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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e253741, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448940

ABSTRACT

Apesar das crescentes investigações sobre uso de telas na infância, essa é uma temática complexa e ainda recente, que traz diversos desafios para pesquisadores e cuidadores. Comunidades virtuais em redes sociais são utilizadas por mães e pais para esclarecer dúvidas e receber conselhos acerca da parentalidade e saúde infantil, podendo, simultaneamente, assumir uma função prescritiva e normativa quanto ao seu modo de agir. Sendo assim, este artigo pretende compreender como o uso de telas na infância vem sendo abordado por especialistas em grupos de mães e pais no Facebook. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo envolvendo 49 postagens de especialistas, sobretudo psicólogos e educadores, extraídas de cinco grupos públicos de mães e pais nessa rede social. Os textos das publicações foram verificados por meio de análise temática e discutidos com base no referencial teórico psicanalítico. Os resultados mostraram que os especialistas destacam os possíveis prejuízos do uso de telas na infância, além de fornecer orientações aos pais sobre como lidar com sua presença no cotidiano das crianças e de suas famílias. Concluiu-se que apesar dos grupos de cuidadores no Facebook serem uma ferramenta de divulgação de informações acerca do uso de telas na infância, cabe não naturalizar a presença de especialistas nesses espaços virtuais criados por pais e mães, interpondo-se nos saberes e nas trocas horizontalizadas entre os cuidadores.(AU)


Although investigations on the use of screens in childhood are increasing, this is a complex and recent topic, which poses several challenges for researchers and caregivers. Virtual communities in social networks are used by mothers and fathers to clarify doubts and receive advice regarding parenting and child health, at times, simultaneously, assuming a prescriptive and normative role on their way of acting. Therefore, this study aimed to understand how the use of screens in childhood has been approached by experts in groups of mothers and fathers on Facebook. A qualitative study was carried out involving 49 posts from specialists, mainly psychologists and educators, extracted from five public groups of mothers and fathers in this social network. The publications' texts were verified via thematic analysis and discussed based on the psychoanalytical theoretical framework. The results showed that experts highlight the possible damage of the use of screens in childhood, in addition to providing guidance to parents on how to deal with the presence of digital technology in the daily lives of children and families. It was concluded that, although caregivers' groups on Facebook are a tool for disseminating information about the use of screens in childhood, it is important not to naturalize the presence of specialists in these virtual spaces created by fathers and mothers, interposing in the horizontally interchanges that occur between the caregivers.(AU)


A pesar de las crecientes investigaciones sobre el uso de pantallas en la infancia, este es un tema complejo y aún reciente, que plantea varios desafíos para investigadores y cuidadores. Las comunidades virtuales en las redes sociales son utilizadas por madres y padres para aclarar dudas y recibir consejos sobre educación y salud infantil, pudiendo, al mismo tiempo, asumir un rol prescriptivo y normativo sobre su forma de actuar. Por lo tanto, este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender cómo el uso de las pantallas en la infancia ha sido abordado por especialistas en grupos de madres y padres en Facebook. Se realizó un estudio cualitativo a partir de 49 publicaciones de especialistas, principalmente de psicólogos y educadores, extraídas de cinco grupos públicos de madres y padres en esta red social. Se realizó en los textos de las publicaciones un análisis temático y se utilizó el marco teórico psicoanalítico. Los resultados mostraron que los expertos destacan posibles daños que provoca el uso de pantallas en la infancia, además de orientar a los padres sobre cómo afrontar esta presencia de la tecnología digital en el día a día de los niños y sus familias. Se concluyó que, a pesar de que los grupos de cuidadores en Facebook son una herramienta de difusión de información sobre el uso de pantallas en la infancia, es importante no naturalizar la presencia de especialistas en estos espacios virtuales creados por padres y madres que se interpone entre los saberes e intercambios horizontales de los cuidadores.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychoanalysis , Child , Social Networking , Anxiety , Parent-Child Relations , Pediatrics , Personality Development , Personality Disorders , Play and Playthings , Psychology , Psychology, Educational , Aspirations, Psychological , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Schools , Autistic Disorder , Sleep , Achievement , Social Change , Social Isolation , Socialization , Sports , Stress, Physiological , Technology , Television , Thinking , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Behavior Therapy , Books, Illustrated , Neurosciences , Bereavement , Exercise , Child Behavior , Child Care , Child Development , Child Guidance , Child Health Services , Child Rearing , Child Welfare , Mental Health , Child Health , Parenting , Negotiating , Caregivers , Health Personnel , Cognition , Communication , Early Intervention, Educational , Video Games , Internet , Creativity , Affect , Threshold Limit Values , Cultural Characteristics , Cybernetics , Metabolic Syndrome , Moral Development , Cell Phone , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus , Educational Status , Emotions , User Embracement , Population Studies in Public Health , Overweight , Child Nutrition , Failure to Thrive , Fantasy , Sunbathing , Emotional Intelligence , Sedentary Behavior , Video-Audio Media , Pediatric Obesity , Mobile Applications , Social Skills , Courage , Sociological Factors , Emotional Adjustment , Literacy , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder , Games, Recreational , Cell Phone Use , Frustration , Internet Addiction Disorder , Social Interaction , COVID-19 , Technology Addiction , Happiness , Helplessness, Learned , Hobbies , Hospitals, Maternity , Hypertension , Imagination , Individuality , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Language Development Disorders , Learning , Learning Disabilities , Leisure Activities , Life Style , Mother-Child Relations , Motor Activity , Nonverbal Communication
2.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 56(2): 195-199, abr. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1402957

