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2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 237-244, 20220316. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362955

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La presencia de neumomediastino secundario a un trauma contuso es un hallazgo común, especialmente con el uso rutinario de la tomografía computarizada. Aunque en la mayoría de los casos es secundario a una causa benigna, la posibilidad de una lesión aerodigestiva subyacente ha llevado a que se recomiende el uso rutinario de estudios endoscópicos para descartarla. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la incidencia de neumomediastino secundario a trauma contuso y de lesiones aerodigestivas asociadas y establecer la utilidad de la tomografía computarizada multidetector en el diagnóstico de las lesiones aerodigestivas. Métodos. Mediante tomografía computarizada multidetector se identificaron los pacientes con diagnóstico de neumomediastino secundario a un trauma contuso en un periodo de 4 años en un Centro de Trauma Nivel I. Resultados. Fueron incluidos en el estudio 41 pacientes con diagnóstico de neumomediastino secundario a un trauma contuso. Se documentaron en total tres lesiones aerodigestivas, dos lesiones traqueales y una esofágica. Dos de estas fueron sospechadas en tomografía computarizada multidetector y confirmadas mediante fibrobroncoscopia y endoscopia digestiva superior, respectivamente, y otra fue diagnosticada en cirugía. Conclusión. El uso rutinario de estudios endoscópicos en los pacientes con neumomediastino secundario a trauma contuso no está indicado cuando los hallazgos clínicos y tomográficos son poco sugestivos de lesión aerodigestiva.


Introduction.The presence of pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma is a common finding, especially with the use of computed tomography. Although in most cases the presence of pneumomediastinum is secondary to a benign etiology, the possibility of an underlying aerodigestive injuries has led to the recommendation of the routine use of endoscopic studies to rule them out. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma and associated injuries and to establish the role of multidetector computed tomography in the diagnosis of aerodigestive injuries. Methods.Using multidetector computed tomography, patients with a diagnosis of pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma were identified over a period of 4 years in a Level 1 Trauma Center. Results. Forty-one patients diagnosed with pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma, were included in this study. Two airway ruptures were documented: two tracheal injuries and one esophageal injury. Two of them suspected on multidetector computed tomography and confirmed on bronchoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy, respectively, and another was diagnosed in surgery. Conclusion.The routine use of endoscopic studies in patients with pneumomediastinum secondary to blunt trauma is not indicated when the clinical and tomographic findings are not suggestive of aerodigestive injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thorax , Esophageal Perforation , Trachea , Wounds and Injuries , Mediastinum
3.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 305-307, 20220316. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362979

ABSTRACT

Se han descrito diversas técnicas para el tratamiento del enfisema subcutáneo y del neumomediastino. Algunos pacientes con pequeñas perforaciones traqueales pueden ser manejados de forma expectante, salvo que requieran ventilación mecánica. Se presentan las imágenes de un paciente con enfisema subcutáneo y neumomediastino no candidato a cirugía y quien fue tratado exitosamente con terapia de presión negativa.


Different techniques have been described for the treatment of subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediatinum. Some patients with small tracheal perforations can be managed expectantly, unless they require mechanical ventilation. Images of a patient with subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum not a candidate for surgery and who was successfully treated with negative pressure therapy are presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Subcutaneous Emphysema , COVID-19 , Trachea , Ventilators, Negative-Pressure , Mediastinal Emphysema
4.
Rev. argent. cir ; 113(4): 471-476, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1356957

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La traqueobroncomalacia es una enfermedad de la vía aérea central caracterizada por una debilidad de la pared, con disminución dinámica de la luz de la tráquea y grandes bronquios principalmente durante la espiración. Genera síntomas crónicos que pueden evolucionar hasta la falla respiratoria grave, frecuentemente diagnosticados de forma errónea como asma o enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC). Presentamos el caso de una paciente femenina de 70 años, con antecedente de artritis reumatoide y múltiples internaciones por cuadros respiratorios infecciosos en los 3 años previos.


