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1.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (46): 54740, Jan.-Jun. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1550249

ABSTRACT

Resumo Introdução: As ações desenvolvidas na Atenção Primária à Saúde são um dos pontos fortes de combate à tuberculose. Nesse nível de atenção, o contato contínuo do enfermeiro por meio da consulta de enfermagem permite manter relação com a população adoecida. Diante da relação enfermeiro-pessoa cuidada para o estabelecimento do vínculo e adesão ao tratamento contra tuberculose, compreende-se a importância do referencial teórico de Imogene King para estruturar a interação enfermeiro-pessoa cuidada e oferecer uma dinâmica para esse processo. Objetivo: Analisar a relação enfermeiro-pessoa afetada pela tuberculose fundamentada na Teoria do Alcance de Metas de Imogene King. Método: Estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa, com 14 enfermeiros da APS, selecionadas por conveniência. A coleta de dados ocorreu de agosto a novembro de 2018, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, elaborada com base no Registro Meta-Orientado de Enfermagem de Imogene King. Os dados foram analisados de forme qualitativa pelo Software IRAMUTEQ. A pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética. Resultados: Após a análise, emergiram quatro classes: 1) relação estabelecida com base no acolhimento; 2) relação enfermeiro-pessoa com tuberculose e o apoio de outros profissionais e familiares; 3) relação estabelecida com vistas ao cumprimento do tratamento; e 4) relação estabelecida para enfrentamento do preconceito diante da tuberculose. Conclusão: O acolhimento, a família e o vínculo entre profissional, paciente e equipe da Atenção Primária à Saúde fortalecem o enfrentamento da doença e reforçam a adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso.


Resumen Introducción: Uno de los puntos fuertes de la lucha contra la tuberculosis son las acciones desarrolladas en la atención primaria de salud. En este nivel asistencial, el contacto continuo de las enfermerías a través de la consulta de enfermería permite mantener una relación con la población enferma. Frente a la relación enfermería-persona para el establecimiento del vínculo y la adherencia al tratamiento contra la tuberculosis, se entiende la importancia del referente teórico de Imogene King para estructurar la interacción enfermería-persona y ofrecer una dinámica para este proceso. Objetivo: Análisis de la relación entre el personal de enfermería y las personas afectadas por la tuberculosis, a partir de la teoría del logro de objetivos de Imogene King. Método: Estudio descriptivo con abordaje cualitativo, con 14 enfermeras de atención primaria de salud, seleccionadas por conveniencia. La recolección de datos ocurrió de agosto a noviembre de 2018, a través de una entrevista semiestructurada, elaborada con base en el registro meta-orientado de enfermería de Imogene King. Los datos fueron analizados cualitativamente utilizando el software IRAMUTEQ. La investigación fue aprobada por el Comité de Ética. Resultados: Después del análisis, surgieron cuatro clases: 1) relación establecida con base en la recepción, 2) relación enfermería-persona con tuberculosis y apoyo de otras personas profesionales y familiares, 3) relación establecida con miras al cumplimiento del tratamiento y 4) relación establecida para combatir los prejuicios contra la tuberculosis. Conclusión: La acogida, la familia y el vínculo entre profesional, paciente y equipo de atención primaria de salud fortalecen el afrontamiento de la enfermedad y refuerzan la adherencia al tratamiento farmacológico.


Abstract Introduction: One of the main aspects in the fight against tuberculosis are the actions developed in Primary Health Care (PHC). At this level of care, the nurse's continuous contact through the nursing consultation allows them to maintain a relationship with the sick population. Regarding the nurse-patient relationship for establishing a bond and the compliance with tuberculosis treatment, we understand the importance of Imogene King's theoretical framework for structuring the nurse-patient interaction and offering a dynamic for this process. Objective: To analyze the nurse-tuberculosis patient relationship based on Imogene King's Theory of Goal Achievement. Method: A descriptive study with a qualitative approach, with 14 PHC nurses, selected by convenience. Data were collected from August to November 2018 through semi-structured interviews based on Imogene King's Meta-Oriented Nursing Record. The data were analyzed qualitatively using the IRAMUTEQ software. The research was approved by the Ethics Committee. Results: After the analysis, four classes emerged: 1) relationship established on the basis of welcoming; 2) nurse-tuberculosis patient relationship and the support of other professionals and family members; 3) relationship established towards treatment compliance; and 4) relationship established to confront prejudice associated with tuberculosis. Conclusion: The welcoming, the family, and the bond between the professional, the patient and Primary Health Care team strengthen the coping with the disease and reinforce the compliance with the pharmacological treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Primary Health Care , Tuberculosis/nursing , Nurse-Patient Relations , Brazil
3.
Nursing (Ed. bras., Impr.) ; 27(310): 10167-10172, abr.2024. tab.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1560671

ABSTRACT

A tuberculose é uma das doenças mais antigas do mundo. Os fatores de vulnerabilidade social, individual, programática, permitem que a tuberculose fique em latência por vários anos no indivíduo. Objetivo: Analisar, por meio de dados secundários, incidência e protocolo de infecção latente de tuberculose no município de São Paulo. Método: Trata-se de revisão sistemática da literatura. Em 29 de agosto de 2023, com a busca no Descritores em ciências da saúde: Tuberculose AND Infecção Latente, foram encontrados 4.527 artigos, após aplicação dos filtros: Base de dados LILACS e MEDLINE, texto completo, em Português, 2018 a 2023, restaram 38 documentos que foram submetidos ao checklist PRISMA. Resultados: Restaram 16 artigos que embasaram os resultados e a discussão. Conclusão: Iniciativas, como a busca ativa de comunicantes de tuberculose, devem ser construídas a partir de estratégias propostas em conjunto com pesquisadores e gestores alinhados ao Ministério da Saúde.(AU)


