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1.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 26(1cont): 263-276, jan.-jun. 2023. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1443232

ABSTRACT

A Neospora caninum e a Toxoplasma gondii são os agentes etiológicos que causam a Neosporose e a Toxoplasmose, respectivamente. Estas duas doenças são consideradas de grande importância econômica e de distribuição mundial, que acometem tanto animais de produção quanto animais domésticos. Apresentam sinais clínicos inespecíficos, sendo a Neosporose frequentemente associada ao abortamento em fêmeas. Ambas enfermidades costumavam ser confundidas, dificultando o diagnóstico. São causadas por protozoários cosmopolitas de ciclos biológicos heteróxenos. O Toxoplasma gondii é responsável por doença clínica em cães e gatos, enquanto o Neospora caninum acomete somente cães. Além disso, não há, até o momento, relatos de Neosporose em humanos, diferente da Toxoplasmose. Ocasionalmente esta pode ocorrer em coiotes, suínos, ovinos, caprinos, equinos, cervídeos e bubalinos. Anticorpos contra Neospora tem sido descrito em raposas, camelos e felídeos. O objetivo da presente revisão, é elucidar a forma de transmissão, sinais clínicos, diagnóstico, tratamento e controle de ambas as doenças, mostrando suas semelhanças, afim de que se possa diagnosticá-las corretamente.(AU)


Neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii are agents of great economic importance and worldwide distribution that affect production and domestic animals. They present nonspecific clinical signs, and neosporosis is a disease that frequently causes abortion in females, which is considered current, because both used to be confused, making diagnosis difficult. They are protozoan, cosmopolitan, of heterogeneous biological cycles. Toxoplasma gondii is responsible for clinical disease in dogs and cats, while Neospora caninum affects only dogs. Furthermore, there are no reports to date of neosporosis in humans, other than toxoplasmosis. Occasionally it may occur in coyotes, pigs, sheep, goats, horses, deer, and bubaline. Antibodies to Neospora have been described in foxes, camels, and felids. This review aims to elucidate the transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control of both diseases, showing their similarities, so that they can be correctly diagnosed.(AU)


Neospora caninum y Toxoplasma gondii son los agentes etiológicos que causan Neosporosis y Toxoplasmosis, respectivamente. Estas dos enfermedades se consideran de gran importancia económica y de distribución mundial, afectando tanto al ganado como a los animales domésticos. Presentan signos clínicos inespecíficos y la neosporosis se asocia con frecuencia al aborto en mujeres. Ambas dolencias solían ser erróneas, lo que hacía difícil el diagnóstico. Son causados por protozoos cosmopolitas de ciclos biológicos heterogéneos. Toxoplasma gondii es responsable de enfermedades clínicas en perros y gatos, mientras que Neospora caninum sólo ataca a perros. Además, no se han notificado casos de Neosporosis en humanos hasta el momento, diferente de Toxoplasmosis. Ocasionalmente esto puede ocurrir en coyotes, cerdos, ovejas, cabras, caballos, ciervos y bubalinos. Se han notificado anticuerpos contra la Neospora en zorros, camellos y felinos. El propósito de esta revisión es dilucidar la forma de transmisión, los signos clínicos, el diagnóstico, el tratamiento y el control de ambas enfermedades, mostrando sus similitudes, de manera que puedan ser diagnosticadas correctamente.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/etiology , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Coccidiosis/etiology , Toxoplasma/pathogenicity , Neospora/pathogenicity
2.
j. public health epidemiol. (jphe) ; 15(2): 39-49, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1427877

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular parasite that causes a zoonotic disease capable of infecting nearly all warm-blooded hosts, including humans. However, reports on the molecular prevalence of T. gondii in humans are rare in Gabon. The present study aimed to evaluate the serological and molecular prevalence of T. gondii among apparently healthy rural populations in four regions of Gabon. This study included six hundred blood samples from the Interdisciplinary Center for Medical Research (CIRMF) bank, including 300 women and 300 men living in 111 villages. Blood samples were screened using enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), while buffy coat samples were analyzed using PCR analyses. Of the 600 samples screened, 548 (91.3%) showed IgG antibodies against T. gondii; 11 (2%) had both IgG and IgM. Among the 548 positive samples, 155 (28%) had higher IgG titers (>300 UI/ml), and 49 of them (31.6%) were detected with T. gondii DNA. The present findings on human toxoplasmosis in Gabon suggest that at an older age, reactivation of old infections seems more frequent than new infections, as indicated by the presence of T. gondii using PCR among elevated IgG subjects without IgM. Further studies should be performed to identify the genotypes of T. gondii that infect humans in Gabon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital , Rural Population , Humans , Prevalence
3.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(6): 1219-1226, dic. 2022. tab., ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1427360

ABSTRACT

Una de las principales consecuencias de la infección por Toxoplasma gondii en mujeres embarazadas es la transmisión vertical al feto. Aunque es poco frecuente, la toxoplasmosis congénita puede causar enfermedades neurológicas u oculares graves. La infección primaria por T. gondii durante el embarazo puede tener consecuencias peligrosas, como retinocoroiditis, hidrocefalia, calcificaciones cerebrales, encefalitis, esplenomegalia, pérdida de audición, ceguera y muerte. La atención prenatal debe incluir educación sobre la prevención de la toxoplasmosis. Se trata de un estudio observacional, analítico y transversal. Se evaluaron 209 mujeres gestantes e igual número de recién nacidos; 136 de las mujeres embarazadas resultaron con infección aguda positiva a IgM. De estas 51,20% y 64,71% resultaron primoinfectadas según la determinación de IgA e IgG avidez, respectivamente. 20 de los 35 neonatos provenientes de madres primoinfectadas, adquirieron la infección congénita en el tercer trimestre de la gestación. La conciencia sobre la prevención y el control de la toxoplasmosis es baja entre las poblaciones de alto riesgo. Es necesario fortalecer la educación en salud relacionada con la prevención y el control de la toxoplasmosis en las mujeres en edad reproductiva para prevenir la transmisión vertical a sus productos de gestación y evitar los efectos negativos y hasta mortales de la inefcción por el parásito(AU)