ABSTRACT Tracheobroncomalacia is a disease of the central airway due to weakness of the wall with dynamic narrowing of the lumen of the trachea and mainstem bronchi during exhalation. It produces chronic symptoms that can progress to severe respiratory failure, often misdiagnosed as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We report the case of a 70-year-old female patient with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and multiple hospitalizations for recurrent respiratory infections over the past 3 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Tracheobronchomalacia , Tracheomalacia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Asthma , Signs and Symptoms , Trachea , Bronchi , Exhalation , Tracheobronchomalacia/complications , Frailty
5.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(1): 43-48, 20211217. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355292

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La causa más común de estenosis laringotraqueal benigna es iatrogénica, secundaria a intubación orotraqueal. El manejo quirúrgico sigue siendo la alternativa que ha mostrado mejores resultados a largo plazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la experiencia en el manejo quirúrgico de la estenosis laringotraqueal durante 15 años en un hospital de alta complejidad en Colombia.Métodos. En este estudio se revisaron las historias clínicas de todos los pacientes tratados con reconstrucción de estenosis traqueal benigna, entre los años 2005 y 2020. Para el análisis estadístico se usaron métodos de estadística descriptiva, con análisis de frecuencias y medidas de tendencia central o de dispersión.Resultados. Se identificaron 38 pacientes con estenosis laringotraqueal, con un grado variable de estenosis. La nasofibrolaringoscopia fue bien tolerada y segura para determinar el grado y la longitud de la estenosis. El uso de tomografía sirvió para determinar la extensión y las características anatómicas. Los resultados del presente estudio son similares a los de la literatura en cuanto a complicaciones, mortalidad y falla de la anastomosis. Las complicaciones más frecuentemente reportadas son reestenosis, infección del sitio operatorio, lesión nerviosa y fístula, que en general se presentan en un tercio de los pacientes. Conclusiones. La experiencia de manejo quirúrgico de estenosis laringotraqueal en este hospital permite concluir que la reconstrucción traqueal es una opción segura en nuestro medio. Las tasas de éxito y de falla del tratamiento son equiparables a las reportadas en la literatura.


Introduction. The most common cause of benign laryngotracheal stenosis is iatrogenic, secondary to orotracheal intubation. Surgical management continues to be the alternative that has shown better long-term results. The objective of this study was to analyze the experience in the surgical management of laryngotracheal stenosis for 15 years in a high-level complexity hospital in Colombia.Methods. Medical records of patients treated with reconstruction of benign tracheal stenosis between 2005 and 2020 were reviewed. Descriptive statistical methods were used, with frequency analysis and measures of central tendency or dispersion.Results. Thirthy-eight patients with laryngotracheal stenosis were identified, with a variable degree of stenosis. Nasofibrolaryngoscopy was well tolerated and safe to determine the degree and length of the stenosis. The use of tomography served to determine the extension and anatomical characteristics. The results of the present study are similar to those of the literature in terms of complications, mortality and failure of the anastomosis. The most frequently reported complications are restenosis, surgical site infection, nerve injury, and fistula, which generally occur in one third of patients.Conclusions. The experience of surgical management of laryngotracheal stenosis in our hospital allows us to conclude that tracheal reconstruction is a safe option in our environment. Treatment success and failure rates are comparable to those reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tracheal Stenosis , Thoracic Surgery , Trachea , Intubation, Intratracheal
6.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e502, Oct.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341247

ABSTRACT

Abstract Airway-related pathology poses a significant challenge to the pediatric anesthesiologist. This case report involves a 28-day-old neonate diagnosed with congenital tracheal stenosis who underwent a slide tracheoplasty intervention with extracorporeal circulation. The anesthetic management is described, together with our experience in the face of a challenging situation, including adverse events during surgery.


Resumen La patología relacionada con la vía aérea es uno de los grandes retos a los que se enfrenta un anestesiólogo pediátrico. En este reporte de caso se presenta una cirugía realizada en nuestro hospital. Un neonato de 28 días de vida, diagnosticado con estenosis traqueal congénita fue intervenido con traqueoplastia por deslizamiento, bajo soporte con circulación extracorpórea. Se documenta el manejo anestésico, y la experiencia de enfrentar un reto complejo, incluyendo los eventos adversos que ocurrieron durante la cirugía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Airway Remodeling , Congenital Abnormalities , Thoracic Surgery , Trachea , Infant, Newborn , Extracorporeal Circulation
7.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(2): e1069, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280216

