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J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(4): 251-255, Oct.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528936


Introduction: Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) is a minimally invasive method for management of different proctologic conditions. Despite widespread use of this method, it is not used widely in Iran. This report is about to describe the application of TEM in managing different proctologic conditions in a tertiary colorectal referral center in Iran regarding methods and complications. Methods: All of the patients' documents such as procedure, method, early postop complications and further operations were actively reviewed and the data were entered in to the database. Results: Since 2012 till the end of 2020 chart review was done and 150 cases of TEM operation were found. The most frequent procedure that was done was resection procedure. Using different energy devices during surgery or suturing versus not suturing the defect were not associated with complication. There was a case of in hospital mortality and one case delayed perianal fistula following TEM. Measurement of lesion distance from anal verge was not significantly different using TEM or colonoscopy. Villous adenomas detected in colonoscopy were mostly associated with malignancy. In evaluated resected lesions most of cases had free base and distance from anal verge or using different energy devices were not associated with obtaining free base. Conclusion: TEM is a safe minimal invasive procedure with acceptable complications that could be helped in managing different proctologic conditions and the results of reviewing our patients revealed the same results that is reported from other colorectal centers. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Postoperative Complications , Colonoscopy
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1420055


La escisión mesorrectal transanal (TaTME: transanal total mesorectal escision) es la última de una larga lista de desarrollos técnicos y tecnológicos para el tratamiento del cáncer de recto medio y bajo. Incluso para los cirujanos colorrectales experimentados, lograr una escisión mesorrectal total (emt) de calidad en cirugía oncológica no siempre es sencillo, por la dificultad de obtener un adecuado acceso a la pelvis. Los estudios realizados han mostrado resultados comparables al abordaje laparoscópico, con tasas elevadas de escisiones mesorrectales completas y bajo porcentaje de margen circunferencial radial (CRM: circumferential radial margin) y distal positivos, con un adecuado número de ganglios resecados. Como toda técnica nueva, su implementación puede traer consecuencias no intencionales. La complejidad del abordaje, la dificultad en la identificación de nuevos repères y planos anatómicos, ha llevado a complicaciones graves como la lesión uretral o la siembra tumoral pelviana. Por ello, la comunidad quirúrgica ha retrasado la implementación masiva de la técnica y desarrollado estrategias de enseñanza y monitorización de este procedimiento para su realización en centros de alto volumen. El objetivo de esta publicación es presentar el primer caso de TaTME en un centro docente universitario y difundir en nuestra comunidad científica el fundamento de la técnica, sus indicaciones, describir los principales pasos técnicos, complicaciones, resultados oncológicos y funcionales.

Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) is the last of a long list of technical and technological developments for treatment of middle and low rectal cancer. Even for skilled colorectal surgeons, achieving a good quality total mesorectal excision (TME) in oncology surgery is not always simple, due to the difficulty of obtaining optimal access to the pelvis. So far, studies have shown similar results to laparoscopic surgery, with high rates of complete mesorectal excisions and low rate of circumferential radial margin (CRM) and distal margin with an appropriate number of resected lymph nodes. Like every new technique, its implementation can bring unwanted consequences. The complexity of the approach, the difficulty in the identification of new landmarks and anatomic planes, has led to serious complications such as urethral injury or tumoral seeding. This has made slowdown the massive implementation of the technique among the surgical community, addressing the need of developing training programs and mentoring of this procedure that belongs to high volume centers. The aim of this publication is to present the first case of TaTME in a teaching tertiary center and spread, in our scientific community, the principles of the technique, its indications, main technical steps, complications and functional and oncologic results.

A excisão mesorretal transanal (TaTME: transanal total mesorectal escision) é o mais recente de uma longa linha de desenvolvimentos técnicos e tecnológicos para o tratamento do câncer retal inferior e médio. Mesmo para cirurgiões colorretais experientes, nem sempre é fácil obter uma excisão total do mesorreto (EMT) de qualidade em cirurgia de câncer, devido à dificuldade de obter acesso adequado à pelve. Os estudos realizados mostraram resultados comparáveis ​​à abordagem laparoscópica, com altas taxas de excisões completas do mesorreto e baixo percentual de margem radial circunferencial positiva (CRM: circumferential radial margin) e distal, com número adequado de linfonodos ressecados. Como qualquer nova técnica, sua implementação pode ter consequências não intencionais. A complexidade da abordagem, a dificuldade em identificar novos repères e planos anatômicos, levou a complicações graves, como lesão uretral ou semeadura de tumor pélvico. Por esse motivo, a comunidade cirúrgica atrasou a implementação massiva da técnica e desenvolveu estratégias de ensino e acompanhamento desse procedimento para sua realização em centros de alto volume. O objetivo desta publicação é apresentar o primeiro caso de TaTME em um centro de ensino universitário e divulgar em nossa comunidade científica as bases da técnica, suas indicações, descrever as principais etapas técnicas, complicações, resultados oncológicos e funcionais.

