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An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(2): 32-39, 20220801.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380303


Introducción: El cáncer diferenciado de tiroides (CDT) se encuentra representado por el carcinoma papilar y el carcinoma folicular. Comprende la gran mayoría (>90%) de todos los cánceres de tiroides. Objetivos: Estratificar el riesgo de recurrencia inicial de los pacientes con CDT. Relacionar la edad, sexo y tamaño tumoral con el riesgo de recurrencia, invasión capsular, ganglionar, vascular y de tejido peritiroideo. Materiales y métodos: Estratificar el riesgo de recurrencia inicial de los pacientes con CDT. Relacionar la edad, sexo y tamaño tumoral con el riesgo de recurrencia, invasión capsular, ganglionar, vascular y de tejido peritiroideo. Resultados: El 87% fueron del sexo femenino. La edad media fue de 43±14 años. Predominó el riesgo de recurrencia bajo en el 49% de los pacientes, seguido del riesgo intermedio (33%) y riesgo alto (18%). El tamaño tumoral ˃1cm confiere mayor riesgo de ser estratificado como riesgo de recurrencia intermedio/alto (OR 5,7 IC 95% 3,6-9). El sexo masculino representó mayor riesgo de invasión ganglionar (OR 2,8 IC 95% 1,2-6,6); la edad ≥55 años lo fue en la invasión vascular (OR 2,1 IC 95% 1,1-4,1); el tamaño >1cm constituyó un mayor riesgo de manera significativa de invasión capsular (OR 10,5 IC 95% 6,5-17), invasión ganglionar (OR 10,2 IC 95% 3,8-26,9), invasión vascular (OR 30,7 IC 95% 4,2-224) e invasión de tejido peritiroideo (OR 5,2 IC 95% 3,3-8,2). Conclusión: El riesgo de recurrencia inicial más frecuente fue el riesgo bajo. El sexo masculino, la edad ≥55años y el tamaño >1cm constituyen factores de riesgo de invasión a estructuras vecinas.

Introduction: Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is represented by papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma. It comprises the vast majority (> 90%) of all thyroid cancers. Objectives: Stratify the risk of initial recurrence of patients with DTC. Relate age, sex, and tumor size to the risk of recurrence, capsular, nodal, vascular, and perithyroid tissue invasion. Materials and methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study with an analytical component. A total of 432 patients with a diagnosis of DTC from Hospital de Clínicas, Instituto de Previsión Social and Instituto Nacional del Cáncer between 2011 and 2015 were included. Results: 87% were female. The mean age was 43 ± 14 years. Low recurrence risk predominated in 49% of patients, followed by intermediate risk (33%) and high risk (18%). Male sex, age ≥55 years and tumor size ˃1cm confer a higher risk of being stratified as intermediate / high recurrence risk, but only size> 1cm was significantly (OR 5.7 95% CI 3.6-9). Male sex represented a higher risk of lymph node invasion (OR 3.1 95% CI 1.4-2.8) and vascular invasion (OR 2.3 95% CI 1.1-4.8); age ≥55 years was in the vascular invasion (OR 2.6 95% CI 1.4-4.9); size> 1cm constituted a significantly higher risk of capsular invasion (OR 10.7 95% CI 6.7-17.3), nodal invasion (OR 10.5 95% CI 4-27.7), vascular invasion (OR 33 95% CI 4.5-244) and invasion of perithyroid tissue (OR 5.1 95% CI 3.2-8.1). Conclusion: The most frequent initial recurrence risk was low risk. Male sex, age ≥55 years, and size> 1cm are risk factors for invasion of neighboring structures.

Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lymph Nodes , Risk , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 220-227, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374730


Abstract Introduction: Fine needle aspiration cytology is preferred for thyroid nodules preoperatively, but has disadvantages of false-negative and false-positive results. Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of grayscale ultrasound, subjective color Doppler ultrasound, and combined features of grayscale ultrasound and subjective color Doppler ultrasound in predicting thyroid carcinoma, using results of the fine needle aspiration cytology as the reference standard. Methods: Data from gray-scale ultrasound images, subjective color Doppler ultrasound images, and the fine needle aspiration cytology of 325 nodules of 250 patients (age ≥ 18 years) were collected and analyzed. Hypo-echogenicity than adjacent strap muscle, micro-lobulated or irregular margins, micro- or mixed calcifications, and taller-than-wide shapes were considered as a suspicious malignant nodule in grayscale ultrasound. Marked vascularity was considered as a suspicious malignant nodule in color Doppler ultrasound. The Bethesda system for classification of thyroid nodules was used for cytopathology. Results: With respect to the results of fine-needle aspiration cytology for detecting suspicious malignant nodules, for grayscale ultrasound, subjective color Doppler ultrasound, and combined gray-scale with subjective color Doppler ultrasound, sensitivities were 0.564, 0.600 and 0.691, respectively and accuracies were 0.926, 0.919 and 0.959, respectively. Suspicious malignant nodules detectability for grayscale ultrasound, subjective color Doppler ultrasound, and combined gray-scale with subjective color Doppler ultrasound were 0.09-0.56 diagnostic confidence, 0.08-0.61 diagnostic confidence, and 0.063-0.7 diagnostic confidence, respectively. Conclusion: The combined gray-scale with subjective color Doppler ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies are recommended for the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. Level of Evidence: III.

