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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929023

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The plateau environment is characterized by low oxygen partial pressure, leading to the reduction of oxygen carrying capacity in alveoli and the reduction of available oxygen in tissues, and thus causing tissue damage. Cilostazol is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor that has been reported to increase the oxygen release of hemoglobin (Hb) in tissues. This study aims to explore the anti-hypoxic activity of cilostazol and its anti-hypoxic effect.@*METHODS@#A total of 40 male BALB/C mice were randomly divided into a low-dose cilostazol (6.5 mg/kg) group, a medium-dose (13 mg/kg) group, a high-dose (26 mg/kg) group, and a control group. The atmospheric airtight hypoxia experiment was used to investigate the anti-hypoxic activity of cilostazol and to screen the optimal dosage. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a normoxia control group, a hypoxia model group, an acetazolamide (22.33 mg/kg) group, and a cilostazol (9 mg/kg) group. After 3 days of hypoxia in the 4 010 m high altitude, blood from the abdominal aorta was collected to determine blood gas indicators, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutataione (GSH) were measured. The degree of pathological damage for rat tissues was observed with HE staining.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the survival time of mice in the low, medium, and high dose group of cilostazol was significantly prolonged, and the survival time of mice in the medium dose group was the longest, with an extension rate at 29.34%, so the medium dose was the best dose. Compared with the hypoxia model group, the P50 (oxygen partial pressure at Hb oxygen saturation of 50%) value of rats in the cilostazol group was significantly increased by 1.03%; Hb and Hct were significantly reduced by 8.46% and 8.43%, and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in plasma were reduced by 50.65% and 30.77%. The MDA contents in heart, brain, lung, liver, and kidney tissues were reduced by 37.12%, 29.55%, 25.00%, 39.34%, and 21.47%, respectively. The SOD activities were increased by 94.93%, 9.14%, 9.42%, 13.29%, and 20.80%, respectively. The GSH contents were increased by 95.24%, 28.62%, 28.57%, 20.80%, and 44.00%, respectively. The results of HE staining showed that compared with the hypoxia model group, cilostazol significantly improved the damage of heart, lung, and kidney tissues in rats after hypoxia.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Cilostazol can significantly improve the oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction caused by rapid altitude hypoxia, and it has a significant protective effect on tissue damage caused by hypoxia, suggesting that it has obvious anti-hypoxic activity.


Subject(s)
Altitude Sickness , Animals , Cilostazol/therapeutic use , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Oxidative Stress , Oxygen , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928996

ABSTRACT

Areca catechu L. medicinal materials and their preparations are widely used in clinical practice. Betelnut polyphenol is one of the main chemical components with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. With continuous increase of high altitude activities, tissue oxidative damage caused by high altitude hypoxia seriously affects the ability to work, and the studies on anti-hypoxia drugs are particularly important. Recent studies have shown that betelnut polyphenols have protective effects on oxidative stress injury caused by hypoxia via improving blood gas index of hypoxic organism, increasing superoxide dismutase glutathione catalase activity, and scavenging excessive free radicals. The effects of betelnut polyphenols against hypoxia and oxidative damage protection suggest that betelnut polyphenols can be used as potential anti-hypoxia drugs and posses clinical prospects.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Areca/chemistry , Humans , Hypoxia , Oxidative Stress , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928653

ABSTRACT

To investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of Qingfei oral liquid in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Seventy-two male SD rats were divided into control group, model group, pirofenidone group and Qingfei group with 18 animals in each group. The idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was induced in last three groups by intratracheal injection of bleomycin; pirofenidone group was given oral administration of pirofenidone b.i.d for 21 d, and Qingfei group was given Qingfei oral liquid 3.6 mL/kg q.d for Lung tissues were obtained for HE staining, Masson staining and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β immunohistochemical staining. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were detected in tissue homogenates. The BATMAN-TCM database was used to retrieve the chemical components and their corresponding targets of Qingfei oral solution by network pharmacology method, and then the component-target-disease network diagram was constructed. Finally, the pathway enrichment analysis was carried out to explore the molecular mechanism of Qingfei oral liquid against idiopathic fibrosis. Histopathology results showed that Qingfei oral liquid had a similar relieving effect on pulmonary fibrosis as the positive drug pirfenidone; TGF-β secretion had a significant reduction in lung tissues of Qingfei group; and Qingfei oral liquid had better regulatory effect on SOD, MDA and GSH than pirfenidone. The results of component-target-disease network and pathway enrichment analysis showed that the related molecular pathways were concentrated in inflammation, extracellular matrix and cytokines. Qingfei oral liquid has a good therapeutic effect on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in rats via regulation of inflammation, extracellular matrix and cytokines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bleomycin/pharmacology , Cytokines , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glutathione , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Inflammation , Lung/pathology , Male , Network Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928158

