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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010722

ABSTRACT

Tumor progression is closely related to tumor tissue metabolism and reshaping of the microenvironment. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a representative hypoxic tumor, has a heterogeneous internal metabolic environment. To clarify the relationship between different metabolic regions and the tumor immune microenvironment (TME) in OSCC, Single cell (SC) and spatial transcriptomics (ST) sequencing of OSCC tissues were performed. The proportion of TME in the ST data was obtained through SPOTlight deconvolution using SC and GSE103322 data. The metabolic activity of each spot was calculated using scMetabolism, and k-means clustering was used to classify all spots into hyper-, normal-, or hypometabolic regions. CD4T cell infiltration and TGF-β expression is higher in the hypermetabolic regions than in the others. Through CellPhoneDB and NicheNet cell-cell communication analysis, it was found that in the hypermetabolic region, fibroblasts can utilize the lactate produced by glycolysis of epithelial cells to transform into inflammatory cancer-associated fibroblasts (iCAFs), and the increased expression of HIF1A in iCAFs promotes the transcriptional expression of CXCL12. The secretion of CXCL12 recruits regulatory T cells (Tregs), leading to Treg infiltration and increased TGF-β secretion in the microenvironment and promotes the formation of a tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment. This study delineates the coordinate work axis of epithelial cells-iCAFs-Tregs in OSCC using SC, ST and TCGA bulk data, and highlights potential targets for therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Mouth Neoplasms/metabolism , Immunosuppression Therapy , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Gene Expression Profiling , Tumor Microenvironment
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009479

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is well characterized as a heterogeneous disease. Its late-stage diagnosis and chemotherapy resistance make it one of the refractory tumors in China. Natural killer (NK) cells play a significant role in immune surveillance. However, NK cells become dysfunctional in the progression of HCC, leading to tumor immune escape. This article reviews the recent progress on different strategies of NK cell-based immunotherapy in treating HCC, including direct adoptive NK cell transfer, gene engineering in NK cell, NK cell receptor targeting, immunosuppressive microenvironment modification, and tumor toxicity enhancement by cytokines or traditional Chinese medicine. These NK cell-based strategies have shown promising therapeutic potential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Immunotherapy , Killer Cells, Natural , Receptors, Natural Killer Cell , Tumor Microenvironment
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009478