Tuberculosis is one of the oldest diseases in the world. Social, individual and programmatic vulnerability factors allow tuberculosis to remain latent for several years in the individual. Objective: To analyze, using secondary data, the incidence and protocol of latent tuberculosis infection in the city of São Paulo. Method: This is a systematic literature review. On August 29, 2023, 4,527 articles were found after applying the filters in the Health Sciences Descriptors: Tuberculosis AND Latent Infection: LILACS and MEDLINE database, full text, in Portuguese, 2018 to 2023, 38 documents remained that were submitted to the PRISMA checklist. Results: 16 articles were found to support the results and discussion. Conclusion: Initiatives, such as the active search for tuberculosis communicants, should be built on strategies proposed jointly with researchers and managers in line with the Ministry of Health.(AU)


La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades más antiguas del mundo. Factores sociales, individuales y programáticos de vulnerabilidad permiten que la tuberculosis permanezca latente por varios años en el individuo. Objetivo: Analizar, a partir de datos secundarios, la incidencia y el protocolo de infección tuberculosa latente en el municipio de São Paulo. Método: Se trata de una revisión sistemática de la literatura. El 29 de agosto de 2023, fueron encontrados 4.527 artículos después de la aplicación de los filtros en los Descriptores de Ciencias de la Salud: Tuberculosis E Infección Latente: Base de datos LILACS y MEDLINE, texto completo, en portugués, 2018 a 2023, permanecieron 38 documentos que fueron sometidos a la lista de verificación PRISMA. Resultados: Quedaron 16 artículos, que constituyeron la base de los resultados y la discusión. Conclusión: Iniciativas como la búsqueda activa de comunicantes de tuberculosis deben construirse a partir de estrategias propuestas conjuntamente por investigadores y gestores en consonancia con el Ministerio de Salud.(AU)


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Latent Infection
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 58: 03, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536766

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To evaluate the performance of geneXpert MTB/Rif versus conventional methods (bacilloscopy and culture) in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in a Central Public Health Laboratory (LACEN, Tocantins), Northern Brazil. METHODS Retrospective study, with information from 1,973 suspected cases of tuberculosis from patients treated from January 2015 to December 2020. RESULTS From the culture (reference standard), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the geneXpert MTB/Rif were 100%, 97%, 74%, 100%, and 97%, respectively, against 85%, 98%, 80%, 98%, and 97% of bacilloscopy. CONCLUSIONS The geneXpert MTB/Rif performed similarly to culture and better than bacilloscopy. Although positive cases with negative culture should be evaluated with caution, its routine use is important for the early detection of tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
5.
Health sci. dis ; 25(2 suppl 1): 48-52, 2024. tables, figures
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1526746

ABSTRACT

Introduction. La tuberculose est dite multifocale (TMF) lorsqu ́il y a l ́atteinte d ́au moins deux sites extra pulmonaires non contigus associée ou non à une atteinte pulmonaire. Cette étude avait pour but d'étudier les aspects épidémiologiques, diagnostics et évolutifs de la TMF au service de pneumo-phtisiologie du CHU-RN de N'Djamena. Matériels et méthode. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective à visée descriptive de 5 ans allant de janvier 2018 à décembre 2022. Les variables étudiées étaient, épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutives. Résultats. Au total, 185 patients étaient inclus sur 2001 cas de tuberculose, soit une fréquence de 9,24%. L'âge moyen était de 34,1 ans avec des extrêmes de 16 ans et 75 ans. Le sex-ratio était de 1,28. Les patients sans-emploi étaient majoritaire soit 47% des cas. La notion de contage tuberculeux représentait 13,5% des cas, et 66,5% des patients étaient vaccinés au BCG avec une séroprévalence VIH de 54,6%. Tous les signes habituels de la tuberculose étaient présents. La localisation pulmonaire était la plus représentée (66,2%) suivie de la localisation ganglionnaire (48,6%). Dans 80% des cas, la localisationétait bifocale. La mortalité était de 21,6% pour un séjour moyen d'hospitalisation de 20,26 jours. Conclusion. La tuberculose multifocale est une forme rare et grave, qui survient généralement chez les patients infectés par le VIH, mais le sujet immunocompétent peut être aussi touché. Un traitement antituberculeux doit être instauré le plus rapidement possible afind'éviter les complications


Introduction. Tuberculosisis called multifocal (TMF) when there is involvement of at least two non-contiguous extrapulmonary sites, whether or notassociated with pulmonary involvement. This study aimed to study the epidemiological, diagnostic and evolutionary aspects of FMT in the pneumo-phthisiology department of the CHU-RN of N'Djamena. Materials and method. This was a 5-year retrospective study with a descriptive aim from January 2018 to December 2022. The variables studied were epidemiological, clinical and progressive. Results. In total, 185 patients were included out of 2001 cases of tuberculosis, i.e. a frequency of 9.24%. The average age was 34.1 years with extremes of 16 and 75 years. The sex ratio was 1.28. Unemployed patients were the majority, i.e. 47% of cases. The notion of tuberculosis contagion represented 13.5% of cases, and 66.5% of patients were vaccinated with BCG with an HIV seroprevalence of 54.6%. All the usual signs of tuberculosis were present. The pulmonary location was the most represented (66.2%) followed by the lymph node location (48.6%). In 80% of cases, bifocal localization. Mortality was 21.6% for an average hospital stay of 20.26 days. Conclusion.Multifocal tuberculosis is a rare and serious form, which generally occurs in patients infected with HIV, but immunocompetent subjects can also be affected. Anti-tuberculosis treatment must be started as quickly as possible to avoid complications.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Disease Progression , Tuberculosis, Extrapulmonary , Epidemiology , Diagnosis
6.
Goiânia; SES/GO; 2024. 1-29 p. graf, tab, map.(Situação epidemiológica e operacional da tuberculose no Estado de Goiás).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1552979

ABSTRACT

A tuberculose é uma doenças causada por uma bactéria denominada Mycobacterium tuberculoses ou Bacilo de Koch. Estima-se que a bactéria causadora tenha evoluído há 15.000 ou 20.000 anos, a partir de outras bactérias do gênero Mycobacterium.Esse relatório tem o objetivo de apresentar e descrever a situação epidemiológica e operacional da tuberculose no Estado de Goiás com os dados da base de dados referentes aos casos notificados atpe o ano de 2023. Foram utilizados as bases de ddos do Sistema de Informaçãoes de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN-NET), do Sistema de Informação de Tratamentos Especiais para Tuberculose (SITE-TB) e do Sistema de Notificação dos casos de Infecção Latente de Tuberculose (SILT)