One of the main consequences of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women is vertical transmission to the fetus. Although rare, congenital toxoplasmosis can cause serious neurological or ocular disease. Primary T. gondii infection during pregnancy can have dangerous consequences, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephalus, cerebral calcifications, encephalitis, splenomegaly, hearing loss, blindness, and death. Prenatal care should include education on the prevention of toxoplasmosis. This is an observational, analytical and cross-sectional study. 209 pregnant women and the same number of newborns were evaluated; 136 of the pregnant women were acutely infected with IgM. Of these, 51.20% and 64.71% were primary infected according to the determination of IgA and IgG avidity, respectively. 20 of the 35 neonates from mothers with primary infection acquired the congenital infection in the third trimester of pregnancy. Awareness of toxoplasmosis prevention and control is low among high-risk populations. It is necessary to strengthen health education related to the prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in women of reproductive age to prevent vertical transmission to their gestational products and avoid the negative and even fatal effects of infection by the parasite(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Young Adult , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Gestational Age , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Pregnant Women
4.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(4): 185-188, out./dez. 2022. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1427126

ABSTRACT

We conducted aseroepidemiological study on the occurrence of anti-Sarcocystisspp. and anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from family farming properties in the municipality of Ji-Paraná, Rondônia.Blood samples were collected from apparently healthy dogs between September 2012 and November 2013. In total, 181 blood serum samples were analyzed using an indirect immunofluorescence assay, among which 57 (31.49%) and 20 (11.04%) were positive for anti-T. gondii and anti-Sarcocystis spp., respectively. Statistical analyses showed that the type of food fed to the dogs was associated with the occurrence of anti-Sarcocystisspp. antibodies. In contrast, age and access to bovine carcasses were the risk factors for anti-T. gondii.The high occurrence of seropositive dogs for Sarcocystis spp. and T. gondii evidences the wide distribution of these agents in the studied area, possibly due to human and animal exposure to these protozoan species. In addition, anti-T. gondii antibodies were directly proportional to dog age. The increase in the number of positive animals with age was statistically significant. Furthermore, high antibody titers (up to 800) against Sarcocystis spp. in dogs suggest the possibility of recent exposure, in addition to environmental contamination by oocysts/sporocysts eliminated by the feces of these animals.


Conduzimos um estudo soroepidemiológico sobre a ocorrência de anticorpos anti- Sarcocystis spp. e anti-Toxoplasma gondiiem cães de propriedades de agricultura familiar no município de Ji-Paraná, Rondônia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de cães aparentemente saudáveis, entre setembro de 2012 e novembro de 2013. Ao todo, foram analisados 181 soros sanguíneos por meio do ensaio de imunofluorescência indireta, sendo positivas 57 (31,49%) e 20 (11,04%) amostras para anticorpos anti-T. gondii e anti-Sarcocystis spp., respectivamente. As análises estatísticas demonstraram que o tipo de alimentação fornecida aos cães esteve associado à ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Sarcocystis spp. Em contraste a idade e o acesso à carcaça bovina foram fatores de risco para a presença de anticorpos anti-T. gondii. A alta ocorrência de cães soropositivos para Sarcocystis spp. e T. gondii evidencia a ampla distribuição desses agentes na área estudada, possivelmente devido à exposição humana e animal a essas espécies de protozoários. Além disso, o resultado dos anticorpos anti-T. gondii relacionados a idade do cão mostraram diferença estatística, com aumento significativo no número de animais positivos com a idade. Além disso, altos títulos de anticorpos (até 800) contra Sarcocystis spp. em cães sugerem a possibilidade de exposição recente, além da contaminação ambiental por oocistos/esporocistos eliminados pelas fezes desses animais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Toxoplasma , Zoonoses/transmission , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/transmission , Sarcocystis , Sarcocystosis/veterinary , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Oocysts , Dogs/parasitology , Antibodies/analysis
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(3): 260-264, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407791

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La toxoplasmosis es una enfermedad zoonótica cuyo contagio se produce por vía oral por ingestión de quistes al consumir carne contaminada o al tener contacto con heces de felinos contaminadas con ooquistes. Con menor frecuencia, se adquiere por transmisión vertical o por trasplante de órganos infectados. En Chile, existen estudios serológicos en personas sanas e inmunodeprimidas, pero no en grupos de riesgo ocupacional, como son los estudiantes de Medicina Veterinaria. OBJETIVO: Determinar la seroprevalencia para T. gondii en estudiantes de Medicina Veterinaria de una universidad ubicada en el centro-sur del país, y ver su asociación con variable intrínsecas. MÉTODOS. Se tomaron muestras de sangre a 74 estudiantes de una universidad del centro-sur de Chile. Se determinó la presencia de anticuerpos específicos clase IgG contra Toxoplasma gondii mediante la técnica de inmunoanálisis por quimioluminiscencia en fase solida secuencial. RESULTADOS. Del total de alumnos, 16 fueron seropositivos lo que equivale a 21,6%, el mayor número de estudiantes seropositivos fue de sexo femenino (75%), se encontraban en el rango etario entre 24 y 26 años de edad (43,7%), todos consumían carne y verduras (100%) y realizaban la recolección de heces de gatos sin protección 50 (68,7%). CONCLUSIONES. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la presencia de anticuerpos contra T. gondii en alumnos de Medicina Veterinaria. Según el conocimiento de los autores, es el primer estudio serológico para toxoplasmosis realizado en estudiantes universitarios de Medicina Veterinaria en Chile.


BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is a disease that results from infection with the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, one of the world's most common parasites. The zoonotic infection usually occurs by eating undercooked contaminated meat or by contact with contaminated cat feces. A few studies of toxoplasmosis in healthy and immuno-compromised persons were done in Chile, but investigations related to occupational risk groups, such as Veterinary Medicine students were not studied. AIM: Determine the seroprevalence for T. gondii in Veterinary Medicine students at a university located in the center-south of the country, and evaluated to association with intrinsic variables. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were taken from 74 veterinary students from a university in south-central Chile. Immunoassay with sequential chemiluminescent was used as diagnostic technique. RESULTS. Of the total number of students, 16 were seropositive, which is equivalent to 21.6%, the largest number of seropositive students was female (75%), they were in the age range between 24 and 26 years of age (43.7%), all consumed meat and vegetables (100%) and collected pet cat feces without protection 50 (68,7%). CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained show the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in Veterinary Medicine students. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first serological study for toxoplasmosis performed in university students of Veterinary Medicine in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Students , Occupational Risks , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Risk Factors
6.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 12(2): 75-79, abr.-jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417365

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by the Toxoplasma gondii protozoan, transmitted mainly through contaminated water or food, beyond vertical transmission. In the State of Goiás, there is a lack of data on the prevalence of the disease, hence the relevance of this cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in the municipality of Jataí. Methods: Data were collected from pregnant women attended by the public health network in the municipality from January 2005 to December 2015. Results: During the analyzed period, 11,350 pregnant women were attended; 75% with IgG antibodies and 0,60% IgM antibodies reactive for T. gondii, with a reduction in the number of cases since 2010. Conclusion: The high seroprevalence found shows that pregnant women are in close contact with factors that trigger the infection and a reduction in the number of cases indicates the efficacy of epidemiological surveillance actions developed for this population group.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: Toxoplasmose é uma zoonose cosmopolita causada pelo protozoário Toxoplasma gondii, transmitido principalmente através de água e alimentos contaminados e pela transmissão vertical. No estado de Goiás existe uma escassez de dados referentes à prevalência da toxoplasmose. Diante dessa realidade, tornou-se relevante esse estudo transversal que determinasse a prevalência da toxoplasmose nas gestantes no município de Jataí. Métodos: Foram coletados dados de grávidas atendidas pela rede pública de saúde no município no período de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2015. Resultados: No período analisado, foram atendidas 11.350 gestantes, sendo 75% delas com anticorpos IgG e 0,60% anticorpos IgM reagentes para T. gondii, com redução no número de casos a partir de 2010. Conclusão: A alta soroprevalência encontrada demonstra que as grávidas estão em íntimo contato com os fatores que desencadeiam a infecção. É necessário investigar os fatores que contribuem para a elevada taxa de infecção.(AU)


Justificacíon y Objetivos: La toxoplasmosis es uma zoonosis cosmopolita causada por el protozoo Toxoplasma gondii, que se transmite principalmente através del agua o alimentos contaminados, además de la transmisión vertical. Em el estado de Goiás, se carece de dados sobre la prevalência de la enfermedad y ante esta realidade, es relevante este estudio transversal para determinar la prevalência de toxoplasmosis em gestantes del município de Jataí. Métodos: Se recolectaron dados de gestantes atendidas por la red de salud pública del município de Enero de 2005 a Diciembre de 2015. Resultados: Entre el período analizado se trató a 11.350 gestantes, 75% de ellas com anticuerpos IgG y 0,60% anticuerpos IgM reactivos para T. gondii, com uma reducción em el número de casos a partir de 2010. Conclusión: La alta soroprevalência encontrada muestra que las mujeres embarazadas están em estrecho contacto com los fatores desencadenantes de la infección y uma reducción em el número de casos apunta a uma eficácia em las acciones de vigilância epidemiológica desarrolladas para este grupo de problación.(AU)


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Pregnant Women , Seroepidemiologic Studies
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 132-137, abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388350

ABSTRACT

Resumen La toxoplasmosis es una de las parasitosis con mayor prevalencia en el mundo. Se asocia a morbimortalidad perinatal y en población inmunocomprometida. Actualmente se cuenta con varias pruebas diagnósticas, tanto serológicas como moleculares, que pueden ayudar a confirmar el diagnóstico y diferenciar una infección reciente de una pasada. Proponemos algunas recomendaciones para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la toxoplasmosis en distintos escenarios clínicos basados en la evidencia actualmente disponible.


Abstract Toxoplasmosis is one of the most prevalent parasitosis in the world. It is associated with perinatal morbidity and in immunocompromised population. Currently, there are several diagnostic tests, both serological and molecular, that can help confirm the diagnosis and differentiate a recent infection of a pass. We propose some recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis in different clinical scenarios based on the currently available evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/drug therapy , Antibodies, Protozoan , Immunocompromised Host
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(1): 136-146, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374513

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Toxoplasma gondii es un parásito con gran potencial zoonótico que puede infectar un amplio rango de huéspedes de sangre caliente, incluidos los animales del sector pecuario, lo que causa pérdidas a la industria. En el humano, es patógeno en personas inmunosuprimidas y afecta el desarrollo del feto en infecciones congénitas. Además, se asocia con diversos trastornos del comportamiento en personas sanas. El humano puede adquirir T. gondii al consumir carnes contaminadas mal cocidas. Objetivo. Determinar la positividad de T. gondii en carnes de consumo humano (res, pollo y cerdo) en Ibagué, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó la PCR convencional anidada y la secuencia del gen B1 de T. gondii como blanco de amplificación. Se tomaron 186 muestras de carne comercializada en la zona urbana de Ibagué (62 de res, 62 de pollo y 62 de cerdo) y se obtuvo el porcentaje de positividad en cada tipo de carne evaluada. Resultados. Se encontró un porcentaje de positividad de 18,8 % en las muestras, siendo la carne de cerdo la del mayor porcentaje (22,5 %; 14/62), seguida por las muestras de carne de res (19,3 %; 12/62) y de pollo (14,5 %; 9/62). Los mejores productos amplificados fueron secuenciados en Macrogen, y alineados con las secuencias del gen B1 depositadas en el GenBank, con lo que se confirmó su identidad. Conclusiones. Este es el primer estudio sobre prevalencia de T. gondii en carnes para consumo humano en Ibagué y el departamento del Tolima. Se demostró que los tres tipos de carne representan un riesgo para la infección en humanos a nivel local.


Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite with great zoonotic potential. It can infect a broad range of warm-blooded hosts (including livestock) and causes significant losses in the industry. In humans, it has been described as a pathogen in immunosuppressed people, it affects the fetus development in congenital infections, and is associated with various behavioral disorders in healthy people. Humans can acquire T. gondii by consuming undercooked, contaminated meat. Objective: To determine T. gondii positivity (currently unknown) in meat for human consumption (i.e., beef, chicken, and pork) in the city of Ibague, Colombia. Materials and methods: We used conventional nested PCR and the T. gondii B1 gene sequence as amplification target. We collected samples of meat (N=186) sold in the urban area of Ibagué (62 beef, 62 chicken, and 62 pork samples) and determined the T. gondii positivity percentage for each type of meat. Results: The study found an average of 18.8% positivity for all meat samples, pork having the highest percentage (22.5%; 14/62), followed by beef (19.3%; 12/62) and chicken (14.5%; 9/62). The best-amplified products were sequenced by macrogen and aligned with the B1 gene sequences in GenBank, thereby confirming their identity. Conclusions: This is the first study of T. gondii prevalence in meat for human consumption carried out in the city of Ibagué and the department of Tolima. All three types of meat sampled represent a risk for local human infection.


Subject(s)
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Meat
9.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 54(1): 31-36, 20220330. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395648

ABSTRACT

A toxoplasmose é uma doença de ampla distribuição geográfica, sendo um grave problema de saúde pública. A infecção primária durante a gravidez pode causar infecção congênita ao feto e gerar consequências graves. Neste contexto, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) é atualmente um dos métodos mais eficientes para investigação fetal em casos de suspeita de infecção. Portanto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre a toxoplasmose congênita e seu diagnóstico molecular através da PCR. Para tanto, foram pesquisados artigos publicados no período de janeiro de 2010 a abril de 2021 em diferentes bases de dados usando os descritores "Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase", "Toxoplasma gondii" e "Toxoplasmose congênita". A partir da pesquisa, foi possível verificar que a combinação de métodos sorológicos com a realização da PCR, principalmente no líquido amniótico, constitui uma importante ferramenta para o diagnóstico antenatal e pós-natal da toxoplasmose congênita. Além disso, a PCR em tempo real parece não apresentar melhores resultados em comparação à PCR convencional. Não obstante, estudos voltados à padronização da técnica visando melhor sensibilidade são necessários, uma vez que o diagnóstico da toxoplasmose gestacional/congênita permite a implementação do tratamento a fim de minimizar as consequências da infecção ao neonato.


Toxoplasmosis is a disease of wide geographical distribution, being a serious public health concern. The primary infection during pregnancy may cause congenital infection of the infant and lead to serious consequences. In this context, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is currently one of the most efficient methods for fetal investigation in cases when infection is suspected. Therefore, the present study aimed to conduct a literature review on congenital toxoplasmosis and its molecular diagnosis by PCR. Thus, the research for papers published between January 2010 and April 2021 was conducted in different databases, using the terms "polymerase chain reaction", "Toxoplasma gondii" and "congenital toxoplasmosis". It was possible to verify that the combination of serological methods and PCR, mainly of the amniotic fluid, is a valuable tool the antenatal and post-natal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Furthermore, real time PCR seems to have no better results in comparison to conventional PCR. Nevertheless, studies related to standardization of the technique aiming higher sensitivity are necessary since the diagnosis of gestational/congenital toxoplasmosis enables the treatment in order to minimize the consequences of the infection to the infant.


Subject(s)
Toxoplasmosis, Congenital , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Toxoplasma , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Systematic Reviews as Topic
10.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 54(1): 82-86, 20220330. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395851

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in pregnant women in Santa Catarina, as well as to analyze the knowledge about zoonosis in the study population. Methods: Therefore, 109 volunteers evaluated in Basic Health Units in the city of Blumenau and Brusque were evaluated. The data were collected through questionnaires and analysis of the pregnant woman's handbooks with medical records. Results: In this study, the prevalence of IgG anti-T. gondii was 53.7%, with positivity for IgM anti-T. gondii was 1.0%. Seronegativity for toxoplasmosis was verified in 45.3% of the participants. In addition, the data demonstrated that the majority of pregnant women have not any knowledge of the disease. Conclusion: The results of obtained demonstrated that health actions promotion is crucial to clarify about T. gondii infection, in order to prevent this disease during pregnancy.


O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a prevalência de infecção pelo Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) entre gestantes de Santa Catarina, bem como analisar o conhecimento sobre a zoonose na população em estudo. Métodos: Para tanto, foram avaliadas 109 voluntárias atendidas em Unidades Básicas de Saúde dos municípios de Blumenau e Brusque. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionários e análise de cadernetas da gestante. Resultados: Neste estudo, a prevalência global de anti-T. gondii IgG foi de 53,7%, sendo que a positividade para anti-T. gondii IgM foi de 1,0%. A soronegatividade para toxoplasmose foi verificada em 45,3% das participantes. Além disso, os dados revelaram que a maioria das gestantes não tem conhecimento acerca da doença. Conclusão: Os resultados deste estudo demostraram a necessidade da promoção de ações de saúde voltadas ao esclarecimento sobre o T. gondii visando prevenir a infecção durante a gestação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Toxoplasmosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Prenatal Care , Toxoplasma
11.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e189444, fev. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363181