ABSTRACT

Tumor aerobic glycolysis is one of the main features of tumor metabolic reprogramming. This abnormal glycolytic metabolism provides bioenergy and biomaterials for tumor growth and proliferation. It is worth noting that aerobic glycolysis will not only provide biological materials and energy for tumor cells, but also help tumor cells to escape immune surveillance through regulation of immune microenvironment, thereby resisting tumor immunotherapy and promoting tumor progression. Based on the pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma, this paper describes the characteristics of aerobic glycolysis, the effect of glycolytic metabolism on the immune microenvironment of renal cell carcinoma, the effect of glycolysis inhibitors on the immune microenvironment of renal cell carcinoma, and the prospect of glycolysis inhibitors combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/therapy , Immunotherapy , Glycolysis , Metabolic Reprogramming , Kidney Neoplasms/therapy , Tumor Microenvironment
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 421-430, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Artificial intelligence (AI) technology represented by deep learning has made remarkable achievements in digital pathology, enhancing the accuracy and reliability of diagnosis and prognosis evaluation. The spatial distribution of CD3 + and CD8 + T cells within the tumor microenvironment has been demonstrated to have a significant impact on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate CD3 CT (CD3 + T cells density in the core of the tumor [CT]) prognostic ability in patients with CRC by using AI technology.@*METHODS@#The study involved the enrollment of 492 patients from two distinct medical centers, with 358 patients assigned to the training cohort and an additional 134 patients allocated to the validation cohort. To facilitate tissue segmentation and T-cells quantification in whole-slide images (WSIs), a fully automated workflow based on deep learning was devised. Upon the completion of tissue segmentation and subsequent cell segmentation, a comprehensive analysis was conducted.@*RESULTS@#The evaluation of various positive T cell densities revealed comparable discriminatory ability between CD3 CT and CD3-CD8 (the combination of CD3 + and CD8 + T cells density within the CT and invasive margin) in predicting mortality (C-index in training cohort: 0.65 vs. 0.64; validation cohort: 0.69 vs. 0.69). The CD3 CT was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor, with high CD3 CT density associated with increased overall survival (OS) in the training cohort (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12-0.38, P <0.001) and validation cohort (HR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.05-0.92, P = 0.037).@*CONCLUSIONS@#We quantify the spatial distribution of CD3 + and CD8 + T cells within tissue regions in WSIs using AI technology. The CD3 CT confirmed as a stage-independent predictor for OS in CRC patients. Moreover, CD3 CT shows promise in simplifying the CD3-CD8 system and facilitating its practical application in clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Colorectal Neoplasms , Artificial Intelligence , Reproducibility of Results , Prognosis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Microenvironment
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 222-231, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage triggers cell cycle arrest and has a suppressive effect on the tumor microenvironment (TME). Wee1, a cell cycle regulator, can eliminate G2/M arrest by phosphorylating cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). Meanwhile, programed death-1/programed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PDL-1) blockade is closely related to TME. This study aims to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Wee1 inhibitor AZD1775 and anti-PD-1 antibody (anti-PD-1 Ab) on radiosensitization of hepatoma.@*METHODS@#The anti-tumor activity of AZD1775 and IR was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on human and mouse hepatoma cells HepG2, Hepa1-6, and H22. The anti-hepatoma mechanism of AZD1775 and IR revealed by flow cytometry and Western blot in vitro . A hepatoma subcutaneous xenograft mice model was constructed on Balb/c mice, which were divided into control group, IR group, AZD1775 group, IR + AZD1775 group, IR + anti-PD-1 Ab group, and the IR + AZD1775 + anti-PD-1 Ab group. Cytotoxic CD8 + T cells in TME were analyzed by flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#Combining IR with AZD1775 synergistically reduced the viability of hepatoma cells in vitro . AZD1775 exhibited antitumor effects by decreasing CDK1 phosphorylation to reverse the IR-induced G2/M arrest and increasing IR-induced DNA damage. AZD1775 treatment also reduced the proportion of PD-1 + /CD8 + T cells in the spleen of hepatoma subcutaneous xenograft mice. Further studies revealed that AZD1775 and anti-PD-1 Ab could enhance the radiosensitivity of hepatoma by enhancing the levels of interferon γ (IFNγ) + or Ki67 + CD8 T cells and decreasing the levels of CD8 + Tregs cells in the tumor and spleen of the hepatoma mice model, indicating that the improvement of TME was manifested by increasing the cytotoxic factor IFNγ expression, enhancing CD8 + T cells proliferation, and weakening CD8 + T cells depletion.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This work suggests that AZD1775 and anti-PD-1 Ab synergistically sensitize hepatoma to radiotherapy by enhancing IR-induced DNA damage and improving cytotoxic CD8 + T cells in TME.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/radiotherapy , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Apoptosis , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Cell Line, Tumor , G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Liver Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Tumor Microenvironment , Pyrazoles , Pyrimidinones
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 431-440, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Findings on the association of genetic factors and colorectal cancer (CRC) survival are limited and inconsistent, and revealing the mechanism underlying their prognostic roles is of great importance. This study aimed to explore the relationship between functional genetic variations and the prognosis of CRC and further reveal the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#We first systematically performed expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Then, the Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to filter out the survival-related eQTL target genes of CRC patients in two public datasets (TCGA and GSE39582 dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus database). The seven most potentially functional eQTL single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with six survival-related eQTL target genes were genotyped in 907 Chinese CRC patients with clinical prognosis data. The regulatory mechanism of the survival-related SNP was further confirmed by functional experiments.@*RESULTS@#The rs71630754 regulating the expression of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 ( ERAP1 ) was significantly associated with the prognosis of CRC (additive model, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.88, P = 0.012). The results of dual-luciferase reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the A allele of the rs71630754 could increase the binding of transcription factor 3 (TCF3) and subsequently reduce the expression of ERAP1 . The results of bioinformatic analysis showed that lower expression of ERAP1 could affect the tumor immune microenvironment and was significantly associated with severe survival outcomes.@*CONCLUSION@#The rs71630754 could influence the prognosis of CRC patients by regulating the expression of the immune-related gene ERAP1 .@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#No. NCT00454519 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ ).