Tuberculosis is a disease caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Koch's Bacillus. It is estimated that the causative bacteria evolved 15,000 or 20,000 years ago, from other bacteria of the Mycobacterium genus. This report aims to present and describe the epidemiological and operational situation of tuberculosis in the State of Goiás with data from the database data referring to cases reported up to the year 2023. The databases of the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN-NET), the Special Treatments Information System for Tuberculosis (SITE-TB) and the Notification System were used. of cases of Latent Tuberculosis Infection (SILT)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/classification , Tuberculosis/mortality , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Extrapulmonary/epidemiology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013409

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#The Philippines faces challenges in the screening of tuberculosis (TB), one of them being the shortage in the health workforce who are skilled and allowed to screen TB. Deep learning neural networks (DLNNs) have shown potential in the TB screening process utilizing chest radiographs (CXRs). However, local studies on AIbased TB screening are limited. This study evaluated qXR3.0 technology's diagnostic performance for TB screening in Filipino adults aged 15 and older. Specifically, we evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of qXR3.0 compared to radiologists' impressions and determined whether it meets the World Health Organization (WHO) standards.@*Methods@#A prospective cohort design was used to perform a study on comparing screening and diagnostic accuracies of qXR3.0 and two radiologist gradings in accordance with the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD). Subjects from two clinics in Metro Manila which had qXR 3.0 seeking consultation at the time of study were invited to participate to have CXRs and sputum collected. Radiologists' and qXR3.0 readings and impressions were compared with respect to the reference standard Xpert MTB/RiF assay. Diagnostic accuracy measures were calculated. @*Results@#With 82 participants, qXR3.0 demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 72.7% specificity with respect to the reference standard. There was a strong agreement between qXR3.0 and radiologists' readings as exhibited by the 0.7895 (between qXR 3.0 and CXRs read by at least one radiologist), 0.9362 (qXR 3.0 and CXRs read by both radiologists), and 0.9403 (qXR 3.0 and CXRs read as not suggestive of TB by at least one radiologist) concordance indices. @*Conclusions@#qXR3.0 demonstrated high sensitivity to identify presence of TB among patients, and meets the WHO standard of at least 70% specificity for detecting true TB infection. This shows an immense potential for the tool to supplement the shortage of radiologists for TB screening in the country. Future research directions may consider larger sample sizes to confirm these findings and explore the economic value of mainstream adoption of qXR 3.0 for TB screening.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Deep Learning
8.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3690, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1424039

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to analyze the prevalence of tuberculosis, coronavirus, chronic conditions and vulnerabilities among migrants and refugees in Brazil. Method: this is a cross-sectional study of the electronic survey type conducted with international migrants during the COVID-19 pandemic. Descriptive statistics was applied for the analysis, with calculation of position and dispersion measures. Regarding the categorical variables, relative and absolute frequencies were estimated. Results: the study participants were 553 migrants and refugees, verifying 3.07%, 7.2% and 27.3% prevalence of tuberculosis, COVID-19 and chronic conditions, respectively. Among the vulnerabilities, 32% reported unemployment, 37.6% moved to Brazil as a result of the social situation in their countries and 33.6% were living as refugees or sheltered people. Conclusion: tuberculosis, chronic diseases and COVID-19 presented higher prevalence values in migrants and refugees than in the general population. As this is a population group that still has significant difficulty accessing health services and social protection systems, based on diverse evidence, the study will subsidize public policies, Nursing care and the incorporation of new routines in the service.


Resumo Objetivo: analisar a prevalência de tuberculose, coronavírus, condições crônicas e vulnerabilidades entre migrantes e refugiados no Brasil. Método: trata-se de estudo transversal, do tipo inquérito eletrônico, realizado com migrantes internacionais durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Para a análise, aplicou-se estatística descritiva, com cálculo de medidas de posição e de dispersão. Quanto às variáveis categóricas, estimaram-se as frequências relativas e absolutas. Resultados: participaram do estudo 553 migrantes e refugiados, verificando-se prevalência de 3,07% de tuberculose, 7,2% de COVID-19 e 27,3% de condições crônicas. Entre as vulnerabilidades, 32% referiram desemprego, 37,6% mudaram para o Brasil em decorrência da situação social do seu país e 33,6% residiam em asilo e ou abrigo. Conclusão: a tuberculose, as doenças crônicas e a COVID-19 apresentaram maior prevalência em migrantes e refugiados que na população em geral. Por tratar-se de uma população ainda com grande dificuldade de acesso aos serviços de saúde e aos sistemas de proteção social, o estudo subsidiará, com base em evidências, as políticas públicas, o atendimento do enfermeiro e a incorporação de novas rotinas no serviço.


Resumen Objetivo: analizar la prevalencia de tuberculosis, coronavirus, condiciones crónicas y vulnerabilidades en inmigrantes y refugiados en Brasil. Método: se trata de un estudio transversal, del tipo encuesta electrónica, realizado con migrantes internacionales durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Para el análisis se aplicó estadística descriptiva, con cálculo de medidas de posición y dispersión. En cuanto a las variables categóricas, se estimaron las frecuencias relativas y absolutas. Resultados: participaron del estudio 553 inmigrantes y refugiados, la prevalencia de tuberculosis era del 3,07%, de COVID-19 del 7,2% y de condiciones crónicas del 27,3%. Entre las vulnerabilidades, el 32% reportó desempleo, el 37,6% emigró a Brasil por la situación social de su país y el 33,6% vivía en un asilo o albergue. Conclusión: la tuberculosis, las enfermedades crónicas y el COVID-19 fueron más prevalentes en inmigrantes y refugiados que en la población general. Por tratarse de una población que aún tiene grandes dificultades para acceder a los servicios de salud y sistemas de protección social, el estudio contribuirá, con base en la evidencia, a las políticas públicas, la atención de enfermería y la incorporación de nuevas rutinas en el servicio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Refugees , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emigrants and Immigrants , COVID-19/epidemiology
9.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(4): 253-262, Diciembre 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518676

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Marianao históricamente ha sido un municipio de La Habana con alta carga de tuberculosis. Una nueva mirada sería importante.