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the main components of fenugreek(Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) leaf flavonoids(FLFs) and their antioxidant activity. FLFs were prepared and enriched by solvent extraction, and the flavonoids were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). The protective effect of FLFs against H_2O_2-induced stress damage to L02 hepatocytes was also investigated. Firstly, the cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The oxidative stress injury model was induced by H_2O_2 in L02 cells. The release of lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), the content of reduced glutathione(GSH) and malondialdehyde(MDA), and the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) were measured by assay kits. Hoechst fluorescence staining was performed to observe the cell apoptosis. The expression levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2), nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2(Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1(HO-1), and their phosphorylated proteins were detected by Western blot. Based on the MS fragment ion information and data in databases, FLFs contained eight flavonoids with quercetin and kaempferol as the main aglycons. The cell viabi-lity assay revealed that as compared with the conditions in the H_2O_2 treatment group, 3.125-25 μg·mL~(-1) FLFs could increase the viability of L02 cells, reduce LDH release and MDA content in a dose-dependent manner, potentiate the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH, decrease the phosphorylation of JNK and ERK1/2 proteins, and up-regulate the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. The results of fluorescence staining showed that the nucleus of the H_2O_2 treatment group showed concentrated and dense strong blue fluorescence, while the blue fluorescence intensity of the FLFs group decreased significantly. FLFs showed a protective effect against H_2O_2-induced oxidative damage in L02 cells, and the underlying mechanism is associated with the enhancement of cell capability in clearing oxygen free radicals and the inhibition of apoptosis by the activation of the MAPKs/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. The antioxidant effect of fenugreek leaf is related to its rich flavonoids.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Hepatocytes/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Trigonella/metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928148

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the mechanism of the Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Shanhu Pills(ESP) in improving scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment in mice based on Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. ICR mice were randomized into blank group, model group, low-dose(200 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-dose(400 mg·kg~(-1)), and high-dose(800 mg·kg~(-1)) ESP groups, and donepezil hydrochloride group. The learning and memory impairment was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of scopola-mine. The learning and memory abilities of mice were detected by Morris water maze test, and the damage of hippocampal neurons and cortical neurons was detected based on Nissl staining. The expression of neuron specific nuclear protein(NeuN) in hippocampus and cortex of mice was determined by immunofluorescence assay, and the content of acetylcholine(Ach) and the activity of acetylcholines-terase(AchE) in hippocampus of mice by kits. Moreover, the content of superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA), catalase(CAT), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in serum of mice was detected. The content of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2), and heme oxygenase 1(HO-1) in hippocampus was determined by Western blot. The results showed that there were significant differences in the trajectory map of mice among different groups in the behavioral experiment. Moreover, the latency of ESP groups decreased significantly compared with that in the model group. The hippocampal neurons in the high-dose ESP group were significantly more than those in the model group and the cortical neurons in the high-dose and medium-dose ESP groups were significantly more than those in the model group. The expression of NeuN in the model group was significantly decreased compared with that in the blank group, and the expression in the ESP groups was significantly higher than that in the model group. The AchE activity and MDA level were significantly decreased, and Ach content and levels of SOD, CAT, and T-AOC in the ESP groups were significantly increased in the ESP groups compared with those in the model group. The expression of Keap1 in the model group was significantly increased compared with that in the blank group, and the Keap1 expression increased insignificantly in ESP groups compared with that in the model group. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was significantly lower in the model group than in the blank group, and the expression was significantly higher in the medium-dose ESP group than in the model group. In conclusion, ESP protected mice against the scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment by regulating the Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts , Scopolamine/adverse effects , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928147

