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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929266

ABSTRACT

Currently, chemoresistance seriously attenuates the curative outcome of liver cancer. The purpose of our work was to investigate the influence of 6-shogaol on the inhibition of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in liver cancer. The cell viability of cancer cells was determined by MTT assay. Liver cancer cell apoptosis and the cell cycle were examined utilizing flow cytometry. Moreover, qRT-PCR and western blotting was used to analyse the mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Immunohistochemistry assays were used to examine multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) expression in tumour tissues. In liver cancer cells, we found that 6-shogaol-5-FU combination treatment inhibited cell viability, facilitated G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, and accelerated apoptosis compared with 6-shogaol or 5-FU treatment alone. In cancer cells cotreated with 6-shogaol and 5-FU, AKT/mTOR pathway- and cell cycle-related protein expression levels were inhibited, and MRP1 expression was downregulated. AKT activation or MRP1 increase reversed the influence of combination treatment on liver cancer cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The inhibition of AKT activation to the anticancer effect of 6-shogaol-5-FU could be reversed by MRP1 silencing. Moreover, our results showed that 6-shogaol-5-FU combination treatment notably inhibited tumour growth in vivo. In summary, our data demonstrated that 6-shogaol contributed to the curative outcome of 5-FU in liver cancer by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR/MRP1 signalling pathway.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1 , Apoptosis , Catechols , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Fluorouracil/pharmacology , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929261

ABSTRACT

Catechins have been proven to exert antitumor effects in different kinds of cancers. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been completely clarified yet. This study aimed to assess the effects and mechanisms of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) on human melanoma skin A375 cells. Results showed that EGCG and ECG inhibited the proliferation of A375 cells and ECG showed better inhibitory effect. Flow cytometry analysis had shown that EGCG and ECG induced apoptosis and led to cell cycle arrest. EGCG and ECG decreased Bcl-2 expression and upregulated Caspase-3 protein level, indicating the development of apoptosis. Furthermore, EGCG and ECG could decreased mitochondrial membrane potential of A375 cells. In addition, the expression of Beclin-1, LC3 and Sirt3 were downregulated at protein levels, which known to be associated with autophagy. After autophagy was increased by rapamycin, the apoptotic trend was not change, indicating that apoptosis and autophagy are independent. Mechanistically, EGCG and ECG treatments decreased phosphorylated-AMPK (p-AMPK) and increased the ratios of p-PI3K, p-AKT and p-mTOR in melanoma cells. Conclusively, EGCG and ECG induced apoptosis via mitochondrial signaling pathway, downregulated autophagy through modulating the AMPK/mTOR and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. It indicated that EGCG and ECG may be utilized in human melanoma treatment.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Electrocardiography , Humans , Melanoma/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929239