Introduction: Marianao has historically been a municipality of Havana with a high bur-den of tuberculosis. A new look would be important.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Public Health , Epidemiological Monitoring , Socioeconomic Factors , Incidence , Prevalence , Cuba/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Sociodemographic Factors , Health Policy
10.
Med. infant ; 30(4): 346-357, Diciembre 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1524214

ABSTRACT

La Atención farmacéutica (AF) ayuda a los pacientes a alcanzar objetivos terapéuticos reduciendo los problemas relacionados al medicamento (PRM). Objetivos: analizar los PRM en la práctica de la AF a pacientes con inmunodeficiencia adquirida (IDA) y/o tuberculosis (TBC) y evaluar su impacto. Método: estudio, descriptivo, observacional, en el área ambulatoria de Farmacia. Se incluyeron pacientes con IDA y/o TBC con: inicio de tratamiento, polifarmacia, reinternaciones frecuentes, regular/mala adherencia, reacciones adversas a medicamentos (RAM) previas y/o comorbilidades. Se entrevistaron pacientes o cuidadores y se registraron PRM, errores, grados de adherencia y conocimiento farmacoterapéutico, retiro oportuno de medicamentos y parámetros clínicos. Se registró la intervención farmacéutica y entregó material educativo. Se repitieron las mediciones en una segunda entrevista. Resultados: Se estudiaron 54 pacientes (28 con IDA y 26 con TBC). Se realizaron 93 intervenciones (29.9% dirigidas al prescriptor, 27.8% a otros profesionales) y se detectaron 8 RAM y 53 errores (28 IDA y 25 TBC), el principal PRM fue la mala/regular adherencia con bajo porcentaje de conocimiento farmacoterapéutico completo. Después de la AF, en IDA el grado de adherencia tuvo una mejora estadísticamente significativa (p= 0.012), también fue significativa la mejora en el retiro oportuno de la medicación (28.6% a 71.4% p=0.005 IDA). Se obtuvieron resultados favorables de carga viral (CV) en 72% pacientes con IDA y aumento de peso en 92% pacientes con TBC, aunque no fueron estadísticamente significativos. Conclusiones: mediante AF se mejoró la adherencia y la comunicación en pacientes pediátricos con IDA y/o TBC (AU)


Pharmacovigilance (PV) helps patients achieve therapeutic goals by reducing drug-related problems (DRP). Objectives: to analyze DRPs in the practice of PV in patients with acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS) and/or tuberculosis (TB) and to evaluate its impact. Methods: A descriptive, observational study was conducted in the outpatient pharmacy area. Patients with AIDS and/or TB with: treatment initiation, polypharmacy, frequent readmissions, regular/poor adherence, previous adverse drug reactions (ADR) and/or comorbidities were included. Patients or caregivers were interviewed, and DRP, errors, adherence and pharmacotherapeutic knowledge, timely drug withdrawal, and clinical parameters were recorded. The pharmaceutical intervention was recorded and educational material was delivered. Measurements were repeated in a second interview. Results: We studied 54 patients (28 with AIDS and 26 with TB). Ninety-three interventions were performed (29.9% addressed to the drug prescriber, 27.8% to other professionals) and 8 ADRs and 53 errors were detected (28 AIDS and 25 TB). The main DRP was poor/regular adherence together with a low level of complete pharmacotherapeutic knowledge. After PV, in patients with AIDS the degree of adherence statistically significantly improved (p= 0.012). The improvement in timely medication withdrawal was also significant (28.6% vs. 71.4% p=0.005 AID). Favorable viral load results were obtained in 72% of patients with AIDS and weight gain in 92% of patients with TB, although they were not statistically significant. Conclusions: PV improved adherence and communication in pediatric patients with AIDS and/or TB (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Pharmacovigilance , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Hospitals, Pediatric , Medication Errors , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Interview
11.
Rev Enferm UFPI ; 12(1): e3640, 2023-12-12. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1525423

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar as contribuições de enfermeiros no processo de adesão ao tratamento da tuberculose. Métodos: Revisão integrativa nas bases de dados Cumulative Index toNursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline completeEbsco, PubMed Central, Science Direct,Scopuse Web of Sciencea partir da utilização dos descritores Patient Compliance, Medication adherence, Treatment adherence and compliance, Tuberculosise Nurse's Role. Resultados: A partir dos artigos que compuseram a amostra final, as contribuições de enfermeiros no processo de adesão que emergiram consistiram em aconselhamento, visitas domiciliares, uso de tecnologias e de programas, tais como o Tratamento Diretamente Observado, supervisão por vídeo e suporte social. Conclusão: O enfermeiro é um profissional que contribui na implementação desses métodos. O uso de tecnologia sem fio adicionada aos métodos eletrônicos é promissor e pode significar um grande avanço, uma vez que a supervisão direta não vem se mostrando viável e factível em diversas realidades. Descritores: Tuberculose; Cooperação do Paciente; Adesão à Medicação; Enfermagem; Saúde Pública


Objective: To identify the contributions of nurses in the process of adherence to tuberculosis treatment. Methods: Integrative review in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline complete Ebsco, PubMed Central, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science databases using the descriptors Patient Compliance, Medication adherence, Treatment adherence and compliance, Tuberculosis and Nurse's Role. Results: From the articles that composed the final sample, the contributions of nurses in the adherence process that emerged consisted of counseling, home visits, use of technologies and programs such as Directly Observed Treatment, video supervision and social support. Conclusion: Nurses are professionals who contribute to the implementation of these methods. The use of wireless technology added to electronic methods is promising and can mean a great advance, since direct supervision has not been economically viable and feasible in several realities.Descriptors:Tuberculosis; Patient cooperation; Adherence to medication; Nursing; Public health