Resumo Introdução: A citologia da punção aspirativa com agulha fina é preferida para nódulos tireoidianos no pré-operatório, mas apresenta desvantagens de resultados falso-negativos e falso-positivos. Objetivo: Comparar o desempenho diagnóstico da ultrassonografia em escala de cinza, do doppler colorido subjetivo e da combinação dos recursos da ultrassonografia em escala de cinza e do doppler colorido subjetivo na previsão do carcinoma da tireoide com os resultados da citologia da punção aspirativa com agulha fina como padrão de referência. Método: Dados de imagens de ultrassonografia em escala de cinza, imagens subjetivas da ultrassonografia com doppler colorido e citologia da punção aspirativa com agulha fina de 325 nódulos de 250 pacientes (idade ≥ 18 anos) foram coletados e analisados. A hipoecogenicidade da musculatura adjacente, as margens microlobuladas ou irregulares, as microcalcificações ou calcificações mistas e os formatos mais altos do que largos foram considerados como um nódulo maligno suspeito na ultrassonografia em escala de cinza. A vascularização acentuada foi considerada um nódulo maligno suspeito na ultrassonografia com doppler colorido. O sistema Bethesda para classificação de nódulos tireoidianos foi usado para a citopatologia. Resultados: Com relação aos resultados da citologia por punção aspirativa com agulha fina para detecção de nódulos malignos suspeitos, as sensibilidades foram de 0,564, 0,600 e 0,691 para a ultrassonografia em escala de cinza, ultrassonografia com doppler colorido subjetivo e escala de cinza combinada com ultrassonografia com doppler colorido subjetivo, respectivamente, e as acurácias foram 0,926, 0,919 e 0,959, respectivamente. A detectabilidade de nódulos suspeitos malignos para ultrassonografia em escala de cinza, ultrassonografia com doppler colorido subjetivo e escala de cinza combinada com ultrassonografia com doppler colorido subjetivo foram de 0,09-0,56, 0,08-0,61 e 0,063-0,7 de confiança diagnóstica, respectivamente. Conclusões: A ultrassonografia em escala de cinza combinada com o doppler colorido subjetivo e biópsias por punção aspirativa com agulha fina guiadas por ultrassonografia são recomendados para o diagnóstico de carcinoma da tireoide. Nível de evidência: III.

Humans , Adolescent , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 112-117, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364296


SUMMARY Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the main subtype. The cribriform morular variant is a histological phenotype of PTC characterized by its relationship with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Description of the case: We report the genetic assessment of a 20-year-old female patient diagnosed with a cribriform-morular variant of PTC and FAP. We aimed to assess the genetic background of the reported patient, looking for variants that would help us explain the predisposition to tumorigenesis. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes, and whole exome sequencing was performed. We applied an overrepresentation and gene-set enrichment analysis to look for an accumulation of effects of variants in multiple genes at the genome. We found an overrepresentation of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in extracellular matrix interactions and cell adhesion genes. Underrepresentation of SNVs in genes related to the regulation of autophagy and cell cycle control was also observed. We hypothesize that the package of alterations of our patient may help to explain why she presented colonic manifestations and thyroid cancer. Our findings suggest that multiple variants with minor impact, when considered together, may be helpful to characterize one particular clinical condition.

Humans , Female , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/diagnosis , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/genetics , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/pathology , Genetic Background , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 50-57, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364302


ABSTRACT Objective: A primary medical relevance of thyroid nodules consists of excluding thyroid cancer, present in approximately 5% of all thyroid nodules. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has a paramount role in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules due to its availability and diagnostic performance. Nevertheless, intraoperative frozen section (iFS) is still advocated as a valuable tool for surgery planning, especially for indeterminate nodules. Subjects and methods: To compare the FNAB and iFS performances in thyroid cancer diagnosis among nodules in Bethesda Categories (BC) I to VI. The performance of FNAB and iFS tests were calculated using final histopathology results as the gold standard. Results: In total, 316 patients were included in the analysis. Both FNAB and iFS data were available for 272 patients (86.1%). The overall malignancy rate was 30.4%% (n = 96). The FNAB sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for benign (BC II) and malignant (BC V and VI) were 89.5%, 97.1%, and 94.1%, respectively. For all nodules evaluated, the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 80.9%, 100%, and 94.9%, respectively. For indeterminate nodules and follicular lesions (BC III and IV), the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 25%, 100%, and 88.7%, respectively. For BC I nodules, iFS had 95.2% of accuracy. Conclusion: Our results do not support routine iFS for indeterminate nodules or follicular neoplasms (BC III and IV) due to its low sensitivity. In these categories, iFS is not sufficiently accurate to guide the intraoperative management of thyroidectomies. iFS for BC I nodules could be an option and should be specifically investigated

Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Frozen Sections/methods
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 7-11, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359332