Humans , Female , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986826


Transanal total mesorectal resection (taTME) has come a long way since it was first used in the clinic in 2010.The learning curve of this procedure is long due to different surgical approaches, different perspectives and different anatomical positions. Many surgeons experience complications during this procedure. Although the advantages and problems of this procedure have been reported in much literature, the anatomy and operation methods of taTME introduced in literatures and training centers are too complicated, which makes many surgeons encounter difficulties in carrying out taTME surgery. According to the author's experience in learning and carrying out this operation, spatial expansion process of ultralow rectal cancer was divided into three stages. At each stage, according to different pulling forces, three different schemes of triangular stability mechanics model were adopted for separation. From point to line, from line to plane, the model can protect the safety of peripheral blood vessels and nerves while ensuring total mesorectal excision . This model simplifies the complex surgical process and is convenient for beginners to master taTME surgical separation skills.

Humans , Rectum/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Proctectomy/methods , Postoperative Complications , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986816


Objective: To methodically assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of robot-assisted total rectal mesenteric resection (RTME), laparoscopic-assisted total rectal mesenteric resection (laTME), and transanal total rectal mesenteric resection (taTME). Methods: A computer search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Ovid databases to identify English-language reports published between January 2017 and January 2022 that compared the clinical efficacy of the three surgical procedures of RTME, laTME, and taTME. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the NOS and JADAD scales for retrospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials, respectively. Direct meta-analysis and reticulated meta-analysis were performed using Review Manager software and R software, respectively. Results: Twenty-nine publications comprising 8,339 patients with rectal cancer were ultimately included. The direct meta-analysis indicated that the length of hospital stay was longer after RTME than after taTME, whereas according to the reticulated meta-analysis the length of hospital stay was shorter after taTME than after laTME (MD=-0.86, 95%CI: -1.70 to -0.096, P=0.036). Moreover, the incidence of anastomotic leak was lower after taTME than after RTME (OR=0.60, 95%CI: 0.39 to 0.91, P=0.018). The incidence of intestinal obstruction was also lower after taTME than after RTME (OR=0.55, 95%CI: 0.31 to 0.94, P=0.037). All of these differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the three surgical procedures regarding the number of lymph nodes cleared, length of the inferior rectal margin, or rate of positive circumferential margins (all P>0.05). An inconsistency test using nodal analysis revealed no statistically significant differences between the results of direct and indirect comparisons of the six outcome indicators (all P>0.05). Furthermore, we detected no significant overall inconsistency between direct and indirect evidence. Conclusion: taTME has advantages over RTME and laTME, in terms of radical and surgical short-term outcomes in patients with rectal cancer.

Humans , Robotics , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Network Meta-Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Rectum/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Laparoscopy/methods , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010122


Although transanal endoscopic surgery has been developed for more than 40 years, it remains relatively unknown to most domestic colleagues. In 2019, the Chinese Society of Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (CSTa) and the Chinese Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (CSCRS) organized domestic experts to write and publish the "Chinese Expert Consensus on Transanal Endoscopic Surgery (2019 Edition)", which elaborated on the definition, surgical methods, indications, contraindications, basic principles, key issues and complications of transanal endoscopic surgery, and provided a certain theoretical foundation for the development of transanal endoscopic surgery in China. In the past four years, the scope of application of transanal endoscopic techniques has been expanded, and many prospective and retrospective clinical research have provided more evidence-based medical evidence. Therefore, the Chinese Society of Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (CSTa) once again organized domestic experts to write the "Expert Consensus and Operation Guidelines for Transanal Endoscopic Surgery in China (2023 Edition)", updating the expert consensus opinions on the definition, indications, complications and learning curve of transanal endoscopic surgery and adding operation guidelines. The aim is to promote the standardized practices in transanal endoscopic surgery and facilitate a shorter learning curve for surgeons.