ABSTRACT

Felines play a leading role in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection, but there is scarce information about the epidemiology of Neospora caninum, particularly in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats. Cats seropositive to T. gondii do not usually show symptoms unless they are immunosuppressed, such as FIV-infected cats. The same relationship remains poorly known for N. caninum, although it has been associated with neurological disorders in HIV-infected people. Since FIV-infected cats are prone to develop encephalitis of unknown etiology, this study aimed to evaluate the presence of specific antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum in a shelter for stray cats naturally infected with FIV. A total of 104 serum samples from cats living in a shelter, located in São Paulo city (Brazil), was assessed for T. gondii and N. caninum specific antibody by indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). Of the 104 cats, 25 (24%) were infected with FIV and, aside from these, 8 (32%) had antibodies against T. gondii (titers from 16 to 128). Only 1 (4%) of the FIV-infected cats had antibodies against N. caninum, which was the first record of coinfection. Among the FIV-naïve cats, 11 (14%) were positive for T. gondii(titers from 16 to 256) and only 1 (1.2%) had antibodies against N. caninum. Serologically positive reactions to T. gondii and N. caninum were not correlated with age or sex (p>0.05), and there was no correlation between FIV and the occurrence of anti-T. gondii or anti-N. caninum antibodies (p>0.05). Further studies encompassing larger cat populations from different origins and locations are essential to clarify the prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies in FIV-positive cats.(AU)


Os felinos têm um papel importante na epidemiologia da infecção por Toxoplasma gondii, mas pouco se sabe sobre a epidemiologia da infecção por Neospora caninum em gatos, particularmente em gatos infectados com o vírus da imunodeficiência felina (FIV). Gatos soropositivos para Toxoplasma gondii geralmente não apresentam sintomas a não ser que estejam imunossuprimidos, como gatos infectados com FIV. A mesma relação ainda é pouco conhecida para N. caninum, embora tenha sido associada a distúrbios neurológicos em pessoas infectadas pelo HIV. Considerando que gatos infectados com FIV são propensos a desenvolver encefalite de etiologia desconhecida, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a presença de anticorpos específicos para T. gondii e N. caninum em gatos infectados com FIV. Um total de 104 amostras de soro de gatos residentes em um abrigo na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, foram avaliadas para a presença de anticorpos contra T. gondii e N. caninum pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI). Dos 104 gatos, 25 (24%) estavam infectados com FIV e destes 8, (32%) tinham anticorpos contra T. gondii (titulação entre 16 e 128). Apenas 1 (4%) dos gatos infectados com FIV apresentava anticorpos contra N. caninum, sendo este o primeiro registro dessa coinfecção. Entre os gatos não infectados com FIV, 11 (14%) foram positivos para T. gondii (titulação entre 16 e 256) e apenas 1 (1,2%) tinha anticorpos contra N. caninum. A reação sorologicamente positiva para T. gondii e N. caninum não foi correlacionada com a idade ou sexo (p> 0,05), nem houve correlação entre FIV e ocorrência de anticorpos para T. gondii ou N. caninum(p> 0,05). Estudos subsequentes abrangendo populações maiores de gatos de diferentes origens e locais são essenciais para esclarecer a prevalência de anticorpos contra T. gondii e N. caninum em animais acometidos por FIV.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline/immunology , Neospora/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Coinfection
12.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 1-127 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-TESESESSP, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1436727

ABSTRACT

As vesículas extracelulares (EVs) são nanopartículas produzidas e liberadas por células eucarióticas e procarióticas com propriedades biológicas. EVs desempenham um papel importante no sistema imunológico, transporte de moléculas e comunicação celular. A fim de compreender a participação das EVs na resposta imune durante a infecção por Toxoplasma gondii, este estudo teve com objetivo, investigar as respostas humoral e celular, em camundongos imunizados com EVs liberadas por taquizoítos e desafiados com T. gondii. As EVs de T. gondii (EVs-toxo) foram purificadas a partir de taquizoítos mantidos em culturas celulares. A seguir, um grupo de camundongos foi imunizado com as EVs-toxo e Alum como adjuvante (EV-IM). Como controles, o grupo negativo (N) recebeu somente Alum e os camundongos do grupo positivo (CHR) foram infectados com a cepa ME-49. O grupo EV-IM apresentou altos níveis de IgG1 do que IgM ou IgG2a. IgGs purificadas de soros destes camundongos foram capazes de opsonizar taquizoítos (cepa RH) e, quando os camundongos foram desafiados com a cepa RH tiveram a mortalidade atrasada em 48h. Células do cérebro e do baço deste grupo expressaram mais IFN-y, IL-10 e TNF-α. As EVs dos soros destes camundongos foram purificadas por ultracentrifugação. As análises das EVs de camundongo (EVs-mouse) mostraram que as concentrações de EVs liberadas de soros do grupo N foram menores que as do grupo EV-IM e a presença de exossomos foi confirmada pelo immunoblot das EVs. Esplenócitos de camundongos foram estimulados com EVs-toxo. Esplenócitos dos camundongos do grupo EV-IM expressaram mais IFN-y; TNF-α e IL-17, que os do grupo N. Curiosamente, a IL-10 foi altamente expressa apenas em esplenócitos do grupo EV-IM. Os resultados da expressão gênica de microRNAs (miRNAs) mostraram que os camundongos do grupo EV-IM expressaram mais miR-155-5p, miR-29c-3p e miR-125b-5p do que os do grupo N. Todos esses dados sugerem a participação das EVs na interação T. gondii-hospedeiro. Além disso, os miRNAs liberados pelas EVs interagem com a modulação da resposta imune celular anti T. gondii. A imunização com EVs foi capaz de induzir proteção imunológica. Esses dados fornecem subsídios para propor a diferenciação entre hospedeiros infectados e não infectados pela concentração de EVs. (AU)


Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanoparticles produced and released by eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells with biological properties. EVs play an important role in the immune system, transport of molecules and cellular communication. In order to understand the participation of EVs in the immune response during Toxoplasma gondii infection, this study aimed to investigate the humoral and cellular responses in mice immunized with EVs released by tachyzoites and challenged with T. gondii. T. gondii EVs (toxo-EVs) were purified from tachyzoites maintained in cell cultures. Then, a group of mice was immunized with EVs-toxo and Alum as an adjuvant (EV-IM). As controls, the negative group (N) received only Alum and the mice in the positive group (CHR) were infected with strain ME-49. The EV-IM group had higher levels of IgG1 than IgM or IgG2a. IgGs purified from the sera of these mice were able to opsonize tachyzoites (RH strain) and, when mice were challenged with the RH strain, mortality was delayed by 48h. Brain and spleen cells from this group expressed more IFN-γ, IL-10 and TNF-α. The EVs from the sera of these mice were purified by ultracentrifugation. Analysis of mouse EVs (mouse EVs) showed that the concentrations of EVs released from sera from the N group were lower than those from the EV-IM group and the presence of exosomes was confirmed by the immunoblot of EVs. Mouse splenocytes were stimulated with EVs-toxo. Splenocytes from EV-IM group mice expressed more IFN-y; TNF-α and IL-17 than those of the N group. Interestingly, IL-10 was highly expressed only in splenocytes of the EV-IM group. The results of gene expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) showed that mice in the EV-IM group expressed more miR-155-5p, miR-29c-3p and miR-125b-5p than those in the N group. participation of EVs in T. gondii host interaction. Furthermore, miRNAs released by EVs interact with the modulation of the cellular immune response against T. gondii. Immunization with EVs was able to induce immune protection. These data provide subsidies to propose the differentiation between infected and uninfected hosts by the concentration of EVs. (AU)


Subject(s)
Toxoplasma , Cytokines , Immunization , MicroRNAs , Extracellular Vesicles , Mice
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929061

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide parasite that can infect almost all kinds of mammals and cause fatal toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients. Apoptosis is one of the principal strategies of host cells to clear pathogens and maintain organismal homeostasis, but the mechanism of cell apoptosis induced by T. gondii remains obscure. To explore the apoptosis influenced by T. gondii, Vero cells infected or uninfected with the parasite were subjected to apoptosis detection and subsequent dual RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we found that pro-apoptosis genes such as DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3), growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible α (GADD45A), caspase-3 (CASP3), and high-temperature requirement protease A2 (HtrA2) were upregulated, and anti-apoptosis genes such as poly(adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase family member 3 (PARP3), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) repeat containing 5 (BIRC5) were downregulated. Besides, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), TRAF2, TNF receptor superfamily member 10b (TNFRSF10b), disabled homolog 2 (DAB2)‍-interacting protein (DAB2IP), and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 (ITPR3) were enriched in the upstream of TNF, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways, and TRAIL-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) was regarded as an important membrane receptor influenced by T. gondii that had not been previously considered. In conclusion, the T. gondii RH strain could promote and mediate apoptosis through multiple pathways mentioned above in Vero cells. Our findings improve the understanding of the T. gondii infection process through providing new insights into the related cellular apoptosis mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Apoptosis , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression Profiling , Mammals/genetics , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis/pathology , Vero Cells , ras GTPase-Activating Proteins/genetics
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(3): e009322, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1394894

ABSTRACT

Abstract The seroprevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and Toxoplasma gondii was researched in swine raised in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Serum samples from 84 pigs from 31 farms were tested using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for both agents. Additionally, 53 samples of pork sausages and tissues destined for human consumption, including: salami, sausage, black pudding, heart, tongue, brain, and rib muscle, were submitted to PCR to detect DNA for each agent. The frequency of anti-Sarcocystis spp. antibodies was 36.9% (31/84), with titers ranging from 32 to 1024, and 25% (21/84) for anti-T. gondii antibodies, with titers ranging from 64 to 2048. Sarcocystis spp. and T. gondii DNA were detected in 67.9% (36/53) and 13.2% (7/53) of samples, respectively. The presence of antibodies and the detection of DNA from Sarcocystis spp., and T. gondii suggests that the pigs were infected and may serve as an important reservoir for both parasites. The infection by these protozoa in the swine population is relevant to public health due to their zoonotic potential.


Resumo A soroprevalência de Sarcocystis spp. e Toxoplasma gondii foi pesquisada em suínos criados em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Amostras de soro de 84 suínos de 31 fazendas foram testadas pela reação deimunofluorescência indireta (IFA) para ambos os agentes. Adicionalmente, 53 amostras de embutidos suínos e tecidos cárneos destinados ao consumo humano, incluindo: salame, linguiça, morcela, coração, língua, cérebro e músculo da costela foram submetidas à PCR para detecção de DNA para cada agente. A frequência de anticorpos anti-Sarcocystis spp. foi de 36,9% (31/84), com títulos variando de 32 a 1.024; e 25% (21/84) para anticorpos anti-T. gondii, com títulos variando de 64 a 2048. A presença de DNA de Sarcocystis spp. e T. gondii foi detectada em 67,9% (36/53) e 13,2% (7/53) das amostras avaliadas, respectivamente. A detecção de anticorpos e DNA de Sarcocystis spp. e T. gondii sugere que os suínos foram infectados e podem servir como um importante reservatório de ambos os parasitas. A circulação desses agentes na população suína é relevante para a saúde pública devido ao seu potencial zoonótico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/parasitology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/veterinary , Swine/parasitology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Prevalence , DNA, Protozoan/immunology , Sarcocystis/genetics , Sarcocystis/immunology , Sarcocystosis/epidemiology , Pork Meat/parasitology
15.
Afro-Egypt. j. infect. enem. dis ; 10(2): 120-128, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1426343

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a major health problem in which about 30% of people are born with anti Toxoplasma antibodies worldwide. Toxoplasmosis causes congenital infection, neurological and psychatric disorders. The present study aimed to determine prevalence and factors associated with T. gondii infection in Zagazig university students in 2017-2018.


