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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009227

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the feasibility of mimics software in analyzing a new type of complex anterior cervical fixation -- anterior transpedicular screw fixation+zero notch internal fixation.@*METHODS@#From January 2021 to September 2022, 50 normal pedestrians who underwent cervical spine CT scanning were selected for C1-C7 segment scanning, including 27 males and 23 females, aged from 25 to 65 years old with an average of (46.0 ± 9.0) years old. The dicom format is exported and engraved into the CD, and use the mimics software to perform 3D reconstruction of each segment. A simulated screw is placed on the image according to the critical value of zero notch screw (head and tail angle 44°, internal angle 29°). The position of zero notch screw in each segment is observed to determine the feasibility of anterior transpedicular screw fixation plus zero notch internal fixation.@*RESULTS@#For the upper zero notch screws the three-dimensional images of the cervical spine across all 50 subjects within the C3-C7 segments demonstrated safe position, with no instances of intersection with ATPS. For the lower zero notch screw, in C3-C4 and C4-C5, 4 out of 50 subjects are in the safe position in the three-dimensional images of cervical vertebrae, and 46 cases could achieve secure screw placement when the maximum caudal angle is(32.3±1.9) ° and (36.1±2.2) °, respectively. In C5-C6 and C6-C7 segments, no lower zero notch screws intersected with ATPS, and all screws are in safe positions.@*CONCLUSION@#Lower cervical anterior pedicle screw fixation plus zero notch internal fixation can achieve successful nail placement through the selected entry point and position.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Feasibility Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Pedicle Screws , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Cervical Vertebrae/surgery , Software
2.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 17(3): 335-345, sept. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514373

ABSTRACT

La sialoadenitis crónica esclerosante puede extenderse desde una sialoadenitis focal hasta una cirrosis completa de la glándula. Aparece entre los 40 y 70 años de edad y afecta principalmente a la glándula submandibular. Se asocia con sialolitos y agentes infecciosos inespecíficos. La causa más frecuente de sialolitiasis es la formación de cálculos macroscópicamente visibles en una glándula salival o en su conducto excretor, de los cuales el 80 % al 90 % provienen de la glándula submandibular. Esta predilección probablemente se deba a que su conducto excretor es más largo, más ancho y tiene un ángulo casi vertical contra la gravedad, contribuyendo así a la estasis salival. Además, la secreción semimucosa de la misma es más viscosa. El sitio principal de ubicación de los litos en el conducto submandibular es la región hiliar con un 57 %. La sintomatología típica de la sialolitiasis es el cólico con tumefacción de la glándula y los dolores posprandiales. Reportamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 55 años, quien ingresa al servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital General Balbuena de la Ciudad de México por presentar un aumento de volumen en la región submandibular izquierda de consistencia dura y dolorosa a la palpación de 15 días de evolución, acompañada de aumento de temperatura en la zona compatible con un absceso. Los estudios de imagen reportan un sialolito en la región hiliar del conducto submandibular de 2,0 x 1,7 x 1,0 cm. Debido a su localización y tamaño, el tratamiento ideal en estos casos es la escisión de la glándula junto con el lito previo drenaje del absceso e inicio de terapia antibiótica doble.


Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis can range from focal sialadenitis to complete cirrhosis of the gland. It appears between 40 and 70 years of age and mainly affects the submandibular gland. It is associated with sialoliths and nonspecific infectious agents. The most common cause of sialolithiasis is the formation of macroscopically visible stones in a salivary gland or its excretory duct, of which 80 % to 90 % come from the submandibular gland. This predilection isprobably due to the fact that their excretory duct is longer, wider and has an almost vertical angle against gravity, thus contributing to salivary stasis. In addition, the semimucous secretion of it is more viscous. The main location of the stones in the submandibular duct is the hilar region with 57 %. The typical symptomatology of sialolithiasis is colic with swelling of the gland and postprandial pain. We report the case of a 55-year-old male patient, who was admitted to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Service of the Hospital General Balbuena in Mexico City due to an increase in volumen in the left submandibular region that was hard and painful on palpation of 15 days of evolution, accompanied by increased temperature in the area compatible with an abscess. Imaging studies report a 2.0 x 1.7 x 1.0 cm sialolith in the submandibular duct hilar region. Due to its location and size, the ideal treatment in these cases is excision of the gland together with the stone previous drainage of the abscess and initiation of dual antibiotic therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sialadenitis/diagnostic imaging , Submandibular Gland/surgery , Tuberculosis, Oral/diagnostic imaging , Sialadenitis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Oral/drug therapy , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Clindamycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Drainage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 17(3): 236-239, sept. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514374

ABSTRACT

A 31-year-old man is presented and is evaluated by panoramic radiography. As a finding, an extensive lesion with a cystic appearance was detected in the anterior part of the maxilla. Computed tomography shows a lesion corresponding to the characteristics of a cyst. In the histology the combination of two types of epithelium is observed, pseudostratified columnar and stratified squamous, confirming that this was a nasopalatine duct cyst.


Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 31 años, evaluado mediante radiografía panorámica. Como hallazgo se detecta una extensa lesión de aspecto quístico en la parte anterior del maxilar. En la tomografía computada se observa una lesión que corresponde a las carácterísticas de un quiste. La histología muestra una combinación de dos tipos de epitelio, pseudostratificado columnar y estratificado escamoso, confirmando que se trataba de un quiste del canal nasopalatino.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Radiography, Panoramic/methods , Odontogenic Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Maxillary Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
4.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 17(3): 240-244, sept. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514375

ABSTRACT

La celulitis orbitaria es una patología grave que está asociada con sinusitis paranasal. Éstas suelen presentar edema periorbitario, dolor, y movimiento extraocular restringido. La mayoría de los casos presentan pronóstico favorable, asociado a terapia antibiótica o drenaje quirúrgico. Las celulitis de origen odontogénico representan 2 a 5 % de todos los casos; se caracterizan por una diseminación del proceso infeccioso desde los ápices de las raíces, infectando al seno maxilar, llegando a la órbita a través de la fisura orbitaria inferior o a través de un defecto en el piso de la órbita. En el presente estudio se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 28 años que consulta por aumento de volumen periorbitario izquierdo con 4 días de evolución, posterior a exodoncia de segundo molar superior izquierdo. Al examen extraoral presenta aumento de volumen izquierdo con eritema periorbitario, proptosis ocular ipsilateral con visión conservada, y salida de líquido purulento por fosa nasal izquierda. En los exámenes de laboratorio e imagenológicos se pesquisa compromiso de seno maxilar, etmoidal y esfenoidal, decidiendo su hospitalización y manejo quirúrgico en tres tiempos operatorios, los cuales permiten acceso a pared anterior del seno maxilar y a espacio pterigoideo. Dentro de los diagnósticos de celulitis orbitaria pueden incluir reacciones alérgicas, conjuntivitis o herpes. Se excluyeron los diagnósticos mencionados debido a que no se observaron alteraciones dermocutáneas periorbitarias. Por el contrario, el compromiso unilateral, movimiento ocular alterado y doloroso indica que el cuadro abarcaba espacios profundos. La infección de senos paranasales posterior a una exodoncia es una complicación poco frecuente. Un diagnóstico temprano adecuado disminuye la morbilidad y mortalidad de esta condición. Debemos estar alertas a complicaciones posteriores en procedimientos realizados, tener conocimiento en diagnóstico y manejo de posibles evoluciones tórpidas en pacientes.


Orbital cellulitis is a serious pathology that is associated with paranasal sinusitis. These medical conditions usually present with periorbital edema, pain, and restricted extraocular movement. Most cases have a favorable prognosis, associated with antibiotic therapy or surgical drainage. Cellulitis of odontogenic origin represents 2 to 5 % of all cases. They are characterized by a spread of the infectious process from the apices of the roots, infecting the maxillary sinus, reaching the orbit through the inferior orbital fissure or through a defect in the floor of the orbit. The present study reports the case of a 28-year-old male patient, who consulted for a volume increase in left periorbital volume with 4 days of evolution, after extraction of the upper left second molar. Extraoral examination showed left volume increase with periorbital erythema, ipsilateral ocular proptosis with preserved vision, and discharge of purulent fluid from the left nostril. The laboratory and imaging tests showed compromise of the maxillary, ethmoid and sphenoid sinus deciding on hospitalization and surgical management in three operative times, which allow access to the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus and the pterygoid space. Diagnoses of orbital cellulitis may include allergic reactions, conjunctivitis, or herpes. These diagnoses were excluded because no periorbital dermocutaneous alterations were observed. In contrast, unilateral involvement, impaired eye movement, and pain indicate that the condition involved deep spaces. Paranasal sinus infection after tooth extraction is a rare complication. An early diagnosis adequately decreases the morbidity and mortality of this condition. We must be alert to subsequent complications in procedures performed, have knowledge in diagnosis and management of possible torpid evolutions in patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Maxillary Sinusitis/surgery , Maxillary Sinusitis/diagnostic imaging , Maxillary Sinus/surgery , Tooth Extraction/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Orbital Cellulitis/surgery , Focal Infection, Dental/therapy
5.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 34(3): 10-16, sept. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552469

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La escisión completa del mesocolon con linfadenectomía D3 (CME-D3) mejora los resultados de los pacientes operados por cáncer del colon. Reconocer adecuadamente la anatomía vascular es fundamental para evitar complicaciones. Objetivo: El objetivo primario fue determinar la prevalencia de las variaciones anatómicas de la arteria mesentérica superior (AMS) y sus ramas en relación a la vena mesentérica superior (VMS). El objetivo secundario fue evaluar la asociación entre las distintas variantes anatómicas y el sexo y la etnia de lo pacientes. Diseño: Estudio de corte transversal. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron 225 pacientes con cáncer del colon derecho diagnosticados entre enero 2017 y diciembre de 2020. Dos radiólogos independientes describieron la anatomía vascular observada en las tomografías computadas. Según la relación de las ramas de la AMS con la VMS, la población fue dividida en 2 grupos y subdividida en 6 (1a-c, 2a-c). Resultados: La arteria ileocólica fue constante, transcurriendo en el 58,7% de los casos por la cara posterior de la VMS. La arteria cólica derecha, presente en el 39,6% de los pacientes, cruzó la VMS por su cara anterior en el 95,5% de los casos. La variante de subgrupo más frecuente fue la 2a seguida por la 1a (36,4 y 24%, respectivamente). No se encontró asociación entre las variantes anatómicas y el sexo u origen étnico. Conclusión: Las variaciones anatómicas de la AMS y sus ramas son frecuentes y no presentan un patrón predominante. No hubo asociación entre las mismas y el sexo u origen étnico en nuestra cohorte. El reconocimiento preoperatorio de estas variantes mediante angiotomografía resulta útil para evitar lesiones vasculares durante la CME-D3. (AU)