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Public Health , Nursing , Patient Compliance , Medication Adherence
12.
Medicina (Ribeirao Preto, Online) ; 56(3)nov. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551176

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the dynamics of the health system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in a metropolitan region of a Northeast Brazilian state. Methods: Ecological time series study conducted in São Luís, Maranhão State, Northeast region of Brazil. The study population was composed of tuberculosis cases notified in the Notifiable Dis-eases Information System (SINAN) in the period from 2010 to 2020. The descriptive statistics of the cases was performed using absolute and relative frequency measures, and Pearson's Chi-square test was used to compare the frequencies between the cases notified in Primary Health Care (PHC) and hospital units and the sociodemographic and clinical characterization. For time series analysis, the Prais-Winsten autoregression model was used, followed by the decomposition method called Seasonal-Trend decomposition using LOESS (STL), ending with the time trend prediction for the next years. The data were analyzed using the resources of the computer programs named Sta-ta, version 17 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) and R, version 3.5.2 (R Core Team, 2020). Results: A total of 7,948 cases diagnosed with tuberculosis were notified, of which 1,608 were notified in Primary Care units and 6,340 in hospital units. The Chi-square test resulted in a relative frequency calculated considering the total number of patients who had results from each examination with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Conclusion: It was possible to observe different time trends between diagnoses performed by PHC and hospitals. In the time analysis and modeling, there was an increase in cases notified in PHC and stationary in hospitals; how-ever, in the time modeling, there was a reduction in the number of cases in hospital (AU).


Objetivo: Analisar a dinâmica do sistema de saúde para o diagnóstico de tuberculose em região metropolitana de um estado do nordeste brasileiro. Métodos: Estudo ecológico de série temporal realizado em São Luís, no Estado do Maranhão, região Nordeste do Brasil. A população do estudo foi composta casos de tuberculose notificados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) no período de 2010 a 2020. A estatística descritiva dos casos foi realizada utilizando medidas de frequência absoluta e relativa e o teste Qui­quadrado de Pearson foi utilizado para comparar as frequências entre os casos notificados em unidades de Atenção Primária a Saúde (APS) e hospitalares e a caracterização sociodemográfica e clínica. Para análise da série temporal, recorreu-se ao modelo de autorregressão Prais­Winsten, seguido do método de decomposição denominado Seasonal­Trend using Loess (STL), finalizando com a previsão da tendência temporal para os próximos anos. Os dados foram analisados utilizando os recursos do software Stata versão 17 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) e R versão 3.5.2 (R Core Team, 2020). Resultados: Foram notificados 7.948 casos com diagnóstico de tuberculose, sendo 1.608 notificados em unidades de Atenção Primária e 6.340 em unidades Hospitalares. O teste Qui­quadrado resultou na frequência relativa calculada considerando o total de paciente que possuíam resultados de cada exame com diferenças estatisticamente significantes (p < 0,05). Conclusão: Foi possível observar tendência temporal diferenciada entre o diagnóstico realizado pela APS e hospitais. Na análise e modelagem temporal houve aumento nos casos notificados na APS e estacionário nos hospitais, entretanto, na modelagem temporal houve redução do número de casos nos hospitai (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis , Time Series Studies
13.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(3): [163-171], sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1510792

ABSTRACT

Ejecutar procesos efectivos de búsqueda de casos de tuberculosis es crucial para acele-rar el paso hacia su eliminación. El empeoramiento de las condiciones económicas mun-diales y nacionales no nos permite aplicar extensivamente las tecnologías rápidas mo-leculares idóneas de diagnóstico. Consideramos sensato entonces aplicar algoritmos alternativos que satisfagan las necesidades nacionales presentes hasta que las condi-ciones permitan la cobertura completa de las tecnologías moleculares recomendadas. Sugerimos introducir la radiografía digital para todos los algoritmos, utilizar mejor la microscopía de fluorescencia LED y la óptica convencional ya probadas. En conclusión, es preciso que este enfoque de trabajo, que procura optimizar la efectividad y eficiencia del programa, se introduzca en la práctica cotidiana hasta que lo idóneo sea permisible


Executing effective tuberculosis case-finding processes is crucial to accelerate the path towards elimination of the disease. The worsening of global and national economic conditions do not allow us to extensively apply rapid molecular diagnostic technolo-gies. We consider it sensible and necessary to apply alternative algorithms that meet the current national needs, until conditions allow full coverage of the recommended molecular technologies. We suggest introducing digital X-rays for all algorithms, bet-ter use of LED fluorescence microscopy and conventional optics already appropriate-ly tested. In conclusion, it is necessary that this approach that seeks to optimize the effectiveness and efficiency of the Cuban program be introduced into daily practice until the ideal is permissible


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Public Health , Economic Factors , Microscopy, Electron , Radiography, Thoracic , Radiographic Image Enhancement , Cuba , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods
14.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(3): 171-179, jul.-set. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532009

ABSTRACT

Justifications and Objectives: the use of digital health, among people diagnosed with tuberculosis, can be an effective strategy, combined with health services, to increase adherence to treatment and impact the disease's epidemiological data in the country. As this topic has been widely discussed and improved in recent years, it is necessary to further investigate the research available on scientific bases. The objective of this study was to describe the use of digital health technologies to assist with adherence to tuberculosis treatment. Methods: this is a systematic literature review with a rapid review approach, following the PRISMA guidelines and the Cochrane guide. Evidence quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The studies were identified in PubMed, VHL, CINAHL, Cochrane Trial, SciELO, Scopus and Embase. Experimental, quasi-experimental studies and clinical trials were included, without language restrictions, published between 2020 and 2022. Content: nine studies were selected, which demonstrated that the implementation of digital technologies improved adherence rates to medication treatment and cure rates. Applications use strategies such as synchronous and asynchronous video, voice calls and text messages. Among the studies, only two technology/application names were mentioned. Conclusion: digital technologies have had a positive impact on the treatment of people diagnosed with tuberculosis.(AU)