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Genotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Quantitative Trait Loci , Colorectal Neoplasms , Tumor Microenvironment , Aminopeptidases/metabolism , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/genetics
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 130-139, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007670

ABSTRACT

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant tumor with a very poor prognosis; therefore, more effective treatments are urgently needed for patients afflicted with the disease. In recent years, emerging molecular classifications based on key transcription factors of SCLC have provided more information on the tumor pathophysiology, metastasis, immune microenvironment, and acquired therapeutic resistance and reflected the intertumoral heterogeneity of the various SCLC phenotypes. Additionally, advances in genomics and single-cell sequencing analysis have further revealed the high intratumoral heterogeneity and plasticity of the disease. Herein, we review and summarize these recent lines of evidence and discuss the possible pathogenesis of SCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Prognosis , Genomics , Phenotype , Tumor Microenvironment
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010111

ABSTRACT

Granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) are one of the main subgroups of MDSCs, which are widely enriched in most cancers. It can inhibit the killing function of T-lymphocyte through the expression of arginase-1 (Arg-1) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), reshape the tumor immune microenvironment, and promote the occurrence and development of tumors. In recent years, more and more studies have found that G-MDSCs are significantly correlated with the prognosis and immunotherapy efficacy of patients with non-small cell lung cancer, and the use of drugs specifically targeting the recruitment, differentiation and function of G-MDSCs can effectively inhibit tumor progression. This article reviews the immunosuppressive effect of G-MDSCs in non-small cell lung cancer and the progress of related pathway targeting drugs.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , T-Lymphocytes , Immunotherapy , Tumor Microenvironment
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#With the rise of multicolor flow cytometry, flow cytometry has become an important means to detect the immune microenvironment of lung cancer, but most of them are used to detect the proportion of cell subsets or the function of major cell subsets, and they cannot be detected at the same time. Therefore, a reliable 21-color flow cytometry protocol was established to detect the immune cell subsets in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor tissues.@*METHODS@#Cell membrane surface antibodies cluster of differentiation (CD)45, CD3, CD19, CD4, CD8, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), CD39, CD103, CD25, CD127, chemokine receptor 8 (CCR8), CD56, CD11c, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, CD38, CD27, CD69, CD62L, CD45RA, CCR7 and nucleic acid dye L/D were used to develop the protocol. Firstly, antibody titration experiments, voltage optimization, subtraction of one color staining and single color staining experiments were carried out for each antibody, and after the experimental conditions and detection schemes were determined, the feasibility of the scheme was verified by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) specimens of six healthy adult volunteers. Tumor tissue samples from 6 NSCLC patients were tested and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The established 21-color flow cytometry protocol was used to detect the tumor tissue samples of 6 NSCLC patients, and the proportion of each cell subset in lung cancer tissue, as well as the immunophenotype and differentiation of the main cell population, were analyzed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The successfully established 21-color flow cytometry protocol is suitable for the detection of PBMCs and NSCLC tissue samples, which provides an effective new idea for monitoring the immune microenvironment status in lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Flow Cytometry , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Lung/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
10.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 943-949, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010102