El cáncer diferenciado de tiroides incluye el tipo papilar y folicular que representan más del 80% de los casos y tienen un excelente pronóstico. Existen varios subtipos histológicos y las variantes foliculares son probablemente las más comunes. La incidencia de cáncer papilar variante folicular ha ido en aumento. En un reporte de un solo centro, cerca del 40% de los cánceres papilares eran variantes foliculares1. El subtipo infiltrativo de la variante folicular presenta sectores que invaden el parénquima tiroideo no neoplásico y carece de una cápsula tumoral bien definida. Tiene un comportamiento biológico y un perfil molecular que es más similar al tumor papilar clásico2. Existen características clínicas y patológicas asociadas con riesgo más alto de recurrencia tumoral y mortalidad; entre ellos se describen el tamaño del tumor primario y la presencia de invasión de tejidos blandos3. En la invasión de estructuras adyacentes, los sitios más comprometidos incluyen los músculos pretiroideos, el nervio laríngeo recurrente, el esófago, la faringe, laringe y la tráquea. Además, puede haber otras estructuras involucradas como: la vena yugular interna, la arteria carótida y los nervios vago, frénico y espinal4. El compromiso de los ganglios linfáticos y la incidencia de metástasis ganglionares en adultos depende de la extensión de la cirugía. Entre los que se realizan una disección radical modificada del cuello, hasta el 80% tienen metástasis en los ganglios linfáticos y el 50% de ellas son microscópicas5. Clínicamente los tumores localmente avanzados cursan con disfonía, disfagia, disnea, tos o hemoptisis, pero la ausencia de síntomas no descarta la invasión local. Según las guías de la American Thyroid Association6 son variables de mal pronóstico: la edad del paciente, el tamaño del tumor primario, la extensión extra tiroidea y la resección quirúrgica incompleta.

Differentiated thyroid cancer includes papillary and follicular types that represent more than 80% of cases and have an excellent prognosis. There are several histologic subtypes, and follicular variants are probably the most common. The incidence of papillary follicular variant cancer has been increasing. In a singlecenter report, about 40% of papillary cancers were follicular variants1. The infiltrative subtype of the follicular variant presents sectors that invade the non-neoplastic thyroid parenchyma and lacks a well-defined tumor capsule. It has a biological behavior and a molecular profile that is more similar to the classic papillary tumor2. There are clinical and pathological characteristics associated with a higher risk of tumor recurrence and mortality; These include the size of the primary tumor and the presence of soft tissue invasion3. In the invasion of adjacent structures, the most compromised sites include the pre-thyroid muscles, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, the esophagus, the pharynx, larynx and trachea. In addition, there may be other structures involved such as: the internal jugular vein, the carotid artery and the vagus, phrenic and spinal nerves4. The involvement of the lymph nodes and the incidence of lymph node metastases in adults depends on the extent of the surgery. Among those who undergo a modified radical neck dissection, up to 80% have lymph node metastases and 50% of them are microscopic5. Clinically locally advanced tumors present with dysphonia, dysphagia, dyspnea, cough, or hemoptysis, but the absence of symptoms does not rule out local invasion. According to the American Thyroid Association guidelines6, there are variables with a poor prognosis: the age of the patient, the size of the primary tumor, the extra-thyroid extension, and incomplete surgical resection.

Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 19-22, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359334


El cáncer papilar constituye aproximadamente el 80% de todos los casos de cáncer de tiroides y el 85% de los tumores diferenciados. La variante de células altas representa el 1,3 al 12% del cáncer papilar siendo la variante agresiva más común de estos tumores. Posee un comportamiento agresivo, con mayor incidencia de invasión extratiroidea, linfovascular y metástasis a distancia, responsables de tasas de recurrencia más altas y peor pronóstico. Los casos aquí reportados reflejan las características que hacen sospechar mayor agresividad tumoral, desde el diagnóstico. Describimos dos pacientes de sexo femenino, entre 40 y 50 años, con historia de corta evolución, cuya presentación fue con síntomas de compresión locorregional y adenopatías metastásicas en cuello. Con hallazgos ecográficos e intraoperatorios de relevancia en cuanto la agresividad tumoral que hicieron sospechar la presencia de una variante agresiva del cáncer papilar. La histopatología de la variante de células altas posee una base molecular diferente respecto al papilar clásico que le confiere mayor morbi-mortalidad, constituyendo un factor de pronóstico independiente para la recurrencia. El tratamiento quirúrgico es la tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento profiláctico de los ganglios linfáticos centrales y eventualmente vaciamiento lateral de cuello según valoración preoperatoria, con posterior ablación postoperatoria de restos tiroideos mediante yodo radiactivo.