ABSTRACT

Resumen El monóxido de carbono (CO) es un gas producido principalmente por combustión incompleta de hidrocarburos. La intoxicación por exposición ambiental puede presentarse con síntomas inespecíficos y constituye la causa más importante de aumento de carboxihemoglobina (COHb). Su nivel en sangre depende de la duración de la exposición, la ventilación minuto y las concentraciones de CO y oxígeno en el ambiente. La elevada toxicidad radica en la hipoxia tisular que se genera. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, 73 años, en seguimiento en el hospital por neumonía intersticial no específica como patología de base. En un control de laboratorio se encontró 11,9% de COHb, sin exposición a tabaco. No utilizaba calefacción a gas sino un panel cerámico eléctrico, recientemente pintado con esmalte sintético. La suspensión del uso del panel normalizó la COHb. El CO, producto de descomposición térmica del esmalte sintético, explica la causa de la intoxicación.


Abstract Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gas produced mainly by incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Poisoning from environmental exposure can present with nonspecific symptoms and is the most important cause of increased carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). Its blood level depends on the duration of exposure, minute ventilation, and the concentrations of CO and oxygen in the environment. The high toxicity lies in the tissue hypoxia that is generated. The case of a male patient, 73 years old, under follow-up in the hospital for non-specific interstitial pneumonia as the underlying pathology was presented. In a laboratory control, COHb 11,9% was found. There was no exposure to tobacco and there was no use of gas heating but of an electric ceramic panel, recently painted with synthetic enamel type paint. The suspension of the use of the panel normalised the COHb. The CO product of thermal decomposition of synthetic enamel explains the cause of poisoning.


Resumo O monóxido de carbono (CO) é um gás produzido principalmente pela combustão incompleta de hidrocarbonetos. A intoxicação por exposição ambiental pode se apresentar com sintomas inespecíficos e é a causa mais importante de aumento da carboxihemoglobina (COHb). Seu nível em sangue depende do tempo de exposição, da ventilação minuto e das concentrações de CO e oxigênio no ambiente. A alta toxicidade está na hipóxia tecidual gerada. Apresentamos o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 73 anos, em acompanhamento hospitalar por pneumonia intersticial inespecífica como patologia de bas. Em um controle laboratorial, achou-se 11,9% de COHb, sem exposição ao tabaco. Não utilizava aquecimento a gás e sim um painel elétrico cerâmico, recentemente pintado com esmalte sintético. A suspensão do uso do painel normalizou o COHb. O CO produto da decomposição térmica do esmalte sintético explica a causa da intoxicação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Poisoning , Carboxyhemoglobin , Carbon Monoxide , Toxicity , Outpatients , Oxygen , Signs and Symptoms , Ventilation , Blood , Causality , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Aftercare , Threshold Limit Values , Environment , Environmental Exposure , Fires , Gases , Heating , Hospitals , Hydrocarbons , Laboratories
3.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(3): 391-398, jul.-sep. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357384

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Desarrollar una metodología para evaluar el nivel de protección respiratoria de respiradores, mascarillas quirúrgicas y mascarillas comunitarias que usa la población peruana, usando partículas de un tamaño similar a las que contienen al virus activo del SARS-CoV-2. Materiales y métodos: Se ha determinado una relación lineal directa entre el logaritmo de la concentración de partículas suspendidas en aire y el tiempo transcurrido; por lo cual es posible comparar la cantidad de partículas internas y externas a la mascarilla o respirador en un mismo periodo y conocer el porcentaje de protección respiratoria de cada muestra evaluada. Resultados: Se ha logrado implementar una metodología para evaluar el nivel de protección respiratoria ante aerosoles menores a 5,0 µm. Asimismo, el empleo de accesorios como ligas o ajustadores detrás de cabeza y nuca, y el uso de clips nasales robustos, incrementan significativamente el nivel de protección respiratoria ante partículas con alta probabilidad de contener al SARS-CoV-2. Conclusiones: Se observa una concordancia entre los valores de protección respiratoria obtenidos y los esperados, considerando el nivel de filtración del material empleado de cada mascarilla quirúrgica o respirador, y su nivel de ajuste. Se observó un incremento significativo en los niveles de protección respiratoria.