Background: Complete mesocolic excision with D3 lymphadenectomy (CME-D3) improves the outcomes of patients operated on for colon cancer. Proper recognition of vascular anatomy is essential to avoid complications. Aim: Primary outcome was to determine the prevalence of anatomical variations of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and its branches in relation to the superior mesenteric vein (SMV). Secondary outcome was to evaluate the association between these anatomical variations and sex and ethnicity of the patients. Design: Cross-sectional study. Material and methods: Two hundred twenty-fivepatients with right colon cancer diagnosed between January 2017 and December 2020 were included. Two independent radiologists described the vascular anatomy of computed tomography scans. The population was divided into 2 groups and subdivided into 6 groups (1a-c, 2a-c), according to the relationship of the SMA and its branches with the SMV. Results: The ileocolic artery was constant, crossing the SMV posteriorly in 58.7% of the cases. The right colic artery, present in 39.6% of the patients, crossed the SMV on its anterior aspect in 95.5% of the cases. The most frequent subgroup variant was 2a followed by 1a (36.4 and 24%, respectively). No association was found between anatomical variants and gender or ethnic origin. Conclusions: The anatomical variations of the SMA and its branches are common, with no predominant pattern. There was no association between anatomical variations and gender or ethnic origin in our cohort. Preoperative evaluation of these variations by computed tomography angi-ography is useful to avoid vascular injuries during CME-D3. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Colon, Ascending/anatomy & histology , Colon, Ascending/blood supply , Lymph Node Excision , Mesocolon/surgery , Argentina , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/anatomy & histology , Sex Distribution , Colectomy/methods , Ethnic Distribution , Anatomic Variation , Mesenteric Veins/anatomy & histology
6.
J.health med.sci. ; 9(3): 65-74, jul.2023. graf, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1524689

ABSTRACT

Las nuevas tecnologías para el tratamiento del cáncer con radiación ionizante tienen especial interés en mejorar la calidad de las imágenes para el posicionamiento adecuado del paciente con sistemas de radioterapia guiada por imagen IGRT. El sistema Halcyon cuenta con imágenes de tomografía computarizada de haz de cono CBCT. Estas imágenes podrían ser una opción para escenarios donde no se cuente con una Tomografía Computarizada CT o el equipo se encuentre en reparación o mantenimiento especialmente para escenarios de intensión paliativa. La diferencia en la distribución de dosis en imágenes CT y CBCT fue analizada en este estudio. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en las unidades Hounsfield UH, aunque no fueron estadísticamente significativas, el volumen irradiado mostro diferencias máximas de 3,92% que no supera el 4% permitido para tratamientos de intensión paliativa. En cuanto a las dosis dispersas al tejido sano la diferencia tampoco supera el 4%. Nuestro estudio mostro que las imágenes CBCT pueden ser una alternativa para el tratamiento de metástasis óseas, sin embargo, estas imágenes todavía no pueden remplazar las imágenes CT utilizadas para el cálculo de dosis en radioterapia


New technologies for the treatment of cancer with ionizing radiation are of particular interest in improving image quality for proper patient positioning with image-guided radiation therapy IGRT systems. IGRT image-guided radiation therapy systems. The Halcyon system features cone beam computed tomography CBCT imaging. These images could be an option for scenarios where a CT scan is not available or the equipment is under repair or maintenance especially for is under repair or maintenance, especially for palliative scenarios. The difference in the The difference in dose distribution in CT and CBCT images was analyzed in this study. The results showed differences in Hounsfield UH units, although not statistically significant, the irradiated volume showed maximum differences of 3.92%, which is the maximum difference of 3.92%. Differences of 3.92%, which does not exceed the 4% allowed for palliative treatments. As for the doses dispersed to healthy tissue the difference does not exceed the 4% allowed for palliative treatments. Our study showed that CBCT imaging can be an alternative for the treatment of metastases. an alternative for the treatment of bone metastases, however, these images cannot yet replace the CT images used for dose calculation. CT images used for dose calculation in radiotherapy


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided/methods , Radiotherapy Dosage , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods
7.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(2): 166-170, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515475