ABSTRACT

β-Elemene is an effective anti-cancer ingredient extracted from the genus Curcuma (Zingiberaceae familiy). In the present study, we demonstrated that β-elemene inhibited the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. In addition, β-elemene induced nuclear chromatin condensation and cell membrane phosphatidylserine eversion, decreased cell mitochondrial membrane potential, and promoted the cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP proteins, indicating apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. At the same time, β-elemene induced autophagy response, and the treated cells showed autophagic vesicle bilayer membrane structure, which was accompanied by up-regulation of the expression of LC3B and SQSTM1. Furthermore, β-elemene increased ROS levels in colorectal cancer cells, promoted phosphorylation of AMPK protein, and inhibited mTOR protein phosphorylation. In the experiments in vivo, β-elemene inhibited the tumor size and induced apoptosis and autophagy in nude mice. In summary, β-elemene inhibited the occurrence and development of colon cancer xenografts in nude mice, and significantly induced apoptosis and autophagy in colorectal cancer cells in vitro. These effects were associated with regulation of the ROS/AMPK/mTOR signaling. We offered a molecular basis for the development of β-elemene as a promising anti-tumor drug candidate for colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Animals , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Cell Line, Tumor , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Humans , Mice , Mice, Nude , Reactive Oxygen Species , Sesquiterpenes , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Genetic mutation is one of the important causes for tumor genesis and development, but genetic mutation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has rarely been reported. This study explored the role of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-Akt), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway in the efficacy and prognosis in patients with NPC.@*METHODS@#A total of 31 patients with advanced NPC, who came from the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine of Central South University/Hunan Provincial Cancer Hospital, were enrolled. All of the exons of 288 genes, introns of 38 genes and promoters or fusion breakpoint regions from the nasopharyngeal biopsy tissues before treatment were detected by the gene sequencing platform Illumina NextSeq CN500. The coding regions of 728 genes were carried out a high-depth sequencing of target region capture, and the 4 variant types of tumor genes (including point mutations, insertion deletions of small fragments, copy number variations, and currently known fusion genes) were detected. All of 31 patients received platinum-based induction chemotherapy combined with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and were followed up for a long time.@*RESULTS@#The 3-year regional failure-free survival (RFFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with PI3K-Akt pathway mutation were significantly lower than those in unmutated patients (χ2=6.647, P<0.05). The 3-year RFFS and DFS in patients with mTOR pathway mutations were significantly lower than those in unmutated patients, and there was significant difference (χ2=5.570, P<0.05). The rate of complete response (CR) in patients with unmutated AMPK pathway was significantly higher than that in patients with mutation at 3 months after treatment (P<0.05), and the 3-year RFFS and DFS in patients with AMPK pathway mutation were significantly lower than those in unmutated patients (χ2=4.553, P<0.05). PI3K-Akt/mTOR/AMPK signaling pathway mutations and pre-treatment EB virus DNA copy numbers were independent prognostic factors for 3-year RFFS and DFS in patients with NPC (both P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The NPC patients with PI3K-Akt/mTOR/AMPK signaling pathway mutation have poor prognosis, and the detection of PI3K-Akt, mTOR, AMPK driver genes and signaling pathways by next-generation sequencing is expected to provide new idea for basic research and targeted therapy of NPC.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , DNA Copy Number Variations , Humans , Mutation , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/genetics , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sirolimus , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), nephrotoxin, and sepsis, with poor prognosis and high mortality. Leptin is a protein molecule that regulates the body's energy metabolism and reproductive activities via binding to its specific receptor. Leptin can inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by I/R, but its effect on I/R kidney injury and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanisms of leptin on renal function, renal histopathology, apoptosis, and autophagy during acute I/R kidney injury.@*METHODS@#Healthy adult male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a sham+wild-type mice (ob/+) group, a sham+leptin gene-deficient mice (ob/ob) group, an I/R+ob/+ group, and an I/R+ob/ob group (n=8 per group). For sham operation, a longitudinal incision was made on the back of the mice to expose and separate the bilateral kidneys and renal arteries, and no subsequent treatment was performed. I/R treatment was ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 48 h. The levels of BUN and SCr were detected to evaluate renal function; HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of renal tissue; TUNEL staining was used to observe cell apoptosis, and apoptosis-positive cells were counted; Western blotting was used to detect levels of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase 3, caspase 9), autophagy-related proteins [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), LC3 I, LC3 II], mTOR-dependent signaling pathway proteins [phosphate and tension homology (PTEN), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), phosphorylated PTEN (p-PTEN), phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)].