Papillary cancer constitutes approximately 80% of all thyroid cancer cases and 85% of differentiated tumors. The tall cell variant represents 1.3 to 12% of papillary cancers, being the most common aggressive variant of these tumors. It has an aggressive behavior, showing a higher incidence of extrathyroid and lymphovascular invasion and distant metastasis, responsible for higher recurrence rates and a worse prognosis. The cases reported here reflect characteristics that make us suspect tumor aggressiveness. These are female patients, between 40 and 70 years old, with a history of short evolution. They present locoregional symptoms or metastatic adenopathies, with ultrasound and intraoperative findings of relevance in terms of tumor aggressiveness that led to the suspicion of the presence of an aggressive variant of papillary cancer. The histopathology of the tall cell variant has a different molecular basis that confers its own morbidity and mortality, being an independent prognostic factor for recurrence. Total thyroidectomy is recommended with prophylactic dissection of the central lymph nodes and eventually lateral neck dissection according to preoperative evaluation followed by postoperative ablation with radioactive iodine.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 68(2)Abr.-Jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379153


Introdução: O carcinoma anaplásico da tireoide é um tumor raro e agressivo, que afeta principalmente mulheres com idade acima de 60 anos, sendo menos comum em pessoas mais jovens. Acredita-se que esse tumor surja em razão da perda de diferenciação em carcinomas bem diferenciados de tireoide. Uma baixa ingestão de iodo também foi sugerida. Apesar das tentativas de intervenção multimodal, o prognóstico é ruim. Relato do caso: Paciente do sexo feminino, 41 anos, submetida à tireoidectomia total, por causa do rápido crescimento de massa tireoidiana, associada à suspeita radiológica de malignidade. A avaliação macroscópica mostrou que o tumor apresentava formato lobulado, áreas necróticas e hemorrágicas e margens mal definidas. Os achados microscópicos confirmaram um carcinoma anaplásico de tireoide, caracterizado pela proliferação de células multinucleadas fusiformes e osteoclásticas, associadas a um carcinoma papilar de tireoide bem diferenciado. Conclusão: Apesar de sua raridade, o carcinoma anaplásico deve ser considerado uma possibilidade na avaliação de uma neoplasia tireoidiana, e o diagnóstico diferencial deve ser levado em conta com cautela, pois pode ser confundido com outros tumores, como linfomas e sarcomas. Além disso, é importante ressaltar a necessidade de considerá-la mesmo quando o paciente não pertence ao grupo epidemiológico usual

Introduction: The anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a rare, aggressive tumor, and it affects mainly women over the age of 60 years, being less common in younger people. It is believed that this tumor appears due to the loss of differentiation in well differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Low iodine ingestion has also been suggested. Despite multimodal intervention attempts, prognosis is poor. Case report: A 41 year-old female patient underwent a total thyroidectomy because of to the rapid growth of a thyroid mass, associated with radiological suspicion of malignancy. The macroscopic evaluation showed that the tumor had a lobulated shape, necrotic and hemorrhagic areas, and poorly-defined margins. Microscopic findings confirmed an anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, characterized by the proliferation of spindle and osteoclast-like multinucleated cells, associated with a well differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conclusion: Despite its rarity, the anaplastic carcinoma should be thought as a possibility when evaluating a thyroid neoplasia, and differential diagnosis must be considered cautiously, since it can be misleading for other tumors, such as lymphomas and sarcomas. In addition, it is important to point out the necessity to admit it even when the patient does not belong to the typical epidemiological group

Introducción: El carcinoma anaplásico de tiroides es un tumor agresivo poco común y afecta principalmente a mujeres mayores de 60 años, siendo menos común en adultos más jóvenes. Se cree que este tumor surge debido a la pérdida de diferenciación en carcinomas tiroideos bien diferenciados. También se ha implicado una baja ingestión de yodo. A pesar de los intentos de intervención multimodal, el pronóstico es malo. Reporte del caso: Paciente de 41 años fue sometida a tiroidectomía total por rápido crecimiento de una masa tiroidea, asociada a sospecha radiológica de malignidad. La evaluación macroscópica mostró que un tumor voluminoso con áreas necróticas y hemorrágicas y márgenes mal definidos. Los hallazgos microscópicos confirmaron un carcinoma anaplásico de tiroides, caracterizado por la proliferación de células multinucleadas fusiformes y similares a los osteoclastos, asociado con un carcinoma papilar de tiroides bien diferenciado. Conclusión: A pesar de su rareza, el carcinoma anaplásico debe considerarse una posibilidad al evaluar la neoplasia tiroidea. Se deben considerar cuidadosamente los diferentes diagnósticos, ya que pueden confundirse con otros cánceres, como linfomas y sarcomas. Además, es importante señalar la necesidad de considerarlo incluso cuando el paciente no pertenece al grupo epidemiológico habitual

Humans , Female , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Neoplasms
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927848


Objective To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods The patients with PTC treated by surgery in the Chinese PLA General Hospital from January 2016 to January 2021 were selected for analysis.All the patients underwent preoperative ultrasound and CT examinations,the diagnostic values of which for CLNM were retrospectively analyzed. Results A total of 322 PTC patients were enrolled in this study,including 242 with CLNM and 80 with non-CLNM.The CLNM group and non-CLNM group had significant differences in age,tumor size,and maximum size of lateral CLNM (χ2=20.34,27.34,and 4.30,respectively,all P<0.001).For the central compartment,lateral compartment,and overall compartment,ultrasound diagnosis showed higher sensitivity (χ 2=82.26,P<0.001;χ2=114.01,P<0.001;χ2=82.26,P<0.001) and accuracy (χ2=20.27,P<0.001;χ2=15.56,P<0.001;χ2=44.00,P<0.001) than CT,and had no significant differences from ultrasound combined with CT (all P>0.05).However,ultrasound diagnosis had lower specificity than CT (χ2=17.01,P<0.001;χ2=21.29,P<0.001) in the central compartment and lateral compartment.Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that in the central compartment,lateral compartment,and overall compartment,ultrasound diagnosis had larger AUC than CT (Z=2.99,P=0.003;Z=3.86,P<0.001;Z=4.47,P<0.001) and had no significant difference from ultrasound combined with CT (Z=1.87,P=0.062;Z=1.68,P=0.093;Z=1.61,P=0.107). Conclusions Ultrasound and CT have their own advantages in the diagnosis of central and lateral CLNM.In general,ultrasound has better performance than CT in the diagnosis of CLNM.

Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography/methods
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(2): 75-77, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391818


El microcarcinoma papilar de tiroides es definido como un tumor de un cm o menos de diámetro mayor. La mayoría permanecen ocultos clínicamente, siendo un hallazgo en autopsias hasta en 36%. La presentación oculta ocurre hasta en un 10 a 26% de todas las neoplasias malignas de tiroides y se define como la presencia de ganglios metastásicos de carcinoma papilar de tiroides en ausencia de lesión primitiva tiroidea evidente durante la exploración clínica y ecográfica. El objetivo de este trabajo es el reporte de dos casos donde el diagnóstico de cáncer de tiroides se realizó a través de su presentación metastásica cervical, siendo el estudio anatomopatológico de la pieza de resección quirúrgica el que devela la presencia de un microcarcinoma papilar. Si bien el tratamiento del de estas lesiones es controversial, existen elementos que sellan la necesidad de resolución quirúrgica. En el debut metastásico ganglionar cervical, está indicada la tiroidectomía total con el vaciamiento ganglionar cervical radical modificado ipsilateral y central. El raidioyodo postquirúrgico será empleado en forma complementaria ante la persistencia, recurrencia o elementos de alto riesgo.

Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma is defined as a tumor one cm or less in diameter. Most remain clinically hidden, being an autopsy finding in up to 36%. Occult presentation occurs in up to 10% to 26% of all thyroid malignancies and is defined as the presence of metastatic nodes from papillary thyroid carcinoma in the absence of a primitive thyroid lesion evident on clinical and ultrasound examination. The objective of this work is the report of two cases where the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was made through its cervical metastatic presentation, being the pathological study of the surgical resection specimen that reveals the presence of a papillary microcarcinoma. Although the treatment of these lesions is controversial, there are elements that seal the need for surgical resolution. In cervical lymph node metastatic debut, total thyroidectomy with modified ipsilateral and central radical cervical lymph node dissection is indicated. Post-surgical radiation iodine will be used in a complementary way in the event of persistence, recurrence or high-risk elements.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 692-705, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355743


Resumen | Introducción. La modificación de las normas sobre medicina nuclear en Colombia ha afectado la administración de la terapia de yodo radioactivo en el tratamiento del cáncer de tiroides. Objetivos. Determinar las áreas de acuerdo en torno al problema, los requisitos actuales y los nuevos exigidos en la normativa para el funcionamiento de los servicios de medicina nuclear. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio Delphi de dos rondas con cada grupo de expertos, 'clínicos' y 'de entidades reguladoras'. En la primera ronda se exploraron los puntos de vista sobre las implicaciones de la normativa en medicina nuclear y, en la segunda, se calificaron las declaraciones de la primera según su relevancia. Resultados. La problemática de los servicios de medicina nuclear está relacionada con la claridad normativa, y la falta de sinergia y coherencia entre los organismos de inspección, vigilancia y control. Las exigencias del sistema de gestión de desechos requieren una alta inversión económica que puede influir en la oferta del servicio y repercutir en el control integral del cáncer de tiroides. Entre las necesidades presentes y futuras, se encuentran la unificación de criterios entre los auditores, la delimitación de funciones de los actuantes, la asistencia técnica para cumplir con la normativa, y la veeduría a los organismos de inspección, vigilancia y control por parte de los entes reguladores. Conclusión. Los hallazgos del estudio sugieren que los servicios de medicina nuclear atraviesan un momento de múltiples desafíos institucionales, normativos y económicos, que ponen en riesgo el desarrollo y mantenimiento de la medicina nuclear en la atención oncológica.

Abstract | Introduction: Colombia has modified the nuclear medicine norms that impact the administration of radioactive iodine therapy in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Objective: To identify the areas of agreement regarding the issue, as well as the current and emergent requirements associated with the normative for the operation of nuclear medicine services that have an impact on the care of patients with thyroid cancer in Colombia. Materials and methods: We conducted a two-round Delphi study for each expert, clinical, and regulatory group. The first round explored views on the implications of the regulations that apply to nuclear medicine. The second round rated the statements from the first round by their relevance. Results: The issues regarding nuclear medicine services were related to the normative clarity and the lack of synergy and coherence among inspection, surveillance, and control bodies. The demands on the waste management system require a high economic investment that can influence the service offer and have an impact on the integral control of thyroid cancer. Unification of the auditors' criteria, delimitation of the acting agent functions, technical assistance to the services to comply with the normative, and the oversight of the inspection, surveillance, and control bodies by the regulatory entities are among the current and future needs. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that nuclear medicine services are going through a time of multiple institutional, regulatory, and economic challenges that put at risk the development and maintenance of nuclear medicine in cancer care.

