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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(5): e202202900, oct. 2023. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1509526

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El consumo de sustancias psicoactivas ilegales en el embarazo constituye un problema creciente. En pocas maternidades latinoamericanas se aplica una estrategia de detección y los datos publicados son escasos. Objetivos. Comparar dos quinquenios de resultados de una estrategia de detección de sustancias psicoactivas ilegales implementada en el posparto. Población y métodos. Estudio de corte transversal. Detección por inmunoensayo en orinas de binomios madre-hijo/a, en un hospital público argentino entre 2009 y 2018. Resultados. En 76/191 binomios se detectaron sustancias en 10 años. El criterio de detección más frecuente fue la comunicación o antecedente de uso de drogas: 25/37 y 32/39 en cada quinquenio. Predominaron cannabis (21/37 y 26/39) y cocaína (19/37 y 16/39) en ambos períodos. No hubo diferencias en datos demográficos, ginecológicos, del embarazo ni neonatales en los quinquenios comparados. Conclusiones. No se encontraron diferencias en la frecuencia ni en el tipo de sustancias detectadas a lo largo de 10 años.


Introduction. The use of illicit psychoactive substances during pregnancy is a growing problem. Few Latin American maternity centers implement a screening strategy, and published data are scarce. Objectives. To compare the outcomes of 2 five-year periods of a postpartum strategy to screen for illicit psychoactive drugs. Population and methods. This was a cross-sectional study. Immunoassay detection in urine of mothernewborn infant dyads in an Argentine public hospital between 2009 and 2018. Results. Substances were detected in 76/191 dyads over 10 years. The most frequent detection criterion was reporting or history of drug use: 25/37 and 32/39 in each five-year period. Cannabis (21/37 and 26/39) and cocaine (19/37 and 16/39) predominated in both periods. No differences were observed in demographic, gynecological, pregnancy, or neonatal data between both five-year periods. Conclusions. No differences were found in the frequency or type of substances detected over 10 years


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Agents , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mothers
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 482-490, abr. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440337

ABSTRACT

En estudios preliminares objetivamos alta prevalencia de uso de sustancias psicoactivas (SP) entre alumnos de Anatomía, con mayor impacto entre los recursantes o aquellos con actividades laborales. La causa del uso es multifactorial, pero se destacan factores de riesgo y precipitantes como la carga horaria de la currícula, exigencias de estudio, el distrés por el afrontamiento cadavérico negativo, el nuevo contexto educativo y la cantidad de horas de sueño. El objetivo fue comparar la prevalencia de uso de SP entre las cohortes de 2011-2019, con focalización en los factores determinantes conductuales. Estudio observacional, transversal y comparativo mediante encuesta estandarizada y anónima en 945 alumnos (año 2011= 122; año 2013= 158; año 2015=204; año 2017= 228; año 2019= 233). Se aplicaron parámetros estadísticos, se definió la significación como p -0.84; AA: r> -0.71). En el caso de ansiolíticos benzodiacepínicos, se asoció con falta de sueño y distrés por el afrontamiento negativo al estudio con cadáveres. En las cohortes comparadas por el lapso de 9 años hallamos alta prevalencia de uso de sustancias psicoactivas con tendencia al incremento. Las variables actividad laboral y recursante fueron determinantes para el uso de sustancias, y se asociaron cuestiones relativas a la adaptabilidad universitaria y afrontamiento de estudio negativo con el cadáver; todos con incidencia pedagógica en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje.


SUMMARY: In preliminary studies, we observed a high prevalence of the use of psychoactive substances (PS) among Anatomy students, with a greater impact among recurrent students or those with work activities. The cause of use is multifactorial, but risk and precipitating factors stand out, such as the workload of the curriculum, study demands, distress due to negative cadaveric coping, the new educational context and the number of hours of sleep. The objective was to compare the prevalence of SP use between the 2011-2019 cohorts, with a focus on behavioral determinants. Observational, cross-sectional and comparative study using a standardized and anonymous survey in 945 students (year 2011= 122; year 2013= 158; year 2015=204; year 2017= 228; year 2019= 233). Statistical parameters were applied, significance was defined as p -0.84; AA: r> -0.71). In the case of benzodiazepine anxiolytics, it was associated with lack of sleep and distress due to negative coping with the study with cadavers. In the cohorts compared for a period of 9 years, we found a high prevalence of psychoactive substance use with an increasing trend. The variables work activity and recurrence were determinants for the use of substances, and issues related to university adaptability and negative study coping with the corpse were associated; all with pedagogical impact on the teaching and learning process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Anatomy/education , Argentina , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude to Death , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Dissection/education , Dissection/psychology , Psychological Distress
3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(1): 511-530, Jan-Abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417859