@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the levels of BUN and SCr between the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group (both P>0.05). The levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/+ group were significantly higher than those in the sham+ob/+ group (both P<0.05). Compared with the mice in the sham+ob/ob group or the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of BUN and SCr in the I/R+ob/ob group were significantly increased (all P<0.05). There was no obvious damage to the renal tubules in the sham+ob/+ group and the sham+ob/ob group. Compared with sham+ob/+ group and sham+ob/ob group, both the I/R+ob/+ group and the I/R+ob/ob group had cell damage such as brush border shedding, vacuolar degeneration, and cast formation. Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the renal tubules of the mice in the I/R+ob/ob group were more severely damaged. The pathological score of renal tubular injury showed that the renal tubular injury was the most serious in the I/R+ob/ob group (P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/+ group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, and the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/+ group (all P<0.05). Compared with the sham+ob/ob group, the protein levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was significantly increased, while the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT, and p-ERK were significantly down-regulated in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05). Compared with the I/R+ob/+ group, the levels of p-mTOR, p-PTEN, p-AMPK, p-AKT were more significantly down-regulated, while the levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, PTEN, and LC3 II were more significantly up-regulated, and the ratio of LC3 II to LC3 I was more significantly increase in the I/R+ob/ob group (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Renal function and tubular damage, and elevated levels of apoptosis and autophagy are observed in mice kidneys after acute I/R. Leptin might relieve I/R induced AKI by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy that through a complex network of interactions between mTOR-dependent signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/pharmacology , Autophagy , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Female , Humans , Ischemia , Kidney/pathology , Leptin/pharmacology , Male , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reperfusion/adverse effects , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Electroacupuncture can enhance autophagic flow, promote neuronal regeneration, axonal and myelin remodeling to achieve the protection of spinal cord injury, but its role in neurogenic urine retention is not completely clear. This study aims to investigate whether the mechanism of electroacupuncture in the treatment of neurogenic urine retention is through autophagy mediated by adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway.@*METHODS@#A rat model of neurogenic urine retention after sacral spinal cord injury was established. The rats with successful model were randomly divided into a model group, an electroacupuncture group (electro-acupuncture for Ciliao, Zhongji, and Sanyinjiao by electronic stimulation, once a day, 20 min each time for 7 days), and an electroacupuncture+AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor group (on the basis of the treatment of electroacupuncture group, 100 μg of AMPK inhibitor compound C was injected intramuscularly around the L2-3 intervertebral space on the 1st and 4th day). The normal group did not receive any treatment. The maximum bladder volume, bladder basal pressure, leak point pressure, and bladder compliance were recorded by multi-channel physiological recorder; the morphology of bladder tissue was observed by HE staining; autophagy was observed under transmission electron microscope; the expressions of LC3II and Beclin1 protein were observed by immunofluorescence staining; the protein levels of AMPK, phosphorylated-AMPK (p-AMPK), mTOR, phosphorylated-mTOR (p-mTOR), microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II and Beclin1 in bladder tissue were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal group, the maximum bladder capacity, leak point pressure, bladder compliance, p-AMPK, LC3II, Beclin1 protein expressions in the bladder tissue of the model group increased, and the p-mTOR protein expressions were decreased (all P<0.05); compared with the model group, the maximum bladder capacity, bladder compliance, p-mTOR protein expression in the bladder tissue of the electroacupuncture group were decreased, and the p-AMPK, LC3II, and Beclin1 protein expressions were increased (all P<0.05); compared with the electroacupuncture group, the maximum bladder capacity, bladder compliance, p-mTOR protein expression in the bladder tissue of the electroacupuncture+AMPK inhibitor group were increased, the p-AMPK, LC3II, and Beclin1 protein expressions were decreased (all P<0.05). In the model group, the bladder became larger, with unclear and varying degrees of degeneration, severe tissue damage and autophagosome appeared; the bladder of the electroacupuncture group was smaller than that of the model group, and all levels were clearly visible with autophagy bodies; the layers were slightly disordered and damaged in the electroacupuncture + AMPK inhibitor group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Electroacupuncture can activate autophagy through AMPK/mTOR pathway, thereby reducing neurogenic urine retention caused by spinal cord injury.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Animals , Autophagy , Beclin-1 , Electroacupuncture , Mammals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord Injuries , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To reveal the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of a mixture of the main components of Panax notoginseng saponins (TSPN) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) of cultured cortical neurons.@*METHODS@#The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays. The morphology of dendrites was detected by immunofluorescence. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was developed in rats as a model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by neurological scoring, tail suspension test, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Nissl stainings. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to measure the changes in the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#MTT showed that TSPN (50, 25 and 12.5 µ g/mL) protected cortical neurons after OGD/R treatment (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays indicated that 25 µ g/mL TSPN decreased neuronal apoptosis (P<0.05), and immunofluorescence showed that 25 µ g/mL TSPN restored the dendritic morphology of damaged neurons (P<0.05). Moreover, 12.5 µ g/mL TSPN downregulated the expression of Beclin-1, Cleaved-caspase 3 and LC3B-II/LC3B-I, and upregulated the levels of phosphorylated (p)-Akt and p-mTOR (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In the MCAO model, 50 µ g/mL TSPN improved defective neurological behavior and reduced infarct volume (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B in cerebral ischemic penumbra was downregulated after 50 µ g/mL TSPN treatment, whereas the p-mTOR level was upregulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#TSPN promoted neuronal survival and protected dendrite integrity after OGD/R and had a potential therapeutic effect by alleviating neurological deficits and reversing neuronal loss. TSPN promoted p-mTOR and inhibited Beclin-1 to alleviate ischemic damage, which may be the mechanism that underlies the neuroprotective activity of TSPN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Beclin-1 , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Glucose , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Mammals/metabolism , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Panax notoginseng , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Saponins/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of ethyl acetate fraction Dicliptera chinensis (L.) Juss. (EDC) in human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro and in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis mouse model in vivo.@*METHODS@#For in vitro study, HSCs were pre-treated with platelet-derived growth factor (10 ng/mL) for 2 h to ensure activation and treated with EDC for 24 h and 48 h, respectively. The effect of EDC on HSCs was assessed using cell counting kit-8 assay, EdU staining, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blot, respectively. For in vivo experiments, mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 (2 ° L/g, adjusted to a 25% concentration in olive oil), 3 times per week for 6 weeks, to develop a hepatic fibrosis model. Forty 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups using a random number table (n=10), including control, model, positive control and EDC treatment groups. Mice in the EDC and colchicine groups were intragastrically administered EDC (0.5 g/kg) or colchicine (0.2 mg/kg) once per day for 6 weeks. Mice in the control and model groups received an equal volume of saline. Biochemical assays and histological examinations were used to assess liver damage. Protein expression levels of α -smooth muscle actin (α -SMA) and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B) were measured by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#EDC reduced pathological damage associated with liver fibrosis, downregulated the expression of α -SMA and upregulated the expression of LC3B (P<0.05), both in HSCs and the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis mouse model. The intervention of bafilomycin A1 and rapamycin in HSCs strongly supported the notion that inhibition of autophagy enhanced α -SMA protein expression levels (P<0.01). The results also found that the levels of phosphoinositide (PI3K), p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-mTOR, and p-p70S6K all decreased after EDC treatment (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#EDC has anti-hepatic fibrosis activity by inducing autophagy and might be a potential drug to be further developed for human liver fibrosis therapy.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Animals , Autophagy , Carbon Tetrachloride , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of modified Linggui Zhugan Decoction (, MLZD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, on obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats.@*METHODS@#Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups by a random number table, including normal, obese T2DM (ob-T2DM), MLZD low-dose [MLDZ-L, 4.625 g/(kg·d)], MLZD middle-dose [MLD-M, 9.25 g/(kg·d) ] and MLZD high-dose [MLD-H, 18.5 g/(kg·d)] groups, 10 rats in each group. After 4-week intervention, blood samples and liver, pancreas, muscle tissues were collected to assess the insulin resistance (IR), blood lipid, adipokines and inflammation cytokines. The alteration of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (PKB or Akt)/the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-ribosome protein subunit 6 kinase 1 (S6K1 )/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1 α) pathways were also studied.@*RESULTS@#MLZD dose-dependently reduced fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model of assessment for IR index and increased insulin sensitive index compared with ob-T2DM rats (P<0.05). Similarly, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and free fatty acids were also decreased compared with ob-T2DM rats after 4-week treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Improvements in adipokines and inflammatory cytokines were observed with a raised level of adiponectin and a reduced level of leptin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). MLZD regulated the PI3K-Akt/mTOR-S6K1/AMPK-PGC-1 α pathways and restored the tissue structure of liver and pancreas (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#MLZD ameliorated glycolipid metabolism and inflammation, which may be attributed to the regulation of PI3K-Akt/mTOR-S6K1/AMPK-PGC-1 α pathways.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glycolipids , Inflammation , Obesity/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928147