Justificativas e Objetivos: a utilização da saúde digital, junto às pessoas diagnosticadas com a tuberculose, pode ser uma estratégia eficaz, aliada dos serviços de saúde, para aumentar a adesão ao tratamento e impactar os dados epidemiológicos da doença no país. Como esse tema tem sido amplamente discutido e aprimorado nos últimos anos, é necessário investigar mais a fundo as pesquisas disponíveis nas bases científicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o uso de tecnologias em saúde digital para auxiliar na adesão ao tratamento da tuberculose. Método: trata-se de revisão sistemática da literatura com abordagem de revisão rápida, seguindo as diretrizes do PRISMA e o guia da Cochrane. A qualidade das evidências foi realizada utilizando a ferramenta Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Os estudos foram identificados nas bases de dados PubMed, BVS, CINAHL, Cochrane Trial, SciELO, Scopus e Embase. Foram incluídos estudos experimentais, quase-experimentais e ensaios clínicos, sem restrição de idioma, publicados entre 2020 e 2022. Conteúdo: foram selecionados nove estudos, que demonstraram que a implementação de tecnologias digitais melhorou as taxas de adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso e as taxas de cura. Os aplicativos utilizam estratégias como vídeo síncrono e assíncrono, chamadas de voz e mensagens de texto. Entre os estudos, apenas dois nomes de tecnologia/aplicativo foram mencionados. Conclusão: as tecnologias digitais têm impactado de forma positiva no tratamento das pessoas com diagnóstico de tuberculose.(AU)


Justificaciones y objetivos: el uso de la salud digital entre las personas diagnosticadas con tuberculosis puede ser una estrategia eficaz y aliada de los servicios de salud para aumentar la adherencia al tratamiento e impactar los datos epidemiológicos de la enfermedad en el país. 3. Método: se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura con un enfoque de revisión rápida, siguiendo las pautas de PRISMA y la guía de Cochrane. La calidad de la evidencia se evaluó utilizando la herramienta Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Los estudios se identificaron en las siguientes bases de datos: PubMed, BVS, CINAHL, Cochrane Trial, SciELO, Scopus y Embase. Se incluyeron estudios experimentales, cuasiexperimentales y ensayos clínicos, sin restricciones de idioma, publicados entre 2020 y 2022. Contenido: se seleccionaron nueve estudios que demostraron que la implementación de tecnologías digitales mejoró las tasas de adherencia al tratamiento con medicamentos y las tasas de curación. Las aplicaciones utilizan estrategias como video sincrónico y asincrónico, llamadas de voz y mensajes de texto. Entre los estudios, sólo se mencionaron dos nombres de tecnologías/aplicaciones. Conclusión: las tecnologías digitales han tenido un impacto positivo en el tratamiento de personas diagnosticadas con tuberculosis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Biomedical Technology , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Telemedicine , Systematic Review
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(3): 360-373, sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533947

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las tasas de éxito del tratamiento de la tuberculosis continúan siendo subóptimas. Objetivo. Identificar los factores asociados al tratamiento no exitoso para tuberculosis en pacientes con antecedentes de tratamiento para la tuberculosis. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo, analítico, de cohorte de pacientes que reingresaron a un programa de micobacterias en Cali, Colombia. Se incluyeron mayores de 15 años con tuberculosis pulmonar entre el 2015 y el 2019 con antecedentes de tratamiento para la tuberculosis. Se excluyeron los pacientes con tuberculosis resistente. Resultados. Ingresaron 605 pacientes con antecedentes de tratamiento, 60 % por tratamiento inconcluso y 40 % por recaída. En comparación con los pacientes que reingresaron por recaída (ORa= 2,34; IC=1,62-3,38), las variables que explicaron de manera independiente el no tener éxito con el tratamiento para la tuberculosis al egreso fueron: estar en situación de calle (ORa = 2,45; IC = 1,54-3,89), ser farmacodependiente (ORa = 1,95; IC=1,24-3,05), tener coinfección tuberculosis/VIH (ORa = 1,69; IC =1,00- 2,86) o diabetes (ORa =1,89; IC=1,29-2,77), y el incumplimiento de un tratamiento previo por pérdida de seguimiento, abandono u otras causas. Las variables programáticas que favorecieron el éxito del tratamiento fueron la asesoría de la prueba voluntaria de VIH (p < 0,001) y la realización de la prueba de VIH (p < 0,001). Conclusión. Estar en situación de calle, ser farmacodependiente, tener coinfección de tuberculosis y VIH, o diabetes, así como el incumplimiento del tratamiento previo por pérdida del seguimiento, abandono o fracaso del mismo, dificultaron el éxito del tratamiento antituberculoso. En la primera atención al reingreso de los pacientes con tuberculosis se deben identificar y abordar estas características.


Introduction. The success rates in the treatment of tuberculosis are suboptimal. Objective. To identify associated factors with the lack of success of antituberculosis treatment in patients with a tuberculosis treatment history. Materials and methods. We performed a retrospective, analytical, observational, and cohort study of patients reentering the Mycobacterium program in Cali, Colombia. We included patients over 15 years old with pulmonary tuberculosis between 2015 and 2019 and a history of tuberculosis treatment. Patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis were excluded. Results. A total of 605 patients with a treatment history were included, 60% due to unfinished treatment and 40% due to relapse. Compared to patients reentering due to relapse (ORa=2.34, CI=1.62-3.38), the independent variables associated with treatment failure at discharge were homelessness (ORa=2.45, CI=1.54-3.89), substance dependence (ORa=1.95, CI=1.24-3.05), tuberculosis/HIV coinfection (ORa=1.69, CI=1.00-2.86), diabetes (ORa=1.89, CI=1.29-2.77), and unfinished previous tuberculosis treatment due to follow-up loss, abandonment, or other causes. Programmatic variables favoring treatment success were voluntary HIV testing counseling (p<0.001) and HIV testing (p<0.001). Conclusion. Homelessness, substance dependence, tuberculosis/HIV coinfection, diabetes, and incomplete previous treatment due to loss to follow-up, abandonment, or treatment failure hindered the success of antituberculosis. These characteristics should be identified and addressed during the initial care of patients reentering treatment for tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Epidemiologic Factors , Communicable Disease Control , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Health Services Accessibility
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(4): 334-341, ago. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521846