ABSTRACT Objective: To develop a methodology for evaluating the level of respiratory protection provided by respirators, surgical masks and community face masks used by the Peruvian population; protection was evaluated against particles of a size similar to those containing active SARS-CoV-2 virus. Materials and methods: A direct linear relationship has been determined between the logarithm of the concentration of airborne particles and the elapsed time; thus, it is possible to compare the quantity of particles inside and outside of the mask or respirator in the same time period, as well as to obtain the percentage of respiratory protection for each evaluated sample. Results: A methodology was established to evaluate the level of respiratory protection against aerosols smaller than 5.0 μm. Also, the use of accessories such as rubber bands or adjusters behind the head and neck, and the use of robust nasal clips, significantly increased the level of respiratory protection against particles with a high probability of containing SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: We found concordance between the obtained respiratory protection values and those expected, considering the filtration level of the material used for each surgical mask or respirator, as well as the tightness. A significant increase in the levels of respiratory protection was observed.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Protective Devices , Disease Transmission, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Masks , Ventilators, Mechanical , Aerosols , Threshold Limit Values , Pandemics , Filtration
4.
Acta méd. colomb ; 46(1): 1-6, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1278148

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el síncope es una entidad clínica frecuente en urgencias con un pronóstico variable que depende de su etiología. El estudio STePS identificó cuatro variables que se asociaron independientemente con desenlaces graves a 10 días. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar su rendimiento en una población de pacientes que acuden al servicio de urgencias por síncope. Metodología: estudio prospectivo observacional de pacientes que consultaron a urgencias del Hospital Universitario Clínica San Rafael con diagnóstico de síncope. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de las variables demográficas y clínicas de la población, y un análisis comparativo según el ingreso o no a UCI. Se analizaron las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas por medio de prueba de chi cuadrado y t student respectivamente. Las características operativas de la regla STePS fueron evaluadas en una gráfica considerándose como aceptable un área bajo la curva (AUC) mayor a 0.8 y como óptima un AUC mayor a 0.9. Resultados: se incluyeron 98 pacientes. El rendimiento de la regla de predicción STePS fue AUC-ROC 0.64 (IC95%; 0.53-0.75). Sólo el electrocardiograma anormal (OR 13.98, IC 95% 1.29151.9) y trauma concomitante (OR 5.22, IC 95% 1.20-22.67) demostraron ser factores de riesgo para desenlaces graves a 10 días. Se identificaron factores prevalentes en la población con ingreso a UCI: edad >65 años (p=0.02), antecedente de falla cardiaca (p=0.047), enfermedad renal crónica (p=0.002) y cardiopatía (p=0.01). Conclusión: la regla de predicción STePS no tuvo un rendimiento favorable para predicción de desenlaces graves a 10 días del evento sincopal en esta población estudiada.


Abstract Introduction: syncope is a common clinical condition in the emergency room with a variable prognosis depending on its etiology. The STePS study identified four variables which were independently related to serious outcomes within 10 days. The objective of the study was to evaluate its performance in a population of patients seen in the emergency room for syncope. Methods: a prospective observational study of patients seen in the emergency room of the Hospital Universitario Clínica San Rafael with a diagnosis of syncope. A descriptive analysis of the population's demographic and clinical variables was conducted, along with a comparative analysis according to admission or non-admission to the ICU. Qualitative and quantitative variables were analyzed using Chi-square or Student's t test, respectively. The operative characteristics of the STePS rule were evaluated in a graph, with an area under the curve (AUC) greater than 0.8 considered to be acceptable, and greater than 0.9 considered to be optimal. Results: Ninety-eight patients were included. The performance of the STePS prediction rule was AUC-ROC 0.64 (95% CI; 0.53-0.75). Only an abnormal electrocardiogram (OR 13.98, 95% CI 1.29-151.9) and concomitant trauma (OR 5.22, 95% CI 1.20-22.67) proved to be risk factors for serious outcomes within 10 days. Prevalent factors in the population admitted to the ICU were: age >65 years (p=0.02), a history of heart failure (p=0.047), chronic kidney disease (p=0.002) and heart disease (p=0.01). Conclusion: the STePS prediction rule did not perform favorably for predicting serious outcomes within 10 days of the syncopal event in this study population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Syncope , Wounds and Injuries , Risk Factors , Threshold Limit Values , Emergencies , Forecasting , Heart Diseases
5.
Prensa méd. argent ; 104(6): 299-302, Ago2018. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1051347

ABSTRACT

Presentamos un paciente joven con miocardiopatía hipertrófica y altos umbrales de desfibrilación que necesitó recambio de generador por agotamiento. Durante el procedimiento utilizando un desfibrilador de alta salida y luego de probar varios cambios de configuración no fue efectiva la terminación de la FV inducida por lo que requiere la colocación de un catéter de desfibrilación subcutáneo con lo que se lograron adecuados márgenes de seguridad. Se realiza una revisión de la literatura acerca de las opciones en casos de altos umbrales de desfibrilación