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the mechanism of the Tibetan patent medicine Ershiwuwei Shanhu Pills(ESP) in alleviating Alzheimer's disease in mice via Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β signaling pathway. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into a blank control group, a model group, low(200 mg·kg~(-1)), medium(400 mg·kg~(-1)) and high(800 mg·kg~(-1)) dose groups of ESP, and donepezil hydrochloride group. Except the blank control group, the other groups were given 20 mg·kg~(-1) aluminum chloride by gavage and 120 mg·kg~(-1) D-galactose by intraperitoneal injection for 56 days to establish Alzheimer's disease model. Morris water maze was used to detect the learning and memory ability of mice. The level of p-tau protein in mouse hippocampus and the levels of superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA), catalase(CAT), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in hippocampus and serum were detected. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Nissl staining were performed for the pathological observation of whole brain in mice. TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling(TUNEL) staining was employed for the observation of apoptosis in mouse cortex. Western blot was adopted to detect the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-Akt, and GSK-3β in the hippocampus. Compared with the model group, the ESP groups showcased alleviated pathological damage of the whole brain, decreased TUNEL positive cells, reduced level of p-tau protein in hippocampus, and risen SOD, CAT, and T-AOC levels and declined MDA level in hippocampus and serum. Furthermore, the ESP groups had up-regulated protein levels of p-mTOR and p-Akt while down-regulated protein level of GSK-3β in hippocampus. Therefore, ESP can alleviate the learning and memory decline and oxidative damage in mice with Alzheimer's disease induced by D-galactose combined with aluminum chloride, which may be related to Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Aluminum Chloride/adverse effects , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Animals , Galactose/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Plant Extracts , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , tau Proteins
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928146

ABSTRACT

To study the protective effect of Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills on ischemic stroke rats. Ninety 4-weeks-old SPF male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups(n=15):sham operation group, model group, nimodipine group(12 mg·kg~(-1)), Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills high-dose group(400 mg·kg~(-1)), Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills medium-dose group(200 mg·kg~(-1)), Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills low-dose group(100 mg·kg~(-1)).The permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model(PMCAO) was established in the model group, nimodipine group, and Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills groups by the improved thread plug method, while the sham operation group did not insert the thread plug.Nimodipine group and Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills groups were given intragastric administration once a day for 24 days before the modeling operation, and once 1 hour before the modeling operation, while sham operation group and model group were given equal volumes of distilled water.The neuroethology of the surviving rats was measured; The volume of cerebral infarction in rats was measured by TTC method; The histopathology of rat brain was observed by HE method; The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α),interleukin-1β(IL-1β),interleukin-6(IL-6),malondialdehyde(MDA),superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) in serum were detected by ELISA;The mRNA expressions of Notch 1,Jagged 1,Hes 1 and Bcl-2 in rat brain were detected by RT-PCR;Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of caspase-3 protein in rat brain; the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and CD34 positive cells in rat brain were detected by immunofluorescence.The low, medium and high dose groups of Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills and nimodipine group could significantly reduce the neurobehavioral score and cerebral infarction volume of rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, reduce the morphological changes of nerve cells, decrease the expression of TNF-α,IL-1β and IL-6 in rat serum, increase the activity of SOD and CAT,and reduce the level of MDA.Furthermore, the expression levels of Notch l, Jagged l, Hes l and Bcl-2 mRNA were significantly increased, and the expression level of caspase-3 protein was decreased.Meanwhile, the number of VEGF and CD34 positive cells increased in the treatment group.The differences were statistically significant. Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pills has a protective effect on ischemic stroke rats, and its mechanism may be related to anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, promotion of nerve cell proliferation, inhibition nerve cell apoptosis and promotion of angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 3/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Male , Nimodipine/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928144

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the mechanism of the Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Songshi Pills(ESP) against the liver injury induced by acetaminophen(APAP) in mice based on the kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1)/nuclear transcription factor E2 related factor 2(Nrf2) and Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB) p65 signaling pathways. Kunming mice were randomly divided into a blank control group, a model group, an N-acetyl-L-cysteine(NAC) group, and high-(400 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-(200 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose(100 mg·kg~(-1)) ESP groups. After 14 days of continuous administration, except for those in the control group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 200 mg·kg~(-1) APAP. After 12 h, the serum and liver tissues of mice were collected. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed on pathological sections of the liver, and the levels of aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) in the serum and the levels of glutathione(GSH), malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), myeloperoxidase(MPO), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in liver tissue homogenate were detected to observe and analyze the protective effect of ESP on APAP-induced liver injury in mice. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta(IL-1β), and interleukin-6(IL-6) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The protein expression of Nrf2, Keap1, TLR4, and NF-κB p65 in the liver was determined by Western blot. Quantitative real-time was used to determine the mRNA expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit(GCLC), glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit(GCLM), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1(NQO-1) in the liver to explore the mechanism of ESP in improving APAP-induced liver damage in mice. As revealed by results, compared with the model group, the ESP groups showed improved liver pathological damage, decreased ALT and AST levels in the serum and MDA and MPO content in the liver, increased GSH, SOD, CAT, and T-AOC in the liver, reduced TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the serum, down-regulated expression of Keap1 in the liver cytoplasm and NF-κB p65 in the liver nucleus, up-regulated expression of Nrf2 in the liver nucleus, insignificant change in TLR4 expression, and elevated relative mRNA expression levels of antioxidant genes GCLC, GCLM, HO-1, and NQO-1. ESP can reduce the oxidative damage and inflammation caused by APAP, and the mechanism may be related to the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway and the signal transduction factors on the TLR4/NF-κB p65 pathway.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/toxicity , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase/pharmacology , Glutathione , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Liver , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928129

