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1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 220-227, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374730

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Fine needle aspiration cytology is preferred for thyroid nodules preoperatively, but has disadvantages of false-negative and false-positive results. Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of grayscale ultrasound, subjective color Doppler ultrasound, and combined features of grayscale ultrasound and subjective color Doppler ultrasound in predicting thyroid carcinoma, using results of the fine needle aspiration cytology as the reference standard. Methods: Data from gray-scale ultrasound images, subjective color Doppler ultrasound images, and the fine needle aspiration cytology of 325 nodules of 250 patients (age ≥ 18 years) were collected and analyzed. Hypo-echogenicity than adjacent strap muscle, micro-lobulated or irregular margins, micro- or mixed calcifications, and taller-than-wide shapes were considered as a suspicious malignant nodule in grayscale ultrasound. Marked vascularity was considered as a suspicious malignant nodule in color Doppler ultrasound. The Bethesda system for classification of thyroid nodules was used for cytopathology. Results: With respect to the results of fine-needle aspiration cytology for detecting suspicious malignant nodules, for grayscale ultrasound, subjective color Doppler ultrasound, and combined gray-scale with subjective color Doppler ultrasound, sensitivities were 0.564, 0.600 and 0.691, respectively and accuracies were 0.926, 0.919 and 0.959, respectively. Suspicious malignant nodules detectability for grayscale ultrasound, subjective color Doppler ultrasound, and combined gray-scale with subjective color Doppler ultrasound were 0.09-0.56 diagnostic confidence, 0.08-0.61 diagnostic confidence, and 0.063-0.7 diagnostic confidence, respectively. Conclusion: The combined gray-scale with subjective color Doppler ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies are recommended for the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. Level of Evidence: III.


Resumo Introdução: A citologia da punção aspirativa com agulha fina é preferida para nódulos tireoidianos no pré-operatório, mas apresenta desvantagens de resultados falso-negativos e falso-positivos. Objetivo: Comparar o desempenho diagnóstico da ultrassonografia em escala de cinza, do doppler colorido subjetivo e da combinação dos recursos da ultrassonografia em escala de cinza e do doppler colorido subjetivo na previsão do carcinoma da tireoide com os resultados da citologia da punção aspirativa com agulha fina como padrão de referência. Método: Dados de imagens de ultrassonografia em escala de cinza, imagens subjetivas da ultrassonografia com doppler colorido e citologia da punção aspirativa com agulha fina de 325 nódulos de 250 pacientes (idade ≥ 18 anos) foram coletados e analisados. A hipoecogenicidade da musculatura adjacente, as margens microlobuladas ou irregulares, as microcalcificações ou calcificações mistas e os formatos mais altos do que largos foram considerados como um nódulo maligno suspeito na ultrassonografia em escala de cinza. A vascularização acentuada foi considerada um nódulo maligno suspeito na ultrassonografia com doppler colorido. O sistema Bethesda para classificação de nódulos tireoidianos foi usado para a citopatologia. Resultados: Com relação aos resultados da citologia por punção aspirativa com agulha fina para detecção de nódulos malignos suspeitos, as sensibilidades foram de 0,564, 0,600 e 0,691 para a ultrassonografia em escala de cinza, ultrassonografia com doppler colorido subjetivo e escala de cinza combinada com ultrassonografia com doppler colorido subjetivo, respectivamente, e as acurácias foram 0,926, 0,919 e 0,959, respectivamente. A detectabilidade de nódulos suspeitos malignos para ultrassonografia em escala de cinza, ultrassonografia com doppler colorido subjetivo e escala de cinza combinada com ultrassonografia com doppler colorido subjetivo foram de 0,09-0,56, 0,08-0,61 e 0,063-0,7 de confiança diagnóstica, respectivamente. Conclusões: A ultrassonografia em escala de cinza combinada com o doppler colorido subjetivo e biópsias por punção aspirativa com agulha fina guiadas por ultrassonografia são recomendados para o diagnóstico de carcinoma da tireoide. Nível de evidência: III.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
2.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 50-57, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364302

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: A primary medical relevance of thyroid nodules consists of excluding thyroid cancer, present in approximately 5% of all thyroid nodules. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has a paramount role in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules due to its availability and diagnostic performance. Nevertheless, intraoperative frozen section (iFS) is still advocated as a valuable tool for surgery planning, especially for indeterminate nodules. Subjects and methods: To compare the FNAB and iFS performances in thyroid cancer diagnosis among nodules in Bethesda Categories (BC) I to VI. The performance of FNAB and iFS tests were calculated using final histopathology results as the gold standard. Results: In total, 316 patients were included in the analysis. Both FNAB and iFS data were available for 272 patients (86.1%). The overall malignancy rate was 30.4%% (n = 96). The FNAB sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for benign (BC II) and malignant (BC V and VI) were 89.5%, 97.1%, and 94.1%, respectively. For all nodules evaluated, the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 80.9%, 100%, and 94.9%, respectively. For indeterminate nodules and follicular lesions (BC III and IV), the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 25%, 100%, and 88.7%, respectively. For BC I nodules, iFS had 95.2% of accuracy. Conclusion: Our results do not support routine iFS for indeterminate nodules or follicular neoplasms (BC III and IV) due to its low sensitivity. In these categories, iFS is not sufficiently accurate to guide the intraoperative management of thyroidectomies. iFS for BC I nodules could be an option and should be specifically investigated