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Factors , Toxoplasma , Environment Design
16.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(12): 887-893, Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357098

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The purpose of the present study is to standardize and evaluate the use of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody avidity test on blood samples from newborns collected on filter paper to perform the heel test aiming at its implementation in ongoing programs. Methods Blood samples from newborns were collected on filter paper simultaneously with the heel prick test. All samples were subjected to immunoglobulin M IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Peripheral blood was collected again in the traditional way and on filter paper from newborns with high IgG levels (33). Three types of techniques were performed, the standard for measuring IgG in serum, adapted for filter paper and the technique of IgG avidity in serum and on filter paper. The results of the avidity test were classified according to the Rahbari protocol. Results Among the 177 samples, 17 were collected in duplicate from the same child, 1 of peripheral blood and 1 on filter paper. In this analysis, 1 (5.88%) of the 17 samples collected in duplicate also exhibited low IgG avidity, suggesting congenital infection. In addition, the results obtained from serum and filter paper were in agreement, that is, 16 (94.12%) samples presented high avidity, with 100% agreement between the results obtained from serum and from filter paper. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the avidity test may be another valuable method for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns.


Resumo Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo é padronizar e avaliar a utilização do teste de avidez de anticorpos imunoglobulina G (IgG) em amostras de sangue de recémnascidos (RNs) coletadas em papel filtro para a realização do teste do pezinho visando a implementação nos programas já vigentes. Métodos Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de recém-nascidos em papel filtro simultaneamente ao teste do pezinho. Em todas as amostras, foram realizados os testes imunoenzimáticos (ELISA) imunoglobulina M (IgM) e IgG. Dos RNs que apresentaram altos índices de IgG (33), foi novamente coletado sangue periférico da forma tradicional e em papel filtro. Foram realizadas técnicas padrão para a dosagem de IgG em soro, adaptadas para papel filtro, e a técnica de avidez de IgG em soro e em papel filtro. Os valores obtidos para o teste de avidez foram classificados de acordo com o protocolo de Rahbari. Resultados Dentre as 177 recoletas, em 17 amostras foi realizada a coleta simultânea de sangue periférico e papel filtro da mesma criança. Nesta análise, 1 (5,88%) das 17 amostras coletadas em duplicata obteve também baixa avidez de IgG, sugerindo infecção congênita da criança, e houve concordância entre os resultados obtidos em soro e em papel filtro: 16 (94,12%) das amostras apresentaram alta avidez, com concordância de 100% entre os resultados obtidos em soro e em papel filtro. Conclusão Os dados do presente trabalho evidenciam que o teste de avidez poderá ser mais um método valioso a ser utilizado no diagnóstico da toxoplasmose congênita em RNs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Toxoplasma , Immunoglobulin G , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin M , Antibodies, Protozoan , Early Diagnosis
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 257-268, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287278

ABSTRACT

Resumen La transmisión vertical de la infección por Toxoplasma gondii ocurre cuando la madre se infecta por primera vez en el transcurso del embarazo. El diagnóstico de la infección materna y la del re cién nacido se logra con el conjunto de pruebas serológicas, hallazgos clínicos y ecográficos. El reconocimiento temprano de la infección materna permite un tratamiento que reduce la tasa de transmisión y el riesgo de daño en el producto de la concepción. El objetivo de este consenso de expertos fue revisar la literatura científica para actualizar las recomendaciones de práctica clínica respecto de la prevención, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la toxoplasmosis congénita en nuestro país.


Abstract Mother-to-child transmission in Toxoplasma gondii infection occurs only when the infection is acquired for the first time during pregnancy. Diag nosis of maternal infection and the newborn is achieved by a combination of serological tests, clinical features and ultrasound images. An early diagnosis of maternal infection allows treatment that offers a reduction both in transmission rate and risk of congenital damage. The aim of this expert consensus was to review the scientific literature which would enable an update of the clinical practice guideline of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis in our country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Child , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/prevention & control , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Consensus , Medical History Taking
18.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 82-99, mayo 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285451

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. La toxoplasmosis es una zoonosis que se transmite por vía oral al consumir alimentos contaminados con cualquier forma infectiva de Toxoplasma gondii. Su transmisión por agua ha sido documentada en varios países, incluido Colombia. Al no disponer de agua potable, la población rural de Sincelejo podría estar en riesgo de contraer toxoplasmosis por esta vía. Objetivo. Evaluar la contaminación por T. gondii del agua para consumo humano proveniente de jagüeyes de la zona rural de Sincelejo y establecer su relación con diferentes determinantes sociales de la salud en el área de estudio. Materiales y métodos. Mediante PCR anidada, se evaluaron 96 muestras de agua obtenidas en 48 fincas ubicadas en ocho corregimientos rurales de Sincelejo. En cada finca se obtuvieron dos muestras: una de agua cruda de jagüey y otra destinada al consumo directo. En cada finca se hizo una encuesta para recolectar información sobre características físicas de la vivienda, presencia de gatos, y disponibilidad de agua y sus usos. Las relaciones estadísticas se evaluaron con el test de Fisher. Resultados. De las 96 muestras analizadas, 13 resultaron contaminadas con T. gondii(13,5 %): nueve de agua cruda y cuatro de agua para el consumo directo. No se encontró asociación estadística entre las muestras positivas y los determinantes sociales de la salud evaluados (p>0,05). Conclusión. La población rural de Sincelejo podría estar en riesgo de contraer toxoplasmosis por el uso y consumo del agua proveniente de sus jagüeyes. La contaminación de estos cuerpos de agua por T. gondii puede estar influenciada por otros determinantes sociales de la salud no contemplados aquí.