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the mechanism of the Tibetan patent medicine Ershiwuwei Shanhu Pills(ESP) in alleviating Alzheimer's disease in mice via Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β signaling pathway. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into a blank control group, a model group, low(200 mg·kg~(-1)), medium(400 mg·kg~(-1)) and high(800 mg·kg~(-1)) dose groups of ESP, and donepezil hydrochloride group. Except the blank control group, the other groups were given 20 mg·kg~(-1) aluminum chloride by gavage and 120 mg·kg~(-1) D-galactose by intraperitoneal injection for 56 days to establish Alzheimer's disease model. Morris water maze was used to detect the learning and memory ability of mice. The level of p-tau protein in mouse hippocampus and the levels of superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA), catalase(CAT), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in hippocampus and serum were detected. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Nissl staining were performed for the pathological observation of whole brain in mice. TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling(TUNEL) staining was employed for the observation of apoptosis in mouse cortex. Western blot was adopted to detect the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-Akt, and GSK-3β in the hippocampus. Compared with the model group, the ESP groups showcased alleviated pathological damage of the whole brain, decreased TUNEL positive cells, reduced level of p-tau protein in hippocampus, and risen SOD, CAT, and T-AOC levels and declined MDA level in hippocampus and serum. Furthermore, the ESP groups had up-regulated protein levels of p-mTOR and p-Akt while down-regulated protein level of GSK-3β in hippocampus. Therefore, ESP can alleviate the learning and memory decline and oxidative damage in mice with Alzheimer's disease induced by D-galactose combined with aluminum chloride, which may be related to Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Aluminum Chloride/adverse effects , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Animals , Galactose/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Plant Extracts , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , tau Proteins
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 837-848, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) were not complex, and the endothelial barrier was destroyed in the pathogenesis progress of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Previous studies have demonstrated that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which was secreted by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, could decrease endothelial apoptosis. We investigated whether mTOR/STAT3 signaling acted in HGF protective effects against oxidative stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction and ALI mice.@*METHODS@#In our current study, we introduced LPS-induced PMEVCs with HGF treatment. To investigate the effects of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway in endothelial oxidative stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 were, respectively, used to inhibit mTOR/STAT3 signaling. Moreover, lentivirus vector-mediated mTORC1 (Raptor) and mTORC2 (Rictor) gene knockdown modifications were introduced to evaluate mTORC1 and mTORC1 pathways. Calcium measurement, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential and protein, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and endothelial junction protein were detected to evaluate HGF effects. Moreover, we used the ALI mouse model to observe the mitochondria pathological changes with an electron microscope in vivo.@*RESULTS@#Our study demonstrated that HGF protected the endothelium via the suppression of ROS production and intracellular calcium uptake, which lead to increased mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1 and mitochondria tracker green detection) and specific proteins (complex I), raised anti-apoptosis Messenger Ribonucleic Acid level (B-cell lymphoma 2 and Bcl-xL), and increased endothelial junction proteins (VE-cadherin and occludin). Reversely, mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 could raise oxidative stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis even with HGF treatment in LPS-induced endothelial cells. Similarly, mTORC1 as well as mTORC2 have the same protective effects in mitochondria damage and apoptosis. In in vivo experiments of ALI mouse, HGF also increased mitochondria structural integrity via the mTOR/STAT3 pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#In all, these reveal that mTOR/STAT3 signaling mediates the HGF suppression effects to oxidative level, mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, and endothelial junction protein in ARDS, contributing to the pulmonary endothelial survival and barrier integrity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Calcium/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium/metabolism , Hepatocyte Growth Factor/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mammals/metabolism , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/metabolism , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 2/metabolism , Mice , Mitochondria/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Sirolimus/pharmacology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of needle knife on chondrocyte autophagy and expressions of autophagy-related protein and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in rats with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), and to explore the possible mechanism of needle knife for KOA.@*METHODS@#A total of 42 SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group and a needle knife group, 14 rats in each group. Except for the normal group, the other two groups were injected with the mixture of papain and L-cysteine into the left hind knee joint to establish the KOA model. After modeling, the rats in the needle knife group were treated with needle knife at strip or nodule around the quadriceps femoris and medial and lateral collateral ligament on the affected side, once a week for 3 times (3 weeks). The changes of left knee circumference in each group were observed; the chondrocytes and ultrastructure of left knee joint were observed by HE staining and electron microscope; the mRNA and protein expressions of autophagy-related genes (Atg5, Atg12, Atg4a), Unc-51 like autophagy activated kinase 1 (ULK1), autophagy gene Beclin-1 and mTOR in left knee cartilage were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#After modeling, the left knee circumferences in the model group and the needle knife group were increased compared with those before modeling and in the normal group (P<0.05); after intervention, the left knee circumference in the needle knife group was smaller than that in the model group and after modeling (P<0.05). Compared with the normal group, the number of chondrocytes was decreased, and a few cells swelled, nuclei shrank, mitochondria swelled and autophagosomes decreased in the model group; compared with the model group, the number of chondrocytes was increased , and most cell structures returned to normal, and autophagosomes was increased. Compared with the normal group, the mRNA and protein expressions of Atg5, Atg12, Atg4a, Beclin-1 and ULK1 in the knee cartilage in the model group were decreased (P<0.05); compared with the model group, the expressions of the above indexes in the needle knife group were increased (P<0.05). Compared with the normal group, the mRNA and protein expressions of mTOR in the knee cartilage in the model group were increased (P<0.05); compared with the model group, the expressions of the above indexes in the needle knife group were decreased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The needle knife intervention could improve knee cartilage injury in rats with KOA, and its mechanism may be related to reducing the expression of mTOR and up-regulating the expressions of Atg5, Atg12, Atg4a, ULK1 and Beclin-1, so as to promote chondrocyte autophagy and delay the aging and degeneration of chondrocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Autophagy-Related Protein-1 Homolog/genetics , Beclin-1/genetics , Chondrocytes , Osteoarthritis, Knee/therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics
13.
Med. lab ; 25(2): 525-534, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342894