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La lesión por ahorcamiento se inscribe dentro del traumatismo cerrado de la tráquea cervical. Objetivo: Presentar seis enfermos tratados por secuelas de un intento fallido de ahorcamiento y revisión la literatura sobre los métodos diagnósticos y terapéuticos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de seis pacientes tratados entre 1989 y 2011 en el Hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras". Todos fueron remitidos de diferentes hospitales, con una traqueostomía para el control de la vía respiratoria. Las variables estudiadas fueron: sexo, edad, diagnóstico definitivo, técnicas quirúrgicas empleadas, evolución posoperatoria, complicaciones y mortalidad. Resultados: Todos los pacientes fueron del sexo masculino, con edad entre 16 y 66 años (mediana 28,5). Cuatro tenían menos de 30 años, uno 38 y el último 66. El diagnóstico se hizo mediante traqueoscopia flexible y tomografía axial computarizada. La lesión se localizó en subglotis (2) y tráquea (4). Dos pacientes fueron operados antes de la remisión: resección traqueal (1) y laringotraqueal (1). El tratamiento definitivo, en nuestro centro, consistió en resección traqueal (4) y subglótica (2). No se presentaron complicaciones ni fallecidos. Durante el seguimiento postoperatorio (7 a 26 meses), cinco lesionados tuvieron resultados excelentes y uno satisfactorio, asociado con voz débil. Conclusiones: El traumatismo traqueal por ahorcamiento fallido es muy raro. El tratamiento oportuno y adecuado puede reducir las complicaciones y la mortalidad. Un equipo quirúrgico con experiencia puede lograr resultados satisfactorios en un grupo importante de lesionados. La traqueostomía, con anestesia local, es el método de elección para controlar la VR en pacientes con traumatismo cervical(AU)


Introduction: The hanging injury is considered a closed trauma of the cervical trachea. Objective: To present the cases of six patients treated for sequelae after failed hanging attempt, and to review the literature about diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out of six consecutive patients treated between 1989 and 2011 at Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital. All were referred from different hospitals, with a tracheostomy for controlling the airway. The variables studied were sex, age, definitive diagnosis, surgical techniques used, postoperative evolution, complications and mortality. Results: All patients were male, aged between 16 and 66 years (median: 28.5). Four were less than 30 years old; one, 38; and the last, 66. The diagnosis was made by flexible tracheoscopy and computerized axial tomography. The injury was located in the subglottis (2) and the trachea (4). Two patients were operated on before referral, through tracheal (1) and laryngotracheal (1) resection. Definitive treatment in our center consisted of tracheal (4) and subglottic (2) resection. There were no complications or deaths. During the postoperative follow-up (7-26 months), five injured patients had excellent outcomes and one had satisfactory outcomes, associated with a weak voice. Conclusions: Tracheal trauma after failed hanging is very rare. Timely and appropriate managment can reduce complications and mortality. An experienced surgical team can achieve satisfactory outcomes in a large group of injured people. Tracheostomy, under local anesthesia, is the method of choice for controlling the airways in patients with cervical trauma(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Suicide, Attempted , Trachea/injuries , Tracheostomy/methods , Therapeutic Approaches , Review Literature as Topic , Epidemiology, Descriptive
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 1054-1062, Dec. 2020. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155044

ABSTRACT

Giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is a wild mammal distributed in Central and South America; nowadays, it is classified as an endangered species. Research about the macroscopic and histomorphological aspects of its respiratory tract is scarce, and, sometimes, it limits the treatment provided to sick animals and impairs species preservation. Thus, the present study aims to describe the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of its lower respiratory tract, including trachea and lungs. To do so, 12 adult giant anteaters from "Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de Goiânia" (CETAS-GO), Goiás State, Brazil, were used in the research after natural death or euthanasia. Three of these animals were used for macroscopic assessments; they were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and dissected. Trachea and lung tissue samples were collected from nine animals right after death and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histomorphological analysis; they were processed, embedded in paraffin, and inked with hematoxylin-eosin (HE), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and Masson's trichrome. The macroscopic analysis showed that the trachea in this species is proportionally short and presents from 19 to 27 tracheal cartilages. The right lung presents four lobes and the left one, two. The microscopic analysis evidenced respiratory epithelium of the ciliated cylindrical pseudostratified type, without evident goblet cells in the mucosa layer of the trachea and bronchi. The pulmonary visceral pleura is thick, similar to other large domestic mammals - complete septa extend from the pulmonary visceral pleura. In conclusion, the macroscopy and histomorphology of giant anteater's lower respiratory tract, represented by trachea and lungs, are similar to that of other domestic and wild mammals. Pulmonary histomorphology is mainly similar to that of pigs and ruminants: it has thick visceral pleura that emits complete septa of conjunctive tissue, which enable lobular parenchymal architecture.(AU)


O tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) é um mamífero silvestre com distribuição na América Central e do Sul e, atualmente, encontra-se classificado como ameaçado de extinção. Pesquisas acerca dos aspectos macroscópicos e histomorfológicos do seu sistema respiratório são escassas, o que, por vezes, limita o tratamento e o manejo de eventuais animais doentes, bem como a preservação da espécie. Desse modo, o objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a morfologia macroscópica e microscópica do aparelho respiratório inferior do tamanduá-bandeira, incluindo traqueia e pulmões. Para tanto, foram utilizados 12 tamanduás-bandeiras adultos, provenientes do Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de Goiânia (CETAS-GO), Goiás, Brasil, após morte natural ou eutanásia. Destes, três foram utilizados para o estudo macroscópico, sendo fixados em formalina tamponada a 10% e dissecados. Para a análise histomorfológica, amostras teciduais da traqueia e do pulmão foram colhidas de nove animais logo após o óbito, fixadas em formalina tamponada a 10%, processadas, incluídas em parafina e coradas com hematoxilina e eosina (HE), ácido periódico-Schiff (PAS) e tricrômico de Masson. À análise macroscópica notou-se que a traqueia é proporcionalmente curta, apresentando 19 a 27 cartilagens traqueais. O pulmão direito apresenta quatro lobos e o esquerdo dois. À análise microscópica foi constatado epitélio respiratório do tipo pseudoestratificado cilíndrico ciliado, sem células caliciformes evidentes na camada mucosa da traqueia e dos brônquios. A pleura visceral pulmonar é espessa, assim como nos grandes mamíferos domésticos, e, a partir desta, estendem-se septos completos. Conclui-se que a macroscopia e a histomorfologia do sistema respiratório inferior do tamanduá-bandeira, representado pela traqueia e pulmões, são semelhantes àquelas de outros mamíferos domésticos e silvestres. A histomorfologia pulmonar é especialmente semelhante à de suínos e ruminantes, com a pleura visceral espessa e emitindo septos completos de tecido conjuntivo, que conferem arquitetura parenquimal lobular.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Respiratory System , Trachea , Eutheria/anatomy & histology , Lung/anatomy & histology , Microscopy
10.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 21(3): 1-9, 31 Diciembre 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146528

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La principal causa de morbi-mortalidad pediátrica incluye el compromiso de la vía aérea, por lo que una correcta intubación salva la vida del paciente. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las variables predictivas de diámetro y longitud de inserción de tubo endotraqueal en niños intubados en el área de terapia Intensiva del Hospital Vicente Corral Moscoso, Cuenca-Ecuador. Métodos: En el presente estudio observacional con una muestra no probabilística tipo censo, se determinó el diámetro del tubo endotraqueal (DTE) utilizado y la profundidad de inserción mediante rayos x para determinar la Longitud del Tubo Endotraqueal (LTE). Se utiliza correlación y regresión lineal para predecir DTE y LTE en base a Edad, Peso y Talla de niños de 1 a 120 meses de edad. Se utiliza estadística no paramétrica. Resultados: Fueron 102 casos que constituyeron una frecuencia de intubación del 30.6 %, el motivo más frecuente fue patología respiratoria. La ecuación de predicción del DTE=3.54+0.14*(edad años) + 0.04*(Peso kg). R2=0.65, P=0.0001, para LTE=10.36+0.31*(edad años) + 0.18*(Peso kg). R2=0.65, P=0.0001. Conclusiones: El diámetro y longitud del tubo endotraqueal se correlacionan con variables propias de cada paciente como edad y peso


Introduction: The main cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatrics includes the compromise of the airway and ventilation, proper intubation will save the patient's life, being therefore transcendent to consider age, height, weight and sex. Objective: To determine the predictive variables of diameter and length of endotracheal tube insertion in children aged 1 to 120 months admitted to the Intensive Care area of Vicente Corral Moscoso Hospital. Methods: Correlational study, with a sample of 102 intubated patients, determined the size of the tube used and the depth of insertion using x-rays; For qualitative variables descriptive statistics were used, for the quantitative Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, in the bivariate analysis the Mann Whitney U and Spearman correlation was used. Subsequently, the multivariate linear regression analysis was executed, the final equation was modeled and Pearson coefficients were obtained, finally ANOVA analysis was performed. Results: The frequency of intubation was 30.6%, the most frequent reason was respiratory pathology. The diameter of the tube can be predicted individually using age, weight and height, and by combining age and weight the prediction increases to 64.9%. To estimate the depth of the tube, weight (63.4%), age and height are useful, and combining age and weight increases the accuracy to 65.2%. There is no correlation between diameter, insertion length and sex. Conclusions: The diameter and length of the endotracheal tube correlate with each patient's own variables such as age and weight


Subject(s)
Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Child , Intubation, Intratracheal , Trachea , Radiography, Thoracic
11.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 24(3): 138-141, sept. 2020. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1146480