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Frozen Sections/methods
4.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 19-24, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279068

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La elastografía por ondas de corte (SWE) ha demostrado ser predictiva de malignidad en nódulos tiroideos. Objetivo: Determinar mediante SWE, el punto de corte de la rigidez con mayor especificidad y sensibilidad para detectar nódulos tiroideos que requieren cirugía. Métodos: Estudio transversal de pacientes con nódulos tiroideos evaluados ultrasonográficamente en un periodo de tres años; se empleó la clasificación TI-RADS y mediante SWE se determinó la rigidez de los nódulos. Con el sistema Bethesda se clasificaron las muestras histopatológicas y mediante curva ROC se obtuvo el punto de corte de la rigidez con mayor especificidad y sensibilidad. Resultados: 41 % de los nódulos fue TI-RADS 5 y 59 %, TI-RADS 1-4. En los TI-RADS 5, la mediana de rigidez de los nódulos con categoría IV-VI del sistema Bethesda fue de 35.9 kPa y en los nódulos con TI-RADS 1-4, 21.6 kPa. En los nódulos TI-RADS 5, la rigidez > 32.5 kPa tuvo especificidad de 75 % y sensibilidad de 57 % para detectar los que requieren cirugía; en los TI-RADS 1-4, el valor de corte de 21.5 kPa tuvo especificidad de 63 % y sensibilidad de 51 %. Conclusión: La rigidez determinada por SWE es útil para detectar nódulos que requerirán exploración quirúrgica.


Abstract Introduction: Shear-wave elastography (SWE) has been shown to be predictive of malignancy in thyroid nodules. Objective: To determine, by SWE, the stiffness cutoff point with the highest specificity and sensitivity to detect thyroid nodules that require surgery. Methods: Cross-sectional study of ultrasonographically-evaluated patients for thyroid nodules over a period of three years; the TI-RADS classification system was used, and nodule stiffness was determined by SWE. Histopathological specimens were classified using the Bethesda system, and the stiffness cutoff point with the highest specificity and sensitivity was obtained using ROC curves. Results: Forty-one percent of the nodules were classified as TI-RADS 5, and 59 %, as TI-RADS 1-4. In TI-RADS 5 nodules, median stiffness of those in Bethesda system IV-VI categories was 35.9 kPa; in nodules with TI-RADS 1-4, 21.6 kPa. In TI-RADS 5 nodules, a cutoff point > 32.5 kPa had a specificity of 75 % and sensitivity of 57 % to detect those requiring surgery; in TI-RADS 1 to 4 nodules, a cutoff point of 21.5 kPa had a specificity of 63 % and sensitivity of 51 %. Conclusion: SWE-determined stiffness is useful to detect nodules that require surgical evaluation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods
6.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(3): 115-117, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293385

ABSTRACT

La ecografía tiroidea es la principal herramienta diagnóstica en el manejo de los nódulos tiroideos, siendo la presencia de microcalcificaciones un signo de malignidad. Sin embargo, existen escasas publicaciones acerca de la presencia de microcalcificaciones en ausencia de nódulo identificable y su asociación con cáncer de tiroides. Presentamos un caso de una mujer de 26 años, que, tras hallazgo incidental de bocio, se describe en ecografía un tiroides con alteración difusa de su ecogenicidad e imágenes compatibles con microcalcificaciones sin claro nódulo definido en su polo inferior. Tras realización de punción aspiración con aguja fina de la lesión con resultado Bethesda categoría 5, se decide realizar tiroidectomía total, presentando estudio histológico con diagnóstico de carcinoma papilar de tiroides variante clásica con metástasis ganglionares p(T1bN1a). Tras una revisión sistemática, los estudios hasta hoy publicados sugieren que la presencia de microcalcificaciones aisladas sin nódulo identificable debe considerarse un importante factor de riesgo de cáncer de tiroides, especialmente en gente joven, y en aquellas asentadas sobre una tiroiditis de Hashimoto. Por ende, resulta imperativo mantener una alta sospecha ante el hallazgo de este tipo de lesiones, recomendando una valoración exhaustiva de las mismas con la realización de una punción aspiración con aguja fina a todas las lesiones con dichas características.