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins(GPs) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) induced by high-fat diet in rats and reveal the underlying mechanism. The NAFLD model rats were prepared with high-fat diet. Forty male Sprague Dawley(SD) rats were randomly assigned into the control group, model group, and low-, moderate-, and high-dose GPs(50, 100, and 150 mg·kg~(-1), respectively) groups. After intragastric administration for 8 continuous weeks, we determined the body weight, liver weight, the levels of total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in serum, and the levels of TC, TG, malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), and interleukin 6(IL-6) in the liver. Furthermore, we observed the pathological changes of liver tissue by oil red O staining and hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, sequenced the 16 S rRNA of the intestinal flora in rat feces, and determined the content of short-chain fatty acids in rat feces. The results showed that GPs inhibited the excessive weight gain of high-fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats, reduced the liver weight, lowered the TC, TG, LDL-c, AST, and ALT levels in serum(P<0.05), and rose the HDL-c level in serum(P<0.01). GPs relieved the liver damage caused by high-fat diet, mainly manifested by the lowered levels of TC, TG, MDA, and IL-6 in the liver(P<0.01) and elevated levels of CAT and SOD in the liver. Furthermore, GPs reversed the intestinal flora disorder caused by high-fat diet, restored the diversity of intestinal flora, increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides, and reduced the relative abundance of Firmicutes and the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroides. Moreover, GPs promoted the proliferation of beneficial bacteria such as Akkermansia, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides, and inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria such as Desulfovibrio, Escherichia-Shigella, and Helicobacter. GPs increased the content of short-chain fatty acids(acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid)(P<0.01). These findings indicate that GPs can alleviate the high-fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats via regulating the intestinal flora and short-chain fatty acid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Animals , Cholesterol, LDL/pharmacology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gynostemma , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Liver , Male , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saponins/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928128

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the therapeutic effect and mechanism of Di'ao Xinxuekang(DXXK) on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH) in mice. Sixty-five C57 BL/6 J mice were randomly divided into a normal group and an experimental group for model induction with the high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Then the mice in the experimental group were randomly divided into a model group, an atorvastatin group(4 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and high-(200 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), medium-(60 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and low-dose(20 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) DXXK groups, with 10 mice in each group. Drugs were administered by gavage for eight weeks. Serum lipid, liver lipid, serum alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and glutathione reductase(GSH-Px) were determined. Interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The liver index was calculated. The liver pathological change and lipid accumulation were observed by HE and oil red O staining. The liver ultrastructure was observed by the transmission electron microscope. The mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2(Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) was detected by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results showed that compared with the normal group, the model group displayed serum lipid and liver lipid metabolism disorders, elevated transaminase, lipid deposition, steatosis, and inflammation, suggesting that the NASH model in mice was properly induced. Compared with the model group, the DXXK groups showed decreased serum lipid, liver lipid, ALT, AST, MDA, IL-1β, and TNF-α, increased SOD and GSH-Px, alleviated hepatic steatosis, ballooning, and inflammation, and up-regulated Nrf2 and HO-1 gene and protein expression. In conclusion, DXXK can significantly alleviate NASH in mice, which is related to the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory damage by up-regulating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipids , Liver , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922264

