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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255529, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364534

ABSTRACT

Reports from popular medicine usually act as a basis for the development of new drugs from natural compounds with therapeutic actions for serious diseases and prevalence such as cancer. Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. is a species of the Bromeliaceae family, considered an unconventional food plant, found in the south and midwest regions of Brazil. Despite the high nutritional content and pharmacological potential of its fruits, few scientific studies report its biological actions. Thus, this study evaluates the phytochemical profile of aqueous and ethanol extracts obtained from B. antiacantha fruits, as well as their possible antioxidant, antitumor, and cytotoxic activities. The aqueous extract exhibited phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while ethanol extracts indicated the presence of flavonoids and coumarin in their composition, regardless of the region of collection. The ethanolic extract demonstrated a more promising antioxidant effect than the aqueous extract and also induced a significant inhibition in the viability of human cervical cancer cells of the SiHa strain. In addition, treatment with both extracts did not alter the viability of non-tumor cells of the immortalized human keratinocyte lineage (HaCaT). These results bring new data about extracts obtained from a native plant, edible and traditionally used in popular medicine, opening new perspectives for its possible therapeutic application.


Relatos da medicina popular costumam atuar como referencial para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a partir de moléculas naturais com ações terapêuticas para doenças de alta gravidade e prevalência como o câncer. Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. é uma espécie da família Bromeliaceae, considerada uma planta alimentícia não convencional (PANC), encontrada nas regiões sul e centro-oeste do Brasil. Apesar do alto teor nutritivo e potencial farmacológico de seus frutos, poucos estudos científicos relatam suas ações biológicas. Desta forma, este estudo avalia o perfil fitoquímico de extratos aquoso e etanólico obtidos de frutos de B. antiacantha, bem como a sua possível ação antioxidante, antitumoral e citotóxica. O extrato aquoso apresentou compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, enquanto os extratos etanólicos apontam a presença de flavonóides e cumarina em sua composição, independente da região de coleta. O extrato etanólico demonstrou efeito antioxidante mais promissor do que o extrato aquoso e também induziu uma inibição significativa na viabilidade de células humanas de câncer cervical da linhagem SiHa. Além disso, o tratamento com ambos extratos não alterou a viabilidade de células não tumorais da linhagem de queratinócitos humanos imortalizados (HaCaT). Estes dados trazem novas informações sobre extratos obtidos de uma espécie vegetal nativa, comestível e já utilizada tradicionalmente, mas abrindo novas perspectivas quanto a possíveis aplicações terapêuticas.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Bromeliaceae , Bromelia , Therapeutic Uses , Phytochemicals , Phytotherapy
2.
Diagn. tratamento ; 27(4): 157-63, out-dez. 2022. tab, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399070

ABSTRACT

Contextualização: A vitamina C (ácido ascórbico) é, sem dúvida, a mais popular dentre as vitaminas e a vedete de vendas na mídia, sobretudo no inverno, sob o slogan de que previne doenças. Objetivos: O estudo avaliou a efetividade da suplementação de vitamina C para tratamento e prevenção de sintomas e doenças, segundo as revisões sistemáticas da Colaboração Cochrane. Métodos: Trata-se de overview de revisões sistemáticas Cochrane. Procedeu-se à busca na Cochrane Library (2022), sendo utilizado o termo "Ascorbic Acid". O desfecho primário de análise foi a redução da incidência da doença ou a melhora clínica, mediante suplementação de vitamina C. Resultados: A estratégia de busca recuperou 26 revisões sistemáticas Cochrane, sendo oito estudos incluídos, seguindo critérios de inclusão. Foram avaliados 91 ensaios clínicos (n = 54.864 participantes). Condições/doenças fetais, pneumonia, resfriado comum, tétano, doença cardiovascular, asma e broncoconstrição por exercício, retinopatia diabética e Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth configuraram objetos de análise. Não foi evidenciada efetividade da vitamina C nas análises dessas condições. Discussão: Não há evidência de efetividade da vitamina C para as doenças analisadas. Embora a maioria dos estudos primários tenha limitações sérias e a evidência seja de baixa qualidade, não é possível recomendar a suplementação da vitamina C para essas condições nesse momento. Conclusão: Não há efetividade, nesse momento, da suplementação da vitamina C para prevenção e tratamento de doenças analisadas pela Cochrane, A evidência é bastante limitada e recomenda-se a realização de novos ensaios clínicos randomizados, utilizando-se o CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Statement.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Therapeutic Uses , Disease Prevention , Evidence-Based Practice , Systematic Review
3.
Rev. flum. odontol ; 3(59): 85-106, set.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1382228