Thyroid Neoplasms , Nuclear Medicine , Radioisotopes , Radioactive Waste , Health Services
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 45(3,supl.n.esp): 108-117, 28 dec. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352339


As neoplasias endócrinas múltiplas (NEM) são síndromes genéticas autossômicas dominantes implicadas no desenvolvimento de neoplasias benignas ou malignas, envolvendo ao menos duas glândulas endócrinas. Entre seus subtipos, está a NEM2A, que consiste em carcinoma medular de tireoide (CMT), feocromocitoma e hiperparatireoidismo. Este texto apresente o relato de caso de um paciente de 40 anos, previamente hígido, que passou a apresentar episódios de cefaleia associada a sudorese profusa, vômitos e taquicardia. Evoluiu com distensão abdominal intensa após alimentação por via oral, perda ponderal, desnutrição, astenia, obstipação, humor deprimido e picos pressóricos. Exames laboratoriais evidenciaram alterações dos hormônios tireoidianos, PTH e hormônios da adrenal. Foi levantada a suspeita clínica de NEM2A, posteriormente corroborada pelos diagnósticos anatomopatológicos de feocromocitoma e CMT, associados à presença de hiperparatireoidismo. Foi possível concluir que, a despeito de sua baixa prevalência na população geral, a NEM é uma síndrome clínica de grande relevância, tendo em vista os impactos para os pacientes e famílias acometidas. Dessa forma, é necessário que os profissionais de saúde tenham conhecimento acerca da síndrome e que o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) esteja apto a assistir aos pacientes portadores de NEM, possibilitando diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado.

Multiple endocrine neoplasias (MEN) are dominant autosomal genetic syndromes involved in the development of benign or malignant tumors in at least two endocrine glands. MEN2A is one of its subtypes, which consists of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma, and hyperparathyroidism. This study reports the case of a healthy 40-year-old male patient presenting with episodes of headache associated with profuse sweating, vomiting, and tachycardia. The patient evolved with severe abdominal distension after oral feeding, weight loss, malnutrition, asthenia, constipation, depressed mood, and pressure peaks. Laboratory tests showed abnormalities in thyroid, parathyroid (PTH), and adrenal hormones ­ thus raising the hypothesis of MEN2A, which was later corroborated by the histological diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and MTC, associated with hyperparathyroidism. The results indicate that, despite its low prevalence in the general population, MEN has a great impact on affected patients and families, thus being a relevant clinical syndrome. For enabling early diagnosis and adequate treatment, health professionals must be familiarized with such a condition, and the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) must be able to assist affected patients.

Las neoplasias endocrinas múltiples (NEM) son síndromes genéticos autosómicos dominantes involucrados en el desarrollo de neoplasias benignas o malignas, que afectan al menos dos glándulas endocrinas. Entre sus subtipos se encuentra NEM2A, que consiste en carcinoma medular de tiroides (CMT), feocromocitoma e hiperparatiroidismo. Este es un reporte de caso de un paciente de 40 años de edad, previamente sano, que comenzó a presentar episodios de cefalea asociada a sudoración profusa, vómitos y taquicardia. Evolucionó con distensión abdominal severa después de alimentarse, pérdida de peso, desnutrición, astenia, estreñimiento, estado de ánimo deprimido y picos de presión. Las pruebas de laboratorio mostraron alteraciones en las hormonas tiroideas, PTH y hormonas suprarrenales. Se planteó la hipótesis de MEN2A, posteriormente corroborada por el diagnóstico anatomopatológico de feocromocitoma y CMT, asociado a hiperparatiroidismo. Se pudo concluir que, a pesar de su baja prevalencia en la población general, el NEM es un síndrome clínico de gran relevancia, dado el impacto que tiene en los pacientes y familiares afectados. Por tanto, es necesario que los profesionales sanitarios tengan conocimiento sobre el síndrome y que el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) sea capaz de asistir a los pacientes con NEM, posibilitándoles diagnóstico precoz y tratamiento adecuado.

Humans , Pheochromocytoma , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia , Thyroid Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Medullary , Endocrine Glands , Hyperparathyroidism
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 768-777, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349988


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of pregnancy on differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) behavior Subjects and methods: Retrospective study of patients diagnosed with DTC before or during pregnancy and treated with standard therapy. In women diagnosed with DTC before pregnancy, we evaluated the occurrence of progression according to categories of response to therapy based on imaging and non-stimulated thyroglobulin (TG) levels. Results: Of 96 analyzed patients, 76 became pregnant after DTC treatment and 20 were diagnosed with DTC during pregnancy. Among women who became pregnant after a DTC diagnosis, no difference was observed regarding response to therapy before and after pregnancy. Disease progression after pregnancy was documented in six of these patients, while seven of them presented progression before pregnancy but were only treated after delivery. Patients with DTC diagnosed during pregnancy had a higher rate of distant metastases at diagnosis (30%) compared with the patients who became pregnant after DTC diagnosis (9.2%, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Pregnancy had no impact on the natural course of DTC. Disease progression after pregnancy was limited and probably related to more aggressive disease and higher risk stratification at diagnosis. Still, mild disease progression may have occurred asymptomatically in some patients.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/therapy , Prognosis , Thyroglobulin , Retrospective Studies , Iodine Radioisotopes
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 7(4): 239-243, oct.-dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391719