ABSTRACT

To investigate the active compounds from on the heart and brain of mice at simulated high altitude.Fifty healthy male adult BALB/c mice were randomly divided into normal control group, hypoxic model group, acetazolamide group, petroleum ether extract of (PESI) group and octacosan group with 10 mice in each group. Acetazolamide group, PESI group and octacosan group were treated with acetazolamide PESI (200 mg/kg) or octacosan by single tail vein injection, respectively. Except normal control group, the mice were exposed to a simulated high altitude of for in an animal decompression chamber. After the mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, the heart and brain were histologically observed by HE staining; superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total anti-oxidant capacity (T-AOC) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma, heart and brain tissues were detected by WST-1 method, ABTS method and TBA method, respectively; lactic acid and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in plasma, heart and brain tissues were detected by colorimetric method and microwell plate method, respectively; ATP content and ATPase activity in heart and brain tissues were detected by colorimetric method. PESI and octacosane significantly attenuated the pathological damages of heart and brain tissue at simulated high altitude; increased SOD activity, T-AOC and LDH activity, and decreased the contents of MDA and lactic acid in plasma, heart and brain tissues; increased the content of ATP in heart and brain tissues; increased the activities of Na-K ATPase, Mg ATPase, Ca ATPase and Ca-Mg ATPase in myocardial tissue; and increased the activities of Mg ATPase, Ca-Mg ATPase in brain tissue. PESI and octacosan exert anti-hypoxic activity by improving the antioxidant capacity, reducing the free radical levels, promoting the anaerobic fermentation, and alleviating the energy deficiency and metabolic disorders caused by hypoxia in mice.


Subject(s)
Altitude , Animals , Brain/metabolism , Heart , Male , Malondialdehyde , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922252

ABSTRACT

To construct a hypobaric hypoxia-induced cell injury model. Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells were randomly divided into control group, normobaric hypoxia group and hypobaric hypoxia group. The cells in control group were cultured at normal condition, while cells in other two groups were cultured in normobaric hypoxia and hypobaric hypoxia conditions, respectively. CCK-8 method was used to detect cell viability to determine the optimal modeling conditions like the oxygen concentration, atmospheric pressure and low-pressure hypoxia time. The contents of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected by microplate method. The apoptosis ratio and cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry. The hypobaric hypoxia-induced cell injury model can be established by culturing for 24 h at 1% oxygen concentration and 41 kPa atmospheric pressure. Compared with the control group and normobaric hypoxia group, the activity of LDH and the content of MDA in hypobaric hypoxia group were significantly increased, the activity of SOD was decreased, the percentage of apoptosis was increased (all <0.05), and the cell cycle was arrested in G0/G1 phase. A stable and reliable cell injury model induced by hypobaric hypoxia has been established with PC12 cells, which provides a suitable cell model for the experimental study on nerve injury induced by hypoxia at high altitude.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Hypoxia , Hypoxia , Malondialdehyde , PC12 Cells , Rats , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
13.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1312-1317, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888558

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of astaxanthin (ASTA) on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in suspended leukocyte-depleted red blood cells stored for transfusion.@*METHODS@#The suspended leukocyte-depleted red blood cells were randomly divided into group A, B, C and D. The ASTA was added into preservation solution of suspended leukocyte-depleted red blood cells of group B, C and D with the final concentration 5, 10 and 20 μmol/L, respectively, while DMSO was added into cells of group A in the same volume. After 7, 14, 28 and 42 days of storage, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in red blood cells was detected by fluorescence microplate reader, malondialdehyde (MDA) content was detected by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method, activity of SOD was detected by xanthine oxidase method, the activity of CAT was detected by visible light method, and activity of GSH-Px was detected by colorimetry.@*RESULTS@#After 7, 14, 28 and 42 days of storage, the contents of ROS and MDA in suspended red blood cells of group B, C and D were significantly lower(P<0.05), while the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were higher than those of group A(P<0.05); and CAT activity in cells treated by ASTA was significantly higher at 28 and 42 days of storage in comparison with that of group A(P<0.05). There were positive correlations between the ROS, MDA content in suspended red blood cells of group A, B, C, D and storage time(P<0.01), while negative correlation between SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activity and storage time(P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#ASTA can decrease the oxidative stress level and peroxide damage degree by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities in suspended leukocyte-depleted red blood cells during storage.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Catalase/metabolism , Erythrocytes , Leukocytes , Oxidative Stress , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Xanthophylls
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(10): e361006, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349869