ABSTRACT

La parálisis o paresia facial alternobárica es una neuropraxia del séptimo nervio cra-neal debido a cambios de presión. Se produce en el contexto de una disfunción de la trompa de Eustaquio, una dehiscencia canal del nervio facial y cambios en la presión atmosférica. Se considera una rara complicación de barotrauma. Su prevalencia es difícil de estimar y, probablemente, se encuentre subreportada. La forma de presentación más habitual incluye paresia facial, plenitud aural, hipoacusia, otalgia, parestesias faciales y linguales. La mayoría de los episodios son transitorios, con una duración entre minutos y algunas horas, con recuperación posterior completa. Entre los diagnósticos diferenciales se encuentran causas periféricas y centrales de paresia facial, las cuales hay que sospechar ante la persistencia de los síntomas en el tiempo o ante la presencia de otros signos o síntomas neurológicos. La evaluación inicial debe incluir un examen otoneurológico completo. La tomografía computarizada de hueso temporal favorece la visualización de posibles dehiscencias del canal del facial. La prevención de nuevos episodios incluye la práctica de ecualización efectiva, la resolución de la disfunción de la trompa de Eustaquio y en algunos casos específicos, métodos alternativos de ventilación del oído medio como la colocación de tubos de ventilación. Una vez instalada la parálisis facial, si no se produce recuperación espontánea, el uso de corticoides es una opción. Se presenta un caso de paresia facial alternobárica recurrente y una revisión de literatura.


Alternobaric facial palsy or paralysis is a neuropraxia of the seventh cranial nerve due to pressure changes. It occurs in the context of Eustachian tube dysfunction, facial nerve canal dehiscence, and changes in atmospheric pressure. It is considered a rare complication of barotrauma. Its prevalence is difficult to estimated, and this condition is probably underreported. The most common form of presentation includes facial weakness, ear fullness or pressure, hearing loss, otalgia, facial and lingual paresthesias. Most episodes are transient, lasting from minutes to a few hours, with a subsequent complete recovery. Among the possible differential diagnoses are peripheral and central causes of facial paralysis, which must be suspected due to the persistence of symptoms over time or the presence of other neurological signs or symptoms. The initial evaluation should include a complete otoneurological examination. Computed tomography of the temporal bone is useful for the visualization of facial canal dehiscence. Prevention of further episodes includes practicing effective equalization, Eustachian tube dysfunction treatment, and in certain specific cases, alternative middle ear ventilation methods such as tympanostomy tubes. Once facial paralysis is established, if spontaneous recovery does not occur, the use of corticosteroids is considered an option. A case of recurrent alternobaric facial paresis and a review of the literature are presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Facial Paralysis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Evoked Potentials
8.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(2): 181-184, jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515478

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de Castleman (EC) describe una serie de desórdenes linfoproliferativos de patrones histológicos similares, pero de etiologías, presentaciones clínicas y enfrentamientos notoriamente variables. Se presenta el caso de un paciente que consultó por masa cervical, cuyo estudio final concluyó EC unicéntrica, la cual se resolvió de forma quirúrgica. Además, se presenta una revisión actualizada del tema, con foco en la enfermedad unicéntrica.


Castleman's disease (CD) describes several lymphoproliferative disorders with similar histological patterns, but with notoriously variable etiologies, clinical presentations, and management. We present the case of a patient who consulted with cervical mass, whose final study concluded with unicentric CD, which was treated surgically. In addition, an updated review of the subject is presented, focusing on unicentric disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Submandibular Gland/pathology , Castleman Disease/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Castleman Disease/pathology
10.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 36(1): e282, abr. 2023. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509332

ABSTRACT

Coração em criss-cross (ou coração entrecruzado) foi descrito pela primeira vez em 1974. Trata-se de uma malformação cardíaca congênita, rara, ocorrendo 8 casos a cada 1.000.000 de crianças, e representando somente 0,1% das malformações congênitas. Os métodos diagnósticos de escolha são o ecocardiograma transtorácico, a ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC), a angiotomografia (TC) e, eventualmente, o cateterismo cardíaco. Neste relato, descreve-se o caso de um recém-nascido com coração em criss-cross somado à dupla via de saída do ventrículo direito (VD), com vasos mal posicionados, além de comunicação interatrial (CIA), comunicação interventricular (CIV), displasia de valva tricúspide e veia cava superior esquerda persistente. Não se sabe a etiologia exata dessa malformação, mas parece ocorrer pela rotação dos ventrículos em seu eixo longitudinal, não acompanhada das rotações atrial e das valvas atrioventriculares (AV). Esse movimento produz uma alteração das vias de entrada dos ventrículos, determinando que o VD se posicione em plano superior e o esquerdo em plano inferior. Apesar de ainda não se saber a exata causa dessa anomalia, acredita-se que uma alteração genética possa estar levando a esses casos: a mutação do gene Cx43. O diagnóstico do caso em questão foi dado pela ecocardiografia transtorácica e da TC de aorta e artérias pulmonares, que mostraram, além do criss-cross, outras alterações, como dupla via de saída do VD, CIA e CIV amplas.(AU)


Criss-cross heart was first described in 1974. It is a rare congenital heart malformation that occurs in 8 cases per 1,000,000 children, and represents only 0.1% of congenital malformations. The diagnostic methods of choice are transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), computed tomography angiography (CT) and, sometimes, cardiac catheterization. This report describes the case of a newborn with a criss-cross heart in addition to double-outlet right ventricle (RV), with poorly positioned vessels, in addition to atrial septal defect (ASD), interventricular septal defect, tricuspid valve dysplasia and persistent left superior vena cava. The exact etiology of this malformation is not known, but it seems to occur due to rotation of the ventricles in their longitudinal axis, not accompanied by rotation of the atrial and atrioventricular (AV) valves. This movement produces abnormal ventricular inlets, determining that the RV be positioned on a superior plane and the left ventricle on an inferior plane. Although the exact cause of this anomaly is still unknown, it is believed that a genetic abnormality may be leading to these cases: mutation of the Cx43 gene. Diagnosis of the case concerned was given by transthoracic echocardiography and computed CT of the aorta and pulmonary arteries, which showed, in addition to the criss-cross heart, other abnormalities, such as double-outlet RV, large ASD and ventricular septal defect (VSD).(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Crisscross Heart/etiology , Crisscross Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnosis , Heart Ventricles/abnormalities , Double Outlet Right Ventricle/diagnosis , Echocardiography/methods , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava/diagnosis , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/diagnosis
11.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 36(1): e368, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512933