Thyroid ultrasound is the main diagnostic tool in the management of thyroid nodules, with the presence of microcalcifications being a sign of malignancy. However, there are few publications about the presence of microcalcifications in the absence of an identifiable nodule and its association with thyroid cancer. We present a case of a 26-year-old woman who, after an incidental finding of goiter, a thyroid with diffuse echogenicity alteration and images compatible with microcalcifications without a clear nodule defined in the lower pole of the lobe is described on the ultrasound. After performing a fine needle aspiration of the lesion resulting in a Bethesda category 5, a total thyroidectomy was performed, presenting in the histological study a diagnosis of a classic variant of a papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastases p (T1bN1a). After a systematic review, the studies previously published suggest that the presence of isolated microcalcifications without an identifiable nodule should be considered an important risk factor for thyroid cancer, especially in young people, and in those with a concomitant Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Therefore, it is imperative to maintain a high suspicion of the discovery of this type of lesion, recommending an exhaustive assessment of them with the performance of a fine needle aspiration to all lesions with these features.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Calcinosis/surgery , Calcinosis/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/surgery , Carcinoma/pathology , Ultrasonography , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
7.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(2): 48-54, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095230

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los nódulos tiroideos son una consulta muy prevalente en Endocrinología. Las guías de la Asociación Americana de Tiroides (2015) animaban a realizar estudios a largo plazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue revisar las características, el seguimiento y la evolución de los nódulos de tiroides seguidos en nuestras consultas hasta 2015. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes con al menos dos ecografías o cirugía. Los datos clínicos, ecográficos y de punción, así como la evolución y los resultados histológicos de aquellos operados, se analizaron con métodos descriptivos, bivariados y de regresión. RESULTADOS: 1.420 pacientes seguidos en Endocrinología a largo plazo fueron incluidos. 20 se excluyeron por tener una sola ecografía. El 71,2% presentaban normofunción, 9,6% hipertiroidismo subclínico, 9,5% hipotiroidismo subclínico, 5,7% hipotiroidismo clínico y 4% hipertiroidismo clínico. Del total de nódulos seguidos (n= 1400), 64,1%, 15,6% y 20,3% permanecieron estables, aumentaron y disminuyeron respectivamente. Los que crecieron no tuvieron más características sospechosas en las ecografías. De los intervenidos (457 casos (32,6% del total), 207 fueron malignos (45,2%). 57% de ellos fueron diagnosticados e intervenidos durante el primer año, en la primera evaluación. La aparición de nódulos malignos en el resto de pacientes fue de 89 casos (6,3% de todos los nódulos seguidos, 38,3% de ellos, incidentalomas). La ecografía y la citología empleadas antes de la homogenización de los criterios diagnósticos tuvieron una baja sensibilidad y especificidad en nuestro medio. CONCLUSIONES: Más de la mitad de los cánceres de tiroides fueron diagnosticados en la evaluación inicial del nódulo tiroideo. Más de la mitad de los nódulos no operados en el primer año mantienen el mismo tamaño a largo plazo. No encontramos predictores clínicos del aumento de tamaño. El valor diagnóstico de la ecografía y PAAF sin unos criterios estandarizados homogéneos es bajo.


INTRODUCTION: Thyroid nodules are a very prevalent consultation in endocrinology. Guidelines from the American Thyroid Association (2015) encouraged to conduct follow-up studies in the long term. This study object was to review the clinical characteristics, follow-up and evolution of thyroid nodules visited in our consultations till 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of patients that had at least two thyroid ultrasounds or had been operated. Clinical, ultrasound and FNA (fine needle aspiration) data as well as the evolution and histology results of those operated, were analyzed with descriptive, bivariated and regression analyses. RESULTS: 1.420 patients followed in Endocrinology in the long term were included. 20 were excluded for having only one ecography. 71,2% had normal function, 9,6% subclinical hyperthyroidism, 9,5% subclinical hypothyroidism, 5,7% clinical hypothyroidism and 4% clinical hyperthyroidism. Of all the nodules followed (n=1400), 64,1%, 15,6% and 20,3% remained the same size, grew and decreased respectively. Nodules that grew didn´t have more suspicious sonographic characteristics. Of the operated nodules (457 cases (32,6% of all), 207 were cáncer (45,2%). 57% of them were diagnosed and intervened during the first year, in the first evaluation. Malignant nodules were detected in the rest of patients in 89 cases (6,3% of all the followed nodules, 38,3% of them were incidental cases). The ultrasound and citology diagnoses used before the homogenization of diagnoses criteria had a low senitivity and specificity in our clinical environment. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the thyroid cancers were diagnosed in the initial evaluation of the thyroid nodule. More than half of nodules non operated in the first year remained the same size long term. We could not find clinical predictors of growth. The diagnostic value of the ultrasound and FNA is low without standardized and homogenous criteria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Clinical Evolution , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Ultrasonography , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
8.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(2): 55-60, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095285