Humans , Rectum/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Consensus , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(2): 159-166, Apr.-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394419


Introduction: The optimal rectal cancer care is achieved by a multidisciplinary approach, with a high-quality surgical resection, with complete mesorectal excision and adequate margins. New approaches like the transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) aim to achieve these goals, maximizing the sphincter preservation ratio, with good oncologic and functional results. This report describes a way to implement TaTME without a proctor, presents the first case series of this approach in a center experienced in rectal cancer, and compares the results with those of the international literature. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of the first 10 consecutive patients submitted to TaTME for rectal cancer at our institution. The primary outcomes were postoperative complications, pathological specimen quality and local recurrence rate. The results and performance were compared with the outcomes of a known structured program with proctorship and with the largest meta-analysis on this topic. Results: All patients had locally advanced cancer; therefore, all underwent neoadjuvant therapy. A total of 30% had postoperative complications, without mortality or re-admissions. In comparison with the structured training program referred, no differences were found in postoperative complications and reintervention rates, resulting in a similar quality of resection. Comparing these results with those of the largest meta-analysis on the subject, no differences in the postoperative complication rates were found, and very similar outcomes regarding anastomotic leaks and oncological quality of resection were registered. Conclusion: The results of this study validate the safety and effectiveness of our pathway regarding the implementation of the TaTME approach, highlighting the fact that it should be done in a center with proficiency in minimally invasive rectal surgery. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Postoperative Period , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome , Operative Time , Neoplasm Staging
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943034


Thanks to the new surgical approach, transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) has a better operative field exposure than laparoscopic-assisted total mesorectal excision (laTME), especially for male patients with obesity, pelvic stenosis or prostate hypertrophy. Nevertheless, whether the urogenital function and quality of life after taTME are better as compared to laTME requires further study. According to the existing studies, taTME and laTME are not significantly different in symptoms of the urology system for male patients, but some large sample clinical studies show that the incidence of urethral mechanical injury after taTME is higher. Unfortunately, there is no elaboration on that for females. The sexual function of male patients after taTME and laTME is both impaired. The sexual function of male patients will be relieved to different degrees over time, but there is no significant difference. Compared with laTME, taTME shows advantages in the sexual function for female patients. There is no significant difference in short-term urogenital system function between taTME and laTME at present. As a new surgical approach, the impact on urogenital system function after taTME is acceptable. However, whether there is a significant difference in urogenital function between taTME and laTME needs further research. In addition, functional results still need comprehensive evaluation, and preoperative baseline evaluation also needs to be enhanced. The functional evaluation for male and female should be carried out separately rather than confused. Questionnaire for evaluation of functional results also needs to be verified.

Female , Humans , Male , Laparoscopy/methods , Operative Time , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943029