We present a young patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and high defibrillation thresholds that needed a generatior replacement. During the procedure, a high-output defibrillator was not effective for the termination of induced ventricular fibrillation (FV), even after testing several configurations. Alternatively, safety margin were reached by placing a subcutaneous defibrillator catheter. A literature review is performed exploring options for cases where defibrillation thresholds are high


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/pathology , Defibrillators, Implantable , Threshold Limit Values , Cardiac Catheters
6.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 30-36, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009520

ABSTRACT

We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the predictive value of different parameters in the sperm retrieval rate (SRR) of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). All relevant studies were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and EBSCO. We chose three parameters to perform the meta-analysis: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testicular volume, and testicular histopathological findings which included three patterns: hypospermatogenesis (HS), maturation arrest (MA), and Sertoli-cell-only syndrome (SCOS). If there was a threshold effect, only the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUSROC) was calculated. Otherwise, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were also calculated. Twenty-one articles were included in our study finally. There was a threshold effect among studies investigating FSH and SCOS. The AUSROCs of FSH, testicular volume, HS, MA, and SCOS were 0.6119, 0.6389, 0.6758, 0.5535, and 0.2763, respectively. The DORs of testicular volume, HS, and MA were 1.98, 16.49, and 1.26, respectively. The sensitivities of them were 0.80, 0.30, and 0.27, while the specificities of them were 0.35, 0.98, and 0.76, respectively. The PLRs of them were 1.49, 10.63, and 1.15, respectively. And NLRs were 0.73, 0.72, and 0.95, respectively. All the investigated factors in our study had limited predictive value. However, the histopathological findings were helpful to some extent. Most patients with HS could get sperm by microdissection TESE.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Azoospermia/therapy , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Microdissection , Oligospermia/pathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome/pathology , Sperm Maturation , Sperm Retrieval , Spermatozoa , Testis/pathology , Threshold Limit Values
7.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 232-235, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate the heat stress and semen quality among male workers in a steel industry in Iran and investigate the relationship between heat stress indices and semen parameters. METHODS: The study was conducted on workers exposed (n = 30) and unexposed (n = 14) to heat in a steel industry. After obtaining a brief biography of the selected employees, scrotal temperature, oral temperature, and environmental parameters were measured, and their semen samples were analyzed according to the procedure recommended by the World Health Organization. The heat stress indices, including wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and predicted heat strain (PHS), in their workplace were calculated according to environmental parameters (ISO 7243:1989 and 7933:2004, respectively). RESULTS: Time-weighted averages of WBGT and PHS (35.76°C and 491.56 w/m2 w m 2 , respectively) for the exposed group were higher than threshold limit values. The mean difference of environmental, physiological, and semen parameters (exception: pH of semen), and also WBGT and PHS indices were statistically significant (p < 0.05) between the two groups. Mean semen parameters were in the normozoospermic range. WBGT and PHS indices showed significantly “negative” correlation with physiological parameters (scrotal and oral temperature) and most semen parameters (semen volume, sperm morphology, sperm motility, sperm count; p < 0.05); moreover, the correlation of WBGT with these parameters was stronger than PHS. CONCLUSION: Semen parameters of the studied workers exposed to heat were in the borderline level of normozoospermic range, and their semen parameters were significantly lower than controls. For better assessment of occupational environment concerning physiological and semen parameters in steel industries, WBGT can be a more useful index.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Iran , Semen Analysis , Semen , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa , Steel , Threshold Limit Values , World Health Organization
8.
Estud. psicol. (Natal) ; 22(1): 1-9, Mar. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-891911

ABSTRACT

Recognizing emotional expressions is enabled by a fundamental sociocognitive mechanism of human nature. This study compared 114 women and 104 men on the identification of basic emotions on a recognition task that used culturally adapted and validated faces to the Brazilian context. It was also investigated whether gender differences on emotion recognition would vary according to different exposure times. Women were generally better at detecting facial expressions, but an interaction suggested that the female superiority was particularly observed for anger, disgust, and surprise; results did not change according to age or time exposure. However, regardless of sex, total accuracy improved as presentation times increased, but only fear and anger significantly differed between the presentation times. Hence, in addition to the support of the evolutionary hypothesis of the female superiority in detecting facial expressions of emotions, recognition of facial expressions also depend on the time available to correctly identify an expression.


A habilidade de reconhecer emoções é um mecanismo sociocognitivo fundamental à vida humana. Este estudo comparou 114 mulheres e 104 homens na identificação de emoções básicas no teste de reconhecimento facial, adaptado e validado para o contexto brasileiro. Investigou-se, também, se a diferença de gênero no reconhecimento das emoções poderia variar conforme o tempo de exposição. As mulheres foram melhores na detecção das expressões faciais, mas uma interação sugeriu que a superioridade foi particularmente observada nas emoções de raiva, nojo e surpresa; esses resultados não alteraram conforme idade e tempo de exposição. Entretanto, independentemente do sexo, a acurácia total melhorou conforme aumentou o tempo de apresentação, sendo que apenas o reconhecimento de medo e raiva diferiu entre os tempos de apresentação. Assim, além de apoiar a hipótese da superioridade do sexo feminino em reconhecer expressões faciais emocionais, o reconhecimento das emoções faciais também depende do tempo disponível para conseguir identificá-las.