ABSTRACT

No fim de 2019 iniciou-se uma das maiores crises da saúde pública global em Wuhan, China. Essa emergência foi o aparecimento do SARS-CoV-2 e da doença COVID-19, uma síndrome respiratória aguda de alta transmissibilidade. A declaração da pandemia pela OMS em março de 2020 fez com que o mundo tomasse diversas medidas para o combate e contenção da doença. Inicialmente o isolamento social e lockdown foram as principais iniciativas, já que não havia formas de tratamento ou prevenção da doença. Essas medidas restritivas geraram uma mudança de hábito da população que deflagrou sérios comprometimentos físicos e psicológicos. Uma das consequências foi o aumento do uso de substâncias de abuso e, consequentemente, do transtornos por uso de substâncias, dentre elas o tabaco. Durante a pandemia o consumo de cigarro aumentou de 10 a 30% no mundo, o tabagismo é a principal causa de morte evitável e fator de risco para diversas doenças. Conjuntamente ao álcool, a nicotina têm um poder aditivo superior a muitas drogas ilícitas. A combinação dos transtornos por uso de substâncias e a COVID-19 acabam por ter um efeito sinérgico, dessa forma, buscamos integrar aspectos neuroquímicos, cognitivos e comportamentais que levaram ao aumento do consumo e/ou recaída nicotina e a terapêutica utilizada.


One of the biggest global public health crisis began in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019. That emergency was the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the disease COVID-19, a highly transmissible acute respiratory syndrome. The pandemic declaration by the WHO in March 2020 caused the world to take on several measures to combat and contain the virus. Initially, social isolation and lockdown were the main initiatives, as there were no forms of treatment or prevention of the disease. These restrictive measures generate a change in the habit of the population that triggered serious physical and psychological impairments. One of the consequences was the increase in the use of substances of abuse and, consequently, substance use disorder, including tobacco. During the pandemic, cigarette consumption increased from 10 to 30% worldwide, whereas smoking is the main cause of preventable death and a risk factor for several diseases. Along with alcohol, nicotine has a greater addictive power than illicit drugs. Substance use disorders and COVID-19 have a synergistic effect, in this way, we seek to integrate neurochemical, cognitive and behavioral aspects that led to increased consumption and/or relapse in nicotine consumption and the used therapy.


Una de las mayores crisis mundiales de salud pública comenzó en Wuhan (China) a finales de 2019. Esa emergencia fue la aparición del SARS-CoV-2 y la enfermedad COVID-19, un síndrome respiratorio agudo altamente transmisible. La declaración de pandemia por parte de la OMS en marzo de 2020 hizo que el mundo adoptara varias medidas para combatir y contener el virus. Inicialmente, el aislamiento social y el encierro fueron las principales iniciativas, ya que no existían formas de tratamiento o prevención de la enfermedad. Estas medidas restrictivas generaron un cambio en los hábitos de la población que desencadenó graves alteraciones físicas y psicológicas. Una de las consecuencias fue el aumento del consumo de sustancias de abuso y, en consecuencia, el trastorno por consumo de sustancias, incluido el tabaco. Durante la pandemia, el consumo de cigarrillos aumentó del 10 al 30% en todo el mundo, mientras que el tabaquismo es la principal causa de muerte evitable y un factor de riesgo de varias enfermedades. Junto con el alcohol, la nicotina tiene un mayor poder adictivo que las drogas ilícitas. Los trastornos por uso de sustancias y la COVID-19 tienen un efecto sinérgico, de esta manera, buscamos integrar los aspectos neuroquímicos, cognitivos y conductuales que llevaron al aumento del consumo y/o recaída en el consumo de nicotina y la terapia utilizada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics/history , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety , Recurrence , Epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Varenicline/therapeutic use , Psychological Distress
4.
Singapore medical journal ; : 385-390, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984217

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Cannabis has consistently been the third most commonly abused drug among drug arrestees in Singapore over the past few years. Accordingly, this study aimed to understand the profile of cannabis users in Singapore and explore the effects of cannabis use on drug progression.@*METHODS@#A total of 450 participants who had used cannabis at least once in their lifetime were recruited from the National Addictions Management Service, prisons, the Community Rehabilitation Centre and halfway houses from August 2017 to May 2018. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered and descriptive analyses were conducted.@*RESULTS@#The mean participant age was 40.9 ± 14.51 years, and 93.1% of them were male. The participants generally initiated cannabis use during adolescence, at a mean onset age of 16.5 ± 4.46 years. Most (89.6%) were introduced to cannabis by peers. Approximately half of them (46.9%) had used cannabis before other illicit drugs and 42.1% of them had used heroin as the succeeding drug.@*CONCLUSION@#In Singapore, cannabis use is often initiated during adolescence, largely under peer influence. Cannabis users may progress to other illicit drugs, particularly heroin, later in life.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Child , Young Adult , Female , Cannabis , Singapore/epidemiology , Heroin , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Illicit Drugs
5.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 60(4): 413-421, dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423704

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las sustancias psicoactivas han formado parte de la existencia humana por miles de años, han sido empleadas con distintos fines, consolidando su uso y abuso durante los últimos años como una condición altamente prevalente en la sociedad. Actualmente, existen gran cantidad de sustancias y, así mismo, diversas formas de clasificación. En términos de prevalencia mundial hasta el momento no hay un estándar de oro que permita medir de manera exacta el consumo según cada región geográfica, lo que dificulta el estudio y constituye un desafío al momento de realizar comparaciones entre regiones. No obstante, en términos de prevalencia mundial, la sustancia más consumida es el alcohol, seguida por cannabis, opioides, anfetaminas y cocaína respectivamente. Objetivo: caracterizar pacientes adultos del policlínico de salud mental del Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena con diagnóstico relacionado al consumo de sustancias y establecer las principales sustancias consumidas. Materiales y Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en la población objetivo mediante revisión de fichas clínicas de pacientes adultos atendidos en policlínico de salud mental del Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena, durante los años 2018, 2019, 2020. Los antecedentes recolectados del estudio se analizaron según la población general y se compararon según género. Resultados: en la muestra estudiada, 73.2% de los consumidores son de sexo masculino, siendo el alcohol la sustancia de mayor consumo, seguida por cocaína, marihuana y benzodiacepinas.