ABSTRACT

Dada la mayor accesibilidad a la ecografía tiroidea, se diagnostican más nódulos de forma incidental aumentando su prevalencia al 65% en las tres últimas décadas. Todo ello ha supuesto un aumento de punciones innecesarias. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es identificar la utilidad de la clasificación TIRADS y de las características ecográficas de los nódulos tiroideos para establecer la probabilidad de malignidad de los mismos y seleccionar aquellos sospechosos para realizar la punción y aspiración con aguja fina (PAAF). Se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la malignidad y nódulo sólido, hipoecogenicidad, márgenes irregulares y microcalcificaciones. Sin embargo, no se encontró relación estadísticamente significativa entre malignidad y número de nódulos, tamaño nodular, diámetro craneocaudal y vascularización central. Asimismo, un 26.1% de los nódulos TIRADS-2 (todos ellos microcarcinomas), un 30% de los TIRADS-3 y un 54 % de los TIRADS-4 fueron malignos (p 0.027). Tanto el TIRADS como las características ecográficas aisladas son útiles para identificar nódulos sugerentes de malignidad.


Owed to the easier accessibility to thyroid ecography, more incidental nodules are discovered reaching their prevalence the 65 % of population in the last three decades. All of it has resulted in a growth of unnecessary fine needle aspirations (FNA). Our study objective is to identify the TIRADS classification utility and the nodules sonographic characteristics to establish their probability of malignancy and to select those suspicious susceptible of FNA. We found a statistically significant relationship between malignancy and solid nodule, hypoechogenicity, irregular margins and microcalcifications. However we didn´t find a relation between malignancy and number, size, shape (taller than wide) and central vascularity. With respect to TIRADS classification, 26,1% of TIRADS-2 (all of them microcarcinomas), 30% of TIRADS-3 and 54% of TIRADS-4 were malignant (p: 0,027). Both of them, TIRADS and individual sonographic characteristics are useful to identify nodules suspicious of malignancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Nodule/classification , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods
9.
Clinics ; 75: e1594, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the risk stratification tool for thyroid nodules, and ultrasound elastography is not routinely used for the differential diagnosis of thyroid cancer. The current study aimed to compare the diagnostic parameters of ultrasound elastography and fine-needle aspiration cytology, using surgical pathology as the reference standard. METHODS: In total, 205 patients with abnormal thyroid function test results underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology on the basis of the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging-Reporting and Data System classification and strain ultrasound elastography according to the ASTERIA criteria. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimens was performed according to the 2017 World Health Organization classification system. Moreover, a beneficial score analysis for each modality was conducted. RESULTS: Of 265 nodules, 212 measured ≥1 cm. The strain index value increased from benign to malignant nodules, and the presence of autoimmune thyroid diseases did not affect the results (p>0.05 for all categories). The sensitivities of histopathological examination, ultrasound elastography, and fine-needle aspiration cytology for detection of nodules measuring ≥1 cm were 1, 1, and 0.97, respectively. The working area for detecting nodule(s) in a single image was similar between strain ultrasound elastography and fine-needle aspiration cytology for highly and moderately suspicious nodules. However, for mildly suspicious, unsuspicious, and benign nodules, the working area for detecting nodule(s) in a single image was higher in strain ultrasound elastography than in fine-needle aspiration cytology. CONCLUSION: Strain ultrasound elastography for highly and moderately suspicious nodules facilitated the detection of mildly suspicious, unsuspicious, and benign nodules.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyrotropin/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(4): 271-275, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040520

ABSTRACT

Existe mucha controversia sobre los beneficios de la medición de la calcitonina sérica (CT) durante la evaluación inicial de pacientes con nódulos tiroideos. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la identificación temprana del carcinoma medular de tiroides (CMT) a través de la medición rutinaria de CT sérica en una cohorte de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se estudiaron consecutivamente a los pacientes con enfermedad nodular de la tiroides (n=1017). La CT se midió por quimioluminiscencia (valor normal: hasta 18 pg/ml en hombres y 12 pg/ml en mujeres). En dos pacientes, la hipercalcitoninemia se confirmó en mediciones repetidas. La aspiración con aguja fina con medición de CT en el líquido obtenido identificó la presencia del CMT. El estudio genético fue positivo en uno (mutación exón 14, Val804Met, CMT familiar). El otro presentó un polimorfismo (heterocigoto exón 13 L769L - heterocigoto exón 15 S904S). En ambos casos, la CT se normalizó 3 meses después de la cirugía y se mantuvo en valores normales después de 6 años de seguimiento. La medición rutinaria de la CT en nódulos tiroideos fue útil para detectar dos casos de CMT, uno de ellos esporádico y el otro familiar en la cohorte seguida. La prevalencia de CMT fue de 0.2%.