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O Cymbopogon citratus (capim-limão) é uma espécie herbácea pertencente à família Poaceae, que engloba aproximadamente 500 gêneros e 8.000 espécies. Objetivos: Analisar as evidências científicas disponíveis sobre as aplicações terapêuticas de Cymbopogon citratus (capim-limão) na Odontologia durante os últimos dez anos. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, que envolveu as seguintes etapas: elaboração da pergunta norteadora, estabelecimento das palavras-chave e dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão de artigos, seleção e análise crítica dos artigos, resultados, discussão e conclusão. Resultados: 8% dos artigos encontrados e analisados nessa revisão de literatura integrativa demonstraram que o Cymbopogon citratus (capim-limão) apresenta potencial terapêutico no que se refere a suas propriedades antimicrobianas, sendo considerado benéfico e promissor na inibição de patógenos colonizadores bacterianos e fúngicos dentários, além de demonstrar baixa citotoxicidade. Conclusão: Apesar da existência de diversas pesquisas in vitro que demonstram eficácia e segurança do uso de diversos compostos de origem natural, nota-se que há poucos protocolos específicos que orientem o profissional cirurgião-dentista para o uso de terapias à base de plantas medicinais e/ou fitoterápicos, como no caso do Cymbopogon citratus (capim-limão). Portanto, são necessários mais estudos para explicar e fundamentar melhor os efeitos do capim-limão na odontologia.


Introduction: Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) is an herbaceous species belonging to the Poaceae family, which includes approximately 500 genera and 8,000 species. Objectives: To analyze the available scientific evidence about therapeutic applications of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) in Dentistry over the past ten years. Methods: This is an integrative literature review, which involved the following steps: elaboration of the guiding question, establishment of keywords and criteria for inclusion and exclusion of articles, selection and critical analysis of articles, results, discussion, and conclusion. Results: 8% of the articles found and analyzed in this integrative literature review demonstrated that Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) has therapeutic potential because its antimicrobial properties, being considered beneficial and promising in the inhibition of bacterial and fungal dental colonizing pathogens, in addition presents low cytotoxicity. Conclusion: Despite the existence of several in vitro studies that demonstrate the efficacy and safety of natural compounds utilization, there are few specific protocols guiding the dental professional about using based therapies of medicinal and/or phytotherapeutic plants, as in the case of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass). Therefore, more studies are necessary to explain and provide a better validation of lemon grass effects in the dentistry practice.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Oral Health , Cymbopogon , Dentistry , Therapeutic Uses
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191132, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394049

ABSTRACT

Abstract To explore the effects and mechanisms of benzoylaconitine and paeoniflorin on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Weight, paw swelling, arthritis index and joint pathologic changes were examined in each group after CIA induction. PGE2, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, VEGF, MMP-3, IgG and anti-CII Ab were assessed by ELISA; STAT1 and STAT3 expressions were analyzed immunohistochemically, and the ultrastructure of synovial cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Therapeutic effects were determined in CIA rats via injecting benzoylaconitine and paeoniflorin, which could alleviate the degree of swelling and arthritis index (AI) and pathological lesions of the sacroiliac gland; decrease the levels of PGE2, IL-1ß, TNF-α, VEGF and IgG in serum; reduce STAT1 and STAT3 expression in the membrane tissue; and inhibit the secretion and proliferation of synovial cells. These results showed that benzoylaconitine and paeoniflorin could significantly palliate the arthritic symptoms of CIA rats, and better therapeutic effects could be achieved if the two components were used in combination


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arthritis, Experimental/chemically induced , Therapeutic Uses , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Dinoprostone/adverse effects , Interleukin-6/pharmacology , Interleukin-1/pharmacology , Interleukin-10/pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/methods
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19668, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383976

ABSTRACT

Abstract Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been shown to promote the growth, proliferation, and migration of endothelial and keratinocyte cells. Chitosan has been widely used as a biopolymer in wound-healing studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro proliferative effects of chitosan/pGM-CSF complexes as well as the therapeutic role of the complexes in an in vivo rat wound model. The effect of complexes on cell proliferation and migration was examined. Wounds were made in Wistar-albino rats, and examined histopathologically. The cell proliferation and migration were increased weight ratio- and time-dependently in HaCaT and NIH-3T3 cell lines. Wound healing was significantly accelerated in rats treated with the complexes. These results showed that the delivery of pGM-CSF using chitosan complexes could play an accelerating role in the cell proliferation, migration, and wound-healing process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Therapeutics , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries/chemically induced , Therapeutic Uses , Chitosan/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation
6.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1396550