ABSTRACT

El cáncer es una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad en los receptores de trasplante. La combinación de infecciones virales, terapia de inmunosupresión y la alteración en el sistema inmune en los pacientes trasplantados, contribuyen al desarrollo de cáncer. El sarcoma de Kaposi es causado por el virus herpes humano 8 (VHH-8), y aunque es raro en la población general, puede ser hasta 300 veces más frecuente en los pacientes con trasplante renal. El diagnóstico de la enfermedad se realiza a menudo con base en las características de las lesiones, pero debe ser confirmado por histología. En años recientes, los inhibidores de mTOR han mostrado ser efectivos para el control del sarcoma de Kaposi en los pacientes trasplantados, ya que se interrumpe el efecto antiapoptótico y la angiogénesis dependientes de la proteína mTOR, los cuales son esenciales para el desarrollo y la propagación de células malignas. Se presentan dos casos de pacientes con sarcoma de Kaposi ganglionar, sin lesiones en piel, en nuestro centro de trasplante, quienes respondieron de manera positiva al cambio del esquema inmunosupresor con inhibidores de mTOR


Cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. The combination of viral infections, immunosuppression therapy and immune system dysfunction in transplant patients contribute to the development of cancer. Kaposi sarcoma is caused by human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) and although rare in the general population, it is reported to be up to 300 times more common in kidney transplant patients. Diagnosis of the disease is often made on the basis of the characteristic appearance of lesions, but must be confirmed by histology. In recent years, mTOR inhibitors have been shown to be effective in controlling Kaposi sarcoma in transplant patients, due to disruption of the antiapoptotic effect and angiogenesis dependent on the mTOR protein, which are essential for development and propagation of malignant cells. We present two case reports of patients with Kaposi sarcoma in lymph nodes and no skin lesions, who responded well to the immunosuppressive therapy switch with mTOR inhibitors


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoma, Kaposi , Kidney Transplantation , Herpesvirus 8, Human , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Lymph Nodes
14.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 813-820, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921284

