulted in improved processes and patient care after a stroke. An intelligent portal was created, in which the information referring to the patients was accessible. Conclusions: Based on semi-automated data collection, it was possible to create a dynamic and optimized Brazilian stroke databank.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Há alta demanda de dados de pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) nos sistemas de saúde de países de baixa e média renda. Objetivo: Desenvolver um banco de dados de AVC para integrar dados clínicos ou funcionais e indicadores de qualidade de pacientes com AVC. Métodos: Estudo observacional, transversal e prospectivo. Foi desenvolvida uma ferramenta para coletar dados clínicos durante as internações por AVC por meio de um editor eletrônico de formulários estruturados integrado ao prontuário eletrônico. A validação dos campos no editor eletrônico foi programada em linguagem de consulta estruturada (SQL). Para armazenar os resultados da SQL, uma tabela virtual foi criada e programada para atualização diária. Para desenvolver interface entre os dados e o usuário, foram utilizados o software Embarcadero Delphi e o componente DevExpress para gerar informações apresentadas na tela. Os dados foram extraídos dos campos do formulário e também do cruzamento de outras informações do sistema informatizado, incluindo pacientes internados na unidade de AVC. Resultados: O banco de dados foi criado e integrado ao sistema eletrônico do hospital, permitindo coleta diária de dados. Indicadores de qualidade foram criados no banco de dados para que o sistema acompanhasse e realizasse a tomada de decisão com os gestores dos serviços de saúde, resultando em melhoria no processo e no atendimento ao paciente após AVC. Foi criado um portal inteligente, no qual eram registradas as informações referentes aos pacientes. Conclusões: Com a coleta de dados semiautomática, foi possível criar um banco de dados de AVC dinâmico e otimizado em unidade de AVC no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke , Electronic Health Records , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection , Prospective Studies
11.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(6): 859-870, Fevereiro 7, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358288

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da realidade virtual sobre a funcionalidade da marcha e percepção de mudança de indivíduos com hemiparesia crônica. Métodos: Estudo clínico piloto do tipo experimental, longitudinal, prospectivo e de braço único. A amostra foi composta por indivíduos hemiparéticos submetidos ao treinamento funcional em ambiente de realidade virtual (RV). Na avaliação inicial (AV1) utilizou-se o Timed Up and Go (TUG) para análise da mobilidade e após 12 sessões de RV, na avaliação final (AV2), acrescentou-se a Escala de Mudança Percebida (EMP). Para verificar a normalidade dos dados utilizou-se o teste de Shapiro-Wilk, o teste T-Student ou de Wilcoxon para comparar os dados (p ≤ 0,05) e o Effect Size (ES) pela fórmula de Cohen (d) para o tamanho do efeito. Resultados: Dez indivíduos hemiparéticos (64,6 ± 9,53 anos) realizaram o TUG (AV1) em 14,59 ± 5,03 segundos e AV2 em 13,96 ± 4,64 segundos (p = 0,18) e o EF teve efeito insignificante (d = 0,14). O jogo Free Step apresentou diferença significativa entre a primeira e última sessão (p = 0,004) e na EMP os valores obtidos foram de 2,57 ± 0,3 de três pontos. Conclusão: A RV não promoveu melhora significante na mobilidade funcional, mas os indivíduos relataram mudanças positivas em alguns componentes da EMP. (AU)


Subject(s)
Virtual Reality , Gait , Paresis , Physical Therapy Modalities , Stroke
12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 182-187, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366042