Objective: To compare the short-term and long-term outcomes between transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) and laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (laTME) for mid-to-low rectal cancer and to evaluate the learning curve of taTME. Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort study. Firstly, consecutive patients undergoing total mesorectal excision who were registered in the prospective established database of Division of Colorectal Diseases, Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital during July 2014 to June 2020 were recruited. The enrolled patients were divided into taTME and laTME group. The demographic data, clinical characteristics, neoadjuvant treatment, intraoperative and postoperative complications, pathological results and follow-up data were extracted from the database. The primary endpoint was the incidence of anastomotic leakage and the secondary endpoints included the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and the 3-year local recurrence rate. Independent t-test for comparison between groups of normally distributed measures; skewed measures were expressed as M (range). Categorical variables were expressed as examples (%) and the χ(2) or Fisher exact probability was used for comparison between groups. When comparing the incidence of anastomotic leakage, 5 variables including sex, BMI, clinical stage evaluated by MRI, distance from tumor to anal margin evaluated by MRI, and whether receiving neoadjuvant treatment were balanced by propensity score matching (PSM) to adjust confounders. Kaplan-Meier curve and Log-rank test were used to compare the DFS of two groups. Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze and determine the independent risk factors affecting the DFS of patients with mid-low rectal cancer. Secondly, the data of consecutive patients undergoing taTME performed by the same surgical team (the trananal procedures were performed by the same main surgeon) from February 2017 to March 2021 were separately extracted and analyzed. The multidimensional cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart was used to draw the learning curve of taTME. The outcomes of 'mature' taTME cases through learning curve were compared with laTME cases and the independent risk factors of DFS of 'mature' cases were also analyzed. Results: Two hundred and forty-three patients were eventually enrolled, including 182 undergoing laTME and 61 undergoing taTME. After PSM, both fifty-two patients were in laTME group and taTME group respectively, and patients of these two groups had comparable characteristics in sex, age, BMI, clinical tumor stage, distance from tumor to anal margin by MRI, mesorectal fasciae (MRF) and extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) by MRI and proportion of receiving neoadjuvant treatment. After PSM, as compared to laTME group, taTME group showed significantly longer operation time [(198.4±58.3) min vs. (147.9±47.3) min, t=-4.321, P<0.001], higher ratio of blood loss >100 ml during surgery [17.3% (9/52) vs. 0, P=0.003], higher incidence of anastomotic leakage [26.9% (14/52) vs. 3.8% (2/52), χ(2)=10.636, P=0.001] and higher morbidity of overall postoperative complications [55.8%(29/52) vs. 19.2% (10/52), χ(2)=14.810, P<0.001]. Total harvested lymph nodes and circumferential resection margin involvement were comparable between two groups (both P>0.05). The median follow-up for the whole group was 24 (1 to 72) months, with 4 cases lost, giving a follow-up rate of 98.4% (239/243). The laTME group had significantly better 3-year DFS than taTME group (83.9% vs. 73.0%, P=0.019), while the 3-year local recurrence rate was similar in two groups (1.7% vs. 3.6%, P=0.420). Multivariate analysis showed that and taTME surgery (HR=3.202, 95%CI: 1.592-6.441, P=0.001) the postoperative pathological staging of UICC stage II (HR=13.862, 95%CI:1.810-106.150, P=0.011), stage III (HR=8.705, 95%CI: 1.104-68.670, P=0.040) were independent risk factors for 3-year DFS. Analysis of taTME learning curve revealed that surgeons would cross over the learning stage after performing 28 cases. To compare the two groups excluding the cases within the learning stage, there was no significant difference between two groups after PSM no matter in the incidence of anastomotic leakage [taTME: 6.7%(1/15); laTME: 5.3% (2/38), P=1.000] or overall complications [taTME: 33.3%(5/15), laTME: 26.3%(10/38), P=0.737]. The taTME was still an independent risk factor of 3-year DFS only analyzing patients crossing over the learning stage (HR=5.351, 95%CI:1.666-17.192, P=0.005), and whether crossing over the learning stage was not the independent risk factor of 3-year DFS for mid-low rectal cancer patients undergoing taTME (HR=0.954, 95%CI:0.227-4.017, P=0.949). Conclusions: Compared with conventional laTME, taTME may increase the risk of anastomotic leakage and compromise the oncological outcomes. Performing taTME within the learning stage may significantly increase the risk of postoperative anastomotic leakage.

Humans , Anastomotic Leak/etiology , Laparoscopy/methods , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Rectum/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Treatment Outcome
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(4): 431-434, Oct.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143171


ABSTRACT Introduction: Robotic transanal surgery (RTS) is the analog of TAMIS and represents a new focus for the advancement of transanal platforms robotic transanal surgery is sometimes referred to as robotic TAMIS. Though limited to only a few centers world-wide, experience with robotic transanal surgery has been encouraging. Most research with robotic transanal surgery has concentrated on local excision of rectal neoplasia, although more complex procedures such as transanal proctectomy are possible using the robotic approach. This article reports the surgical technique of R-TAMIS performed in the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA, Rio de Janeiro). Methods: 71-year-old, female with cardiologic disease (heart failure), with a 1.5 cm rectal neoplasm at 4 cm from the anal verge in the right anterolateral position. Biopsy revealed neuroendocrine tumor. A compete colonoscopy revealed no evidence of synchronous lesions. Work-up included 3D endorectal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, which demonstrated the lesion to be uT1uN0. The patient was counseled about surgical options − local excision versus low anterior resection. Due to the cardiologic condition, the patient was elected to proceed with local excision with robotic transanal surgery. Conclusion: Robotic TAMIS is a safe and effective operative procedure for high selected cases of rectal neoplasm. It enhances surgeon ergonomics and facilitates tumor removal and suture in the transanal approach.

RESUMO Introdução: A cirurgia transanal robótica (RTS,Robotic Transanal Surgery) é análoga da TAMIS (cirurgia minimamente invasiva transanal) e representa um novo foco para o avanço das plataformas transanais. A cirurgia transanal robótica é algumas vezes chamada de TAMIS robótica. Embora limitada a apenas alguns centros em todo o mundo, a experiência com a cirurgia transanal robótica tem sido encorajadora. A maioria das pesquisas com cirurgia transanal robótica tem se concentrado na excisão local da neoplasia retal, embora procedimentos mais complexos, como a proctectomia transanal, sejam possíveis utilizando a abordagem robótica. Este artigo relata a técnica cirúrgica de R-TAMIS realizada no Instituto Nacional do Câncer (INCA, Rio de Janeiro). Métodos: paciente de 71 anos, sexo feminino, com doença cardiológica (insuficiência cardíaca), com neoplasia retal de 1,5 cm a 4 cm da borda anal em posição anterolateral direita. A biópsia revelou tumor neuroendócrino. Uma colonoscopia completa não revelou evidências de lesões sincrônicas. A investigação incluiu ultrassonografia endorretal em 3D e ressonância magnética, que demonstrou que a lesão era uT1uN0. A paciente foi aconselhada sobre as opções cirúrgicas - excisão localversus ressecção anterior baixa. Devido à condição cardiológica, optou-se por proceder à excisão local com cirurgia transanal robótica. Conclusão: A TAMIS robótica é um procedimento cirúrgico seguro e eficaz para casos altamente selecionados de neoplasia retal. Ela melhora a ergonomia do cirurgião e facilita a remoção do tumor e a sutura na abordagem transanal.