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: As calcificações de artérias coronárias (CAC) mostram-se como fator preditivo de doenças cardiovasculares (DCV). A tomografia computadorizada (TC) de tórax com protocolo de aquisição de baixa dose apresenta acurácia na identificação de CAC e propicia achados incidentais dessas calcificações, que são comumente negligenciados. Este estudo analisará a prevalência de achados incidentais de calcificação em artérias coronárias em indivíduos não cardiopatas submetidos à TC de tórax. Métodos: Estudo transversal consecutivo de caráter analítico e descritivo. Foram incluídos indivíduos de ambos os sexos que realizaram TC de tórax por encaminhamento, acima de 18 anos e não cardiopatas. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de prontuários e ficha de anamnese auto aplicada. As variáveis referentes às CAC e à extensão do comprometimento foram obtidas a partir da reavaliação das imagens de TC de tórax disponíveis no sistema da instituição. Os exames foram anonimizados e avaliados por dois médicos radiologistas experientes. Considerou-se como estatisticamente significativo p≤0,05. Resultados: Foram analisados 397 exames. Encontrou-se prevalência de calcificações em 176 (44%) dos casos. A existência dessas calcificações coronárias está relacionada à idade (p<0,001). As calcificações possuem relação com o sexo (p = 0,03) com maior razão de chance de desenvolvimento em homens (odds ratio [OR] = 1,55). O tabagismo (p<0,001), o sedentarismo (p<0,001), a hipertensão arterial sistêmica (p<0,001), o diabetes mellitus (p = 0,04) e as dislipidemias (p<0,001) mostraram associação positiva. Conclusão: A prevalência de achados incidentais de CAC foi de 44%; variam em maior número entre leve e grave; maior razão de chance no sexo masculino e aumento da prevalência com a idade. Portanto, a TC de tórax mostra-se um efetivo método para avaliar as CAC, e juntamente com a história clínica do paciente pode ser utilizada para medir os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares e intervir no desfecho do quadro.(AU)


Introduction: Coronary artery calcifications (CAC) are shown to be a predictive factor of cardiovascular diseases. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest with a low-dose acquisition protocol is accurate in identifying CAC and provides incidental findings of these calcifications, which are commonly overlooked. This study will analyze the prevalence of incidental findings of calcification in coronary arteries in non-cardiac individuals undergoing chest CT. Methods: Consecutive cross-sectional study of an analytical and descriptive nature. Individuals of both genders who underwent chest CT by referral, over 18 years of age and without heart disease were included. Data collection was carried out using medical records and a self-applied anamnesis form. The variables referring to the CAC and the extension of the impairment were obtained from the reassessment of the chest CT images available in the institution's system. The exams were anonymized and evaluated by two experienced radiologists. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 397 exams were analyzed. A prevalence of calcifications was found in 176 (44%) of the cases. The existence of these coronary calcifications is related to age (p<0.001). Calcifications are related to gender (p = 0.03) with a higher odds ratio of development in men (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55). Smoking (p<0.001), sedentary lifestyle (p<0.001), systemic arterial hypertension (p<0.001), Diabetes Mellitus (p = 0.04), and dyslipidemia (p<0.001) showed a positive association. Conclusion: The prevalence of incidental CAC findings was 44%; vary in greater numbers between mild and severe; higher odds ratio in males and increased prevalence with age. Therefore, chest CT proves to be an effective method to assess CAC, and together with the patient's clinical history, it can be used to measure risk factors for CVD and intervene in the outcome of the condition.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Incidental Findings , Vascular Calcification/physiopathology , Vascular Calcification/prevention & control , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Tobacco Use Disorder/etiology , Chest Pain/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Hemoptysis/etiology , Hypertension/etiology
13.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 36(1): e366, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515911

ABSTRACT

A pericardite constritiva (PC) é uma condição na qual a cicatrização e perda de elasticidade do pericárdio resultam em enchimento ventricular prejudicado, disfunção diastólica e insuficiência cardíaca direita. O diagnóstico dessa patologia é desafiador, sendo frequente a necessidade de técnicas de imagem multimodal, dentre as quais a ecocardiografia representa a modalidade de imagem inicial para a avaliação diagnóstica, além de permitir a diferenciação da PC da cardiomiopatia restritiva (CMR) e outras condições que mimetizam constrição. (AU)