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The rat cervicitis model was established with 20% phenol glue to explore the therapeutic effect of Kangfuxiaomi shuan II on rat cervicitis and its mechanism. Methods: After modeling, the rats were treated with Shuangzuotai suppository (37.84 mg/kg), Kangfuxiaoyan shuan (205.6 mg/kg) and Kangfuxiaomi shuan II (40, 80, 160 mg/kg). The histopathological changes and injury degree of cervix in rats were evaluated by vulvar inflammation score and organ index. The therapeutic effect of Kangfuxiaomi shuan II on cervicitis was evaluated by detecting the levels of copper-protein (CP), C-reactive protein (CRP), Rat interleukin 6 (IL-6), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and epidermal growth factor (EGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cervical tissue. Results: Compared with the model group, the vulvar inflammation score and cervical index of rats in other groups decreased significantly (P<0.01). Kangfuxiaomi shuan II could significantly reduce the levels of CP, CRP, and MDA in serum of rats with cervicitis, and significantly increase the activity of SOD in serum of rats with cervicitis (P<0.01). The levels of EGF and iNOS in cervical tissue of rats also increased in different degrees, while the level of COX-2 decreased significantly (P<0.01), which significantly improved the pathological degree of vulvar inflammation in rats with cervicitis. Conclusions: Kangfuxiaomi shuan II has a certain therapeutic effect on cervicitis in rats, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of inflammatory cytokine network and immunity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Uterine Cervicitis/drug therapy , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Malondialdehyde
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881039

ABSTRACT

A contributory role of oxidative stress and protection by antioxidant nutrients have been suspected in cataract formation. Ganoderic acid A (GAA), an effective lanostane triterpene, is widely reported as an antioxidant. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential effects of GAA on cataract formation. After lens epithelial cells (LECs) were exposed to UVB radiation for different periods, cell viability, apoptosis-related protein levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were monitored. We found that cell viability, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and SOD activity were increased, while Cleaved caspase-3 levels and MDA activity were decreased compared with those in UVB-impaired LECs after GAA treated. Furthermore, GAA activated PI3K/AKT in UVB-impaired LECs and effectively delayed the occurrence of lens opacity in vitro. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that GAA exhibited protective functions in SRA01/04 cells and rat lenses against UVB-evoked impairment through elevating cell viability and antioxidant activity, inhibiting cell apoptosis, activating the PI3K/AKT pathway and delaying lens opacity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cataract/prevention & control , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Epithelial Cells/radiation effects , Heptanoic Acids/pharmacology , Humans , Lanosterol/pharmacology , Lens, Crystalline/radiation effects , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Rats , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190469, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Oxidative stress is responsible for generating DNA lesions and the 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is the most commonly lesion found in DNA damage. When this base is incorporated during DNA replication, it could generate double-strand DNA breaks and cellular death. MutT enzyme hydrolyzes the 8-oxoG from the nucleotide pool, preventing its incorporation during DNA replication. OBJECTIVES To investigate the importance of 8-oxoG in Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis, in this study we analysed the impact of heterologous expression of Escherichia coli MutT (EcMutT) enzyme in drug-resistance phenotype and defense against oxidative stress. METHODS Comparative analysis of L. braziliensis and L. infantum H2O2 tolerance and cell cycle profile were performed. Lines of L. braziliensis and L. infantum expressing EcMutT were generated and evaluated using susceptibility tests to H2O2 and SbIII, cell cycle analysis, γH2A western blotting, and BrdU native detection assay. FINDINGS Comparative analysis of tolerance to oxidative stress generated by H2O2 showed that L. infantum is more tolerant to exogenous H2O2 than L. braziliensis. In addition, cell cycle analysis showed that L. infantum, after treatment with H2O2, remains in G1 phase, returning to its normal growth rate after 72 h. In contrast, after treatment with H2O2, L. braziliensis parasites continue to move to the next stages of the cell cycle. Expression of the E. coli MutT gene in L. braziliensis and L. infantum does not interfere in parasite growth or in susceptibility to SbIII. Interestingly, we observed that L. braziliensis EcMutT-expressing clones were more tolerant to H2O2 treatment, presented lower activation of γH2A, a biomarker of genotoxic stress, and lower replication stress than its parental non-transfected parasites. In contrast, the EcMutT is not involved in protection against oxidative stress generated by H2O2 in L. infantum. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results showed that 8-oxoG clearance in L. braziliensis is important to avoid misincorporation during DNA replication after oxidative stress generated by H2O2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Rats , Pyrophosphatases/genetics , Pyrophosphatases/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Leishmania infantum/drug effects , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Antimony/toxicity , Rabbits , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics , Leishmania braziliensis/enzymology , Leishmania infantum/enzymology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism , Guanine/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(1): e202000103, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088520