ABSTRACT

El uso preventivo de antimicrobianos es de larga data y no se restringe a antibacterianos. Lo más consensuado y estructurado es la profilaxis antimicrobiana perioperatoria y ante procedimientos invasivos. Fuera de este contexto hay gran cantidad de situaciones, menos caracterizadas, con riesgo de infecciones en que se usan ampliamente, muchas veces con menor sistematización. Esta presentación presenta las bases conceptuales y operativas de este segundo tipo de profilaxis. Conceptualmente la profilaxis primaria pretende evitar la infección por agente único conocido o variados, por exposición ambiental o susceptibilidad específica de ese hospedero y es implementable antes o después de la exposición. Producida esta infección la meta de la profilaxis secundaria intenta evitar la enfermedad y puede tomar dos modalidades, en infecciones sin evidencias de enfermedad clínica o daños, la profilaxis corresponde a "tratamiento de infección latente" y, si aún en ausencia de manifestaciones clínicas, hay elementos de laboratorio precoces premonitorios de progresión, la profilaxis se denomina "tratamiento anticipatorio". Se presentan operacionalmente y resumidas las situaciones en contexto médico no invasivo con uso potencial preventivo de antimicrobianos en base a agentes posibles, situaciones ambientales de riesgo, vulnerabilidad del hospedero, medicamentos a usar, su duración y efectividad con enfoque mayoritario en medicina de adultos.


Antimicrobial use with preventive purpose probably began shortly after its therapeutic use, especially antibiotics. More consensus and sistematization exist with perioperative and invasive procedures prophylaxis. However, beyond that context, there is great number of non invasive medical situations with high risk of secondary infections either by acquisition of pathogens or activation of latent ones, in which antimicrobials are routinely used with preventive purpose, albeit with less sistematization and consensus. This presentation aims to lay down the conceptual and operational basis for antimicrobial prophylaxis in these settings, whose objective is preventing an infection (primary prophylaxis) by a known or a variety of pathogens, either by person to person transmission, enviromental exposure or particular susceptibility of the host, and can be implemented before or after exposure. If already infected, the antimicrobial prophylaxis goal is to avoid progression to disease (secondary prevention) and may take two conceptual approaches; first, without clinical disease but significant risk of progression, the modality can be called "treatment of latent infection". In the second, also clinically asymptomatic, but with premonitory laboratoy signs of impending progression present, early use of antimicrobial is called "preemptive treatment". This presentation will describe the most frequent medical situations where preventive use of antimicrobials is employed, together with the medications most consensually used, according to the host, the agent(s) and medical situation, with emphasis in adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infection Control/methods , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control
18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(4): e202202813, ago. 2023. mapas, graf, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1442590

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La tuberculosis continúa siendo un problema frecuente en contextos de vulnerabilidad socioeconómica. El objetivo principal fue establecer la prevalencia de infección latente y viraje tuberculínico en contactos escolares de casos de tuberculosis. Población y métodos. En un área programática del sur de la ciudad, se evaluó la prevalencia de infección y viraje tuberculínico de 691 niñas, niños y adolescentes utilizando la prueba cutánea de tuberculina. Se investigó la asociación entre pérdida de seguimiento por parte del equipo de salud y características demográficas, escolares y asistencia inicial, y se describió el grado de adherencia cuando la quimioprofilaxis con isoniacida fue indicada. Resultados. Según las definiciones consideradas, la prevalencia de infección latente fue entre el 3,4 % (IC95 %: 2,3-5,2) y el 11,6 % (IC95 %: 9,3-14,4) de los 610 contactos con al menos una prueba cutánea aplicada. La incidencia de viraje tuberculínico se encontró entre el 0,3 % y el 6,8 % de los 294 evaluados. La edad mayor de 18 años, la mayor prevalencia de necesidades básicas insatisfechas en la comuna escolar, la pertenencia al turno escolar vespertino, la negatividad en la baciloscopia del caso índice y la ausencia de aplicación de la prueba cutánea inicial se asociaron con pérdida de seguimiento del contacto. Conclusiones. La incidencia de viraje tuberculínico en contactos escolares fue baja. La adherencia a isoniacida continúa siendo limitada. Se identificaron factores asociados con la pérdida de seguimiento de contactos que podrían orientar estrategias necesarias para mejorar este proceso.


Introduction. Tuberculosis continues to be a common problem in settings of socioeconomic vulnerability. Our primary objective was to establish the prevalence of latent infection and tuberculin conversion among school contacts of tuberculosis cases. Population and methods. In a programmatic area in the south of the City of Buenos Aires, the prevalence of latent infection and tuberculin conversion was assessed in 691 children and adolescents using the tuberculin skin test. The association between loss to follow-up by the health care team and the demographic, school, and baseline care characteristics was studied, and the level of adherence when isoniazid chemoprophylaxis was indicated was described. Results. According to established definitions, the prevalence of latent infection was between 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3­5.2) and 11.6% (95% CI: 9.3­14.4) in the 610 contacts with at least one skin test. The incidence of tuberculin conversion was between 0.3% and 6.8% in the 294 assessed participants. Age older than 18 years, a higher prevalence of unmet basic needs in the school district, attending the afternoon school shift, negative sputum smear results in the index case, and absence of baseline skin test were associated with contact lost to follow-up. Conclusions. The incidence of tuberculin conversion among school contacts was low. Adherence to isoniazid treatment remains limited. Factors associated with loss of contact tracing were identified, which may guide strategies necessary to improve this process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculin , Tuberculin Test , Incidence , Prevalence , Isoniazid/therapeutic use
19.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 12(2): 366, ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1517339