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on lipophagy in hepatocytes and the underlying mechanism. Human hepatoma cell line HepG2 was cultured in vitro, treated with 0.1 mmol/L palmitic acid (PA), and then divided into control group (0 μg/mL LPS), LPS group (10 μg/mL LPS), LPS+DMSO group and LPS+RAPA (rapamycin, 10 μmol/L) group. Lipid accumulation in hepatocytes was observed by oil red O staining. The autophagic flux of the cells was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscope after being transfected with autophagy double-labeled adenovirus (mRFP-GFP-LC3). The level of intracellular lipophagy was visualized by the colocalization of lipid droplets (BODIPY 493/503 staining) and lysosomes (lysosome marker, lysosomal associated membrane protein 1, LAMP1). The expression levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), ribosome protein subunit 6 kinase 1 (S6K1), p-S6K1, LC3II/I and P62 protein were examined by Western blot. The results showed that the number of red lipid droplets stained with oil red O was significantly increased in LPS group compared with that in control group (P < 0.001). Moreover, in LPS group, the number of autophagosomes was increased, while the number of autophagolysosomes and the colocalization rate of LAMP1 and BODIPY were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the ratios of p-mTOR/mTOR and p-S6K1/S6K1, the ratio of LC3II/LC3I and the protein expression of P62 were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in LPS group. Furthermore, compared with LPS+DMSO group, RAPA treatment obviously reduced the number of lipid droplets and autophagosomes, and raised the number of autophagolysosomes and the colocalization rate of LAMP1 and BODIPY (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the results demonstrate that LPS inhibits lipophagy in HepG2 cells via activating mTOR signaling pathway, thereby aggravating intracellular lipid accumulation.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Palmitic Acid , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2465-2474, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) has been shown to be associated with the occurrence of various cancers and involved in many tumorigenic processes. This study aimed to investigate the specific molecular mechanism through which UBE2C affects breast cancer (BC) proliferation.@*METHODS@#BC-related datasets were screened according to filter criteria in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Then differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using Venn diagram analysis. By using DEGs, we conducted the following analyses including Gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), protein-protein interaction (PPI), and survival analysis, and then validated the function of the hub gene UBE2C using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, transwell assay, and Western blot assay.@*RESULTS@#In total, 151 DEGs were identified from the GEO and TCGA databases. The results of GO analysis demonstrated that the DEGs were significantly enriched with mitotic nuclear division, lipid droplet, and organic acid-binding. KEGG analysis showed that the peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway, regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, and proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation were significantly enriched in the signal transduction pathway category. The top three hub genes that resulted from the PPI network were FOXM1, UBE2C, and CDKN3. The results of survival analysis showed a close relationship between UBE2C and BC. The results of CCK-8 and transwell assays suggested that the proliferation and invasion of UBE2C knockdown cells were significantly inhibited (P < 0.050). The results of Western blot assay showed that the level of phosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome 10 (p-PTEN) was obviously increased (P < 0.050), whereas the levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT), phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) were dramatically decreased (P < 0.050) in the UBE2C knockdown cell.@*CONCLUSION@#UBE2C can promote BC proliferation by activating the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Computational Biology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes/metabolism
16.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 221-231, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880964

ABSTRACT

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) critically regulates several essential biological functions, such as cell growth, metabolism, survival, and immune response by forming two important complexes, namely, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and complex 2 (mTORC2). mTOR signaling is often dysregulated in cancers and has been considered an attractive cancer therapeutic target. Great efforts have been made to develop efficacious mTOR inhibitors, particularly mTOR kinase inhibitors, which suppress mTORC1 and mTORC2; however, major success has not been achieved. With the strong scientific rationale, the intriguing question is why cancers are insensitive or not responsive to mTOR-targeted cancer therapy in clinics. Beyond early findings on induced activation of PI3K/Akt, MEK/ERK, and Mnk/eIF4E survival signaling pathways that compromise the efficacy of rapalog-based cancer therapy, recent findings on the essential role of GSK3 in mediating cancer cell response to mTOR inhibitors and mTORC1 inhibition-induced upregulation of PD-L1 in cancer cells may provide some explanations. These new findings may also offer us the opportunity to rationally utilize mTOR inhibitors in cancer therapy. Further elucidation of the biology of complicated mTOR networks may bring us the hope to develop effective therapeutic strategies with mTOR inhibitors against cancer.


Subject(s)
Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 2 , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879022