There is much controversy about the benefits of the use of serum calcitonin (CT) in the initial evaluation of patients with thyroid nodules. The objective of the study was to early identify medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) through the routine measurement of CT in thyroid nodular pathology in a large cohort of patients from Buenos Aires, Argentina. Consecutive patients with nodular thyroid disease (n=1017) were studied. CT was measured by chemiluminescence, normal value: up to 18 pg/ml in men and 12 pg/ml in women. In two patients, hypercalcitoninemia was confirmed in repeated measurements. Fine needle aspiration with CT measurement in the needle wash fluid identified MTC in nodules with citology abnormalities. The genetic study was positive in one patient (mutation exon 14, Val804Met, MTC familiar). The other presented a polymorphism (exon 13 L769L heterozygous - exon 15 S904S heterozygous). In both cases, CT was normalized 3 months after surgery and remained normal after 6 years of follow-up. The routine measurement of CT in thyroid nodular pathology was useful to detect two cases of MTC, one of them sporadic and the other familiar in this cohort. The prevalence of MTC was 0.2%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Calcitonin/blood , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/blood , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/blood , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/pathology , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/blood , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Early Diagnosis , Luminescence
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 337-344, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019355

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: We aimed to determine the roles of preoperative thyroid nodule diameter and volume in the prediction of malignancy. Subjects and methods: The medical records of patients who underwent thyroidectomy between January 2007 and December 2014 were reviewed. The nodule diameters were grouped as < 1 cm, 1-1.9 cm, 2-3.9 cm and ≥ 4 cm, and volume was grouped as > 5 cm3, 5-9.9 cm3 and > 10 cm3. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve analysis was performed to find the optimal cutoff value of diameter and volume that can predict malignancy. Results: There were 5561 thyroid nodules in 2463 patients. Five hundred and forty (9.7%) nodules were < 1 cm, 2,413 (43.4%) were 1-1.9 cm, 1,600 (28.8%) were 2-3.9 cm and 1,008 (18.1%) were ≥ 4 cm. Malignancy rates were 25.6%,10.6%, 9.7% and 8.5% in nodules < 1 cm, 1-1.9 cm, 2-3.9 cm and ≥ 4 cm, respectively. When classified according to volume, 3,664 (65.9%) nodules were < 5 cm3, 594 (10.7%) were 5-9.9 cm3 and 1,303 (23.4%) were ≥ 10 cm3. The malignancy rates were 12.7%, 11.4% and 7.8% for the nodules < 5 cm3, 5-9.9 cm3 and ≥ 10 cm3, respectively (p < 0.001). In ROC curve analysis, an optimal cutoff value for diameter or volume that can predict malignancy in all thyroid nodules or nodules ≥ 4 cm could not be determined. Conclusion: In this surgical series, malignancy risk did not increase with increasing nodule diameter or volume. Although the volume of malignant nodules ≥ 4 cm was higher than that of benign nodules ≥ 4 cm, there was no optimal cutoff value. The diameter or volume of the nodule cannot be used to predict malignancy or decide on surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/classification , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Adenoma, Oxyphilic/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Risk Assessment/methods , Tumor Burden , Diagnosis, Differential
12.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(3): 175-178, jul. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006639

ABSTRACT

Los nódulos tiroideos suelen ser benignos en más del 95% de los casos y eutiroideos. La probabilidad de cáncer de tiroides en el hipertiroidismo es baja. Al enfrentarse a un nódulo tiroideo la importancia radica en excluir patología maligna, pero se debe mantener el orden en el algoritmo de estudio para evitar un diagnóstico incorrecto y caer en costos innecesarios. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 23 años de edad con hipertiroidismo que en la ecografía aparece un nódulo tiroideo y adenopatía derecha, ambos con elementos sospechosos de malignidad, por lo que se pide punción de ambas estructuras, y se confirma el carcinoma papilar en el nódulo tiroideo, no así en la adenopatía. En el centellograma se observa un nódulo caliente que coincide con el nódulo maligno. Se realiza biopsia intraoperatoria de la adenopatía sospechosa y resulta ser una metástasis de carcinoma papilar. Se procedió a la tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento ganglionar central y lateral derecho. La anatomía patológica confirmó la presencia del carcinoma papilar clásico con metástasis de la adenopatía sospechosa. Posteriormente se administraron 130 mCi de radioyodo. Se debe considerar que los carcinomas pueden enmascararse ocasionalmente como nódulos «calientes¼ en el centellograma y en este caso, si bien en principio no estaría indicada la punción con aguja fina del nódulo dado que es hipercaptante en el centellograma, la ecografía demuestra elementos sospechosos contundentes de malignidad. En este caso el hilo conductor fue la ecografía y se rompió con el esquema clásico en la solicitud de estudios paraclínicos, obteniendo finalmente la confirmación diagnóstica de un cáncer y se realizó el tratamiento adecuado del mismo.