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum on testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D)-induced ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods Thirty male Wistar albino rats were randomly categorized into 3 groups: Group 1: sham, Group 2 ( T/D): 2,5 hours of ischemia and 7 days of reperfusion, Group 3 (T/D+ G. lucidum ): 2,5 hours of ischemia and 7 days of reperfusion and 7 days of 20 mg/kg via gastric gavage G. lucidum polysaccharides per day. Biochemical assays of Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione (GSH) levels , histopathology and expression levels of VEGF and Bcl-2 with immunohistochemical methods were examined in testicular tissue. Results G. lucidum treatment was found to have prevented the T/D-induced I/R injury by decreasing MDA levels of the testis. SOD, CAT and GSH activities were decreased in group 2, while they were increased in group 3 (p<0.001) and significant improvement in the tube diameter was observed in group 3. Bcl-2-positive germinal cells were lowered in group 3 compared to the group 2. VEGF expression showed an increase in group 2, whereas it decreased in group 3. Conclusion The antioxidant G. lucidum is thought to induce angiogenesis by reducing the apoptotic effect in testicular torsion-detorsion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spermatic Cord Torsion/complications , Testis/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reishi/chemistry , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Spermatic Cord Torsion/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Testis/drug effects , Testis/pathology , Reperfusion Injury/etiology , Catalase/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
18.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(11): e351106, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141941

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To evaluate renal histological changes by stereology and morphometry and analyze the main markers of oxidative stress in rats undergoing natural aging. Methods Seventy two Wistar rats were divided into six groups of 12 rats each, which were euthanized at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. Right kidney was stereologically and morphometrically analyzed to calculate the volumetric density (Vv[glom]), numerical density (Nv[glom]) and glomerular volume (Vol[glom]). Left kidney was used to determine the levels of nonprotein thiols, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation, as well as the activities of superoxide-dismutase and catalase enzymes. Results Both Vv[glom] and Nv[glom] values showed gradual decreases between groups. Activity of superoxide-dismutase was elevated at 24 months of age, and the levels of nonprotein thiols were higher in older animals. Greater catalase activity and protein carbonylation were observed in animals between 6 and 12 months of age but lessened in older rats. Lipid peroxidation decreased in the older groups. Conclusions Morphometric and stereological analyses revealed a gradual decrease in the volume and density of renal glomeruli during aging, as well as kidney atrophy. These findings related to oxidative stress clarify many changes occurring in kidney tissues during senescence in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Catalase/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Aging , Lipid Peroxidation , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney Diseases
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 905-912, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055041

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a precursor to the development of heart and renal failure, furthermore is associated with elevated oxidative markers. Environmental enrichment of rodents increases performance in memory tasks, also appears to exert an antioxidant effect in the hippocampus of normotensive rats. Objectives: Evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment on oxidative stress in the ventrolateral medulla, heart, and kidneys of renovascular hypertensive rats. Methods: Forty male Fischer rats (6 weeks old) were divided into four groups: normotensive standard condition (Sham-St), normotensive enriched environment (Sham-EE), hypertensive standard condition (2K1C-St), and hypertensive enriched environment (2K1C-EE). Animals were kept in enriched or standard cages for four weeks after all animals were euthanized. The level of significance was at p < 0.05. Results: 2K1C-St group presented higher mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 147.0 (122.0; 187.0) compared to Sham-St 101.0 (94.0; 109.0) and Sham-EE 106.0 (90.8; 117.8). Ventrolateral medulla from 2K1C-EE had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) (49.1 ± 7.9 U/mg ptn) and catalase activity (0.8 ± 0.4 U/mg ptn) compared to SOD (24.1 ± 9.8 U/mg ptn) and catalase activity (0.3 ± 0.1 U/mg ptn) in 2K1C-St. 2K1C-EE presented lower lipid oxidation (0.39 ± 0.06 nmol/mg ptn) than 2K1C-St (0.53 ± 0.22 nmol/mg ptn) in ventrolateral medulla. Furthermore, the kidneys of 2K1C-EE (11.9 ± 2.3 U/mg ptn) animals presented higher superoxide-dismutase activity than those of 2K1C-St animals (9.1 ± 2.3 U/mg ptn). Conclusion: Environmental enrichment induced an antioxidant effect in the ventrolateral medulla and kidneys that contributes to reducing oxidative damage among hypertensive rats.