ABSTRACT

Tracheal rupture is an infrequent complication with high morbidity and mortality, of multifactorial etiology, being orotracheal intubation its main cause. Spontaneous tracheal rupture usually occurs after severe coughing and/or vomiting over a weakened trachea. The diagnosis is non-specific, based on highly suggestive signs and symptoms such as subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum and respiratory distress, and its confirmation requires the performance of a bronchoscopy. The location and extent of the rupture determines the clinic. This implies the importance of an early diagnosis to avoid a poor prognosis. We present the case of an elderly male patient with a spontaneous tracheal rupture without apparent cause


La rotura traqueal es una complicación infrecuente de etiología multifactorial, con una elevada morbimortalidad, la intubación orotraqueal es su principal causa. La rotura traqueal espontánea suele producirse luego de toser o presentar vómitos intensos, sobre una tráquea debilitada. El diagnóstico es inespecífico, se basa en signos y síntomas altamente sugestivos como enfisema subcutáneo, neumomediastínico y dificultad respiratoria y su confirmación exige la realización de una broncoscopia. La localización y extensión de la rotura determinan la clínica. Esto implica la importancia del diagnóstico precoz para evitar un pronóstico infausto. Se presenta el caso de un paciente varón, de edad avanzada. con una rotura espontánea traqueal sin causa aparente


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Trachea , Tracheal Diseases , Neck Injuries , Dyspnea , Rupture, Spontaneous
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(8): 637-646, Aug. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135664

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of several diseases in chelonians is a challenge in the veterinary clinic, because a detailed physical examination with auscultation and palpation is difficult due the presence of carapace and plastron. Imaging analysis such as radiography and computed tomography (CT) have been shown to be beneficial for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment in numerous animal species. Thus, this study aimed to identify and describe the structures of the lower respiratory tract in red-foot tortoises, by computed tomography, radiography and gross anatomy in twelve red-foot tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonaria), adults and of both sexes. The lower respiratory tract in these animals comprised the larynx, trachea, bronchi and the lungs. The presence of epiglottic cartilage was not observed in the animals studied. CT allowed the observation of the intrapulmonary part of the bronchi, which was accompanied by large intrapulmonary blood vessels. The lungs presented a reticulated parenchyma, without lobulations. Each lung had a small chamber located near the cranial and caudal poles. These structures were identified in CT and 3D CT reconstructions and these could suggest that these chambers could be non-respiratory structures, and could be comparable to the air sacs of birds. This study establishes normal CT anatomy of the lower respiratory tract of the red-foot tortoise; and may be used as a reference in the assessment of respiratory disorders in this tortoise.(AU)


O diagnóstico de diversas afecções em quelônios é um desafio para a clínica veterinária, já que um exame físico detalhado com auscultação e palpação é difícil devido à presença da carapaça e do plastrão. A radiografia e a tomografia computadorizada (TC) tem se mostrado benéficas para o diagnóstico, prognóstico e tratamento em muitas espécies animais. Assim, este estudo teve por objetivo identificar e descrever as estruturas do trato respiratório inferior no jabuti-piranga por meio da tomografia computadorizada, radiografia e anatomia em 12 jabutis-piranga (Chelonoidis carbonara), adultos e de ambos os sexos. Nos animais estudados, o trato respiratório inferior consistiu da laringe, traqueia, brônquios e os pulmões. A cartilagem epiglote não foi observada. A TC permitiu a observação da parte intrapulmonar dos brônquios, a qual estava acompanhada dos vasos sanguíneos intrapulmonares. Os pulmões possuíam um parênquima reticulado, sem lobações. Cada pulmão tinha uma pequena câmara localizada junto aos pólos cranial e caudal. Estas estruturas foram identificadas na TC e na reconstrução 3D a partir da TC e poderiam ser estruturas não-respiratórias, podendo ser comparadas aos sacos aéreos das aves. Este estudo identificou a anatomia normal por meio da TC do trato respiratório inferior do jabuti-piranga, o que pode ser usado como referência para diagnóstico de desordens respiratórias nesta espécie.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Trachea/diagnostic imaging , Turtles/anatomy & histology , Bronchi/diagnostic imaging , Larynx/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Radiography/veterinary , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 799-806, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129181