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Prevention of recurrence of stroke depends on recognition of the underlying mechanism of ischemia. OBJECTIVE: To screen patients who were hospitalized with diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke in terms of atrial fibrillation (AF) with repeated Holter electrocardiography recordings. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study conducted at Konya Education and Research Hospital, Turkey. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke, without atrial fibrillation on electrocardiography (ECG), were evaluated. Their age, gender, histories of previous ischemic attack, occurrences of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) and other risks were assessed during the first week after acute ischemic stroke and one month thereafter. ECG recordings were obtained from 130 patients through 24-hour ambulatory Holter. Patients without PAF attack during the first Holter were re-evaluated. RESULTS: PAF was detected through the first Holter in 33 (25.4%) out of 130 acute ischemic stroke patients. A second Holter was planned for 97 patients: 53 (54.6%) of them could not attend due to COVID-19 pandemic; while 44 (45.3%) patients had the second Holter and, among these, 4 (9.1%) had PAF. The only parameter associated with PAF was older age. Four (10.8%) of the 37 patients with PAF had also symptomatic carotid stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Detecting the presence of PAF by screening patients with no AF in the ECG through Holter ECG examinations is valuable in terms of changing the course of the treatment. It should be kept in mind that the possibility of accompanying PAF cannot be ruled out in the presence of other factors that pose a risk of stroke.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke , COVID-19 , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/adverse effects , Pandemics
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 13-22, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360143

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Stroke has been increasingly recognized as an important morbidity and mortality factor in neonates and children. Children have different and more diverse risk factors than adults, commonly related to an underlying disease. Stroke may compromise functional capacity in children. Few studies have focused on functional outcomes related to activities and participation. Objectives: To investigate post-stroke functionality of children related to self-care, mobility, and social function. Methods: We assessed the functional outcome of 14 children younger than 7.5 years who suffered a stroke in early childhood through the use of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Results: The average age of the sample at assessment was 3.6 ± 1.4 years (2 - 6 years). The average scores in the PEDI functional domains of self-care, mobility, and social function were, respectively, 37.6 ± 15.4, 36.2 ± 15.4, and 48.7 ± 11.1. Children showed age-appropriate functional outcomes in the PEDI functional domains: 71.4% of them in self-care and mobility and 92.9% in social function. Children with bilateral injuries (p = 0.05) and longer hospital stays (r = -0.79, p = 0.001) showed the worst scores in ​​PEDI's social function domains. Conclusions: Overall, our sample of preschool children showed age-appropriate functional outcomes on self-care, mobility, and social function domains after stroke. However, children with bilateral injuries and longer hospital stays showed the worst scores in social function domains. We recommend focusing on functional rehabilitation to promote activities and participation and to monitor the development of children's social skills after stroke.


RESUMO Antecedentes: O acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) tem sido reconhecido como um importante fator de morbimortalidade em neonatos e crianças. As crianças têm fatores de risco diferentes e mais variados que os adultos, comumente relacionados a uma doença subjacente. A funcionalidade das crianças pode estar comprometida após um AVC. Poucos estudos focaram em desfechos funcionais relacionados à atividade e participação. Objetivos: Investigar a funcionalidade de crianças com AVC, relacionada à autocuidado, mobilidade e função social. Métodos: Avaliamos a evolução funcional de 14 crianças com idade menor que 7,5 anos com AVC na primeira infância pela aplicação do PEDI. Resultados: A idade média de nossa amostra na avaliação foi de 3,6 ± 1,4 anos (2 - 6 anos). O escore médio nos domínios de autocuidado, mobilidade e função social do PEDI foram, respectivamente, 37,6 ± 15,4, 36,2 ± 15,4 e 48,7 ± 11,1. As crianças apresentaram evolução adequada para a idade nos domínios do PEDI: 71,4% delas em autocuidado e mobilidade e 92,9% em função social. Piores escores no domínio função social se relacionaram com lesões bilaterais (p = 0,05) e maior tempo de internação (r = -0,79; p = 0,001). Conclusões: Nossa amostra de crianças em idade pré-escolar mostrou, em geral, evolução funcional adequada para a faixa etária nos domínios de autocuidado, mobilidade e função social. Porém, lesões bilaterais e internações hospitalares mais longas se relacionaram com piores performances no domínio função social. Sugerimos focar na reabilitação funcional e acompanhar o desenvolvimento das habilidades sociais de crianças pós-AVC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Self Care , Stroke , Activities of Daily Living , Cohort Studies , Disability Evaluation
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 84-96, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360127