ABSTRACT

So far, the monoclonal hypothesis of tumor occurrence and development cannot be justified. The genetic diversity selection hypothesis for the occurrence and development of lung cancer links Mendelian genetics with Darwin's theory of evolution, suggesting that the genetic diversity of tumor cell populations with polyclonal origins-monoclonal selection-subclonal expansion is the result of selection pressure. Normal cells acquire mutations in oncogenic driver genes and have a selective advantage over other cells, becoming tumor initiating cells; In the interaction with the tumor microenvironment (TME), the vast majority of initiating cells are recognized and killed by the human immune system. If immune escape occurs, the incidence of malignant tumors will greatly increase, and subclonal expansion, intratumour heterogeneity, etc. will occur. This article proposed the hypothesis of genetic diversity selection and analyzed its clinical significance.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Clinical Relevance , Evolution, Molecular , Mutation , Tumor Microenvironment
11.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 934-942, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010101

ABSTRACT

Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are currently the first-line standard of care for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that harbor EGFR mutations. Nevertheless, resistance to EGFR-TKIs is inevitable. In recent years, although immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have significantly shifted the treatment paradigm in advanced NSCLC without driver mutation, clinical benefits of these agents are limited in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Compared with wild-type tumors, tumors with EGFR mutations show more heterogeneity in the expression level of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), tumor mutational burden (TMB), and other tumor microenvironment (TME) characteristics. Whether ICIs are suitable for NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations is still worth exploring. In this review, we summarized the clinical data with regard to the efficacy of ICIs in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC and deciphered the unique TME in EGFR-mutated NSCLC.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Immunotherapy , Mutation , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Tumor Microenvironment
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250556, 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360208

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are 30-120nm bio particles transferred from donor to recipient cells leading to modification in their regulatory mechanisms depending upon the coded message in the form of loaded biomolecule. Cancer cells derived exosomes the true representatives of the parent cells have been found to modify the tumor surrounding/distinct regions and participate in metastasis, angiogenesis and immune suppression. Tis study was aimed to study the effects of tumor mice derived exosomes on the normal mice spleen isolated T cells by using co-culture experiments and flow cytometer analysis. We mainly focused on some of the T cells population and cytokines including IFN-γ, FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and KI67 (proliferation marker). Overall results indicated random changes in different set of experiments, where the cancer derived exosomes reduced the IFN-γ expression in both CD4 and CD8 T cells, similarly the Treg cells were also found decreased in the presence of cancer exosomes. No significant changes were observed on the Ki67 marker expression. Such studies are helpful in understanding the role of cancer exosomes in immune cells suppression in tumor microenvironment. Cancer exosomes will need to be validated in vivo and in vitro on a molecular scale in detail for clinical applications.


Os exossomos são biopartículas de 30-120 nm transferidas de células doadoras para células receptoras, levando à modificação em seus mecanismos reguladores, dependendo da mensagem codificada na forma de biomolécula carregada. Verificou-se que exossomos derivados de células cancerosas ­ os verdadeiros representantes das células-mãe ­ modificam as regiões circundantes / distintas do tumor e participam da metástase, angiogênese e imunossupressão. Este estudo teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de exossomos derivados de camundongos com tumor nas células T isoladas de baço de camundongos normais, usando experimentos de cocultura e análise de citômetro de fluxo. Concentrou-se, principalmente, em algumas populações de células T e citocinas, incluindo IFN-γ, células T reguladoras FOXP3 + (Treg) e KI67 (marcador de proliferação). Os resultados gerais indicaram mudanças aleatórias em diferentes conjuntos de experimentos, em que os exossomos derivados de câncer reduziram a expressão de IFN-γ em células T CD4 e CD8, da mesma forma que as células Treg também foram encontradas diminuídas na presença de exossomos de câncer. Nenhuma mudança significativa foi observada na expressão do marcador Ki67. Esses dados são úteis para a compreensão do papel dos exossomos do câncer na supressão de células do sistema imunológico no microambiente tumoral. Exossomos de câncer precisarão ser validados in vivo e in vitro em escala molecular com detalhes para aplicações clínicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Exosomes , Tumor Microenvironment , Immune System , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008711