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has highlighted the scope of heroin dependence and need for evidence-based treatment amongst marginalised people in South Africa. Acute opioid withdrawal management without maintenance therapy carries risks of increased morbidity and mortality. Due to the high costs of methadone, Tshwane's Community Oriented Substance Use Programme (COSUP) used tramadol for opioid withdrawal management during the initial COVID-19 response. Aim: To describe demographics, route of heroin administration and medication-related experiences amongst people accessing tramadol for treatment of opioid withdrawal.Setting: Three community-based COSUP sites in Mamelodi (Tshwane, South Africa). Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered paper-based tool between April and August 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data. Results: Of the 220 service users initiated onto tramadol, almost half (n = 104, 47%) were not contactable. Fifty-eight (26%) people participated, amongst whom most were male (n = 55, 95%). Participants' median age was 32 years. Most participants injected heroin (n = 36, 62.1%). Most participants experienced at least one side effect (n = 47, 81%) with 37 (64%) experiencing two or more side effects from tramadol. Insomnia occurred most frequently (n = 26, 45%). One person without a history of seizures experienced a seizure. Opioid withdrawal symptoms were experienced by 54 participants (93%) whilst taking tramadol. Over half (n = 38, 66%) reported using less heroin whilst on tramadol. Conclusion: Tramadol reduced heroin use but was associated with withdrawal symptoms and unfavourable side effects. Findings point to the limitations of tramadol as opioid withdrawal management to retain people in care and the importance of access to first-line opioid agonists.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tramadol , Therapeutic Uses , COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Signs and Symptoms , Analgesics, Opioid
7.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(3): 1-12, 2021-08-11. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363268

ABSTRACT

Background:Lotus arabicus L and Lotusglaber Mill. belong to the family Fabaceae, and they grow in the wild in Egypt and have different therapeutic uses in folk medicine. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical profile, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of the methanolic extracts of two Lotus spp. growing in Egypt, L. arabicus and L. glaber.Material and methods: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify the compounds of the extracts of two Lotus species. An MTT colorimetric assay and the disc diffusion method were performed to investigate the antiviral and antimicrobial activities of two lotus species, respectively. Results: The n-hexane and methanol extracts of L. arabicuscontained high percentages of alkane hydrocarbons, such as 5-methyloctadecane, while L. glaber contained dodecane. The major compounds in the methanol extract of L. arabicuswere hexadecanoic acid methyl ester and dodecanoic acid,2,3-bis(acetyloxy)propyl ester. The major compounds in the methanol extract of L. glaber were palmitic acid and lucenin 2. The indole alkaloid ditaine was found only in L. arabicus. This alkaloid was identified for the first time in the genus Lotus. The antimicrobial properties of the extracts of the two Lotus species showed that the n-hexane extract of both Lotus species may have potential antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis and Aspergillus flavus. Moreover, the methanolic extracts of both Lotus species have potential antiviral activity against the coxsackie B virus, but only the L. arabicus extract showed activity against the hepatitis A virus. Conclusion:Lotus arabicus might have potential antifungal or antiviral activity greater than L. glaber


Antecedentes:Lotus arabicus L y Lotus glaber Mill. pertenecen a la familia de las fabáceas y crecen en estado silvestre en Egipto y tienen diferentes usos terapéuticos en la medicina popular. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el perfil fitoquímico y las propiedades antimicrobianas de los extractos metanólicos de dos especies de Lotus que crecen en Egipto, L. arabicus y L. glaber. Material y métodos: Se utilizó la cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas para identificar los compuestos de los extractos de las dos especies de Lotus. Se realizó un ensayo colorimétrico MTT y el método de difusión en disco para investigar las actividades antiviral y antimicrobiana de las dos especies de Lotus, respectivamente. Resultados: Los extractos de n-hexano y metanol de L. arabicus contenían altos porcentajes de hidrocarburos alcanos, como el 5-metiloctadecano, mientras que L. glaber contenía dodecano. Los principales compuestos del extracto de metanol de L. arabicus eran el éster metílico del ácido hexadecanoico y el éster dodecanoico, 2,3-bis(acetiloxi)propilo. Los principales compuestos del extracto de metanol de L. glaber fueron el ácido palmítico y la lucenina 2. El alcaloide indólico ditaína sólo se encontró en L. arabicus. Este alcaloide fue identificado por primera vez en el género Lotus. Las propiedades antimicrobianas de los extractos de las dos especies de Lotus mostraron que el extracto n-hexano de ambas especies de Lotus puede tener una potencial actividad antifúngica contra Candidaparapsilosis y Aspergillus flavus. Además, los extractos metanólicos de ambas especies de Lotustienen una potencial actividad antiviral contra el virus coxsackie B, pero sólo el extracto de L. arabicus mostró actividad contra el virus de la hepatitis A. Conclusión: L. arabicus puede tener una potencial actividad antifúngica o antiviral mayor que L. glaber


Subject(s)
Humans , Phytochemicals , Therapeutic Uses , Anti-Infective Agents
8.
Más Vita ; 3(2): 8-15, jun 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1253888