Introduction: psychoactive substances have been part of the existence of humanity for thousands of years and have been used for different purposes, consolidating its use and abuse in recent years as a highly prevalent condition in our society. They are a large number of substances, and also various forms of classification. In terms of world prevalence, to date, there is no gold standard method that allows the exact measurement of substance consumption to each geographical region, which makes the study difficult and constitutes a challenge when making comparisons between regions. However, in terms of world prevalence, the most consumed substance is alcohol, followed by cannabis, opioids, amphetamines, and cocaine respectively. Objective: characterize adult patients of the mental health polyclinic of the Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital with a diagnosis related to substance use and establish the main substances consumed. Material and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the target population by reviewing the clinical records of adult patients treated at the mental health polyclinic of the Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital, during the years 2018, 2019, and 2020. The antecedents collected from the study were analyzed according to the general population and compared according to gender. Results: In the sample studied, 73.2% of the users are male, alcohol being the substance most consumed, followed by cocaine, marijuana, and benzodiazepines


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Chile , Sex Factors , Marijuana Abuse/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry) , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Hospitals, Public , Mental Health Services
6.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 60(3): 273-280, sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407829

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Introducción: Las benzodiacepinas tienen potencial para generar abuso, por lo que, un consumo indiscriminado, a través de la venta sin prescripción y la práctica de automedicación, significaría un alto riesgo, producto de su abuso. Objetivo: Establecer la relación entre la automedicación con benzodiacepinas y el riesgo de abuso en pacientes de un hospital de Lima-Perú. Metodología: Estudio transversal analítico. Se encuestó a 874 participantes, se usó una encuesta para determinar datos demográficos, uso de benzodiacepinas y preguntas de la prueba de detección de consumo de alcohol, tabaco y sustancias (ASSIST, por sus siglas en inglés); se obtuvo estadística descriptiva y analítica. Resultados: Hubo más encuestadas del sexo femenino (74,5%), la mediana de edades fue de 52 años (rango intercuartílico: 40-62 años). De los adultos estudiados, 485 fueron considerados como consumidores de benzodiacepinas con receta médica y 389 sin receta médica. Los consumidores con receta médica y sin receta médica que necesitaron tratamiento fueron 129 (26,6%) y 245 (63,0%), respectivamente (p<0.001). Conclusión: Hay una mayor prevalencia de personas que necesitan tratamiento por abuso en consumidores sin receta médica que en el grupo de consumidores con receta médica, por lo que, existe una relación significativa entre la automedicación con benzodiacepinas y el riesgo de abuso; lo que requiere tratamiento en la población estudiada.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Benzodiazepines have the potential to generate abuse, so an indiscriminate consumption, through the sale without prescription and the practice of self-medication, would mean a high risk due to their abuse. Objective: To establish the relationship between self-medication with benzodiazepines and the risk of abuse that requires treatment in adult patients of Hospital San Juan de Lurigancho, 2019. Methodology: It was an observational, correlational descriptive, transversal and prospective study. The sample size was 874 participants (95.0% confidence level; 80% power). Sampling was performed non-randomly. A survey was used to determine demographics, benzodiazepine use, and questions of Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Results: Of the study population, the most prevalent demographic data were female sex (74.5%), the median age was 52 years (interquartile range: 40-62 years), the age range 50-59 years (26.43%), married marital status (31.6%), secondary education level (48.4%) and occupation as a housewife (47.3%). Of adults studied, 485 were considered as consumers of benzodiazepines with prescription and 389 consumers without a prescription. Prescription and non-prescription consumers needing treatment were 129 (26.60%) and 245 (62.98%), respectively (p <0.001). Conclusion: There is a higher prevalence of people who need treatment for abuse in consumers without a prescription than in the group of consumers with a prescription so there is a significant relationship between self-medication with benzodiazepines and the risk of abuse that requires treatment in study population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Self Medication/adverse effects , Benzodiazepines/adverse effects , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Peru , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Assessment
7.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 19(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386946