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to verify the applicability of the compressive radiographic technique (pressures of 5, 10, 15 and 20mmHg) in the diagnosis of tracheal collapse in small breed dogs, in lateral cervicothoracic radiography. Out of the 50 dogs evaluated, 25 presented tracheal collapse (TG group), 23 did not present tracheal collapse (CG) and two were excluded because they did not tolerate a pressure of 20 mmHg. The TG group presented a smaller internal diameter of the trachea in the region of the fourth cervical vertebra (D4) and at the entrance of the thorax (TDE) compared to the CG group, in all the radiographic projections performed, as well as within the TG group where the compressive technique differed from conventional. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the clinical sign of coughing during cervical collar use and the presence of radiographic tracheal collapse at a pressure of 20 mmHg. It was concluded that the compressive radiographic technique was feasible and efficient in confirming the diagnosis of tracheal collapse in dogs, especially in the pressure of 20 mmHg, where it was associated with clinical signs, and can be used in isolation or complementary to the conventional technique.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a aplicabilidade da técnica radiográfica compressiva no diagnóstico do colapso de traqueia em cães de raças pequenas, por meio da comparação do diâmetro da traqueia durante a radiografia cervicotorácica lateral convencional e sobre influência da compressão externa com pressões de 5, 10, 15 e 20mmHg (técnica compressiva). Dos 50 cães avaliados, 25 apresentaram colapso de traqueia (grupo TG), 23 não apresentaram o colabamento traqueal (grupo controle - CG) e dois foram excluídos por não tolerarem a pressão de 20mmHg. Os diâmetros internos da traqueia na região da quarta vértebra cervical (D4) e na entrada do tórax (DET) foram menores no grupo TG em relação ao CG, em todas as projeções radiográficas realizadas, bem como dentro do grupo TG, no qual a técnica compressiva diferiu da convencional. Houve correlação entre o sinal clínico de tosse durante o uso de coleira cervical e a presença do colapso de traqueia radiográfico, na pressão de 20mmHg. Concluiu-se que a técnica radiográfica compressiva foi exequível e eficiente na confirmação do diagnóstico do colapso de traqueia em cães, especialmente na pressão de 20mmHg, em que houve associação com sinais clínicos, podendo ser utilizada de forma isolada ou complementar à técnica convencional.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trachea/pathology , Trachea/diagnostic imaging , Cough/veterinary , Radiography/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/veterinary , Cervical Cord/diagnostic imaging
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 793-798, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098321

ABSTRACT

Sirenomelia or mermaid syndrome is an extremely rare congenital lethal malformation with a frequency between 1.5 and 4.2 per 1 000 000 pregnancies.The association of sirenomelia with the VACTERL association is very rare, with twenty cases reported in the literature and only two cases with VACTERL-H. We present two cases of sirenomelia, type I and type II associated with VACTERL-H and VACTERL syndromes and we review the literature. First time pregnancy women aged 15 and 40 years, without harmful habits and diseases, where between 25-27 gestational week (GW) the prenatal study identifies malformative fetus and the pregnancy is interrupted by medical evidence. The fetopathological examination in the first case identified sirenomelia type I associated with myelomeningocele, hydrocephalus, anal imperforation, single umbilical artery, bilateral renal agenesis, ureteral and bladder agenesis, tracheo-esophageal fistule, agenesis of external genitals, monkey fold of the left palm of the hand - VACTERL-H. In the second case, where genetic testing is normal, sirenomelia type II associated with agenesis of external genitalia, anal imperforation, myelomeningocele, dolichocrania, macroglossia, low set ears, left preauricular skin tag, long philtrum, lung hypoplasia, split cadiac apex, single umbilicalis artery, blind end colon, hepatomegaly, accessory spleen, polycystic horseshoe kidney, uterine and vaginal agenesis, presence of two ovaries and duodenal stenosis - VACTERL association. This two cases, lead us to believe that sirenomelia and the VACTERL association are probably different manifestations of a pathogenetic process leading to disorders of blastogenesis at different levels during embryonic development.