Reconocer emociones es fruto de un mecanismo sociocognitivo fundamental para los humanos. Se comparó el desempeño de 114 mujeres y 104 hombres en la identificación de emociones básicas en la prueba de reconocimiento facial adaptado para el contexto brasileño. Se investigó también la diferencia de género en el reconocimiento de las emociones según diferentes tiempos de exposición. Las mujeres obtuvieron mejores resultados en la detección de las expresiones, pero una interacción sugirió que la superioridad fue especialmente observada para rabia, repugnancia y sorpresa. Los resultados no han cambiado según la edad o tiempo de exposición. Sin embargo, independientemente del sexo, la precisión total mejoró a medida que aumentaron los tiempos de presentación, pero sólo la detección de miedo y repugnancia se diferenció entre los tres tiempos. Luego, además de la confirmación de la hipótesis evolutiva de la superioridad femenina, el reconocimiento de las expresiones faciales también depende del tiempo disponible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Threshold Limit Values , Emotions , Facial Expression , Gender Identity , Students/psychology , Universities , Analysis of Variance
9.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 99-104, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Workers laboring in steel industries in tropical settings with high ambient temperatures are subjected to thermally stressful environments that can create well-known risks of heat-related illnesses and limit workers’ productivity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study undertaken in a steel industry in a city nicknamed “Steel City” in Southern India assessed thermal stress by wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and level of dehydration from urine color and urine specific gravity. A structured questionnaire captured self-reported heat-related health symptoms of workers. RESULTS: Some 90% WBGT measurements were higher than recommended threshold limit values (27.2–41.7°C) for heavy and moderate workloads and radiational heat from processes were very high in blooming-mill/coke-oven (67.6°C globe temperature). Widespread heat-related health concerns were prevalent among workers, including excessive sweating, fatigue, and tiredness reported by 50% workers. Productivity loss was significantly reported high in workers with direct heat exposures compared to those with indirect heat exposures (χ2 = 26.1258, degrees of freedom = 1, p < 0.001). Change in urine color was 7.4 times higher among workers exposed to WBGTs above threshold limit values (TLVs). CONCLUSION: Preliminary evidence shows that high heat exposures and heavy workload adversely affect the workers’ health and reduce their work capacities. Health and productivity risks in developing tropical country work settings can be further aggravated by the predicted temperature rise due to climate change, without appropriate interventions. Apart from industries enhancing welfare facilities and designing control interventions, further physiological studies with a seasonal approach and interventional studies are needed to strengthen evidence for developing comprehensive policies to protect workers employed in high heat industries.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dehydration , Efficiency , Fatigue , Hot Temperature , India , Seasons , Specific Gravity , Steel , Sweat , Sweating , Threshold Limit Values
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155954

ABSTRACT

Formaldehyde (FA) used for preserving the body for anatomy dissection is harmful to the human body. In many countries, for the purpose of protecting the health of workers in the industrial field, the maximal allowable air concentration of FA has been set. The threshold limit values of time weighted average (TLV-TWA) and short-term exposure limit (TLV-STEL) of FA recommended by Ministry of Employment and Labor (MOEL) of Korea are less than 0.5 and 1 ppm, respectively. In the United States and Europe, TLV-TWAs of FA are recommended at between 0.3 and 2 ppm. In this study, we compared the air concentration of FA to domestic and foreign standards of FA in an anatomy laboratory equipped dissecting tables with inbuilt exhaust and an air diffuser/return system. We installed ten elevated dissection tables, 18 air diffusers on the ceiling, and 10 air returns at the bottom of both side walls. The concentration of FA was measured at five sites in the anatomy laboratory and above the cadavers on the dissecting tables at a height of 1.5 m from the floor using a Formaldemeter. The average concentration of FA in the anatomy laboratory (five sites) was 0.31 ppm (0.45 mg/m³), range 0.21 to 0.41 ppm (0.26~0.51 mg/m³). The average concentration of FA above the cadavers was 0.45 ppm (0.56 mg/m³), range 0.31 to 0.64 ppm (0.39~0.80 mg/m³). The average TWA of FA in the anatomy laboratory was 0.19 ppm (0.24 mg/m³), range 0.13 to 0.26 ppm. The average TWA of FA above the cadavers was 0.28 ppm (0.35 mg/m³), range 0.19 to 0.40 ppm. The anatomy laboratory dissecting tables equipped with inbuilt exhaust and air diffuser/return system met the criteria of the FA concentration recommended by MOEL of Korea and most foreign countries. This study was the first evaluation of the air concentration of FA in an anatomy laboratory equipped dissecting tables with inbuilt exhaust and an air diffuser/return system in Korea. We expect it will be not only used as a standard of comparison for anatomy laboratories, but as a reference for design and construction to improve air quality in Korean Medical Colleges.