Thyroid nodules are usually benign in more than 95% of cases and euthyroid. The likelihood of thyroid cancer in hyperthyroidism is low. When dealing with a thyroid nodule the importance lies in excluding malignant pathology, but order must be maintained in the study algorithm to avoid an incorrect diagnosis and to fall into unnecessary costs. We present the case of a 23-year-old woman with hyperthyroidism who presented a thyroid nodule and right adenopathy on ultrasound, both with suspicious elements of malignancy, so puncture of both structures was requested, and papillary carcinoma was confirmed in the thyroid nodule, but not in adenopathy. In the scintigraphy a hot nodule is observed that coincides with the malignant nodule. Intraoperative biopsy of the suspected adenopathy is performed and it turns out to be a metastasis of papillary carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy was performed with central and right lateral lymph node dissection. The pathological anatomy confirmed the presence of classic papillary carcinoma with metastasis of the suspected adenopathy. Subsequently, 130 mCi of radioiodine was administered. It should be considered that carcinomas can occasionally be masked as «hot¼ nodules in the scintigraphy and in this case, although in principle the fine needle puncture of the nodule is not indicated given that it is hypercaptant in the scintigraphy, the ultrasound shows blunt suspicious elements of malignancy. In this case, the common thread was ultrasound and it was broken with the classic scheme in the request for paraclinical studies, finally obtaining the diagnostic confirmation of a cancer and the appropriate treatment was carried out.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Radionuclide Imaging , Ultrasonography , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m , Hyperthyroidism
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(2): 107-112, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001216

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: This observational study analyzed telomerase reverse transcriptase (pTERT) mutations in 45 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens obtained from thyroid nodules followed by postoperatively confirmation of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) diagnosis, examining their relationship with clinicopathologic aspects and the BRAFV600E mutation. Subjects and methods: Clinical information was collected from patients who presented to Ribeirao Preto University Hospital for surgical consultation regarding a thyroid nodule and who underwent molecular testing between January 2010 to October 2012. Tests included a DNA-based somatic detection of BRAFV600E and pTERT mutations. Results: We found coexistence of pTERTC228T and BRAFV600E mutations in 8.9% (4/45) of thyroid nodules. All nodules positive for pTERT mutations were BRAFV600E positives. There was a significant association between pTERTC228T/BRAFV600E with older age and advanced stage compared with the group negative for either mutation. Conclusions: This series provides evidence that FNA is a reliable method for preoperative diagnosis of high-risk thyroid nodules. pTERTC228T/BRAFV600E mutations could be a marker of poor prognosis. Its use as a personalized molecular medicine tool to individualize treatment decisions and follow-up design needs to be further studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Thyroid Nodule/genetics , Telomerase/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Prognosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Age Factors , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Preoperative Period , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnosis , Mutation/genetics , Neoplasm Staging
14.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(1): 24-31, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984060

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: A discussion in literature about a standardized decision support tool for the management of thyroid nodules remains. Objective: The purpose of this study was to create a statistical prediction model for thyroid nodules management. Methods: Two hundred and four benign and 57 malignant thyroid nodules were selected for a retrospective study. The variables age, gender and ultrasonographic features were examined using univariate and multivariate models. A statistical formula was used to calculate the risk of cancer of each case. Results: In multivariate analysis, irregular shape, absence of halo, lower mean age, homogeneous echotexture, microcalcifications and solid content were associated with cancer. After applying the formula, 20 cases (7.6%) with a calculated risk for malignancy ≤3.0% were found, all of them benign. Setting the calculated risk in ≥80%, 21 (8.0%) cases were selected, and in 85.7% of them cancer was confirmed in histopathology. Internal accuracy of the prediction formula was 92.5%. Conclusions: The prediction formula reached high accuracy and may be an alternative to other decision support tools for thyroid nodule management.


Resumo Introdução: Persiste na literatura uma discussão sobre uma ferramenta padronizada de apoio à decisão para o manejo de nódulos tireoidianos. Objetivo: Criar um modelo de previsão estatística para o manejo de nódulos tireoidianos. Método: Foram selecionados 204 casos de nódulos tireoidianos benignos e 57 malignos para o estudo retrospectivo. As variáveis idade, sexo e características ultrassonográficas foram analisadas com modelos univariados e multivariados. Uma fórmula estatística foi usada para calcular o risco de câncer de cada caso. Resultados: Na análise multivariada, a forma irregular, a ausência de halo, menor idadesubp média, ecotextura homogênea, microcalcificações e conteúdo sólido foram associadas ao câncer. Após a aplicação da fórmula, foram encontrados 20 casos (7,6%) com risco calculado de malignidade ≤ 3,0%, todos benignos. Definiu-se o risco calculado em ≥ 80%, 21 casos (8,0%) foram selecionados e em 85,7% deles o câncer foi confirmado pela histopatologia. A precisão interna da fórmula de previsão foi de 92,5%. Conclusões: A fórmula de previsão alcançou alta precisão e pode ser uma opção para outras ferramentas de apoio à decisão para o manejo de nódulos da tireoide.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Risk Assessment/methods , Sex Factors , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Models, Statistical , Ultrasonography , Age Factors , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis, Differential
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(6): 576-584, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983811