El cáncer de tiroides ha incrementado en estos últimos años, siendo esta patología endócrina de relevancia entre las distintas poblaciones con distintas presentaciones. Objetivo. determinar el comportamiento del cáncer de tiroides en los pacientes atendidos en el hospital de SOLCA Guayaquil. Metodología. Estudio observacional, de diseño transversal descriptivo. Lugar: hospital de SOLCA en Guayaquil, período 2015 ­ 2019. Los sujetos fueron los pacientes con diagnósticos de cáncer de tiroides. Aplicando estadísticas descriptivas con indicadores de porcentaje, comparaciones entre variables, y la tendencia lineal del quinquenio de estudio. Resultados. El cáncer maligno de tiroides se incrementó desde el año 2015 con 15,9%, 2017 el 20,9%, al 2019 de 25,8%, que es corroborado con la tendencia de este cáncer y su porcentaje de variabilidad del 91,58%. El sexo se observó mayormente en el femenino con 82,8%; y la edad se obtuvo en ambos sexos, que a partir de los 30 años hasta los 59 años de edad son las más afectadas con 69,3%; siendo en las mujeres la edad de mayor proporción la cuarta década con 24,7% mientras que en hombres en la quinta década con 23,8%; la morfología más frecuente fue el "Adenocarcinoma papilar SAI, Carcinoma papilar de la tiroides" con 69,9%. Conclusión. El comportamiento del cáncer de tiroides mostró un incremento sostenido de casos en este quinquenio, siendo el carcinoma papilar el más frecuente. La mayoría de casos se presentaron en las mujeres a partir de los cuarenta años de edad.

Thyroid cancer has increased in recent years, this endocrine pathology being of relevance among different populations with different presentations. Objective. to determine the behavior of thyroid cancer in patients treated at the SOLCA Guayaquil hospital. Methodology. Observational study with a descriptive crosssectional design. Place: SOLCA hospital in Guayaquil, period 2015 ­ 2019. The subjects were patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Applying descriptive statistics with percentage indicators, comparisons between variables, and the linear trend of the five-year study period. Results. Malignant thyroid cancer increased from 2015 with 15,9%, 2017 20.9%, to 2019 25,8%, which is corroborated with the trend of this cancer and its percentage of variability of 91.58 %. Sex was observed mainly in the female with 82,8%; and the age was obtained in both sexes, which from 30 years to 59 years of age are the most affected with 69,3%; the age with the highest proportion being in women the fourth decade with 24,7%, while in men in the fifth decade with 23,8%; the most frequent morphology was "papillary adenocarcinoma NOS, papillary thyroid carcinoma" with 69,9%. Conclusion. The behavior of thyroid cancer showed a sustained increase in this fiveyear period, with papillary carcinoma being the most frequent. Most cases occurred in women over 40 years of age.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cancer Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador/epidemiology , Age and Sex Distribution
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 428-435, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339097


ABSTRACT Objective: Thyrotropin-stimulated thyroglobulin (STg) after total thyroidectomy is a prognosis marker for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). As Tg level is influenced by thyrotropin (TSH), perhaps the STg/TSH ratio is also a prognosis marker for these tumours. We aimed to compare STg/TSH ratio and first STg level in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients for their ability to predict the long-term response to initial treatment. Subjects and methods: This retrospective study evaluated data from 181 DTC patients for first (1st) STg and STg/TSH ratio, at 1-3 months post-total thyroidectomy and before iodine-131 therapy, according to response to initial therapy [Excellent/Indeterminate or Incomplete (Biochemical/Structural)] observed at final evaluation, and with the survival time with excellent/indeterminate response. Results: Cases with incomplete response presented higher STg level [225.13 ± 585.26 ng/mL versus (vs) 20.4 ± 192.9 ng/mL; p < 0.001] and STg/TSH ratio (3.01 ± 7.8 vs 0.27 ± 2.58; p < 0.001). Cutoffs of 5 ng/mL for STg and 0.085 for STg/TSH displayed sensitivities of 76.7% and 76.9%, and specificities of 79.2% and 82.6%, respectively, in predicting response to therapy. Values below these cutoffs were associated with longer survival time in excellent/indeterminate response (140.4 vs 15.9 and 144.6 vs 15.9 months, respectively). Conclusion: STg/TSH ratio has a similar performance to the 1st STg in predicting long-term response to initial therapy.