ABSTRACT

La Homeopatía es una modalidad terapéutica que se practica desde el siglo XIX, siendo reconocida por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. En Cuba, con el desarrollo de la Medicina Natural y Tradicional (MNT), el uso de la Homeopatía se ha extendido y se ha incrementado el consumo de sus medicamentos. Objetivo: Caracterizar el consumo y el cumplimiento de las Buenas Prácticas de Preparación de medicamentos homeopáticos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal del tipo consumo, en la Farmacia Homeopática Provincial de Santiago de Cuba. Resultados: El 94,03% del total de las ventas, fue mediante recetas médicas, entre los 12 medicamentos homeopáticos más prescriptos estuvieron la Drossera, Sambucus y Belladona. La especialidad con más prescripciones fue la de Pediatría con el 53,32%, recibiéndose recetas de 12 Instituciones de salud de la provincia. Dentro de los errores detectados en las recetas sin calidad predominó en el 87,35% la omisión de las potencias y errores en la nomenclatura del medicamento. En la valoración del cumplimiento de las normas de Buenas Prácticas de Preparación se obtuvo la puntuación de 83 puntos de 100, clasificándose el cumplimiento en dicho servicio con la categoría de Bien. La dispensación de los medicamentos homeopáticos resultó ser adecuada en el 100 % de los casos. Conclusión: Se comprobó el amplio uso de esta terapéutica en el territorio. Se detectaron deficiencias en la calidad de las recetas médicas. La dispensación constituyó un factor de impacto positivo en los pacientes(AU)


Homeopathy is a therapeutic modality that has been practiced since the 19th century, been recognized by the World Health Organization. In Cuba, with the development of Natural and Traditional Medicine (NTM), the use of Homeopathy has spread and the consumption of its medicines has increased. Objective: To characterize the consumption and compliance with the Good Practices for the Preparation of homeopathic medicines. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of the consumption type was carried out in the Provincial Homeopathic Pharmacy of Santiago de Cuba. Results: 94.03% of total sales were through medical prescriptions, among the 12 most prescribed homeopathic medicines were Drossera, Sambucus and Belladonna. The specialty with the most prescriptions was Pediatrics with 53.32%, with prescriptions received from 12 health institutions in the province. Among the errors detected in the prescriptions without quality, 87.35% were due to omission of potencies and errors in the nomenclature of the drug. In the evaluation of compliance with the standards of Good Preparation Practices, a score of 83 points out of 100 was obtained, classifying compliance in this service with the category of Good. The dispensing of homeopathic medicines was adequate in 100 % of the cases. Conclusion: The wide use of this therapy in the territory was verified. Deficiencies were detected in the quality of medical prescriptions. Dispensing was a factor of positive impact on patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Homeopathic Pharmacy , Good Manipulation Practices , Pharmaceutical Trade , Therapeutics , Therapeutic Uses
9.
Med. U.P.B ; 40(1): 65-76, 03/03/2021. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1177500

ABSTRACT

Esta revisión abarca la historia, el origen, la síntesis biológica del cannabidiol (CBD), su interacción con el sistema de cannabinoides endógenos, las presentaciones para uso clínico, su farmacocinética, tolerabilidad y la evidencia actual de los usos en psiquiatría. Además del origen de su nombre y las precisiones de la taxonomía botánica de la cannabis, es de interés conocer a partir de estudios de polen fósil la cronología y ruta que siguió ancestralmente hasta la llegada a Europa y cómo allí se inició su estudio con la idea de introducirla en la farmacopea del momento y como modelo de estudio de trastornos cerebrales como las psicosis. Jacques Joseph Moreau de Tours (1804-1884), psiquiatra francés, la usó en forma de hachís y propició el consumo experimental por intelectuales de la época. Basado en la presunción de que intelectuales e individuos con una educación eran sujetos de estudio que podían proveer relatos más detallados y floridos de las experiencias vividas bajo sus efectos, Moreau de Tours concibió por primera vez que los efectos de la cannabis eran un paradigma experimental para el estudio de las psicosis. Luego experimentó su uso terapéutico con resultados negativos. En el caso del CBD, extraído de la cannabis, la psiquiatría contemporánea podría vislumbrar resultados más promisorios a través de la investigación clínica en diferentes indicaciones


This review covers the history, origin, and biological synthesis of Cannabidiol (CBD), together with its interaction with the endogenous cannabinoid system, its options for clinical use, its pharmacokinetics, its tolerability, and current evidence for indications in psychiatry. In addition to the origin of its name and the details of the botanical taxonomy of cannabis, it is a matter of interest to review fossil pollen studies to help us trace the chronology and route that it followed until it got to be known in Europe, and how was included in the pharmacological studies of the time, with the aim to use it as a model for studying brain disorders such as psychoses. French psychiatrist Jacques Joseph Moreau de Tours (1804-1884) used it in the form of hashish and encouraged its experimental consumption by intellectuals and famous artists of the time, who were then asked to provide detailed descriptions of their experiences under the effects of cannabis. Moreau de Tours was the first to conceive that the effects of cannabis were an experimental paradigm for the study of psychoses. He went on to experiment its therapeutic use with negative results. In the case of CBD, extracted from cannabis, contemporary psychiatry could foresee more promising results in its therapeutic effects through clinical research in different indications.