ABSTRACT

Regulation of tumor vessels has become one of the most common strategies for clinical anti-tumor therapy. In recent years, studies have found that the anti-tumor effect of limotherapy, which routinely inhibits tumor angiogenesis, is not ideal and may even deteriorate the tumor microenvironment, causing tumor resistance and distal metastasis and increasing the risk of tumor metastasis and recurrence. However, the proper use of anti-angiogenic drugs can promote the normalization of tumor vessels, improve the structure and function of tumor vessels, increase the number of functional vessels in the tumor, and reduce the number of ineffective vessels. It is beneficial to promote the penetration of anti-tumor drugs into the tumor, improve the microenvironment of tumor hypoxia and immunosuppression, and enhance the anti-tumor effect. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has a long history of understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of tumors and has accumulated rich experience in tumor treatment, with significant clinical advantages and broad application prospects. In this study, from the perspective of bidirectional "soothing" or "blockage" regulation of tumor vessels, the commonly used molecular targets were sorted out, and the research status of anti-tumor regulation of tumor vessels by monomer-single herb-compound(herb pair) of TCM in recent years was summarized. The research on the anti-tumor effects of TCM compounds and active ingredients by regulating tumor vessels combined with other therapies was analyzed and sorted out, so as to provide ideas for the clinical application of TCM in regulating functions and anti-tumor effects of tumor vessels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy , Tumor Microenvironment
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981554

ABSTRACT

Macrophages are important immune effector cells with significant plasticity and heterogeneity in the body immune system, and play an important role in normal physiological conditions and in the process of inflammation. It has been found that macrophage polarization involves a variety of cytokines and is a key link in immune regulation. Targeting macrophages by nanoparticles has a certain impact on the occurrence and development of a variety of diseases. Due to its characteristics, iron oxide nanoparticles have been used as the medium and carrier for cancer diagnosis and treatment, making full use of the special microenvironment of tumors to actively or passively aggregate drugs in tumor tissues, which has a good application prospect. However, the specific regulatory mechanism of reprogramming macrophages using iron oxide nanoparticles remains to be further explored. In this paper, the classification, polarization effect and metabolic mechanism of macrophages were firstly described. Secondly, the application of iron oxide nanoparticles and the induction of macrophage reprogramming were reviewed. Finally, the research prospect and difficulties and challenges of iron oxide nanoparticles were discussed to provide basic data and theoretical support for further research on the mechanism of the polarization effect of nanoparticles on macrophages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Macrophages/metabolism , Cytokines , Inflammation , Neoplasms/metabolism , Nanoparticles , Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles , Tumor Microenvironment
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2787-2801, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007614

ABSTRACT

As one of the most malignant tumors worldwide, lung cancer, fueled by metastasis, has shown rising mortality rates. However, effective clinical strategies aimed at preventing metastasis are lacking owing to its dynamic multi-step, complicated, and progressive nature. Immunotherapy has shown promise in treating cancer metastasis by reversing the immunosuppressive network of the tumor microenvironment. However, drug resistance inevitably develops due to inadequate delivery of immunostimulants and an uncontrolled immune response. Consequently, adverse effects occur, such as autoimmunity, from the non-specific immune activation and non-specific inflammation in off-target organs. Nanocarriers that improve drug solubility, permeability, stability, bioavailability, as well as sustained, controlled, and targeted delivery can effectively overcome drug resistance and enhance the therapeutic effect while reducing adverse effects. In particular, nanomedicine-based immunotherapy can be utilized to target tumor metastasis, presenting a promising therapeutic strategy for lung cancer. Nanotechnology strategies that boost the immunotherapy effect are classified based on the metastatic cascade related to the tumor immune microenvironment; the breaking away of primary tumors, circulating tumor cell dissemination, and premetastatic niche formation cause distant secondary site colonization. In this review, we focus on the opportunities and challenges of integrating immunotherapy with nanoparticle formulation to establish nanotechnology-based immunotherapy by modulating the tumor microenvironment for preclinical and clinical applications in the management of patients with metastatic lung cancer. We also discuss prospects for the emerging field and the clinical translation potential of these techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Tumor Microenvironment , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immunotherapy/methods
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2802-2811, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007612