Humans , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Prognosis , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 411-420, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339098


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the real-world experience multikinase inhibitors (MKI) in the treatment advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) refractory to radioactive iodine (RAIR) therapy. Subjects and methods: We reviewed the records of all patients with MKI-treated DTC from 2010 to 2018. Progression free survival (PFS), response rates (RR) and adverse events (AE) profiles were assessed. Clinical parameters were compared between groups with different outcomes (disease progression and death) to identify possible prognostic factors and benefit from treatment. Results: Forty-four patients received MKI for progressive RAIR DTC. Median PFS was 24 months (10.2-37.7) and median overall survival (OS) was 31 months. Best overall response was complete response in one patient (4.5%), partial response in nine (20.4%), stable disease in twenty-two (50%), and progressive disease (PD) in twelve (27.3%). Seventy-two point 7 percent patients had clinical benefit and AE were mild in most cases (82.7%). Progressive patients were more likely to have FDG positive target lesion than those who did not progress (p = 0.033) and higher maximum SUV on target lesions (p = 0.042). Presence of lung-only metastasis and lower thyroglobulin (Tg) during treatment was associated with stable disease (p = 0.015 and 0,049, respectively). Patients with shorter survival had larger primary tumor size (p = 0.015) and higher maximum SUV on target lesions (p = 0.023). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate safety and effectiveness of MKI in patients with advanced RAIR DTC. We were able to identify as possible prognostic markers of better outcomes: absence of FDG uptake on target lesions, lower maximum SUV on PET-CT, presence of lung-only metastasis and lower Tg during treatment.

Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Iodine Radioisotopes
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 495-499, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339109


SUMMARY Collision tumors are rare and may comprise components with different behavior, treatments, and prognosis. We report an unprecedented case of aggressive thyroid collision tumor containing widely invasive oncocytic carcinoma (OC), classical and hobnail (HPTC) variants of papillary carcinoma, and poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDTC). The patient underwent total thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine therapy, and within months progressed with local recurrence, and pulmonary metastases requiring neck dissection, external radiotherapy and systemic treatment with sorafenib. The rapid progression, dedifferentiated metastatic lesions, and failure to treatments resulted in the patient´s death. The great variety of histological types and the evolution of this case were a challenge for the management of metastatic disease. Widely invasive OC, HPTC and PDTC are considered to have a worse prognosis. HPTC has never been reported as a component of a collision tumor. HPTC and PDTC should call attention to a possible higher-grade transformation.

Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoma, Papillary , Iodine Radioisotopes , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 455-461, July-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339108


ABSTRACT Objective: Obesity and diabetes are the risk factors for cancer development including differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Contradictory accumulated data indicates the possible negative effects of obesity and hyperglyceamia as a factor for aggressiveness of DTC. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association of high body mass index (BMI) and presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on the histological aggressiveness and clinical outcomes in DTC patients followed for over 4 years in a single center. Materials and methods: Consequative 526 DTC patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy and/or radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into groups based on their BMI: normal weight, overweight, obese and also were evalauted in 3 groups presence of diabetes, prediabetes and nomoglyceamia. Histological aggressiveness of DTC at the time of diagnosis and clinical response at the time of last clinical visit were reassessed according to the criteria suggested by ATA 2015 guideline. Results: No differences in histopathologic features, risk of recurrence, cumulative dose of RAI ablation and prevalence of 131I avid metastatic disease were demonstrated among the groups both classified according to BMI and hyperglycemia. Mean of 3.4 year follow-up also showed no differences in the clinial repsonse to therapy and percentage of nonthyroid primary cancer in DTC patients. Conclusion: In this retrospective study we demonstrated that obesity and T2DM have no additive effect on DTC aggressiveness and response to therapy. DTC patients with obesity and diabetes can be treated according to present guidelines without requirement for spesific attention.

Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Thyroidectomy , Retrospective Studies , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Obesity/complications
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(4): 682-695, 20210000. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291253


La coexistencia entre cáncer de tiroides e hipertiroidismo es infrecuente, y la mayoría de las lesiones nodulares a partir de las cuales se documenta un tumor maligno en este grupo de pacientes corresponden a nódulos fríos. Justificado en el creciente número de reportes en la literatura acerca de tumores malignos diagnosticados a partir de nódulos calientes, se realizó una revisión sistemática que tuvo como objetivo determinar los posibles factores asociados con el diagnóstico de cáncer de tiroides a partir de nódulos calientes en pacientes con hipertiroidismo. Los resultados sugieren que el diagnóstico clínico de bocio nodular tóxico, lesiones nodulares de diámetro mayor de 10 mm y tipo histológico compatible con carcinoma folicular, son factores que aumentan por sí solos el riesgo de realizar el diagnóstico de cáncer a partir de un nódulo caliente

Coexistence between thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism is rare, and most of the nodular lesions from which a malignant tumor is documented in this group of patients correspond to cold nodules. Justified by the increasing number of reports in the literature about malignant tumors diagnosed from hot nodules, a systematic review was carried out to determine possible factors associated with the diagnosis of thyroid cancer from hot nodules in pa-tients with hyperthyroidism. The results suggest that the clinical diagnosis of toxic nodular goiter, nodular lesions of diameter > 10 mm and a histological type compatible with a follicular carcinoma, are factors that on their own increase the risk of making the diagnosis of cancer from a hot nodule

Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms , Hyperthyroidism , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule , Adenocarcinoma, Follicular , Systematic Review