Constrictive pericarditis (CP) is a condition in which scarring and loss of elasticity of the pericardium result in impaired ventricular filling, diastolic dysfunction, and right heart failure. The diagnosis of this pathology is challenging, with frequent need for multimodal imaging techniques, among which echocardiography represents the initial imaging modality for the diagnostic evaluation, in addition to allowing the differentiation of CP from restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) and other conditions that mimic constriction. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pericarditis, Constrictive/physiopathology , Pericarditis, Constrictive/diagnostic imaging , Pericardium/abnormalities , Heart Failure/etiology , Pericardium/anatomy & histology , Tuberculosis/complications , Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive/diagnosis , Echocardiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 401-409, abr. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440294

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Hyoid bone measurements have been proposed to vary between different genders and age groups. The aim of the study is to study hyoid morphometrics among Jordanian patients. 3D-CT scans of 637 patients were analyzed. Ten parameters of hyoid bone were measures, including the anteroposterior length, length of greater horns (right and left), height of greater horns (right and left), width of hyoid body, height of hyoid body, the distance between the midpoints of the posterior ends of the greater horns of the hyoid bone, the angle between right and left greater horns, and the distance of the hyoid bone to the vertebral column. Also, vertebral level, fusion rank, morphology of hyoid body lingula, and shape of hyoid bone were documented. All hyoid dimensions were longer in males, but greater horns angle was wider in females. In patients younger than 30 years, the parameters are the smallest with the widest angle. The distance from hyoid to vertebral column is higher in males (30-49) years of age. No fusion between hyoid body and greater horns was observed in patients younger than 10 years, but fusion (unilateral or bilateral) was found in only 73.2 % of patients ≥ 70 years. The hyoid was mostly at vertebra C3 level and "U" shaped. The lingula shape was mostly "Scar" in males (especially ≥ 50 years) and "Nothing" in females (especially < 50 years). The maximum growth of hyoid dimensions is before age of 30 years. Fusion between hyoid body and greater horns was not seen in patients younger than 10 years. Otherwise, the hyoid features failed to predict age or gender in our sample. Furthermore, 3D-CT scan is an excellent tool to assess the anatomy of head and neck region.


Se ha propuesto que las medidas del hueso hioides varían entre los diferentes sexos y grupos de edad. El objetivo del estudio fur estudiar la morfometría del hueso hioides en pacientes jordanos. Se analizaron tomografías computarizadas en 3D de 637 pacientes. Se midieron diez parámetros del hueso hioides, incluyendo la longitud anteroposterior, la longitud de los cuernos mayores (derecho e izquierdo), la altura de los cuernos mayores (derecho e izquierdo), el ancho del cuerpo hioides, la altura del cuerpo hioides, la distancia entre los puntos medios de los extremos posteriores de los cuernos mayores del hueso hioides, el ángulo entre los cuernos mayores derecho e izquierdo, y la distancia del hueso hioides a la columna vertebral. Además, se documentaron el nivel vertebral, el rango de fusión, la morfología de la língula del cuerpo hioides y la forma del hueso hioides. Todas las dimensiones del hioides fueron más largas en los hombres, pero el mayor ángulo de los cuernos fue más ancho en las mujeres. En pacientes menores de 30 años, los parámetros son los más pequeños con el ángulo más amplio. La distancia del hioides a la columna vertebral es mayor en el sexo masculino (30-49) años. No se observó fusión entre el cuerpo hioides y los cuernos mayores en pacientes menores de 10 años, pero se encontró fusión (unilateral o bilateral) en solo el 73,2 % de los pacientes ≥ 70 años. El hioides estaba mayormente al nivel de la vértebra C3 y en forma de "U". La forma de la língula era mayoritariamente "Cicatriz" en los hombres (especialmente ≥ 50 años) y "Nada" en las mujeres (especialmente < 50 años). El máximo crecimiento de las dimensiones del hioides es antes de los 30 años. La fusión entre el cuerpo hioides y los cuernos mayores no se observó en pacientes menores de 10 años. No obstante, las características del hueso hioides no pudieron predecir la edad o el sexo en nuestra muestra. Además, la tomografía computarizada 3D es una herramienta excelente para evaluar la anatomía de la región de la cabeza y el cuello.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Hyoid Bone/diagnostic imaging , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Hyoid Bone/anatomy & histology
15.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(1): 86-91, mar. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431958

ABSTRACT

El neumoencéfalo corresponde a la presencia de aire intracraneal y, en general, es asintomático y autolimitado. Puede ocurrir posterior a trauma, cirugía craneofacial, defectos congénitos, infección, neoplasia o de forma espontánea. El neumoencéfalo a tensión es una emergencia neuroquirúrgica, en la que se acumula aire intracraneal de forma continua que genera un efecto de masa. Clínicamente, se caracteriza por cefalea y un deterioro neurológico marcado. A pesar de ser poco frecuente, es relevante considerar el neumoencéfalo a tensión como una posible complicación en pacientes con antecedente de neurocirugía y/o cirugía otorrinolaringológica, debido a que es una patología potencialmente grave. El diagnóstico es clínico e imagenológico, y requiere de un alto índice de sospecha. Un manejo oportuno es relevante para prevenir la herniación y la muerte.