Subject(s)
Cadaver , Employment , Europe , Formaldehyde , Human Body , Korea , Threshold Limit Values , United States , Ventilation
11.
Acta méd. colomb ; 40(1): 20-23, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-755563

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Coxiella burnetii es el agente etiológico de la fiebre Q, zoonosis asociada principalmente al contacto con ganado bovino y caprino. El principal modo de transmisión es el contacto con productos del parto, sangre, leche, lana, además de la inhalación de las esporas de la bacteria, que permite que se produzca infección aun en sitios alejados del reservorio. Objetivo: describir la seroprevalencia de C. burnetii en una población de riesgo como los trabajadores de fincas ganaderas del departamento de Antioquia 2011-2012. Metodología: se determinaron los niveles de anticuerpos IgG, por inmunofluorescencia, determinantes del contacto previo con C. burnetti, en 102 trabajadores de fincas ganaderas localizadas en tres municipios del departamento de Antioquia. Resultados: se encontraron 15 (14.70%) muestras positivas para Ig G (fase I y II) contra Coxiella burnetii en un grupo de 92 hombres y 10 mujeres, sin que se estableciera relación entre el género y su seropositividad (p=0.167), edad (p: 0.889) y tiempo de exposición (p: 0.118). Conclusión: la infección por C. burnetti es una zoonosis de importancia en nuestro medio y debe pensarse en ella al momento de enfrentarse a cuadros febriles tanto agudos como crónicos, en poblaciones de riesgo. (Acta Med Colomb 2015; 40: 20-23).


Abstract Introduction: Coxiella burnetii is the etiologic agent of Q fever, zoonosis mainly associated to contact with cattle and goats. The main mode of transmission is contact with products of delivery, blood, milk, wool, in addition to inhalation of spores of the bacterium, that allows to occur the infection even in places far from the reservoir. Objective: to describe the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in a population at risk such as farm workers in Antioquia department 2011-2012. Methodology: IgG antibody levels were determined by immunofluorescence, determinants of previous contact with C. burnetii in 102 workers of farms localized in three municipalities of Antioquia. Results: 15 (14.70%) samples positive for IgG (phase I and II) were found against Coxiella burnetii in a group of 92 men and 10 women, with no relationship between gender and seropositivity (p = 0.167), age (p = 0.889) and exposure time (p = 0.118) established. Conclusion: C. burnetii infection is a zoonosis of importance in our environment and should be thought of when faced with febrile pictures both acute and chronic, in populations at risk. (Acta Med Colomb 2015; 40: 20-23).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Coxiella , Q Fever , Zoonoses , Risk Factors , Threshold Limit Values , Livestock
12.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 312-316, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unleaded petrol contains significant amounts of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). Toxic responses following occupational exposure to unleaded petrol have been evaluated only in limited studies. The main purpose of this study was to ascertain whether (or not) exposure to unleaded petrol, under normal working conditions, is associated with any hepatotoxic or nephrotoxic response. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which 200 employees of Shiraz petrol stations with current exposure to unleaded petrol, as well as 200 unexposed employees, were investigated. Atmospheric concentrations of BTX were measured using standard methods. Additionally, urine and fasting blood samples were taken from individuals for urinalysis and routine biochemical tests of kidney and liver function. RESULTS: The geometric means of airborne concentrations of BTX were found to be 0.8 mg m-3, 1.4 mg m-3, and 2.8 mg m-3, respectively. Additionally, means of direct bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea and plasma creatinine were significantly higher in exposed individuals than in unexposed employees. Conversely, serum albumin, total protein, and serum concentrations of calcium and sodium were significantly lower in petrol station workers than in their unexposed counterparts. CONCLUSION: The average exposure of petrol station workers to BTX did not exceed the current threshold limit values (TLVs) for these chemicals. However, evidence of subtle, subclinical and prepathologic early liver and kidney dysfunction was evident in exposed individuals.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Benzene , Bilirubin , Calcium , Creatinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fasting , Hydrocarbons, Aromatic , Kidney , Liver , Occupational Exposure , Plasma , Serum Albumin , Sodium , Threshold Limit Values , Toluene , Urea , Urinalysis , Xylenes
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350535