ABSTRACT

To screen the sensitive cell lines of active fraction from clove(AFC) on human colon cancer cells, investigate the effects of AFC on the cells proliferation and apoptosis as well as PI3 K/Akt/mTOR(phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin) signaling pathways involved, and reveal the mechanism of AFC for inducing apoptosis of human colorectal carcinoma cells. Cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) assay was used to detect the cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of AFC. AFC-induced apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. HCT116 cells were treated with AFC with or without pretreatment with insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ(IGF-Ⅰ), and then the protein expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, poly ADP-ribose polymerase(PARP), PI3 K, p-PI3 K, Akt, p-Akt, mTOR and p-mTOR in PI3 K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway were detected by Western blot. RESULTS:: showed that the most obvious inhibitory effect of AFC was on human colon cancer HCT116 cells, and the optimal AFC treatment time was 48 hours. After AFC treatment, typical apoptotic features such as nuclear chromatin concentration, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies appeared in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining showed that as compared with the control group, 50 and 100 μg·mL~(-1) AFC groups increased the apoptosis rate of HCT116 cells significantly(P<0.001); AFC activated caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP in a concentration-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of cleaved caspase-3/procaspase-3, cleaved PARP/PARP and caspase-9/β-actin after treatment of AFC(100 μg·mL~(-1)) were significantly different from those in the control group(P<0.001). The relative protein expression of p-PI3 K, p-Akt and p-mTOR decreased in a concentration dependent manner, while Akt and mTOR showed no significant differences among groups. The ratios of p-PI3 K/PI3 K, p-Akt/Akt and p-mTOR/mTOR in the AFC groups(50 and 100 μg·mL~(-1)) were significantly lower than those in the control group(P<0.01). Its combination with IGF-Ⅰ weakened the effect of AFC in inhibiting PI3 K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. The ratios of p-Akt/Akt and p-mTOR/mTOR in the AFC+IGF-Ⅰ group were significantly enhanced as compared with the AFC group(P<0.05). Apoptosis-related protein expression levels(cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP) in HCT116 cells treated with AFC+IGF-Ⅰ were also down regulated. As compared with the AFC group, the ratios of cleaved caspase-3/procaspase-3 and cleaved PARP/PARP in the AFC+IGF-Ⅰ group were significantly decreased(P<0.01). In summary, AFC activated caspase-mediated cascades and induced HCT116 cells apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, which may be associated with the inhibition of the PI3 K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , HCT116 Cells , Humans , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Syzygium , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
19.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 448-459, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888730

ABSTRACT

The ability of tumor cells to sustain continuous proliferation is one of the major characteristics of cancer. The activation of oncogenes and the mutation or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes ensure the rapid proliferation of tumor cells. The PI3K-Akt-mTOR axis is one of the most frequently modified signaling pathways whose activation sustains cancer growth. Unsurprisingly, it is also one of the most commonly attempted targets for cancer therapy. FK506 binding protein 8 (FKBP8) is an intrinsic inhibitor of mTOR kinase that also exerts an anti-apoptotic function. We aimed to explain these contradictory aspects of FKBP8 in cancer by identifying a "switch" type regulator. We identified through immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis that the mitochondrial protein prohibitin 1 (PHB1) specifically interacts with FKBP8. Furthermore, the downregulation of PHB1 inhibited the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and the mTOR signaling pathway, whereas the FKBP8 level in the mitochondria was substantially reduced. Moreover, concomitant with these changes, the interaction between FKBP8 and mTOR substantially increased in the absence of PHB1. Collectively, our finding highlights PHB1 as a potential regulator of FKBP8 because of its subcellular localization and mTOR regulating role.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Female , Humans , Ovarian Neoplasms , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proteomics , Repressor Proteins , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Tacrolimus Binding Proteins
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1658-1670, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922653

ABSTRACT

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling governs important physiological and pathological processes key to cellular life. Loss of mTOR negative regulators and subsequent over-activation of mTOR signaling are major causes underlying epileptic encephalopathy. Our previous studies showed that UBTOR/KIAA1024/MINAR1 acts as a negative regulator of mTOR signaling, but whether UBTOR plays a role in neurological diseases remains largely unknown. We therefore examined a zebrafish model and found that ubtor disruption caused increased spontaneous embryonic movement and neuronal activity in spinal interneurons, as well as the expected hyperactivation of mTOR signaling in early zebrafish embryos. In addition, mutant ubtor larvae showed increased sensitivity to the convulsant pentylenetetrazol, and both the motor activity and the neuronal activity were up-regulated. These phenotypic abnormalities in zebrafish embryos and larvae were rescued by treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. Taken together, our findings show that ubtor regulates motor hyperactivity and epilepsy-like behaviors by elevating neuronal activity and activating mTOR signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hyperkinesis/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Zebrafish/metabolism
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