Humans , Female , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/surgery , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(2): 157-161, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001545


Abstract Introduction: Endoscopic orbital surgery is a nascent field and new tools are required to assist with surgical planning and to ascertain the limits of the tumor resectability. Objective: We purpose to utilize three-dimensional radiographic reconstruction to define the theoretical lateral limit of endoscopic resectability of primary orbital tumors and to apply these boundary conditions to surgical cases. Methods: A three-dimensional orbital model was rendered in 4 representative patients presenting with primary orbital tumors using OsiriX open source imaging software. A 2-Dimensional plane was propagated between the contralateral nare and a line tangential to the long axis of the optic nerve reflecting the trajectory of a trans-septal approach. Any tumor volume falling medial to the optic nerve and/or within the space inferior to this plane of resectability was considered theoretically resectable regardless of how far it extended lateral to the optic nerve as nerve retraction would be unnecessary. Actual tumor volumes were then superimposed over this plan and correlated with surgical outcomes. Results: Among the 4 lesions analyzed, two were fully medial to the optic nerve, one extended lateral to the optic nerve but remained inferior to the plane of resectability, and one extended both lateral to the optic nerve and superior to the plane of resectability. As predicted by the three-dimensional modeling, a complete resection was achieved in all lesions except one that transgressed the plane of resectability. No new diplopia or vision loss was observed in any patient. Conclusion: Three-dimensional reconstruction enhances preoperative planning for endoscopic orbital surgery. Tumors that extend lateral to the optic nerve may still be candidates for a purely endoscopic resection as long as they do not extend above the plane of resectability described herein.

Resumo Introdução: A cirurgia orbital endoscópica é um campo emergente e são necessárias novas ferramentas para auxiliar no planejamento cirúrgico e determinar os limites da ressecabilidade tumoral. Objetivo: Usar a reconstrução radiográfica tridimensional para definir o limite lateral teórico de ressecabilidade endoscópica de tumores orbitais primários e aplicar essas condições de limites a casos cirúrgicos. Método: Um modelo orbital tridimensional foi aplicado a quatro pacientes representativos com tumores orbitais primários utilizando o software de imagem de fonte aberta OsiriX. Um plano bidimensional foi propagado entre a narina contralateral e uma linha tangencial ao eixo longo do nervo óptico que reflete a trajetória de uma abordagem transeptal. Qualquer volume de tumor situado medialmente ao nervo óptico e/ou dentro do espaço inferior a esse plano de ressecabilidade foi teoricamente considerado ressecável, independentemente de quão longe ele se estendia até o nervo óptico, pois a retração do nervo seria desnecessária. Os volumes reais do tumor foram então sobrepostos sobre esse plano e correlacionados com os resultados cirúrgicos. Resultados: Entre as quatro lesões analisadas, duas eram totalmente mediais ao nervo óptico, uma se estendia lateralmente ao nervo óptico, mas permaneceu inferior ao plano de ressecabilidade, e uma se estendia lateralmente ao nervo óptico e superior ao plano de ressecabilidade. Conforme previsto pelo modelo tridimensional, uma ressecção completa foi obtida em todas as lesões, exceto uma, que transgrediu o plano de ressecabilidade. Nenhuma nova diplopia ou perda de visão foi observada em qualquer paciente. Conclusão: A reconstrução tridimensional melhora o planejamento pré-operatório para a cirurgia orbital endoscópica. Os tumores que se estendem lateralmente ao nervo óptico podem ainda ser candidatos à ressecção puramente endoscópica, desde que não se estendam além do plano de ressecabilidade aqui descrito.

Humans , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Neoplasms/surgery , Orbital Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Optic Nerve/surgery , Software , Orbital Neoplasms/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Burden , Preoperative Period