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To understand the exposed positions and levels of indium and its compounds in manufacture of liquid crystal displays, and to evaluate the degree of occupational hazard from indium and its compounds.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>On-site investigation of occupational health, occupational hazard monitoring, and occupational health examination were used to evaluate the degree of occupational hazard from indium and its compounds in three manufacturers of liquid crystal display panel in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The time-weighted average (TWA) and short-term exposure limit (STEL) concentrations of indium and its compounds to which sputtering machine operating positions were exposed were less than 0.002~0.004 mg/m³ and 0.006~0.007 mg/m³, respectively, both of which complied with the National Hygienic Standard (PC-TWA = 0.1 mg/m³; PC-STEL = 0.3 mg/m³); the TWA and STEL concentrations of indium and its compounds to which grinding positions were exposed were 0.114~2.98 mg/m³ and 0.31~10.02 mg/m³, respectively, both of which exceeded the National Hygienic Standard with the highest concentration 33-fold higher than the standard. No significant health damages were found in exposed workers according to the results of occupational health examination.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The grinding positions are the key to the control of occupational hazard from indium and its compounds in manufacture of liquid crystal display panel. The workers should be equipped with the anti-particulate full-face respirator, which is an effective way to prevent occupational hazard from indium and its compounds.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants, Occupational , Toxicity , China , Data Display , Indium , Toxicity , Liquid Crystals , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health , Risk Assessment , Threshold Limit Values
16.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 5-11, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-633704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Asbestos is a carcinogenic mineral substance formerly used widely in the construction industry, all forms of which, except for chrysotile asbestos, have been banned in the Philippines. This article aims to propose policy alternatives to reduce the health and economic effects of continued asbestos use in the country.METHODS: Records of asbestos-related diseases, and asbestos industry-related data in the country were consolidated. The impact of continued asbestos use on the national economy were estimated incorporating natural mortality, regulations of the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), and concepts of multiplier effect and net present value. Round table discussions validated data and generated policy recommendations.RESULTS: Filipinos directly and indirectly exposed to asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) are 5,289 and 30,000, respectively. The contributions of these groups to the national economy were estimated at PhP 1.08 Billion annually for workers directly exposed to ACMs and PhP 6.83 Billion annually for workers indirectly exposed. Two policy options--adjustment of threshold limit values, and a total ban--are presented.CONCLUSION: A total ban on all forms of asbestos is shown to be the more cost-effective policy option for the country. It is recommended that government agencies, stakeholders in the asbestos industry, and the general public be involved in strategies for improving surveillance on asbestos exposure, increasing public awareness, and promoting the use of asbestos alternatives.


Subject(s)
Asbestos, Serpentine , Threshold Limit Values , Construction Industry , Philippines , Asbestos , Carcinogens , Policy , Government Agencies , Employment
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286573

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To systematically compare occupational exposure limits (OELs) in GBZ 2.1 with the ones in TLV-CS of ACGIH on quantity, level, procedures of management etc.; to propose priority chemicals for establishing OELs and suggestions on the revisions of occupational health standards; to provide basic scientific evidence for the planning and development of occupational health standards.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Compilation of a database on OELs in GBZ 2.1 and in TLV-CS of ACGIH according to types of exposure limits, and comparison of the data in the two systems on the values of exposure limits, quantitative descriptions of specific occupational hazards, legal status, TLV-CS setting up principles, basis, condition and procedures, key adverse effect, application of carcinogenicity/sensitization/skin notations, adjustment of OELs for unusual work schedules, the concept and application of combined effects, the concept and application of Excursion Limits, the identity of particles, and analysis of the comparison result.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) There are 339 chemical substances included in GBZ 2.1 and 656 in TLV-CS in ACGIH. (2) The number of the chemical substances in GBZ 2.1 with specified OELs but not included in TLV-CS of ACGIH is 52; the chemical substances with OELs in TLV-CS of ACGIH but not in GBZ 2.1 are 371. (3) There are 260 chemical substances which have OELs in both GBZ 2.1 and ACGIH and with a total of 302 OELs, among them, 47 OELs are higher and 96 are lower in the GBZ 2.1 than the ones in TLV-CS of ACGIH, 81 of them are similar, and 77 are the same in the two. (4) Guidelines on notations of carcinogenicity, sensitization and skin in China need to be developed. (5) Guidelines for adjustment of OELs for unusual work schedules need to be adopted in China. (6) There is still a wide gap between OELs in GBZ 2.1 and in TLV-CS of ACGIH in many aspects. The management and approval procedures of China in setting up OELs are more bureaucratic, and the biological plausibility and feasibility aspects should be strengthened.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>(1) Evaluation guidelines on risk assessment on notations of carcinogenicity, sensitization and skin need to be formulated in China. (2) A priority list in setting up OELs in China needs to be determined. Priority needs to be given to review and revision of the OELs which are significantly different from the ones in TLV?CS of ACGIH but without support of adequate scientific evidence. Priority should also be given to chemical substances which have no OELs in GBZ 2.1 but have specific OELs in TLV-CS of ACGIH. (3) Periodic and systematic review and revision of the existing OELs should be conduced based on the state-of-the-art scientific data, peer-critical-review and public opinion. (4) Important technical issues in GBZ 2.1 need to be elaborated and examined, including the concept of excursion limits, adjustment of OELs for unusual work schedules, the concept and application of synergetic effect, description of the forms and physical characteristics of chemical substances.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Databases, Factual , Hazardous Substances , Occupational Exposure , Risk Assessment , Threshold Limit Values , United States , Workplace
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289764