Abstract | Introduction:Toxoplasmosis is an orally-transmitted zoonosis that may appear after consuming food contaminated with any infective form of Toxoplasma gondii. Its transmission by water has been reported in several countries including Colombia. The rural population of Sincelejo could be at risk of contracting toxoplasmosis through this route given that they lack potable water. Objective: To evaluate T. gondii contamination in water for human consumption from water wells (jagüeyes) in the rural area of Sincelejo and establish its relationship with different social determinants of health in the study area. Materials and methods: Using nested PCR we evaluated 96 water samples obtained from 48 farms located in eight rural townships in Sincelejo. We took two samples in each farm: one of raw water from water wells and the other intended for direct consumption. We conducted a survey on each farm to collect information on the physical characteristics of dwellings, the presence of cats, and the availability and uses of water. Statistical relationships were evaluated through Fisher tests. Results: Of the 96 samples analyzed, 13 were contaminated with T. gondii (13.5%): Nine corresponded to raw water and four to water for direct consumption. No statistical association was found between the positive samples and the social determinants of health under evaluation (p>0.05). Conclusion: The rural population of Sincelejo could be at risk of contracting toxoplasmosis through the use and/or consumption of water from its water wells. The contamination of these water bodies by T. gondii may be influenced by unstudied social determinants.


Subject(s)
Toxoplasma , Raw Water , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Social Determinants of Health
19.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(5): 351-356, May 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288563

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Most prenatal screening programs for toxoplasmosis use immunoassays in serum samples of pregnant women. Few studies assess the accuracy of screening tests in dried blood spots, which are of easy collection, storage, and transportation. The goals of the present study are to determine the performance and evaluate the agreement between an immunoassay of dried blood spots and a reference test in the serum of pregnant women from a population-based prenatal screening program for toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed to compare the immunoassays Imunoscreen Toxoplasmose IgM and Imunoscreen Toxoplasmose IgG (Mbiolog Diagnósticos, Ltda., Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil)in dried blood spots with the enzymelinked fluorescent assay (ELFA, BioMérieux S.A., Lyon, France) reference standard in the serum of pregnant women from Minas Gerais Congenital Toxoplasmosis Control Program. Results The dried blood spot test was able to discriminate positive and negative results of pregnant women when comparedwith the reference test, with an accuracy of 98.2% for immunoglobulin G (IgG), and of 95.8% for immunoglobulin M (IgM). Conclusion Dried blood samples are easy to collect, store, and transport, and they have a good performance,making this a promisingmethod for prenatal toxoplasmosis screening programs in countries with continental dimensions, limited resources, and a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis, as is the case of Brazil.


Resumo Objetivo A maioria dos programas de triagem pré-natal para toxoplasmose utiliza imunoensaios em amostras de soro de gestantes. Poucos estudos avaliam a acurácia dos testes de triagem em amostras de sangue seco, que são de fácil coleta, armazenamento e transporte. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar o desempenho e avaliar a concordância entre um imunoensaio em sangue seco e um teste de referência em soro de gestantes de um programa de rastreamento pré-natal de base populacional para toxoplasmose no Brasil. Métodos Realizou-se um estudo transversal para comparar os imunoensaios Imunoscreen Toxoplasmose IgM e Imunoscreen Toxoplasmose IgG (Mbiolog Diagnósticos, Ltda., Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil) em sangue seco com o padrão de referência ensaio fluorescente ligado a enzimas (enzyme-linked fluorescent assay, ELFA, BioMérieux S.A., Lion, França) no soro de gestantes do Programa de Controle de Toxoplasmose Congênita de Minas Gerais. Resultados O exame em sangue seco foi capaz de discriminar os resultados positivos e negativos das gestantes quando comparado ao teste de referência, com acurácia de 98,2% para imunoglobulina G (IgG), e de 95,8% para imunoglobulina M (IgM). Conclusão O sangue seco apresenta bom desempenho e é uma amostra de fácil coleta, armazenamento e transporte, o que o torna um método promissor para programas de triagem pré-natal de toxoplasmose em países com dimensões continentais, recursos limitados, e alta prevalência de toxoplasmose, como é o caso do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , Prenatal Diagnosis , Toxoplasma/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pregnant Women
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(2): 212-217, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388219

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Toxoplasma gondii es un protozoo que afecta a un tercio de la población mundial y cuya seroprevalencia actualizada en niños con cáncer en nuestro medio, se desconoce. OBJETIVO: Describir la seroprevalencia de IgG anti-T. gondii en población pediátrica con cáncer atendida en hospitales públicos de la Región Metropolitana, Chile. MÉTODO: Estudio transversal de pacientes pediátricos oncológicos atendidos en la ciudad de Santiago. Se tomó una muestra de suero de 100 pacientes entre junio de 2016 y mayo de 2019. Se les realizó ELISA IgG T. gondii. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 100 muestras, 51% de sexo masculino. Resultaron 12 positivas, 84 negativas y 4 indeterminadas. Los sueros de los pacientes se estratificaron por edad: 0-5 años 43%, 6-10 años 29%, 11-15 años 20% y > 15 años, 8%. El 61% eran pacientes con leucemia aguda. El porcentaje de mujeres con IgG positiva fue de 21% en comparación a 4% en hombres (P < 0,0011). CONCLUSIÓN: El 84% de los niños en tratamiento por cáncer son seronegativos para T. gondii, por lo que es importante educar en la prevención de la adquisición de este parásito en esta población, por el riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad grave con riesgo de muerte.


BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan that affects a third of the world population and whose updated seroprevalence in children with cancer in our environment is unknown. AIM: To describe the seroprevalence of IgG anti-T. gondii in pediatric population with cancer treated in hospitals of the Metropolitan Region, Chile. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of the population of pediatric cancer patients treated in Santiago city, A serum sample was taken from 100 patients between June 2016 and May 2019. ELISA IgG T. gondii was performed. RESULTS: Of 100 children, 51% male. 12 were positive (12%), 84 negative (84%) and 4 indeterminate (4%). The stratification by age showed 43% patients between 0-5 years, 29% between 6-10 years, 20% in the group of 11-15 years and 8% in patients > 15 years. Sixty one percent of the samples came from patients with acute leukemia. The percentage of women who tested positive for IgG was 21% compared to 4% in men (P < 0.0011). CONCLUSION: 84% of children undergoing cancer treatment are seronegative for T. gondii, so it is important to educate on the prevention of the acquisition of this parasite in this population, due to the risk of developing serious and fatal disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Antineoplastic Agents , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Antibodies, Protozoan , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Cities
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