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: se estima que entre un 80 % y un 90 % de la población mundial ha consumido sustancias psicoactivas (SPA), pero solo un 15 % llega a desarrollar una dependencia. El objetivo de este ensayo es describir los antecedentes epidemiológicos, los aspectos clínicos y los mecanismos neurobiológicos asociados a la dependencia de SPA. Luego, se reflexiona sobre algunas estrategias ambientales para su prevención y/o tratamiento. Proposición: la dependencia no es un simple vicio producto de la holgazanería o la falta de carácter, sino, un trastorno neuropsquiátrico que debe ser reconocido como tal. Para ello, es indispensable conocer sus factores etiológicos, así como los mecanismos neurobiológicos involucrados. Argumentos para la discusión: todas las SPA activan directa o indirectamente el sistema dopaminérgico mesolímbico, el cual, tras el abuso, produce la sensibilización del sistema motivacional y la desensibilización del sistema hedónico. Este fenómeno provoca el uso más frecuente y en mayor cantidad, a pesar de que los efectos placenteros sean cada vez menores. El malestar físico y emocional causado por el síndrome de abstinencia contribuye a dicha compulsión, la cual se sale de control producto de las alteraciones del funcionamiento ejecutivo y la corteza prefrontal. Conclusiones: la dependencia es una enfermedad del cerebro inducida por el consumo crónico de las SPA en conjunto con factores neurobiológicos y psicosociales de vulnerabilidad. El acceso a contacto social, ejercicio físico y estimulación sensorio-cognitiva podría representar una estrategia altamente eficaz para el manejo de la dependencia y el mejoramiento de la salud mental.


Abstract Introduction: It has been estimated that 80% to 90% of the population worldwide has ever consumed psychoactive substances (PAS), but only 15% will develop addiction. The goal of the current essay is to describe concisely the epidemiological background, the clinical foundations, and neurobiological mechanisms of addiction. Finally, it will briefly examine some environmental strategies aimed to prevent and/or treat addiction. Addiction is not a simple vice consequence of laziness or lack of character, but a neuropsychiatric disorder that must be recognized as such. Proposal: To attain this ultimate goal, the etiological factors and the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction must be revealed and disseminated. Arguments for discussion: All PAS directly or indirectly activate the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, which -after repeated intake- sensitizes and desensitizes the motivational and the hedonic system, respectively. This phenomenon causes PAS to be consumed more frequently and at higher doses despite their effects being progressively less rewarding. Consequently, the physical and emotional distress derived from the withdrawal syndrome exacerbates the compulsive PAS intake, while the completely loss of control results from impairments in the executive functions and the prefrontal cortex. Conclusions: Addiction is a brain disease induced by the chronic consumption of PAS combined with neurobiological and psychosocial risk factors. Exposure social contact, physical exercise, and sensory-cognitive stimulation may constitute a highly effective strategy for preventing and treating addiction and improving mental health as well.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neurobiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Costa Rica
8.
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(6): 736-743, jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-harm and the consumption of psy- choactive substances are important public health problems among adolescents. AIM: To determine the association of deliberate self-harm with the consumption of psychoactive substances, in school adolescents in Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A survey about deliberate self harm and psychoactive substance use during the last 12 months was answered by 80 018 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of deliberate self-harm in the last 12 months was 14.1%. The use of psychoactive drugs was associated with deliberate self-harm. The greatest association was observed with the use of non-prescription tranquilizers (Odds ratio 4.05 95% confidence intervals 3.42-4.81). CONCLUSIONS: We observed an association between deliberate self-harm and the consumption of different psychoactive substances.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Schools , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Colombia/epidemiology
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(5): 584-596, mayo 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adolescents are more prone to develop health risk behaviors. Among these, early consumption of psychoactive drugs is relevant. AIM: To assess the association between early consumption of illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol, suicide behaviors, risky sexual behaviors, eating habits and physical activity in school age adolescents from Valparaiso, Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The online world survey of scholar health to identify the health risk behaviors was answered by 550 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years, from a public educational institution at Valparaiso, Chile. Results: Early consumption of alcohol, smoking and illicit drug use was reported by 59, 57 and 44% of respondents, respectively. The frequency of psychoactive drug consumption during the last month, risky sexual behaviors and missing breakfast was higher among those with an early onset of alcohol and illicit drug consumption and smoking. The frequency of suicidal risk behaviors and low consumption of fruits and vegetables was higher among those with an early onset of illicit drug use and smoking. A low physical activity level was associated with early smoking onset. Health risk behaviors were associated with early onset of alcohol and illicit drug consumption and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Early onset of alcohol and illicit drug consumption and smoking is associated with health risk behaviors in Chilean adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Psychotropic Drugs , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Health Risk Behaviors
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(1): 123-132, jan. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356038

ABSTRACT

Resumo Mediante o processo de estigmatização existente sobre a População em Situação de Rua que faz uso de drogas e a reprodução de violências nos serviços de saúde, refletiu-se neste artigo sobre esse público e o espaço da rua para além da visão de decrepitude com que costumeiramente são vistos. Nesse sentido, a pesquisa tomou contornos a partir do objetivo de conhecer práticas e saberes construídos nos processos de cuidado entre a População em Situação de Rua usuária de drogas. Para isso, delineou-se um estudo qualitativo, utilizando-se da triangulação das técnicas de observação participante, a partir da inserção de uma das pesquisadoras em um Consultório na Rua, em uma cidade no interior de Pernambuco, e duas modalidades de entrevistas individuais em profundidade: a entrevista episódica e a entrevista narrativa. A partir dos dados obtidos, delineou-se três categorias temáticas: "Sujeitos, territorialidades e contextos", "Drogas, medicalização de problemas sociais e controle" e "Redução de danos, singularidades e produção de cuidado no território". Construíram-se, assim, compreensões sobre as normativas e dicotômicas que atravessam a visão sobre a População em Situação de Rua, pretendendo contribuir para a consolidação da oferta de cuidado orientada pela perspectiva da Redução de Danos.