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Dysphagia is characterized by difficulty in the swallowing pattern at any stage of this neuromuscular process. It is a frequent symptom after stroke. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the most commonly used phonoaudiological interventions as therapy for the treatment of swallowing disorders in patients with dysphagia after stroke. Methods: We performed a review of studies indexed in MEDLINE-PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane, and Clinical trials.gov focusing on speech-language interventions for adult dysphagic patients after stroke between January 2008 and January 2021. Results: Thirty-six articles of clinical trials were selected. Eleven different types of therapies have been studied. Studies on the efficacy of therapeutic interventions for the rehabilitation of adult patients with dysphagia after stroke are still scarce. Most techniques are combined with conventional therapy, so the effectiveness of the other techniques alone cannot be assessed. Conclusions: Therapeutic interventions should be selected in accordance with the possibilities and limitations of the patients, and especially with the findings of the clinical evaluation and with its objective.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A disfagia é caracterizada como uma dificuldade no padrão de deglutição em qualquer fase desse processo neuromuscular. É um sintoma frequente após o Acidente Vascular Cerebral. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as intervenções fonoaudiológicas mais utilizadas como terapia para o tratamento dos distúrbios da deglutição em pacientes com disfagia pós AVC. Métodos: Realizamos uma revisão dos estudos indexados no MEDLINE-PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane e Clinical trials.gov com foco nas intervenções fonoaudiológicas em pacientes adultos e disfágicos após AVC entre janeiro de 2008 e janeiro de 2021. Resultados: Foram selecionados trinta e seis artigos de ensaios clínicos e estudados onze tipos de terapia. Os estudos sobre a eficácia de intervenções terapêuticas para a reabilitação destes pacientes adultos ainda são restritos. A maioria das técnicas é aplicada em combinação com a terapia convencional, tornando inconclusiva a medição da eficácia de outras técnicas isoladamente. Conclusões: As intervenções terapêuticas devem ser escolhidas de acordo com as possibilidades e limitações dos pacientes e, principalmente, com os achados da avaliação clínica e seu objetivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Stroke/complications , Stroke Rehabilitation , Deglutition
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 88-94, jan. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360110

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação atrial é um problema de saúde pública associado com um risco cinco vezes maior de acidente vascular cerebral e mortalidade. A análise de custos é importante para a introdução de novas terapias, e deve ser reconsiderada em situações especiais, tais como a pandemia do coronavírus em 2020. Objetivo: Avaliar os custos (em um período de um ano) relacionados à terapia anticoagulante e a qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibrilação atrial tratados em um hospital público universitário. Métodos: Os custos do paciente foram aqueles relacionados à anticoagulação e calculados pela média de custos mensais da varfarina ou de anticoagulantes orais diretos (DOACs). As despesas não médicas, como alimentação e transporte, foram calculadas a partir de dados obtidos de questionários. O questionário brasileiro SF-6D foi usado para medir a qualidade de vida. Valores p<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A população do estudo consistiu em 90 pacientes, 45 em cada braço (varfarina vs. DOACs). Os custos foram 20% mais altos no grupo dos DOACs (US$55 532,62 vs. US$46 385,88), e principalmente relacionados ao preço dos medicamentos (US$23 497,16 vs. US$1903,27). Os custos hospitalares foram mais altos no grupo da varfarina (US$31 088,41 vs $24 604,74), e relacionados às visitas ao ambulatório. Ainda, as despesas não médicas foram duas vezes maiores no grupo varfarina ($13 394,20 vs $7 430,72). A equivalência de preço entre os dois medicamentos seria alcançada por uma redução de 39% no preço dos DOACs. Não foram observadas diferenças quanto à qualidade de vida. Conclusões: Os custos totais foram mais altos no grupo de pacientes tratados com DOACs que no grupo da varfarina. No entanto, uma redução de cerca de 40% no preço dos DOACs tornaria viável a incorporação desses medicamentos no sistema de saúde público brasileiro.


Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation is a public health problem associated with a fivefold increased risk of stroke or death. Analyzing costs is important when introducing new therapies and must be reconsidered in special situations, such as the novel coronavirus pandemic of 2020. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the costs related to anticoagulant therapy in a one-year period, and the quality of life of atrial fibrillation patients treated in a public university hospital. Methods: Patient costs were those related to the anticoagulation and calculated by the average monthly costs of warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Patient non-medical costs (eg., food and transportation) were calculated from data obtained by questionnaires. The Brazilian SF-6D was used to measure the quality of life. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The study population consisted of 90 patients, 45 in each arm (warfarin vs direct oral anticoagulants). Costs were 20% higher in the DOAC group ($55,532.62 vs $46,385.88), and mainly related to drug price ($23,497.16 vs $1,903.27). Hospital costs were higher in the warfarin group ($31,088.41 vs $24,604.74) and related to outpatient visits. Additionally, non-medical costs were almost twice higher in the warfarin group ($13,394.20 vs $7,430.72). Equivalence of price between the two drugs could be achieved by a 39% reduction in the price of DOACs. There were no significant group differences regarding quality of life. Conclusions: Total costs were higher in the group of patients taking DOACs than those taking warfarin. However, a nearly 40% reduction in the price of DOACs could make it feasible to incorporate these drugs into the Brazilian public health system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Administration, Oral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticoagulants
16.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(1): 44-49, Jan. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360708

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the Trial of Org 10172 in acute stroke treatment classification and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of acute cerebral infarction as well as acute cerebral infarction's risk factors. METHODS: The clinical data of 3,996 patients with acute cerebral infarction hospitalized in Hebei Renqiu Kangjixintu Hospital from January 2014 to November 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. According to Trial of Org 10172 in acute stroke treatment, they were divided into five groups: arteriosclerosis, cardio cerebral embolism, arterial occlusion, other causes, and unknown causes. Through questionnaire design, routine physical examination, and physical and chemical analysis of fasting venous blood samples, the risk factors were evaluated, and the correlation between Trial of Org 10172 in acute stroke treatment classification and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale classification was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. In addition, the relationship between National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and risk factors in different groups was compared, and the correlation between Trial of Org 10172 in acute stroke treatment classification and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was analyzed. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that diabetes, atrial fibrillation or stroke history, age, and education level were related to Trial of Org 10172 in acute stroke treatment classification. In the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale comparison, the scores of the cardio cerebral embolism group were significantly higher than those of the other four groups, and patients with diabetes, atrial fibrillation, or stroke history had a high share, especially atrial fibrillation (33.06%). CONCLUSIONS: The nerve function defect is more serious after acute cerebral infarction with cardiogenic cerebral embolism, indicating a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke/etiology , United States , Cerebral Infarction/complications , Cerebral Infarction/diagnosis , Chondroitin Sulfates , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Dermatan Sulfate , Heparitin Sulfate , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
17.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.788-792, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353341
19.
repert. med. cir ; 31(1): 20-32, 2022. ilus., tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1366955

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La segunda causa de muerte a nivel mundial corresponde a los ataques cerebrovasculares (ACV), de los cuales más de dos terceras partes son de origen isquémico. Causan discapacidad a largo plazo por lo que conocer la anatomía de la circulación cerebral y las posibles manifestaciones clínicas del ACV isquémico permite sospechar, diagnosticar y brindar un manejo oportuno y apropiado, reduciendo el impacto en la salud y la calidad de vida del paciente y sus cuidadores. Objetivo: relacionar los últimos hallazgos en la anatomía arterial cerebral, los mecanismos fisiopatológicos y las manifestaciones clínicas del ACV isquémico de la arteria cerebral media (ACM). Materiales y métodos: revisión de la literatura mediante la búsqueda con términos MeSH en la base de datos Medline, incluyendo estudios, ensayos y metaanálisis publicados entre 2000 y 2020 en inglés y español, además de otras referencias para complementar la información. Resultados: se seleccionaron 59 publicaciones, priorizando las de los últimos 5 años y las más relevantes del rango temporal consultado. Conclusiones: son escasos los estudios sobre la presentación clínica de los ACV, lo que sumado a la variabilidad interindividual de la irrigacióncerebral, dificulta la determinación clínica de la localización de la lesión dentro del lecho vascular. La reperfusión del área de penumbra isquémica como objetivo terapéutico se justifica por los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de la enfermedad.