Esta revisão cobre a história, origem, síntese biológica do canabidiol (CBD), sua interação com o sistema canabinoide endógeno, apresentações para uso clínico, sua farmacocinética, tolerabilidade e evidências atuais de uso em psiquiatria. Além da origem do seu nome e dos detalhes da taxonomia botânica da cannabis, é interessante saber pelos estudos do pólen fóssil a cronologia e o percurso que ele percorreu ancestralmente até chegar à Europa e como começou seu estudo com a ideia lá para introduzi-lo na farmacopeia do momento e como um modelo para estudar distúrbios cerebrais como as psicoses. Jacques Joseph Moreau de Tours (1804-1884), psiquiatra francês, utilizou-o na forma de haxixe e estimulou o consumo experimental pelos intelectuais da época. Com base na suposição de que intelectuais e indivíduos educados eram sujeitos de estudo que poderiam fornecer relatos mais detalhados e floreados de experiências sob sua influência, Moreau de Tours primeiro concebeu que os efeitos da cannabis eram um paradigma experimental para o estudo das psicoses. Ele então experimentou seu uso terapêutico com resultados negativos. No caso do CBD, extraído da cannabis, a psiquiatria contemporânea poderia ver resultados mais promissores por meio de pesquisas clínicas em diferentes indicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cannabidiol , Psychiatry , Psychotic Disorders , Botany , Brain Diseases , Cannabinoids , Cannabis , Therapeutic Uses
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19040, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350239

ABSTRACT

Diabetes and its complications represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes patients. This review is aimed to find the potential of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to act as therapeutic agents for diabetes and its complications. Here, we outline the literature related to the self-therapeutic effects of AuNPs. The first goal of this review is to highlight and summarize some of the existing studies (10 years ago) in terms of several parameters such as the size of AuNPs, dose, administration route, experimental model, experimental analysis, and findings. The second goal is to describe the self-therapeutic effects of AuNPs against the pathogenesis determinants of diabetic complications. AuNPs have been found to have inhibitory effects on transforming growth factor-ß, antiglycation, antiangiogenic, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. AuNPs treatment effectively disrupts multiple pathogenesis determinants in an animal model of diabetes and diabetic complications. The present review provides insight into the potential applications of AuNPs, which may help reduce the incidence of diabetes and its complications


Subject(s)
Therapeutic Uses , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/metabolism , Gold/classification , Organization and Administration , Patients , Models, Animal , Models, Theoretical , Antioxidants/pharmacology
11.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 68(3): 446-452, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1143734

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Medicinal plants have been traditionally used to cure or alleviate infectious and non-infectious diseases. They are widely accepted due to their low cost and low toxicity indexes. These plants are frequently used in cases involving skin irritation, superficial wounds, insect bites, and snake bites. Objective: To compile available evidence on the main therapeutic uses and phytochemical components of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (popularly known as chaya), a plant that grows in tropical regions of Mexico and Central America. Materials and methods: A literature review of studies on C. aconitifolius published until 2017 was conducted in the BIREME, PubMed/Medline, Elsevier and SciELO databases. Descriptors "Cnidoscolus" and "aconitifolius" were used for the literature search, and no language restrictions were applied. Results: 82 articles were retrieved after completing the initial search. Once the studies were filtered by title (descriptors in the title) and duplicates were removed, 18 articles were reviewed. Based on the information found, it was possible to confirm that this plant has multiple health benefits. Conclusions: The traditional therapeutic use of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius is backed by scientific evidence. Therefore, further research aimed at identifying new phytochemical properties of this plant should be conducted to establish alternative therapies for treating different conditions.


Resumen Introducción. El uso tradicional de plantas medicinales para tratar diferentes enfermedades, ya sean infecciosas o no, es ampliamente aceptado debido a su bajo costo y sus bajos índices de toxicidad. Estas plantas son frecuentemente usadas en casos que involucran irritaciones de la piel, heridas superficiales, picaduras de insectos y mordeduras de víboras. Objetivo. Recopilar la información disponible sobre los principales usos terapéuticos y los componentes fitoquímicos de Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, una planta conocida popularmente como chaya y que crece en regiones tropicales de México y Centroamérica. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura sobre C. aconitifolius publicada hasta 2017 en las bases de datos BIREME, PubMed/Medline, Elsevier y SciELO. Para la búsqueda se emplearon los descriptores "Cnidoscolus" y "aconitifolius", y no se aplicaron filtros de idioma. Resultados. Se identificaron 82 artículos luego de completar la búsqueda inicial. Después de filtrar los estudios por título (presencia de descriptores de búsqueda en el título) y remover duplicados, se incluyeron 18 artículos en la revisión. De acuerdo a la información encontrada, fue posible confirmar que esta planta ofrece diversos beneficios para la salud. Conclusiones. El uso terapéutico tradicional de la chaya está sustentado por evidencia científica, por lo que se sugiere realizar más investigaciones centradas en la identificación de nuevas propiedades fitoquímicas de esta planta y, así, establecer alternativas terapéuticas para distintas afecciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal , Therapeutic Uses , Phytochemicals
12.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(1): 1674-1681, ene.-feb. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127024