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Approximately 15-30% of all thyroid nodules evaluated with fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are classified as cytologically indeterminate. The stepwise unraveling of the molecular etiology of thyroid nodules has provided the basis for a better understanding of indeterminate samples and an opportunity to decrease diagnostic surgery in this group of patients. Over the last 15 years, several studies have tested different methodologies to detect somatic mutations (by polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing, for example), and to identify differentially expressed genes or microRNA, aiming at developing molecular tests to improve the presurgical diagnosis of cytologically indeterminate nodules. In this review, we will provide an overview of the currently available molecular tests and the impact of mutation testing on the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. We will also review current published data and future perspectives in molecular testing of thyroid nodule FNAB and describe the current Brazilian experience with this diagnostic approach. Based on currently available data, especially for countries outside the US-Europe axis, a rational use of these tests must be made to avoid errors with regard to test indication and interpretation of test outcomes. In addition to clinical, radiological, and cytological features, we still need to determine local malignancy rates and conduct more independent validation and comparative performance studies of these tests before including them into our routine approach to indeterminate FNAB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/standards , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Mutation , Brazil , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods
17.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(4): 460-465, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950088

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: Detection rate of thyroid nodules is increasing with the use of new imaging modalities, especially in screening for malignancies. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/ CT)-positive thyroid nodules should be differentiated for malignancy to avoid unnecessary operations and further follow-up. Most trials evaluate the role of SUVmax, but there is no definitive information about the utility of Hounsfield unit (HU) values for prediction of malignancy. This study aimed to evaluate the HU values beside SUVmax for detecting malignancy risk of PET/CT-positive thyroid nodules. Subjects and methods: Results of 98 cancer patients who had fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for thyroid nodules detected on PET/CT between January 2011 and December 2015 were assessed. The FNABs and surgical pathological results were recorded. Results: FNABs revealed benign results in 32 patients (32.7%), malignant in 18 (18.4%), non-diagnostic in 20 (20.4%), and indeterminate in 28 (28.5%). Twenty-four patients underwent thyroidectomy. The mean HU values were not significantly different in benign and malignant nodules (p = 0.73). However, the mean SUVmax was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in malignant ones. Area under curve (AUC) was 0.824 for SUVmax; the cut-off value was over 5.55 (p < 0.001), with 80% sensitivity, 84.5% specificity. Conclusions: Our current study demonstrated that HU value does not add any additional valuable information for discriminating between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. We also defined a SUV cut-off value of 5.55 for malignant potential of thyroid nodules detected on PET/CT Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2018;62(4):460-5


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Radiopharmaceuticals/administration & dosage , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/administration & dosage , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis, Differential
18.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(2): 131-138, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887647

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Ultrasonography (US) is the best diagnostic tool for initial assessment of thyroid nodule. Recently, data reporting systems for thyroid lesions, such as the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) and American Thyroid Association (ATA), which stratifies the risk for malignancy, have demonstrated good performance in differentiating malignant thyroid nodules. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability of both data reporting systems in predicting thyroid malignancy in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and methods We evaluated 195 thyroid nodules using modified TI-RADS and ATA risk stratification. The results were compared to the cyto-pathology analysis. Histopathological results were available for 45 cases after surgery, which is considered the golden standard for diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Results When compared with cytological results, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were 100, 61.1, 100, and 63%, respectively, for TI-RADS; and 100, 75, 100, and 76%, respectively, for ATA. When compared with histopathological results, sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and accuracy were 90, 51.4, 94.7, and 60% respectively, for TI-RADS; and 100, 60, 100, and 68%, respectively, for ATA. All patients with malignant nodules were classified in the categories 4 or 5 of TI-RADS and in the intermediate or high suspicion risk according to the ATA system. Conclusion Both TI-RADS and the ATA guidelines have high sensitivity and NPV for the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. These systems are feasible for clinical application, allowing to better select patients to undergo fine-needle aspiration biopsies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Ultrasonography/methods , Thyroid Nodule/cerebrospinal fluid , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Risk Assessment/methods , Reference Standards , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
19.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(4): eAO4279, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975095