Abstract Through the stigmatization of drug-using People Living on the Streets (PLS) and the reproduction of violence in health services, this paper reflected on this community and the street space beyond the view of decrepitude with which they are usually seen. In this sense, the research contours were shaped from the objective of knowing practice and knowledge constructed in the care processes among the drug-using PLS. A qualitative study was designed, using the triangulation of participant observation techniques, from the inclusion of one of the researchers in a "Street Clinic" (Consultório na Rua), in an inland city of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, and two types of in-depth individual interviews: the episodic interview and the narrative interview. Three thematic categories were outlined from the data retrieved, as follows: "subjects, territorialities and contexts", "drugs, social problem medicalization, and control", and "harm reduction, singularities and care production in the territory". Thus, understandings about the norms and dichotomies that cross the view of PLS were constructed to consolidate the care offer guided by the perspective of harm reduction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ill-Housed Persons , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Harm Reduction , Qualitative Research
11.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368489

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Modelo de estudo: Estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso de substâncias psicoativas entre estudantes de medicina de uma universidade pública do semiárido brasileiro. Metodologia: Estudo realizado com 101 estudantes através de questionário contendo aspectos do perfil sociodemográfico e econômico dos participantes e do questionário sobre triagem do uso de álcool e outras sete substâncias psicoativas (ASSIST). Resultados: O perfil dos participantes se caracterizou pelo predomínio do sexo masculino (52,5%), etnia branca (44,6%), faixa etária entre 18 e 29 anos (88,1%), estado civil solteiro (91,1%). Observa-se prevalência para uso de bebidas alcoólicas 80,2%(81), maconha 32,67%(33) e derivados do tabaco 31,7%(32). As bebidas alcoólicas se destacam majoritariamente no desejo ou fissura 36,6%(37), dentre os demais indicadores/motivações. Obteve-se associação com o sexo masculino para uso de álcool (p=0,025), tabaco (p=0,001), maconha (p=0,016) e inalantes (p=0,018); e maiores de 30 anos para derivados do tabaco (p=0,034), maconha (p=0,005), cocaína/crack (p=0,004), inalantes (p=0,001) e alucinógenos (p=0,012). Conclusão: Evidenciou-se alta taxa de prevalência no uso de bebidas alcoólicas entre os estudantes de medicina em relação às demais substâncias psicoativas consumidas. Reconhece-se a necessidade do desenvolvimento de estratégias voltadas a saúde mental e bem-estar para os estudantes de medicina. (AU)


ABSTRACT: Study model: Observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study. Objective: Evaluate the use of psychoactive substances among medical students at a public university in the Brazilian semiarid region. Methodology: Study conducted with 101 students using a questionnaire containing socio-demographic aspects and economic profile of the participants, and the questionnaire on screening of the use of alcohol and seven other psychoactive substances (ASSIST). Results: The profile of the participants was characterized by a predominance of males (52.5%), white ethnicity (44.6%), aged between 18 and 29 years (88.1%), single marital status (91.1 %). There is a prevalence for the use of alcoholic beverages 80.2% (81), marijuana 32.67% (33), and tobacco derivatives 31.7% (32). Alcoholic beverages stand out mainly in the desire or craving 36.6% (37), among the other indicators/motivations. An association with the male gender was obtained for the use of alcohol (p = 0.025), tobacco (p = 0.001), marijuana (p = 0.016) and inhalants (p = 0.018); and over 30 years old for tobacco products (p = 0.034), marijuana (p = 0.005), cocaine/crack (p = 0.004), inhalants (p = 0.001), and hallucinogens (p = 0.012). Conclusion: There was a high prevalence rate in the use of alcoholic beverages among medical students in relation to other psychoactive substances consumed. It is necessary to develop strategies aimed at mental health and well-being for medical students. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Students, Medical , Health Profile , Surveys and Questionnaires , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
12.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 239-245, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984115

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in young men in Chengdu and explore the characteristics and risks of violence.@*METHODS@#Stratified random sampling was used to conduct a self-assessment questionnaire survey in 4 108 males aged from 18 to 34 in Chengdu, including general demographic characteristics, structured clinical interview for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-Ⅳ axis Ⅱ disorders (SCID-Ⅱ) personality disorder screen questionnaire, violence questionnaire, psychosis screening questionnaire (PSQ), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and drug use. χ2 test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used for analysis and odds ratio (OR) was calculated.@*RESULTS@#The positive rate of ASPD was 5.91%, which was associated with young age, unmarried, unemployment state, low educational level, violent behavior, psychotic symptoms, alcohol and drug use (P<0.05). Young men with ASPD also had a risk (P<0.05) of violence (OR was 8.51), multiple violence (OR was 16.57), injury (OR was 6.68), intentional violence (OR was 11.41), etc., the risk decreased after controlling for psychotic symptoms and substance abuse, but was still statistically significant.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The risk of violence, severe violence and intentional violence in young men in Chengdu is high, and psychotic symptoms and substance abuse increase the risk of ASPD violence and relate characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Antisocial Personality Disorder/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 30: e3669, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1409622

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to evaluate the factors associated with risk related to the use of psychoactive substances in male inmates of a prison in a city in the South of Brazil. Method: a cross-sectional data from 220 men deprived of liberty, inmates of a provisional custody institution in the State of Paraná, collected with a screening instrument and questionnaire. Binary logistic regression and odds ratio analysis were used to verify associations between risk related to substance use and socio-demographic characteristics of living conditions before incarceration and current incarceration. Results: the adjusted model revealed association of consumption with skin color brown/black and yellow, those who had only one parent responsible until age 15, age at first arrest 18 or older, professing religion, working before arrest, owning their own house, living alone, receiving visitors in prison. Conclusion: the identified factors are useful to insert effective treatment proposals and reduce the gaps and social vulnerability existing in prison.