La sirenomelia es una malformación congénita y excepcionalmente rara, con una frecuencia entre 1,5 y 4,2 en un millón de embarazos. La combinación de la sirenomelia con el síndrome de VACTERL es igualmente rara. La literatura especializada informa sobre la existencia de una veintena de casos solamente; en lo que respecta a su asociación con el síndrome de VACTERL-H se conocen solo dos casos. Luego de realizar una revisión de la literatura presentamos dos casos de sirenomelia asociada con los síndromes de VACTERL-H y de VACTERL En el estudio se analizaron los primeros embarazos de dos mujeres, edad de 15 y de 40 años, respectivamente, ambas mujeres completamente sanas y sin hábitos viciosos. Entre la vigésima quinta y la vigésima séptima semana gestacional (SG) del embarazo ambas mujeres, el análisis prenatal comprueba la existencia de malformación del feto debido a lo cual los embarazos fueron interrumpidos por prescripción médica. El análisis fetopatológico del primer caso comprueba la existencia de sirenomelia de tipo I asociada con mielomeningocele, hidrocefalia, atresia anal, arteria umbilical única, agenesia bilateral de los riñones y de los ureteres que transportan la orina desde los riñones hasta la vejiga, fístula traqueoesofágica, agenesia de los órganos genitales externos, línea simiesca en la palma de la mano izquierda - VACTERLH. En el segundo caso, en que el análisis genético ha resultado normal, se observó la presencia de sirenomelia de tipo II asociada con agenesia de los órganos genitales externos, atresia anal, mielomeningocele, dolicocrania, macroglosia, orejas bajas, filtrum alargado, hipoplasia pulmonar, ápice cardíaco escindido, arteria umbilical única, colon terminado en ciego, bazo accesorio, poliquistosis renal, riñón en herradura, agenesia vaginal y de útero, presencia de dos ovarios y estenosis duodenal - VACTERL asociación. Los dos casos investigados permiten llegar a la conclusión de que la sirenomelia y su combinación con el síndrome de VACTERL probablemente sean manifestaciones diferentes de un proceso patogenético que conlleva la alteración de la blastogénesis en distintos niveles durante el proceso del desarrollo embrionario.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Abnormalities, Multiple , Ectromelia/complications , Ectromelia/diagnosis , Fetal Diseases/diagnosis , Anal Canal/abnormalities , Syndrome , Trachea/abnormalities , Fatal Outcome , Esophagus/abnormalities , Kidney/abnormalities
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828709

ABSTRACT

Endotracheal suctioning is a most frequent invasive procedure in neonates undergoing mechanical ventilation. The procedure includes the patient preparation, airway suctioning and follow-up care, which may associated with adverse events. Based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE), as well as the related research both in China and overseas, the clinical practice guidelines of endotracheal suctioning in neonates with mechanical ventilation is developed in order to promote the standard implementation of this operation and ensure patients' safety.


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intubation, Intratracheal , Respiration, Artificial , Suction , Trachea
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811202

ABSTRACT

Cri-du-chat syndrome (CdCS) is caused by the deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. Most patients with CdCS develop intellectual disabilities. Therefore, they have poor oral hygiene and a high caries index. However, treating such patients is not an easy task, because of the difficulty in communication. General anesthesia may be a useful option in adult patients with CdCS and intellectual disability. General anesthesia should be administered very carefully, owing to the presence of comorbid diseases, which may need airway management. Infants with CdCS need general anesthesia if they have a concomitant cardiac anomaly. Intubation is reportedly difficult for such patients was, owing to the structural and functional abnormalities in the larynx and vocal cords. The purpose of this study was to report a case of difficult intubation while inducing general anesthesia in a patient with CdCS during dental treatment, due to a narrow larynx and trachea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Airway Management , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Arm , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5 , Congenital Abnormalities , Cri-du-Chat Syndrome , Humans , Infant , Intellectual Disability , Intubation , Larynx , Oral Hygiene , Outpatients , Trachea , Vocal Cords
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(12): 1502-1507, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057085