Pneumocephalus refers to the presence of air in the cranial cavity, and in general, is self-limited and asymptomatic. It can occur after trauma, craniofacial surgery, due to congenital defects, infection, neoplasia or spontaneously. Tension pneumocephalus is a neurosurgical emergency in which intracranial air accumulates continuously, causing a mass effect. It presents with headache and marked neurological deterioration. Despite being rare, it is relevant to consider tension pneumocephalus as a possible complication in patients with a history of neurosurgery and/or otolaryngology surgery, as it can be life-threatening. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and imagenologic confirmation. Timely management is relevant to prevent herniation and death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumocephalus/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Intracranial Hypertension/diagnostic imaging
16.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431950

ABSTRACT

El colesteatoma congénito (CC) es una lesión benigna de epitelio escamoso queratinizado que puede afectar diferentes aéreas del hueso temporal con predominio en el oído medio. El CC es una patología poco frecuente que se presenta en pacientes pediátricos y clínicamente se manifiesta como una lesión blanquecina detrás de un tímpano indemne. La mayoría de los pacientes no presenta historia de hipoacusia, otorrea, infección, perforación o cirugía otológica previa. Se analiza el caso de un prescolar con CC que consultó con trastorno de sueño sin sintomatología otológica, pero con otoscopía alterada como hallazgo clínico. En la resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) con secuencia de difusión, se evidenciaron hallazgos sugerentes de lesión colesteatomatosa en oído medio. Se realizó tratamiento quirúrgico endoscópico combinado con remoción completa de la lesión compatible histológicamente con CC y reconstrucción funcional con prótesis inactiva con resultado auditivo satisfactorio. El CC requiere alta sospecha diagnóstica por pediatras y otorrinolaringólogos, siendo imprescindible realizar un examen físico acucioso que incluya otoscopía de rutina, aunque el paciente no manifieste síntomas otológicos. El tratamiento es quirúrgico y debe considerar uso de endoscópico para asegurar una extracción completa de la lesión. En algunos casos es requerido realizar una reconstrucción auditiva para asegurar un óptimo resultado funcional.


Congenital cholesteatoma (CC) is a benign lesion of keratinized squamous epithelium that can affect different areas of the temporal bone, predominantly in the middle ear. CC is a rare pathology that occurs in pediatric patients and clinically manifests as a white lesion behind an intact eardrum. Most patients do not have a history of hearing loss, otorrhea, infection, perforation, or previous otologic surgery. The following, is the case of an infant with CC who consulted with a sleep disorder without otological symptoms but with altered otoscopy as a clinical finding. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with diffusion sequence with findings compatible with a cholesteatomatous lesion in the middle ear. Endoscopic surgical treatment was performed combined with complete removal of the lesion histologically compatible with CC and functional reconstruction with inactive prosthesis with satisfactory hearing results. CC requires high diagnostic suspicion by paediatrics and otorhinolaryngologists, and it is essential to perform a thorough physical examination that includes routine otoscopy even if the patient does not show otological symptoms. Treatment is surgical and endoscopic use should be considered to ensure complete removal of the lesion. In some cases, hearing reconstruction is required to ensure optimal functional results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Cholesteatoma/congenital , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear/congenital , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Cholesteatoma/diagnostic imaging , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear/diagnostic imaging
17.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(1): 37-40, mar. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431951

ABSTRACT

Los linfangiomas son malformaciones linfáticas benignas infrecuentes; se manifiestan principalmente en la infancia. Pueden desarrollarse en cualquier zona del cuerpo, más frecuentemente cabeza y cuello, siendo su compromiso faríngeo extremadamente poco común. Dada su clínica inespecífica se requiere un análisis anatomopatológico preciso para concretar un correcto diagnóstico. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 40 años con historia de disfagia y odinofagia de un año de evolución cuyo estudio imagenológico y con nasofibroscopía evidenció un tumor redondeado alojado en seno piriforme derecho, la biopsia excisional confirmó el diagnóstico de linfangioma. Se debe considerar el diagnóstico de linfangioma dentro de los diagnósticos diferenciales de tumores en faringe y concientizar su presencia en pacientes adulto, para ofrecer el manejo óptimo basado, ya sea en escisión quirúrgica completa, para evitar la recurrencia asociado, o al uso de sustancias esclerosantes.


Lymphangiomas are infrequent benign lymphatic malformations, with clinical manifestations mainly at birth or in childhood. They can develop in any area of the body, most frequently the head and neck, and their pharyngeal involvement is extremely rare. Given its nonspecific symptoms, it requires a precise pathological analysis to make a correct diagnosis. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with a 1-year history of dysphagia and odynophagia whose imaging study and nasofibroscopy revealed a rounded tumor lodged in the right pyriform sinus. The excisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of lymphangioma. The diagnosis of lymphangioma should be considered within the differentials of tumors in the pharynx and awareness of its presence in adults to offer optimal management based on complete surgical excision to avoid recurrence or management with use of sclerosing substances.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymphangioma/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Lymphangioma/pathology
18.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(1): 41-50, mar. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431952

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad relacionada con inmunoglobulina (Ig) G4 es una enfermedad de reciente conocimiento que puede comprometer cualquier órgano teniendo preferencias por ciertas regiones del cuerpo, donde la región de cabeza y cuello es uno de sus principales puntos afectados, pudiendo comprometer tanto la órbita, glándulas salivales, glándulas lagrimales, glándula tiroides, cavidades paranasales, hueso temporal, faringe y laringe. Este último órgano es infrecuentemente comprometido, solo existiendo 12 casos registrados en la literatura antes de la publicación de este escrito. Presentamos un caso de una mujer de 49 años con historia de disnea frente a esfuerzo, diagnosticándose una estenosis subglótica la cual fue manejada quirúrgicamente con una reconstrucción laringotraqueal. En el estudio histopatológico se evidenció histología compatible con enfermedad relacionada con IgG4, por lo que se inició tratamiento médico con corticotera- pia oral por un lapso de 2 meses en conjunto con inmunología. Paciente luego de 4 años de seguimiento, no ha presentado recaídas, manteniendo un lumen subglótico adecuado.


Immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related disease is a medical condition of recent knowledge that can compromise any organ, having preferences for certain regions of the body, where the head and neck region is one of the main affected points, being able to affect orbit, salivary glands, lacrimal glands, thyroid gland, paranasal cavities, temporal bone, pharynx and larynx. The latter is infrequently compromised, with only 12 cases registered in the literature before the publication of this writing. We present a case of a 49-year-old woman with a history of exertional dyspnea, diagnosed with a sub- glottic stenosis which was managed surgically with laryngotracheal reconstruction. The histopathological study revealed histology compatible with IgG4-related disease, so medical treatment with oral corticosteroid therapy was started for a period of 2 months in conjunction with immunology. After 4 years of follow-up, the patient has not presented relapses, maintaining an adequate subglottic lumen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/drug therapy , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/diagnostic imaging , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/immunology , Neck/pathology , Neck/diagnostic imaging
19.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(1): 51-59, mar. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431953

ABSTRACT

El espacio parafaríngeo es una región donde puede surgir un amplio espectro de tumores, que son poco frecuentes y comprenden solo el 0,5 al 1,5% de las neoplasias de cabeza y cuello. Generalmente, son hallazgos y suelen presentarse como masas asintomáticas. Incluye neoplasias primarias, extensión directa de regiones adyacentes y enfermedad metastásica. La literatura describe múltiples patologías e histologías que pueden surgir de esta zona, entre ellas, tenemos los tumores fibrosos solitarios, que son un espectro de neoplasias mesenquimatosas fibroblásticas de histogénesis incierta, que generalmente involucran la pleura. Son lesiones muy poco frecuentes y su localización parafaríngea es excepcional, siendo su primer reporte en la literatura en 1993. Se presenta el caso de un tumor fibroso solitario del espacio parafaríngeo evaluado en nuestro centro, con su enfrentamiento diagnóstico, resolución quirúrgica y seguimiento respectivo, con el objetivo de presentar esta patología poco frecuente a nuestros colegas y contribuir al conocimiento médico.


The parapharyngeal space is a region where a wide spectrum of tumors can arise, which are rare and comprise only 0.5% to 1.5% of head and neck neoplasms. They are generally findings and usually present as asymptomatic masses. Includes primary neoplasms, direct extension from adjacent regions, and metastatic disease. The literature describes multiple pathologies and histologies that can arise from this area, among them, we have solitary fibrous tumors, which are a spectrum of fibroblastic mesenchymal neoplasms of uncertain histogenesis, which are generally the pleura. It is a very rare lesion and its parapharyngeal location is exceptional, being its first report in the literature in 1993. We present the case of a solitary fibrous tumor of the parapharyngeal space evaluated in our center, with its diagnos- tic confrontation, surgical resolution and respective follow-up, with the aim of presenting this rare pathology to our colleagues and contributing to medical knowledge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Solitary Fibrous Tumors/diagnostic imaging , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
20.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 83(1): 60-65, mar. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431954

ABSTRACT

El tumor de Pott es una entidad rara, definida como un absceso subperióstico asociado a osteomielitis del hueso frontal. Suele presentarse como complicación de sinusitis aguda o crónica del seno frontal, y se describe con mayor incidencia en población pediátrica, siendo una complicación grave por su alta morbimortalidad. Se presenta a un paciente pediátrico con tumor de Pott y absceso cerebral posterior a una sinusitis aguda de foco odontogénico, en la que los pilares de tratamiento son drenaje quirúrgico precoz y antibioticoterapia prolongada. Se describe la clínica, manejo médico-quirúrgico y seguimiento posterior, ya que, en ausencia de antecedentes, se debe buscar dirigida- mente enfermedad periodontal y realizar un estudio de inmunodeficiencia primaria.


Pott's tumor is a rare entity, defined as a subperiosteal abscess associated with osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. It usually presents as a complication of acute or chronic sinusitis of the frontal sinus and it is described with a higher incidence in the pediatric population, being a serious complication due to its high morbidity and mortality. We present a pediatric patient with Pott's tumor and brain abscess after acute sinusitis of odontogenic focus, in which the pillars of treatment are an early surgical drainage and prolonged antibiotic therapy. The clinic, medical-surgical management and subsequent follow-up are described, since in the absence of antecedents, periodontal disease should be sought directly and a study of primary immunodeficiency performed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Frontal Sinusitis/diagnostic imaging , Pott Puffy Tumor/diagnostic imaging , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Frontal Sinusitis/drug therapy , Pott Puffy Tumor/drug therapy , Metronidazole/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
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