Resumo Objetivo: avaliar os fatores associados ao risco relacionado ao uso de substâncias psicoativas em homens internos de uma prisão em um município do Sul do Brasil. Método: dados transversais de 220 homens privados de liberdade, internos de uma instituição de custódia provisória no Estado do Paraná, coletados com instrumento de rastreamento e questionário. Utilizaram-se análise de regressão logística binária e razão de chances para verificar associações entre o risco relacionado ao uso de substâncias psicoativas e as características sociodemográficas das condições de vida antes do encarceramento e do encarceramento atual. Resultados: o modelo ajustado revelou associação do consumo com a cor da pele parda/preta e amarela, aqueles que tiveram apenas um dos pais responsável até os 15 anos de idade, idade da primeira prisão com 18 anos ou mais, professar religião, trabalhar antes da prisão, moradia própria, morar sozinho, receber visitas na prisão. Conclusão: os fatores identificados são úteis para inserir propostas de tratamento eficazes e reduzir as lacunas e a vulnerabilidade social existentes na prisão.


Resumen Objetivo: evaluar los factores asociados al riesgo relacionado con el uso de sustancias psicoactivas en hombres internados en una prisión, en un municipio en el Sur de Brasil. Método: datos transversales de 220 hombres privados de libertad, internados en una institución de custodia provisional, en el estado de Paraná, recolectados con instrumento de rastreo y cuestionario. Se utilizó el análisis de regresión logística binaria y la razón de chances para verificar asociaciones entre el riesgo relacionado con el uso de sustancias psicoactivas y las características sociodemográficas, de las condiciones de vida antes del encarcelamiento y del encarcelamiento actual. Resultados: el modelo ajustado reveló asociación del consumo con: el color de la piel marrón/negra y amarilla; aquellos que tuvieron apenas uno de los padres responsables hasta los 15 años de edad; edad de la primera prisión con 18 años o más; profesar religión; trabajar antes de la prisión; residencia propia; vivir solo; y, recibir visitas en la prisión. Conclusión: los factores identificados son útiles para introducir propuestas de tratamientos eficaces y reducir los vacíos y la vulnerabilidad social existentes en la prisión.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Prisoners , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
14.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 70(2): 108-116, abr.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279300

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Medir a prevalência do uso na vida, no último ano e no último mês de duas club drugs ­ o ecstasy e o LSD ­, bem como as características associadas ao uso dessas substâncias, no último mês, entre estudantes de graduação de uma universidade no Sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal conduzido no ano de 2015 com amostragem aleatória sistemática por conglomerados. Participaram 1.423 estudantes de graduação. Foi utilizado um modelo de análise multivariável em três níveis hierárquicos por meio da regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de uso na vida, no último ano e no último mês de club drugs foram de 12,7%, 7,8% e 3,8%, respectivamente. Indivíduos do sexo masculino, com orientação sexual homossexual ou bissexual, mais jovens, que moravam com seus pares, solteiros, e que relataram uso no último mês de tabaco e maconha apresentaram maior probabilidade de ter feito uso no último mês de alguma club drug. Entretanto, a variável mais fortemente associada a esse desfecho foi ter algum amigo que já fez uso de alguma droga ilícita na vida (RP = 19,54). CONCLUSÕES: O ambiente universitário parece ser um terreno fértil para a difusão do uso de club drugs. O fortalecimento de uma rede de apoio institucional da universidade, capaz de propor atividades de prevenção, bem como de identificar, acolher e encaminhar casos em que haja abuso e dependência dessas substâncias, pode ser uma estratégia importante para lidar com essa problemática.


OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of lifetime, last-year, and last-month use of two club drugs ­ ecstasy and LSD ­, as well as the characteristics associated with the last-month use of these substances among undergraduate students at a university in southern Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2015 with a clustered systematic sampling strategy. Overall, 1,423 undergraduate students participated. A three-level hierarchical multivariate analysis model was used through Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance. RESULTS: Prevalence of lifetime, last-year, and lastmonth use of club drugs were 12.7%, 7.8% and 3.8%, respectively. Male participants, with homosexual or bisexual sexual orientation, younger, who lived with their peers, who were single, and who reported last-month use of tobacco and marijuana had higher probability of last-month use club drugs. However, the variable most strongly associated with this outcome was having a friend with lifetime use of illicit drugs (PR = 19.54). CONCLUSIONS: University environment seems to be a fertile ground for the spread of the use of club drugs. The strengthening of the university's institutional assistance network, capable of proposing prevention activities, as well as identifying, supporting and referring cases where there is abuse and dependence on these substances can be an important strategy to deal with this problem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students/psychology , Universities , Illicit Drugs/toxicity , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Peer Influence , Illicit Drugs/adverse effects , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Drug-Seeking Behavior
15.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 59(2): 142-151, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388385