Introduction: Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) are the second leading cause of death worldwide, of which more than two thirds are ischemic. They cause long-term disability, therefore, knowledge on the cerebral circulation anatomy and possible clinical manifestations of ischemic CVAs allows us to suspect, diagnose and provide timely and appropriate management, reducing the negative impact on the health and quality of life of patients and caregivers. Objective: to list the latest findings on cerebral arterial anatomy, pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical manifestations of ischemic middle cerebral artery (MCA) CVAs. Materials and methods: a literature review using a MeSH terms search in the Medline database, including studies, trials and meta-analyses published in English and Spanish between 2000 and 2020, using other complementary references. Results: 59 publications were selected prioritizing those published in the past 5 years and the most relevant in said period. Conclusions: there are few studies on the clinical presentation of CVAs, which, added to the interindividual variability of cerebral circulation anatomy, makes clinical identification of lesion location, within the vascular bed, difficult. Reperfusion of the ischemic penumbra region, as a therapeutic objective, is based on the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease.


Subject(s)
Middle Cerebral Artery , Stroke , Signs and Symptoms , Anatomy
20.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 35: e35102, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364853

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: According to studies from developed countries, post-stroke individuals commonly have a low level of physical activity. Considering the benefits of maintaining a good level of physical activity in these subjects, it is important to provide specific and complete information, based on the assessment of all dimensions of physical activity, which supports interventions. Objective: To compare the physical activity levels between individuals with stroke and matched healthy individuals that use the public health system in Brazil considering the different dimensions of physical activity. Methods: Individuals with stroke (n = 11) and matched healthy individuals (n = 11) were assessed. Physical activity levels, considering all dimensions -duration (> 3 MET), frequency (number of steps) and intensity (mean total energy expenditure per day) - were assessed using SenseWear® monitor for seven days. Descriptive statistics and between-groups comparisons were performed (α = 0.05). Results: The physical activity levels were significantly lower in individuals with stroke when compared to matched healthy individuals, considering all dimensions. The between-group differences in activity duration, frequency, and intensity were 74 minutes/day, 5,274 steps/day, and 2,134kJ/day, respectively. Conclusion: Individuals with stroke users of the Brazilian public health system have lower physical activity levels in different dimensions of physical activity than matched healthy individuals. The assessment of the physical activity level of post-stroke individuals is important for decision making in public health programs.


Resumo Introdução: De acordo com os estudos realizados em países desenvolvidos, indivíduos pós-acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) comumente apresentam baixo nível de atividade física. Considerando os benefícios desses indivíduos manterem um bom nível de atividade física, é importante fornecer informações específicas e completas a partir da avaliação de todas as dimensões da atividade física que guiem as intervenções. Objetivo: Comparar o nível de atividade física de indivíduos pós-AVC e saudáveis pareados, usuários do sistema público de saúde brasileiro, considerando as diferentes dimensões da atividade física. Métodos: Foram avaliados indivíduos pós-AVC (n = 11) e seus pares saudáveis (n = 11). O nível de atividade física, considerando as diferentes dimensões - duração (> 3 equivalentes metabólicos), frequência (número de passos) e intensidade (média do gasto energético total por dia) -, foi avaliado com o monitor SenseWear® por sete dias. Foram utilizadas estatísticas descritivas e comparações entre os grupos (α = 0,05). Resultados: O nível de atividade física foi significativamente menor nos indivíduos pós-AVC comparados aos seus pares saudáveis, considerando todas as dimensões. A diferença entre os grupos na duração, frequência e intensidade da atividade foi de 74 minutos/dia, 5274 passos/dia e 2134 kJ/dia, respectivamente. Conclusão: Indivíduos pós-AVC usuários do sistema público de saúde brasileiro têm menor nível de atividade física nas diferentes dimensões da atividade quando comparados aos seus pares saudáveis. A avaliação do nível de atividade física em indivíduos pós-AVC é importante para a tomada de decisões em programas de saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Stroke , Exercise Therapy , Exercise
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