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a major threat to human health and causes death worldwide. Research on the role of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of cancer is progressing; however, RT not only causes fatal DNA damage to tumor cells, but also affects the interactions between tumor cells and different components of the tumor microenvironment (TME), including immune cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, extracellular matrix, and some soluble products. Some cancer cells can survive radiation and have shown strong resistance to radiation through interaction with the TME. Currently, the complex relationships between the tumor cells and cellular components that play major roles in various TMEs are poorly understood. This review explores the relationship between RT and cell-cell communication in the TME from the perspective of immunity and hypoxia and aims to identify new RT biomarkers and treatment methods in lung cancer to improve the current status of unstable RT effect and provide a theoretical basis for further lung cancer RT sensitization research in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Fibroblasts/pathology , Biomarkers , Macrophages/pathology , Hypoxia , Tumor Microenvironment
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1783-1793, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007598

ABSTRACT

Organoids are three-dimensional cellular structures with self-organizing and self-differentiation capacities. They faithfully recapitulate structures and functions of in vivo organs as represented by functionality and microstructural definitions. Heterogeneity in in vitro disease modeling is one of the main reasons for anti-cancer therapy failures. Establishing a powerful model to represent tumor heterogeneity is crucial for elucidating tumor biology and developing effective therapeutic strategies. Tumor organoids can retain the original tumor heterogeneity and are commonly used to mimic the cancer microenvironment when co-cultured with fibroblasts and immune cells; therefore, considerable effort has been made recently to promote the use of this new technology from basic research to clinical studies in tumors. In combination with gene editing technology and microfluidic chip systems, engineered tumor organoids show promising abilities to recapitulate tumorigenesis and metastasis. In many studies, the responses of tumor organoids to various drugs have shown a positive correlation with patient responses. Owing to these consistent responses and personalized characteristics with patient data, tumor organoids show excellent potential for preclinical research. Here, we summarize the properties of different tumor models and review their current state and progress in tumor organoids. We further discuss the substantial challenges and prospects in the rapidly developing tumor organoid field.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Organoids/pathology , Carcinogenesis , Models, Biological , Precision Medicine/methods , Tumor Microenvironment
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2974-2982, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the biggest cause of gynecological cancer-related mortality because of its extremely metastatic nature. This study aimed to explore and evaluate the characteristics of candidate factors associated with the metastasis and progression of HGSOC.@*METHODS@#Transcriptomic data of HGSOC patients' samples collected from primary tumors and matched omental metastatic tumors were obtained from three independent studies in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected to evaluate the effects on the prognosis and progression of ovarian cancer using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Hub genes' immune landscapes were estimated by the Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) database. Finally, using 25 HGSOC patients' cancer tissues and 10 normal fallopian tube tissues, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to quantify the expression levels of hub genes associated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages.@*RESULTS@#Fourteen DEGs, ADIPOQ , ALPK2 , BARX1 , CD37 , CNR2 , COL5A3 , FABP4 , FAP , GPR68 , ITGBL1 , MOXD1 , PODNL1 , SFRP2 , and TRAF3IP3 , were upregulated in metastatic tumors in every database while CADPS , GATA4 , STAR , and TSPAN8 were downregulated. ALPK2 , FAP , SFRP2 , GATA4 , STAR , and TSPAN8 were selected as hub genes significantly associated with survival and recurrence. All hub genes were correlated with tumor microenvironment infiltration, especially cancer-associated fibroblasts and natural killer (NK) cells. Furthermore, the expression of FAP and SFRP2 was positively correlated with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, and their increased protein expression levels in metastatic samples compared with primary tumor samples and normal tissues were confirmed by IHC ( P = 0.0002 and P = 0.0001, respectively).@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study describes screening for DEGs in HGSOC primary tumors and matched metastasis tumors using integrated bioinformatics analyses. We identified six hub genes that were correlated with the progression of HGSOC, particularly FAP and SFRP2 , which might provide effective targets to predict prognosis and provide novel insights into individual therapeutic strategies for HGSOC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Gene Expression Profiling , Transcriptome , Tumor Microenvironment , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/therapeutic use , Tetraspanins/genetics , Protein Kinases , Integrin beta1/therapeutic use
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2621-2631, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The molecular mechanisms driving tumorigenesis have continually been the focus of researchers. Cuproplasia is defined as copper-dependent cell growth and proliferation, including its primary and secondary roles in tumor formation and proliferation through signaling pathways. In this study, we analyzed the differences in the expression of cuproplasia-associated genes (CAGs) in pan-cancerous tissues and investigated their role in immune-regulation and tumor prognostication.@*METHODS@#Raw data from 11,057 cancer samples were acquired from multiple databases. Pan-cancer analysis was conducted to analyze the CAG expression, single-nucleotide variants, copy number variants, methylation signatures, and genomic signatures of micro RNA (miRNA)-messenger RNA (mRNA) interactions. The Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer and the Cancer Therapeutics Response Portal databases were used to evaluate drug sensitivity and resistance against CAGs. Using single-sample Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (ssGSEA) and Immune Cell Abundance Identifier database, immune cell infiltration was analyzed with the ssGSEA score as the standard.@*RESULTS@#Aberrantly expressed CAGs were found in multiple cancers. The frequency of single-nucleotide variations in CAGs ranged from 1% to 54% among different cancers. Furthermore, the correlation between CAG expression in the tumor microenvironment and immune cell infiltration varied among different cancers. ATP7A and ATP7B were negatively correlated with macrophages in 16 tumors including breast invasive carcinoma and esophageal carcinoma, while the converse was true for MT1A and MT2A . In addition, we established cuproplasia scores and demonstrated their strong correlation with patient prognosis, immunotherapy responsiveness, and disease progression ( P  <0.05). Finally, we identified potential candidate drugs by matching gene targets with existing drugs.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study reports the genomic characterization and clinical features of CAGs in pan-cancers. It helps clarify the relationship between CAGs and tumorigenesis, and may be helpful in the development of biomarkers and new therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Genomics , Carcinogenesis , Carcinoma , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Nucleotides , Tumor Microenvironment
20.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 717-740, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007377