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Despite the benefits, tracheostomized children are susceptible to respiratory infections, since the tube is located in a strategic region where there is colonization by several bacteria and biofilm formation. Biofilm is formed when the bacteria adhere strongly to the surfaces of the tubes, providing protection against various types of aggression, such as antibiotic treatment. OBJECTIVE To carry out a literature review of the last ten years on tracheostomized pediatric patients, in order to characterize the bacteria isolated in children's tracheal secretions, and verify which ones are the most frequent. METHODS Two authors searched the Lilacs, SciELO, Medline Plus, and PubMed databases. The MeSH terms used were: 'tracheostomy' and 'tracheotomy' associated with 'infections', 'children', 'child', and 'bacterial' as qualifiers. RESULTS Of the 512 studies on the subject, 19 were selected for review. The total number of children evaluated in the studies was 4,472, with a mean age of 7.5 years. As for the bacteria found in the secretions of tracheostomized children, 12 species of bacteria were more frequent, P. aeruginosa was the predominant bacterium, followed by S. aureus (63.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (57.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (47.3%), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (47.3%). CONCLUSION One of the main complications treated in tracheostomized patients were infections, since the respiratory system is colonized by several bacteria that can cause serious infections, which are associated with the formation of biofilms. The predominant bacterium in most of the studies was P. aeruginosa, and the second species commonly reported was S. aureus.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO Apesar dos benefícios, crianças traqueostomizadas estão suscetíveis a adquirir infecções respiratórias, pois o tubo se encontra em uma região estratégica, na qual existe colonização de diversas bactérias e formação de biofilme. O biofilme é formado quando as bactérias aderem fortemente às superfícies dos tubos, conferindo proteção contra diversos tipos de agressões, como o tratamento por antibióticos. OBJETIVO Realizar uma revisão de literatura dos últimos dez anos sobre pacientes pediátricos traqueostomizados, no intuito de caracterizar as bactérias isoladas em secreções traqueais de crianças, verificando-se quais são as mais frequentes. MÉTODOS Dois autores pesquisaram nas bases de dados do Lilacs, SciELO, Medline Plus e PubMed. Termos MeSH utilizados: tracheostomy e tracheotomy usados associados a infections, children, chlid e bacterial como qualificadores. RESULTADOS Dos 512 estudos relacionados ao tema, 19 foram selecionados para a revisão. O total de crianças avaliadas nos estudos foi de 4.472, com idade média de 7,5 anos. Quanto às bactérias encontradas nas secreções de crianças traqueostomizadas, 12 espécies de bactérias foram mais frequentes; P. aeruginosa foi a bactéria predominante, seguida de S. aureus (63,1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (57,8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (47,3%) e Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (47,3%). CONCLUSÃO Umas das principais complicações abordadas em pacientes traqueostomizados foram as infecções, já que o sistema respiratório é colonizado por diversas bactérias, que podem causar infecções graves, sendo estas associadas à formação de biofilmes. A bactéria predominante na maioria dos estudos foi a P. aeruginosa, e a segunda espécie comumente relatada foi a S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Trachea/microbiology , Tracheostomy/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(10): 1315-1322, oct. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058599

ABSTRACT

Tridimensional printing is becoming relevant in medicine, specially in surgical and interventional specialties. We review the technical aspects and clinical application of airway tridimensional printing. Using this technique, simulation models for bronchoscopy and models for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures such as stent design, tracheal reconstruction and airway models can be created.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory System , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Models, Anatomic , Prostheses and Implants , Prosthesis Design , Trachea , Stents , Simulation Training
20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(2): 204-222, mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007819

ABSTRACT

To explore the mechanistic basis behind smooth muscle relaxant prospective of Bismarckia nobilis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular ailments. The methanolic extract of B. nobilis and sub-fractions have been evaluated in vitro rabbit isolated tissues, in vivo castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and charcoal meal activity in mice. The B. nobilis extract relaxed spontaneous and K+(80 mM)- induced contractions in rabbit isolated jejunum preparations, CCh (1 µM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in tracheal and bladder preparations, PE (1 µM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced concentrations in aorta preparations, likewise verapamil. Spasmolytic activity of dichloromethane fraction is stronger as compared to aqueous fraction. In vivo castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and charcoal meal activity in mice further supported spasmolytic activity. B. nobilis extract possess anti-spasmodic, anti-diarrheal, airway relaxant and vasodilator activities possible mediated through calcium channel blocking mechanism, justifying therapeutic utility of B. nobilis in diarrhea, asthma and hypertension.


El objetivo de trabajo fue explorar el mecanismo de acción relacionado con el efecto relajante del músculo liso inducido por Bismarckia nobilis (B. nobilis) en enfermedades gastrointestinales, respiratorias y cardiovasculares. El extracto metanólico de B. nobilis y subfracciones fue evaluado in vitro en tejidos aislados de conejos. Además se evaluó diarrea in vivo inducida con aceite de ricino en ratas y la actividad de harina de carbón vegetal en ratones. El extracto de B. nobilis relajó tanto las contracciones espontáneas como las inducidas por K+(80 mM) en preparaciones de yeyuno aisladas de conejos, las contracciones inducidas por PE (1 µM) y K+(80 mM) inducidas en preparaciones de aorta; de manera similar a verapamilo. La actividad espasmolítica de la fracción de diclorometano es más potente en comparación con la fracción acuosa. La diarrea inducida in vivo por el aceite de ricino en ratas y la actividad de la harina de carbón vegetal en ratones apoyaron aún más la actividad espasmolítica. El extracto de B. nobilis posee actividades antiespasmódicas, antidiarreicas, relajantes de las vías respiratorias y vasodilatadoras, posibles a través del mecanismo de bloqueo de los canales de calcio, lo que justifica la utilidad terapéutica de B. nobilis en la diarrea, el asma y la hipertensión.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/pharmacology , Arecaceae , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Aorta/drug effects , Asthma/metabolism , Trachea/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Diarrhea/metabolism , Methanol , Hypotension/metabolism , Jejunum/drug effects , Muscle Relaxation/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects
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