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La terapia transfusional demanda de sólidos conocimientos para lograr planear y ejecutar un plan de trabajo integral para el logro del bienestar de la persona que lo requiera. El personal que desarrolla su profesión en aspectos relacionados con las transfusiones sanguíneas debe estar en una actualización continua de conocimientos, orientados a desarrollar nuevas técnicas así como medidas de seguridad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue abordar acerca de la importancia del uso de la sangre como recurso terapéutico, y el valor hermanado de la donación voluntaria y generoso de sangre lo que vincula al individuo a una nueva conducta y actitud hacia el mundo exterior natural, socia. La sangre constituye la materia prima esencial para los bancos de sangre, de ella se obtiene el plasma, glóbulos rojos, glóbulos blancos, plaquetas, hemoderivados y otros productos biológicos para terapias en la medicina transfusional. La donación voluntaria es una acción desprendida por el solo hecho de ayudar a otros a los que no se conoce, no sólo es la más generosa y la más ética, es el pilar de los servicios modernos de donación y transfusión sanguínea (AU).


SUMMARY Transfusion therapy demands solid knowledge to plan and perform a comprehensive work plan to achieve the wellbeing of persons needing it. The staff whose profession is related with blood transfusions should be continuously updating their knowledge, trying to develop new techniques and secure practices. The aim of this article was approaching the importance of using blood as therapeutic resource and the associated value of generous and voluntary donation, linking individuals to a new behavior and attitude to the natural and social outside world. Blood is the essential raw material for blood banks, obtaining from it plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, blood products and other biological products for therapies in transfusion medicine. Voluntary donation is a disinterested action just for the fact of helping unknown persons. It is not only the most generous and the most ethical action, but it is also the support of the modern blood donation and transfusion services (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood , Blood Donors/ethics , Blood-Derivative Drugs , Blood Banks/methods , Blood Banks/supply & distribution , Blood Platelets , Therapeutic Uses , Transfusion Medicine
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781704

ABSTRACT

At present, non-standard use of antibiotics remains a common phenomenon in the treatment of preterm infants with early-onset sepsis (EOS) in China. The expert panel of neonatologists in Hunan Province formulated a consensus on the diagnosis and use of antibiotics for EOS in preterm infant [Chin J Contemp Pediatr, 2020, 22(1): 1-6], which has a positive effect on the rational use of antibiotics. Based on this consensus, this article points out that in order to use antibiotics accurately, it is necessary to accurately identify EOS in preterm infants, accurately understand their clinical manifestations and medical history, and accurately evaluate the laboratory test results. Also, this article offers suggestions for the use of antibiotics in preterm infants with EOS.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , China , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Premature, Diseases , Risk Factors , Sepsis , Drug Therapy
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781703

ABSTRACT

This paper is a comment on "Recommendation on the diagnosis and the use of antibiotics for early-onset sepsis in preterm infants: consensus of the expert panel from Hunan Province" [Chinese J Contemp Pediatr, 2020, 22(1): 1-6]. This consensus offers suggestions for the diagnosis and antibiotic therapy of early-onset sepsis (EOS) in preterm infants in Hunan Province, which is of great significance for reducing unreasonable and unnecessary use of antibiotics. Based on this consensus, this comment discusses the diagnosis of EOS and the use of antibiotics in preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Attention , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Risk Factors , Sepsis , Drug Therapy
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy and safety of C-reactive protein (CRP)-guided antibiotic treatment strategy for neonates with suspected early-onset sepsis (EOS).@*METHODS@#A total of 428 neonates, with a gestational age of >35 weeks, who were admitted to the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from February to July, 2019 and were suspected of EOS were enrolled as the observation group. The effect of antibiotic treatment was prospectively observed, and if clinical symptoms were improved and CRP was 35 weeks) who were admitted to this hospital from February to July, 2018 and were suspected of EOS were enrolled as the control group, and the use of antibiotics was analyzed retrospectively. The two groups were compared in terms of duration of antibiotic treatment, length of hospital stay, incidence rate of repeated infection and clinical outcome.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly shorter duration of antibiotic treatment and length of hospital stay (P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#For neonates with a gestational age of >35 weeks and a suspected diagnosis of EOS, CRP-guided antibiotic treatment strategy can shorten duration of antibiotic treatment and length of hospital stay and does not increase the incidence rate of repeated infection. Therefore, it holds promise for clinical application.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , C-Reactive Protein , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis , Drug Therapy
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781696