ABSTRACT

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with oncogenic driver mutations was previously deemed " forbidden territory" for immunotherapy. With the growing understanding of the impact of target drugs on the immune microenvironment and the continuous generation of clinical evidence, immunotherapy is expected to bring new hope for the NSCLC with oncogenic driver mutations. This consensus is updated based on the Chinese expert consensus on immunotherapy for advanced non-small lung cancer with oncogenic driver mutations (2022 edition), and developed by the consensus expert panel through symposiums, combining the latest medical evidence and clinical practice. After thorough discussion, the expert panel reached new consensuses on 3 clinical questions: in patients with ALK fusion who are progressing on tyrosine kinase inhibitor(TKI) therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs)-based treatment is not recommended; ICIs-based treatment is recommended for patients with HER-2 mutations; ICIs-based treatment is recommended for NSCLC patients with MET exon 14 skipping after resistance to the targeted therapy. At the same time, with the continuous accumulation of clinical evidence, the recommendation levels of the three consensus opinions were adjusted in this update: the recommendation of ICIs combined with anti-angiogenesis therapy for patients with extensive progression after EGFR-TKIs resistance was adjusted to the level of strong; the ICIs recommendations for patients with advanced KRAS mutant and BRAF mutant NSCLC were adjusted to the level of consistent and strong, respectively. This updated consensus, combined with the latest evidence and clinical experience widely recognized by the expert panel in the immunotherapy of driver gene mutation advanced NSCLC, aims to provide standardized guidance for the clinical practice in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Consensus , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Tumor Microenvironment , China
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