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pandemia por coronavirus, agente etiológico de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), ha tenido consecuencias sanitarias, socioeconómicas y psicosociales que se asocian a mayores niveles de ansiedad, estrés y a alteraciones emocionales en la población general. Se presume un aumento en el consumo de sustancias en la población general, como también en el consumo problemático. En efecto, las personas con trastorno por uso de sustancias constituyen una población más vulnerable a los impactos de la pandemia, sobre todo en condiciones de confinamiento. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en las principales bases de datos sobre el impacto de la pandemia de COVID-19 sobre el consumo de sustancias, presentando una síntesis narrativa de la evidencia disponible en función de las principales sustancias abordadas por las publicaciones. Se discuten las tendencias en el consumo de alcohol, tabaco, opioides y cannabis, así como las recomendaciones en cuanto al seguimiento y acompañamiento terapéutico. En general, el nivel de evidencia de los artículos incorporados es bajo, ya que corresponden a opiniones de expertos y estudios observacionales exploratorios. Gran parte de las conclusiones provienen de la extrapolación de los datos obtenidos durante los brotes infecciosos de las formas previas de coronavirus. Sugerimos la realización de estudios primarios sobre consumo de sustancias y el mantenimiento de la vigilancia clínica en el periodo posterior a la pandemia en la población de personas con trastornos por uso de sustancias.


The coronavirus pandemic, the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has had sanitary, socioeconomic and psychosocial consequences associated to greater levels of anxiety, stress and emotional alterations on general population. An increase in substance consumption in the general population is presumed, as well as problematic consumption. In this line, people with substance use disorder constitute a more vulnerable population to the impact of the pandemic, especially in lockdown. We conducted a systematic search in the main databases about the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on substance consumption, performing a narrative synthesis of the available evidence based on the main substances addressed by the publications. We discuss the trends of alcohol, tobacco, opioids and cannabis consumption, and the recommendations regarding follow-up and therapeutic support. Mostly, the level of the evidence of the articles included is low, since they correspond to expert opinions and exploratory observational studies. Most of the conclusions derive from the extrapolation of data obtained during infectious outbreaks of previous forms of coronavirus. We suggest conducting primary studies on substance consumption and maintaining the clinical surveillance of people with substance use disorders in the post-pandemic period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Mental Health , Pandemics
16.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(2): 64-71, abr.-jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1290026

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: verificar a prevalência do Transtorno Depressivo Maior em pessoas com dependência química. MÉTODO: estudo transversal com a aplicação da entrevista estruturada para os transtornos do DSM-V em 183 indivíduos internados em comunidades terapêuticas de acolhimento para dependentes químicos, localizadas no sul de Santa Catarina, durante o de ano de 2019. RESULTADOS: todos os participantes não realizaram consulta psiquiátrica ao ingressar na instituição e a maioria não realizou consulta psiquiátrica regular (94,5%). Constatou-se que 89 participantes (55,3%) possuíam critérios diagnósticos para o Transtorno Depressivo Maior e 59,1% destes possuíam adicção ao álcool (p<0,028). CONCLUSÃO: o diagnóstico do transtorno depressivo deve-se consolidar como uma variável importante para a eficácia do tratamento, visto que sua prevalência é elevada e possui repercussões sobre a qualidade do tratamento e tempo de institucionalização.


OBJECTIVE: to verify the prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder in people with chemical dependence. METHOD: cross-sectional study with the application of the structured interview for the DSM-V disorders in 183 individuals admitted to therapeutic communities for chemical dependents, located in the south of Santa Catarina, during the year 2019. RESULTS: All participants did not have a psychiatric consultation when entering the institution and the majority did not have a regular psychiatric consultation (94.5%). It was found that 89 participants (55.3%) had diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and 59.1% of these had alcohol addiction (p<0.028). CONCLUSION: the diagnosis of depressive disorder should be consolidated as an important variable for the effectiveness of treatment, since its prevalence is high and has repercussions on the quality of treatment and time of institutionalization.


OBJECTIVO: verificar la prevalencia del transtorno depressivo major en personas con adicción. METODO: estudio transversal con aplicación de la entrevista estructurada para los transtornos del DSM-V en 183 personas internadas en comunides de tratamiento de adicción en el departamento de Santa Catarina durante el ano de 2019. RESULTADOS: la totalidad de los pacientes no realizaron cita con psiquiatra al ingressar en las instituiciones y la mayoria no realiza visitas regulares al psiquiatra (94,5%). Se observó que 89 participantes (55,3%) tenian critérios diagnósticos para depressión y 59,1% de ellos eram adictos al álcohol (p<0,028). CONCLUSIÓN: el diagnóstico del transtorno depressivo debe consolidarse como una variable importante para la eficácia del tratamiento, pues su prevalencia es elevada y pose repercursiones sobre la calidad del tratamiento y el tiempo de permanencia en las comunidades.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rehabilitation Centers , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Surveys , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major
17.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(2): 210-221, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285524