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the influence of dasatinib treatment on body height in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 86 AML children aged <17 years. According to the treatment regimen, these children were divided into a conventional chemotherapy group and a dasatinib chemotherapy group. The 57 children in the conventional chemotherapy group were given conventional chemotherapy drugs without tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and the 29 children in the dasatinib chemotherapy group were given conventional chemotherapy drugs and dasatinib. The two groups were compared in terms of height standard deviation score (HtSDS) at the beginning of treatment and after treatment, as well as the change in HtSDS after 1 and 2 years of treatment.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in HtSDS between the conventional and dasatinib chemotherapy groups before treatment. Within the first two years of treatment, the dasatinib chemotherapy group had a similar change trend of HtSDS as the conventional chemotherapy group. Four children in the dasatinib chemotherapy group reached the final adult height during follow-up, which was significantly lower than the target height (P=0.044). In the conventional chemotherapy group, there was no significant difference between final adult height and target height. In the dasatinib chemotherapy group, the children in adolescence had a significant change in HtSDS after treatment (P=0.032).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Dasatinib treatment may affect the final height of children with AML, and the use of dasatinib after the beginning of adolescence may lead to growth disorder, but dasatinib treatment has little effect on body height in the short-term treatment.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Body Height , Child , Dasatinib , Therapeutic Uses , Growth Disorders , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Drug Therapy , Retrospective Studies
17.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 229-241, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Lung-toxin Dispelling Formula No. 1, referred to as Respiratory Detox Shot (RDS), was developed based on a classical prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the theoretical understanding of herbal properties within TCM. Therapeutic benefits of using RDS for both disease control and prevention, in the effort to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have been shown. However, the biochemically active constituents of RDS and their mechanisms of action are still unclear. The goal of the present study is to clarify the material foundation and action mechanism of RDS.@*METHODS@#To conduct an analysis of RDS, an integrative analytical platform was constructed, including target prediction, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and cluster analysis; further, the hub genes involved in the disease-related pathways were identified, and the their corresponding compounds were used for in vitro validation of molecular docking predictions. The presence of these validated compounds was also measured in samples of the RDS formula to quantify the abundance of the biochemically active constituents. In our network pharmacological study, a total of 26 bioinformatic programs and databases were used, and six networks, covering the entire Zang-fu viscera, were constructed to comprehensively analyze the intricate connections among the compounds-targets-disease pathways-meridians of RDS.@*RESULTS@#For all 1071 known chemical constituents of the nine ingredients in RDS, identified from established TCM databases, 157 passed drug-likeness screening and led to 339 predicted targets in the constituent-target network. Forty-two hub genes with core regulatory effects were extracted from the PPI network, and 134 compounds and 29 crucial disease pathways were implicated in the target-constituent-disease network. Twelve disease pathways attributed to the Lung-Large Intestine meridians, with six and five attributed to the Kidney-Urinary Bladder and Stomach-Spleen meridians, respectively. One-hundred and eighteen candidate constituents showed a high binding affinity with SARS-coronavirus-2 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL), as indicated by molecular docking using computational pattern recognition. The in vitro activity of 22 chemical constituents of RDS was validated using the 3CL inhibition assay. Finally, using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in data-independent analysis mode, the presence of seven out of these 22 constituents was confirmed and validated in an aqueous decoction of RDS, using reference standards in both non-targeted and targeted approaches.@*CONCLUSION@#RDS acts primarily in the Lung-Large Intestine, Kidney-Urinary Bladder and Stomach-Spleen meridians, with other Zang-fu viscera strategically covered by all nine ingredients. In the context of TCM meridian theory, the multiple components and targets of RDS contribute to RDS's dual effects of health-strengthening and pathogen-eliminating. This results in general therapeutic effects for early COVID-19 control and prevention.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Chemistry , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Cysteine Endopeptidases , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Interaction Maps , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Chemistry
18.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 395-400, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829088