ABSTRACT

Objetivo General: Establecer nivel de conocimiento sobre tuberculosis y vacuna, BCG., de padres y representantes, en Ambulatorio Gabriel Trompiz, Tucacas, Estado Falcón. Metodología: Es un estudio descriptivo de tipo transversal, con una muestra poblacional de 180 madres, padres y representantes entre octubre y diciembre de 2022. Se utilizaron encuestas, formularios elaborados y validados en estudios anteriores; la información fue procesada con el programa estadístico Microsoft Excel. Resultados: la mayor parte de la población respondió que la tuberculosis es una enfermedad producida por un virus, con respecto a la importancia de las inmunizaciones, un 20% desconocía la importancia de la vacunación. El 77% conocían información básica acerca de la vacuna BCG. En cuanto a las enfermedades prevenibles por esta vacuna, un 54% respondió que se trataba sobre la tuberculosis, mientras que casi la mitad de la población estudiada tenía la creencia que tenía que ver con el resfriado común. El 72% de la población considera que la fiebre es una contraindicación para la aplicación de la vacuna BCG. Se demostró que existía una gran desinformación con respecto a la vacunación en la población infantil en el medio rural venezolano(AU)


To establish the level of knowledge about tuberculosis and BCG vaccine., of parents and representatives in the Gabriel Trompiz outpatient clinic, Tucacas, Falcon State. Methodology: it is a descriptive cross-sectional study, with a population sample of 180 mothers, fathers and representatives between October and December 2022. Surveys, forms prepared and validated in previous studies were used, the information was processedwith the Microsoft Excel statistical program. Results: most of the population answered that tuberculosis was a disease caused by a virus, regarding the importance of immunizations, 20% were unaware of the importance of vaccination. 77% knew basic information about the BCG vaccine. Regarding the diseases preventable by this vaccine, 54% answered that it was about tuberculosis, while almost half of the population studied believed that it had to do with the common cold. 72% of the population considers that fever is a contraindication for the application of the BCG vaccine. It was demonstrated that there was a great amount of misinformation regarding vaccination in the child population in rural Venezuela(AU)


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , BCG Vaccine , Immunization Schedule , Pediatrics , Public Health , Disease Prevention , Sociodemographic Factors
20.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1520865

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A tuberculose é um importante problema de saúde pública e atinge de maneira dessemelhante os espaços geográficos. Objetivo: analisar a distribuição espacial dos óbitos por tuberculose no Maranhão (Brasil) e sua associação com indicadores socioeconômicos. Método: Estudo ecológico dos óbitos por tuberculose no Maranhão, no período de 2010 a 2015, com unidade de análise, os municípios. Utilizou-se o índice de Moran global, correlograma e espalhamento do índice de Moran e para avaliar a associação espacial de óbitos por tuberculose com os indicadores socioeconômicos foram ajustados diferentes modelos espaciais condicionais autoregressivos. Resultados: No período, foram notificados 949 óbitos por tuberculose. Identificou-se uma forte dependência espacial na ocorrência dos óbitos. Por meio do modelo autoregressivo ajustado, constatou-se que aproximadamente 12% dos municípios possuem mais que 75% de chance de ocorrer um óbito por tuberculose e que o norte e a parte central do Estado são as regiões que concentram as maiores probabilidades de óbito. Conclusão: Houve forte dependência espacial na ocorrência de óbitos por TB, sendo esta afetada pelas taxas das áreas vizinhas. O índice de desenvolvimento humano municipal esteve negativamente associado com a taxa de óbitos por tuberculose e a renda média per capita apresentou associação positiva.


Introducción: La tuberculosis es un importante problema de salud pública y afecta a diferentes áreas geográficas. Objetivo: Analizar la distribución espacial de las muertes por tuberculosis en Maranhão (Brasil) y su asociación con indicadores socioeconómicos. Método: Estudio ecológico de las muertes por tuberculosis en Maranhão con municipios como unidad de análisis, entre 2010 y 2015. Se utilizaron el índice global de Moran, el correlograma y la dispersión del índice de Moran. Además, para evaluar la asociación espacial de las muertes por tuberculosis con los indicadores socioeconómicos, se ajustaron diferentes modelos espaciales autorregresivos condicionales. Resultados: Durante el período, se reportaron 949 muertes por tuberculosis. Se identificó una fuerte dependencia espacial en la ocurrencia de muertes. Utilizando el modelo espaciales autorregresivos condicionales ajustado, se encontró que, aproximadamente, el 12 % de los municipios tienen más del 75 % de probabilidad de muerte por tuberculosis. Además, que el norte y centro del estado son las regiones con mayor probabilidad de muerte por tuberculosis. Conclusión: Existió una fuerte dependencia espacial de la ocurrencia de muertes por tuberculosis, la cual fue afectada por las tasas en las áreas vecinas. El índice de desarrollo humano municipal se asoció negativamente con la tasa de muertes por tuberculosis y el ingreso per cápita promedio mostró una asociación positiva.


Introduction: Tuberculosis is an important public health problem that affects different geographical areas. Objective: To analyze the spatial distribution of deaths from tuberculosis in Maranhão (Brazil) and its association with socioeconomic indicators. Method: Ecological study of tuberculosis deaths in Maranhão, from 2010 to 2015, using municipalities as the unit of analysis. The global Moran index, the correlogram, and the spread of the Moran index were used, and to assess the spatial association of tuberculosis deaths with socioeconomic indicators, different conditional autoregressive spatial models (CAR) were adjusted. Results: During the chosen period, 949 deaths from tuberculosis were reported. A strong spatial dependence was identified in the occurrence of deaths. Using the adjusted conditional autoregressive spatial model, it was found that approximately 12 % of the municipalities have more than a 75 % chance of death from tuberculosis and that the north and central parts of the state have the highest probability of death from tuberculosis. Conclusion: There was a strong spatial dependence on the occurrence of deaths from tuberculosis, which was affected by the rates in neighboring areas. The municipal human development index was negatively associated with the rate of deaths from tuberculosis and the average per capita income showed a positive association.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/mortality , Spatial Analysis , Brazil
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