ABSTRACT

Objective: Understanding the distal (≤ 6 years of age) and proximal (between 6 years of age and early adolescence) factors in adolescent risk behavior is important for preventing and reducing morbidity and mortality in this population. This study sought to investigate the factors associated with the following adolescent risk behaviors: i) aggressiveness and violence, ii) tobacco, alcohol, and illicit substance use, iii) depressive behavior and self-harm (including suicidal ideation and attempts), iv) sexual risk behavior, and v) multiple risk behavior. Methods: A systematic review was conducted to identify longitudinal studies that examined factors associated with adolescent risk behaviors. The PubMed, PsycINFO, and LILACS databases were searched. Results: Of the 249 included studies, 23% reported distal risk factors, while the remaining reported proximal risk factors. Risk factors were related to sociodemographic characteristics (neighborhood, school, and peers), family patterns, and the presence of other adolescent risk behaviors. Conclusion: Distal and proximal factors in adolescent risk behavior that are not exclusively socioeconomic, familial, environmental, or social should be explored more thoroughly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , Sexual Behavior , Risk Factors , Suicidal Ideation
18.
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 23: 1-10, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146863

ABSTRACT

Objetivou descrever o perfil de problemas associados ao uso de substâncias entre adolescentes, estudantes de ensino fundamental de uma escola situada em território de intensa circulação de drogas, e verificar as relações com uso e características sociodemográficas. Estudo transversal e correlacional preditivo, com 109 estudantes do nono ano, que responderam ao questionário contendo informações sociodemográficas e o Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI). Os dados foram analisados por estatísticas descritivas, testes de associação e cálculo de densidades de problemas investigadas pelo DUSI. Houve maior densidade de problemas para todas as áreas de vida investigadas dentre os escolares que já haviam feito uso de substâncias psicoativas. "Praticar a religião" foi identificado como fator de proteção para o uso de substâncias psicoativas e "trabalhar" como fator de risco para o uso de álcool. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de estratégias preventivas direcionadas ao uso de substâncias e orientadas a esse público.


It aimed to describe the profile of problems associated with substance use among adolescents, elementary school students from a school located in a territory with a high circulation of drugs, and to verify the relationships between use and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and predictive correlational study, with 109 ninth-year students, who answered the questionnaire containing sociodemographic information and the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI). The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, association tests, and calculation of problem densities investigated by the DUSI. There was a greater density of problems for all areas of life investigated among students who had already used psychoactive substances. "Practice religion" was identified as a protective factor for the use of psychoactive substances and "work" as a risk factor for the use of alcohol. The need for preventive strategies directed to the use of substances and directed to this public was evidenced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Students , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Underage Drinking , Religion , Socioeconomic Factors , Work , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
19.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 34: 17, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340492

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: One of the most serious socio-educational measures for children and adolescents in conflict with the law in Brazil is their internment. This measure may represent an additional source of stress to this population and present significant impacts in the mental health context. This study aims to describe anxiety levels, depression, and addictive consumption, as well as to estimate the causalities and interactions of these variables. Methods: Herein, we report a study in which 175 male juveniles from youth detention institutions of the Federal District voluntarily completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and a short self-rating questionnaire asking whether and how often they had experienced cannabis, alcohol, and other "hard" psychotropic drugs (e.g., crack, cocaine, amphetamine) 1 year prior to institutionalization. Results: Of the total participants, 28.00% showed moderate to severe depression scores and 34.28% showed moderate to severe anxiety scores. In addition, the vast majority of participants also reported some antecedent drug abuse, including cannabis, alcohol, and other "hard drugs." The BDI scores moderately correlated with BAI, but none of these parameters considerably correlated with the antecedent drug abuse. Conclusions: The data indicate potentially concerning levels of emotional distress in these institutionalized juveniles which seem to be independent of addictive behaviors. These data deserve attention and further investigation. Thus, a need for preventative mental health for the general population and socio-educational intervention aimed at interned youth which can decrease levels of emotional stress is emphasized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Adolescent, Institutionalized/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Brazil , Mental Health , Adolescent, Institutionalized/statistics & numerical data
20.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 1-9, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1352167

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: TO evaluate the family and contextual factors associated with licit drug use among 15 to 19-year-old adolescents in the school context. METHODS: This is a representative, school-based, cross-sectional study conducted with 746 adolescents from 15 to 19 years old enrolled in public and private schools. Parents/guardians reported on the sociodemographic variables, while adolescents answered questionnaires on drug use, family cohesion and adaptability, oral health literacy and visits to the dentist. Information on school context was obtained at the institution and via municipal publications. Associations between variables were analyzed using unadjusted and adjusted multilevel Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Prevalence of licit drug use at least once and a pattern indicative of harmful drug use were 39.8% and 15.1%, respectively. After the adjusted analysis of licit drug use at least once, the variables gender (PR = 1.26; 95%CI: 1.01-1.59), family cohesion (PR = 9.81; 95%CI: 1.23-72.54), and average income of the school district (PR = 0.72; 95%CI: 0.57-0.91) remained in the final model. As for drug abuse, only the detached type (PR = 23.01; 95%CI: 2.46-214.87) and separated type (PR = 13.54; 95%CI: 1.40-130.97) of family cohesion remained in the final model. CONCLUSION: Experience with licit drug use was associated with family and contextual factors among the adolescents, while family cohesion was the main factor related to harmful drug use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Health Literacy , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
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