Resumo Fundamento: A hipertensão arterial é um precursor para o desenvolvimento da insuficiência cardíaca e renal e, além disso, está associada com o aumento dos marcadores oxidativos. O enriquecimento ambiental dos roedores melhora o desempenho em tarefas de memória, e também parece ter um efeito antioxidante sobre o hipocampo dos ratos normotensos. Objetivos: Avaliar o efeito do enriquecimento ambiental sobre o estresse oxidativo no bulbo ventrolateral, coração, e rins de ratos com hipertensão renovascular. Métodos: Quarenta ratos machos, tipo Fischer (6 semanas de idade), foram divididos em quatro grupos: normotensos em condições padrão (Sham-CP), normotensos em ambiente enriquecido (Sham-AE), hipertensos em condições padrão (2R1C-CP), e hipertensos em ambiente enriquecido (2R1C-AE). Os animais foram mantidos em gaiolas enriquecidas ou padrão durante quatro semanas e, por fim, todos os animais foram eutanasiados. O nível de significância foi p < 0,05. Resultados: O grupo 2R1C-CP apresentou pressão arterial média maior (mmHg) 147,0 (122,0; 187,0) quando comparado com os grupos Sham-CP 101,0 (94,0; 109,0) e Sham-AE 106,0 (90,8; 117,8). Observou-se maior atividade das enzimas superóxido dismutase (SOD) (49,1 ± 7,9 U/mg ptn) e da catalase (0,8 ± 0,4 U/mg ptn) no bulbo ventrolateral do grupo 2R1C-AE, em relação à atividade da SOD (24,1 ± 9,8 U/mg ptn) e da catalase (0,3 ± 0,1 U/mg ptn) no grupo 2R1C-CP. No grupo 2R1C-AE, a oxidação lipídica no bulbo ventrolateral foi menor (0,39 ± 0,06 nmol/mg ptn) quando comparado com o grupo 2R1C-CP (0,53 ± 0,22 nmol/mg ptn). Ademais, foi observada maior atividade das enzimas superóxido dismutase nos rins dos animais 2R1C-AE (11,9 ± 2,3 U/mg ptn) em relação aos animais 2R1C-CP (9,1 ± 2,3 U/mg ptn). Conclusão: O enriquecimento ambiental provocou efeito antioxidante no bulbo ventrolateral e nos rins, o que contribuiu para a redução do dano oxidante nos ratos hipertensos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Medulla Oblongata/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Environment , Housing, Animal , Hypertension, Renovascular/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Rats, Inbred F344 , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Medulla Oblongata/enzymology , Lipid Peroxidation , Catalase/metabolism , Protein Carbonylation , Arterial Pressure , Heart Ventricles/enzymology , Hypertension, Renovascular/chemically induced , Kidney/enzymology
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(7): e201900706, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038113

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the protective roles of pyracantha fortune fruit extract (PFE) on acute renal toxicity induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in rats. Methods: Rats were pretreated with PFE and consecutively injected with CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg) for 5 days. Results: The concentration of Cd, kidney weight, malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) production were remarkably increased in CdCl2 group as well as the levels of plasma uric acid, urea, and creatinine (P < 0.001). However, the body weight and glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione peroxidase (GR) levels were markedly reduced by CdCl2 treatment (P < 0.001). Histological manifestations of renal tissue showed severely adverse changes. Moreover, CdCl2 treatment significantly decreased the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression while increased the Bcl-2-Associated X Protein (Bax), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression (P < 0.001). Additionally, the expression of Nrf2/Keap 1 related proteins Keap-1 gained a significant increase (P < 0.001), whereas the Nrf2, HO-1, γ-GCS, GSH-Px and NQO1 expression decreased by CdCl2 treatment (P < 0.05). These rats were pretreated with PFE to improve the changes caused by CdCl2 treatment. Conclusion: PFE could protect the kidney against acute renal toxicity induced by CdCl2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cadmium Chloride/toxicity , Pyracantha/chemistry , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Kidney/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Catalase/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Fruit/chemistry , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Kidney/pathology
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