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised concern around the world as an epidemic or pandemic. As data on COVID-19 has grown, it has become clear that older adults have a disproportionately high rate of death from COVID-19. This study describes the early clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in patients with more than 80 years of age.@*METHODS@#Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data from 17 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between January 20 and February 20, 2020 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Treatment outcomes among subgroups of patients with non-severe and severe symptoms of COVID-19 were compared.@*RESULTS@#Of the 17 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the median age was 88.0 years (interquartile range, 86.6-90.0 years; range, 80.0-100.0 years) and 12 (70.6%) were men. The age distribution of patients was not significantly different between non-severe group and severe group. All patients had chronic pre-existing conditions. Hypertension and cardiovascular diseases were the most common chronic conditions in both subgroups. The most common symptoms at the onset of COVID-19 were fever (n = 13; 76.5%), fatigue (n = 11; 64.7%), and cough (n = 5; 29.4%). Lymphopenia was observed in all patients, and lymphopenia was significantly more severe in the severe group than that in non-severe group (0.4 × 10/L vs 1.2 × 10/L, P = 0.014). The level of serum creatinine was higher in the severe group than in the non-severe group (99.0 μmol/L vs 62.5 μmol/L, P = 0.038). The most common features of chest computed tomography images were nodular foci in 10 (58.8%) patients and pleural thickening in 7 (41.2%) patients. All patients received antiviral therapy, while some patients also received intravenous antibiotics therapy (76.5%), Chinese medicinal preparation therapy (Lianhuaqingwen capsule, 64.7%), corticosteroids (35.3%) or immunoglobin (29.4%). Eight patients (47.1%) were transferred to the intensive care unit because of complications. Ten patients (58.8%) received intranasal oxygen, while 3 (17.6%) received non-invasive mechanical ventilation, and 4 (23.5%) received high-flow oxygen. As of June 20, 7 (41.2%) patients had been discharged and 10 (58.8% of this cohort, 77.8% of severe patients) had died.@*CONCLUSION@#The mortality of patients aged 80 years and older with severe COVID-19 symptoms was high. Lymphopenia was a characteristic laboratory result in these patients, and the severity of lymphopenia was indicative of the severity of COVID-19. However, the majority of patients with COVID-19 in this age cohort had atypical symptoms, and early diagnosis depends on prompt use of a viral nucleic acid test.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents , Therapeutic Uses , China , Epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Pathology , Female , Humans , Lung , Diagnostic Imaging , Pathology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Pathology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
19.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 385-394, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There is currently no drug or therapy that cures COVID-19, a highly contagious and life-threatening disease.@*OBJECTIVE@#This systematic review and meta-analysis summarized contemporary studies that report the use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) to treat COVID-19.@*SEARCH STRATEGY@#Six electronic databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched from their beginning to May 15, 2020 with the following search terms: traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese medicine, Chinese herbal medicine, COVID-19, new coronavirus pneumonia, SARS-CoV-2, and randomized controlled trial.@*INCLUSION CRITERIA@#Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from peer-reviewed journals and non-reviewed publications were included. Further, included RCTs had a control group that was given standard care (SC; such as conventional Western medicine treatments or routine medical care), and a treatment group that was given SC plus CHM.@*DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS@#Two evaluators screened and collected literature independently; information on participants, study design, interventions, follow-up and adverse events were extracted, and risk of bias was assessed. The primary outcomes included scores that represented changes in symptoms and signs over the course of treatment. Secondary outcomes included the level of inflammatory markers, improvement of pneumonia confirmed by computed tomography (CT), and adverse events. Dichotomous data were expressed as risk ratio or hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI); where time-to-event analysis was used, outcomes were expressed as odds ratio with 95% CI. Continuous data were expressed as difference in means (MD) with 95% CI, and standardized mean difference (SMD) was used when different outcome scales were pooled.@*RESULTS@#Seven original studies, comprising a total of 732 adults, were included in this meta-analysis. Compared to SC alone, CHM plus SC had a superior effect on the change of symptom and sign score (-1.30 by SMD, 95% CI [-2.43, -0.16]; 3 studies; n = 261, P = 0.03), on inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP, mg/L; -11.82 by MD, 95% CI [-17.95, -5.69]; 5 studies; n = 325, P = 0.0002), on number of patients with improved lung CT scans (1.34 by risk ratio, 95% CI [1.19, 1.51]; 4 studies; n = 489, P < 0.00001). No significant adverse events were recorded in the included RCTs.@*CONCLUSION@#Current evidence shows that CHM, as an adjunct treatment with standard care, helps to improve treatment outcomes in COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Humans
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829036

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the efficacy of small dose HAG combined with decitabine regimen in the treatment of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#134 elderly AML patients treated in our hospital from March 2015 to December 2018 were selected, and the patients were divided into CAG group and combined treatment group. The AML patients in CAG group was treated with CAG regimen, while the AML patients in combined treatment group was treated with small dose HAG regimen combined with decitabine. Efficacy was evaluated after treatment.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the OR rate of the patients in combined treatment group was significantly higher than that in CAG group (χ=5.311, P=0.021). The nausea and vomiting rate, infection rate, myelosuppression rate, bleeding rate and intestinal discomfort rate showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). The CD3, CD4 and CD8 levels of patients in combined treatment group were significantly lower than those in CAG group (P<0.05). The result of followed-up for 2 years, showed that the overall survival rate of patients in combined treatment group was significantly higher than that in CAG group [(76.2±6.3)% vs (45.7±7.6)%] (χ=4.214, P<0.05), while the disease free survival rate of patients in combined treatment group were (57.4±7.7)%, which was significantly higher than that in CAG group (30.3±7.9)% (χ=5.250, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Small dose HAG regimen combined with decitabine for elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia has a certain curative efficacy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Cytarabine , Decitabine , Disease-Free Survival , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Drug Therapy , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
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