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate safety and effectiveness of nodule volume reduction and thyroid function after percutaneous laser ablation treatment in patients with benign nonfunctioning thyroid nodules. Methods Prospective single-center study, from January 2011 to October 2012, which evaluated 30 euthyroid and thyroid antibodies negative patients with benign solitary or dominant nodule with indication of treatment due to compressive symptoms and aesthetic disturbances. The clinical and laboratory (thyroid ultrasound, TSH, FT4, TG, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab and TRAb levels) evaluations were performed before the procedure, and periodically 1 week, 3 months and 6 months after. The ablation technique was performed under local anesthesia and sedation. In each treatment, one to three 21G spinal needle were inserted into the thyroid nodule. The laser fiber was positioned through the needle, which was then withdrawn 10mm to leave the tip in direct contact with the nodule tissue. Patients were treated with a ND: Yag-laser output power of 4W and 1,500 to 2,000J per fiber per treatment. The entire procedure was performed under US guidance. Results Thirty patients, with a total of 31 nodules submitted to laser ablation were evaluated. The median volumetric reduction of the nodule was approximately 60% after 12 months. No statistical significance was observed on thyroid function and antibodies levels. There was a peak on the level of thyroglobulin after the procedure due to tissue destruction (p<0.0001). No adverse effects were observed. Conclusion Percutaneous laser ablation is a promising outpatient minimally invasive treatment of benign thyroid nodule.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a segurança e a efetividade da redução de volume nodular e função tireoidiana após tratamento com ablação percutânea por laser em pacientes com nódulos tireoidianos benignos não funcionantes. Métodos Estudo unicêntrico prospectivo, de janeiro de 2011 a outubro de 2012, que avaliou 30 pacientes eutireoideos (com anticorpos antitireoide negativos), com nódulo solitário ou dominante benigno, com indicação de tratamento devido a sintomas de compressão e distúrbios estéticos. As avaliações clínica e laboratorial (ultrassonografia de tireoide, TSH, FT4, TG, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab e TRAb) foram realizada antes do procedimento e periodicamente − 1 semana, 3 meses e 6 meses depois. A técnica de ablação consistiu em procedimento realizado sob a anestesia local e sedação. Em cada tratamento, uma a três agulhas espinhais 21G foram inseridas no nódulo tireoidiano. A fibra laser foi posicionada através da agulha que foi, então, retirada 10mm, para deixar a ponta em contato direto com o nódulo. Os pacientes foram tratados com uma potência de saída ND: Yag-laser de 4W e 1.500 a 2.000J por fibra por tratamento. Todo o procedimento foi guiado por ultrassonografia. Resultados Foram avaliados 30 pacientes, com total de 31 nódulos submetidos à ablação a laser. A redução média volumétrica do nódulo foi de aproximadamente 60% após 12 meses. Não foi observada significância estatística na função da tireoide e nem nos níveis de anticorpos. Houve pico no nível de tiroglobulina após o procedimento devido à destruição do tecido (p<0,0001). Nenhum efeito adverso foi observado. Conclusão A ablação com laser é um tratamento minimamente invasivo promissor para tratamento do nódulo benigno da tireoide.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Laser Therapy/methods , Organ Size , Pain, Postoperative , Autoantibodies/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Calcitonin/blood , Thyrotropin/blood , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/blood , Laser Therapy/adverse effects
20.
Clinics ; 73: e370, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952815

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Most thyroid diseases are nodular and have been investigated using ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), the reports of which are standardized by the Bethesda System. Bethesda category III represents a heterogeneous group in terms of lesion characteristics and the malignancy rates reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the differences in the malignancy rates among Bethesda III subcategories. METHODS: Data from 1,479 patients who had thyroid surgery were reviewed. In total, 1,093 patients (89.6% female, mean age 52.7 (13-89) years) were included, and 386 patients were excluded. FNAB results (based on Bethesda Class) and histopathological results (benign or malignant) for coincident areas were collected. Bethesda III patients were subcategorized according to cytopathological characteristics (FLUS: follicular lesion of undetermined significance, Bethesda IIIA; AUS: atypia of undetermined significance, Bethesda IIIB). Data were correlated to obtain the malignancy rates for each Bethesda category and the newly defined subcategory. RESULTS: FNAB results for these patients were as follows: Bethesda I: 3.1%; Bethesda II: 18.6%; Bethesda III: 35.0%; Bethesda IV: 22.1%; Bethesda V: 4.1%; and Bethesda VI: 17.1%. The malignancy rates for Bethesda Class IIIB were significantly higher than those for Bethesda Class IIIA (p<0.001) and Bethesda Class IV (p<0.001). Bethesda Class IIIA showed significantly lower malignancy rates than Bethesda Class III overall (p<0.001) CONCLUSIONS: Improvements of the Bethesda System should consider this subcategorization to better reflect different malignancy rates, which may have a significant impact on the decision-making process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/classification , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Thyroid Nodule/classification , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Risk Assessment , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis, Differential , Image-Guided Biopsy
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