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate atmospheric mercury concentration in the workplace and urinary mercury concentration in workers exposed to mercury in a thermometer factory, and to determine the levels and influencing factors of urinary Β₂-microglobulin (Β₂-MG) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) in these workers.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>An occupational health survey of the workplace was completed according to relevant national occupational health standards. Questionnaire survey and occupational health examination were conducted in 178 workers exposed to mercury in the factory. Statistical analysis was accomplished using SPSS 19.0.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the workplace, atmospheric mercury concentration was out of limits at seven of eight detection points expressed by short-term exposure limit; it was out of limits at all the eight detection points shown by time-weighted average. Statistically significant difference in atmospheric mercury concentration was found among different detection points (F = 138.714, P < 0.001). The geometric mean of urinary mercury concentration measured in 154 workers was 171.607 µg/g. There were 127 workers with urinary mercury concentration exceeding the standard (82.5% over-standard rate). Significant difference in urinary mercury concentration was shown in the workers among different positions (χ² = 44.531, P < 0.01). Urinary mercury concentration was positively correlated with atmospheric mercury concentration (r = 0.624, P < 0.01). The mean urinary Β₂-MG level measured in 148 workers was 0.142 mg/L, and seven workers had urinary Β₂-MG levels greater than 0.3 mg/L (4.7% abnormal rate). The mean urinary RBP level measured in 153 workers was 0.485 mg/L, and 19 workers had urinary RBP levels greater than 0.7 mg/L (12.4% abnormal rate). Ordinal logistic regression showed that age >34 years (OR = 4.88, 95%CI: 2.24∼10.62) and length of service >15 years (OR = 2.50, 95%CI: 1.06-5.92) were risk factors for increased urinary Β₂-MG level. Age >45 years (OR = 7.52, 95%CI: 2.50∼22.65) was a risk factor for increased urinary RBP level.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>In the thermometer factory under study, atmospheric and urinary mercury concentrations both seriously exceeded the standards, which were harmful to the health of workers. High atmospheric mercury concentration, old age, and long length of service were risk factors for increased urinary Β₂-MG and RBP levels in workers exposed to mercury.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Environmental Exposure , Kidney , Kidney Diseases , Mercury , Toxicity , Occupational Exposure , Risk Factors , Threshold Limit Values , Time Factors , Workplace
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Livestock breeders including poultry workers are exposed to various agricultural chemicals including pesticides and/or organic solvents. Multiple myeloma is a rare disease in Korea, and few reports have investigated the influence of occupational exposures on multiple myeloma occurrence. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old male poultry farm worker presented with bone pain and generalized weakness. A bone marrow biopsy was performed, and he was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. The patient had worked in a poultry farm for 16 years and was exposed to various pesticides and organic solvents such as formaldehyde without any proper personal protective equipment. Results of the work reenactment revealed that the concentration of formaldehyde (17.53 ppm) greatly exceeded the time-weighted average (0.5 ppm) and short-term exposure limit (1.0 ppm) suggested in the Korean Industrial Safety and Health Act. CONCLUSIONS: This case report suggests that poultry workers may be exposed to high levels of various hazardous chemicals including pesticides and/or organic solvents. Numerous previous studies have suggested an association between multiple myeloma and exposure to agricultural chemicals; thus, multiple myeloma in this patient might have resulted from the prolonged, high exposure to these chemicals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Agrochemicals , Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Formaldehyde , Hazardous Substances , Hematologic Neoplasms , Korea , Livestock , Multiple Myeloma , Occupational Exposure , Pesticides , Poultry , Rare Diseases , Solvents , Threshold Limit Values
20.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 17(1): 41-46, Jan.-Mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662524

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The effects of lead on children's health have been widely studied. Aim: To analyze the correlation between the long latency auditory evoked potential N2 and cognitive P3 with the level of lead poisoning in Brazilian children. Methods: This retrospective study evaluated 20 children ranging in age from 7 to 14 years at the time of audiological and electrophysiological evaluations. We performed periodic surveys of the lead concentration in the blood and basic audiological evaluations. Furthermore, we studied the auditory evoked potential long latency N2 and cognitive P3 by analyzing the absolute latency of the N2 and P3 potentials and the P3 amplitude recorded at Cz. At the time of audiological and electrophysiological evaluations, the average concentration of lead in the blood was less than 10 ug/dL. Results: In conventional audiologic evaluations, all children had hearing thresholds below 20 dBHL for the frequencies tested and normal tympanometry findings; the auditory evoked potential long latency N2 and cognitive P3 were present in 95% of children. No significant correlations were found between the blood lead concentration and latency (p = 0.821) or amplitude (p = 0.411) of the P3 potential. However, the latency of the N2 potential increased with the concentration of lead in the blood, with a significant correlation (p = 0.030). Conclusion: Among Brazilian children with low lead exposure, a significant correlation was found between blood lead levels and the average latency of the auditory evoked potential long latency N2; however, a significant correlation was not observed for the amplitude and latency of the cognitive potential P3...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Lead/toxicity , Cognition/radiation effects , Electrophysiology , Environmental Exposure , Evoked Potentials, Auditory , Threshold Limit Values , Lead Poisoning, Nervous System, Childhood
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