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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986889

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the safety and effectiveness of active migration technique and in situ lithotripsy technique in the treatment of 1-2 cm upper ureteral calculi by retrograde flexible ureteroscopy.@*METHODS@#A total of 90 patients with 1-2 cm upper ureteral calculi treated in the urology department of Beijing Friendship Hospital from August 2018 to August 2020 were selected as the subjects. The patients were divided into two groups using random number table: 45 patients in group A were treated with in situ lithotripsy and 45 patients in group B were treated with active migration technique. The active migration technique was to reposition the stones in the renal calyces convenient for lithotripsy with the help of body position change, water flow scouring, laser impact or basket displacement, and then conduct laser lithotripsy and stone extraction. The data of the patients before and after operation were collected and statistically analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The age of the patients in group A was (51.6±14.1) years, including 34 males and 11 females. The stone diameter was (1.48±0.24) cm, and the stone density was (897.8±175.9) Hu. The stones were located on the left in 26 cases and on the right in 19 cases. There were 8 cases with no hydronephrosis, 20 cases with grade Ⅰ hydronephrosis, 11 cases with grade Ⅱ hydronephrosis, and 6 cases with grade Ⅲ hydronephrosis. The age of the patients in group B was (51.8±13.7) years, including 30 males and 15 females. The stone diameter was (1.52±0.22) cm, and the stone density was (964.6±214.2) Hu. The stones were located on the left in 22 cases and on the right in 23 cases. There were 10 cases with no hydronephrosis, 23 cases with grade Ⅰ hydronephrosis, 8 cases with grade Ⅱ hydronephrosis, and 4 cases with grade Ⅲ hydronephrosis. There was no significant diffe-rence in general parameters and stone indexes between the two groups. The operation time of group A was (67.1±16.9) min and the lithotripsy time was (38.0±13.2) min. The operation time of group B was (72.2±14.8) min and the lithotripsy time was (40.6±12.6) min. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Four weeks after operation, the stone-free rate in group A was 86.7%, and in group B was 97.8%. There was no significant difference between the two groups. In terms of complications, 25 cases of hematuria, 16 cases of pain, 10 cases of bladder spasm and 4 cases of mild fever occurred in group A. There were 22 cases of hematuria, 13 cases of pain, 12 cases of bladder spasm and 2 cases of mild fever in group B. There was no significant difference between the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Active migration technique is safe and effective in the treatment of 1-2 cm upper ureteral calculi.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Hematuria/therapy , Ureteroscopy/methods , Lithotripsy/methods , Lithotripsy, Laser/methods , Hydronephrosis/complications , Pain , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies
2.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 164-168, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935596

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the effectiveness and safety of application of the ureteral access sheath in the treatment of middle or lower ureteral calculi in patients with large-volume benign prostatic hyperplasia above grade Ⅲ, which is expected to avoid the simultaneous or staged treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia via eliminate the difficult angle and resistance of ureteroscopy caused by severe prostatic hyperplasia. Methods: From April 2018 to December 2020, the clinical data of 27 patients with massive benign prostatic hyperplasia above grade Ⅲ and middle and lower ureteral calculi treated with indwelling ureteral access sheath plus ureteroscopy holmium laser lithotripsy at Department of Urology, Zhejiang Quhua Hospital were retrospectively analyzed and followed up. All the patients were male, aged (69.7±12.8) years (range: 55 to 87 years). Prostate volume measured by transrectal ultrasound was (94.8±16.2) cm3 (range: 85 to 186 cm3). The ureteral access sheath was indwelled in advance, and then the semirigid ureteroscopy was introduced through the working channel of the sheath. Holmium laser lithotripsy was performed, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Urinary abdominal plain X-ray or CT urography were performed at 1-and 2-month postopaerative to evaluate the residual stones and clinical efficacy. Results: The ureteral access sheath was placed and holmium laser lithotripsy under a semirigid ureteroscopy was performed successfully in all the 27 patients. In 2 patients, a second session of auxiliary procedure was required due to the large load of preoperative stones and residual stones after surgery, among whom 1 patient received extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and 1 patient underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy plus ureteroscopic lithotripsy. The stone free rate at 1-and 2-month postoperative were 92.6% (25/27) and 100% (27/27), respectively. There were no severe complications such as ureteral avulsion and perforation, perirenal hematoma, septic shock, severe hematuria, urinary retention, iatrogenic ureteral stricture occurred during and after the surgery. The ureteral calculus was wrapped by polyps heavily in 1 patient, he was diagnosed as ureteral stenosis 1 month postoperative, receiving laparoscopic resection of ureteral stricture plus anastomosis 3 months postoperative. Conclusions: In the operations of middle and lower ureteral calculi in patients with large-volume prostatic hyperplasia above grade Ⅲ, the ureteral access sheath can be placed first to effectively eliminate the difficult angle and resistance of ureteroscopy caused by severe prostatic hyperplasia, and then semirigid ureteroscopic lithotripsy can be safely performed. It could avoid the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia at the same time or by stages.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Lithotripsy , Lithotripsy, Laser , Prostatic Hyperplasia/complications , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Ureteroscopy
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 574-583, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154511

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe our experience in the management of retained encrusted ureteral stents using a single session combined endourological approach. Materials and Methods: Patients with retained encrusted ureteral stents who had been submitted to a single session combined endourological approach from June 2010 to June 2018 were prospectively evaluated. Patients were divided according to the Forgotten-Encrusted-Calcified (FECal) classification. The stone burden, surgical intervention, number of interventions until stone free status, operation time, hospital stay, complications, stone analysis, and stone-free rate were compared between groups. ANOVA was used to compare numerical variables, and the Mann-Whitney or Chi-square test to compare categorical variables between groups. Results: We evaluated 50 patients with a mean follow-up of 2.9±1.4 years (mean±SD). The groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, laterality, BMI, comorbidities, ASA, reason for stent passage, and indwelling time. The stone burden was higher for grades IV and V (p=0.027). Percutaneous nephrolithotomy was the most common procedure (p=0.004) for grades IV and V. The number of procedures until the patients were stone-free was 1.92±1.40, and the hospital stay (4.2±2.5 days), complications (22%), and stone analysis (66% calcium oxalate) were similar between groups. The stone-free rate was lower in grades III to V (60%, 54.5%, and 50%). Conclusions: The endoscopic combined approach in the supine position is a safe and feasible technique that allows removal of retained and encrusted stents in a single procedure. The FECal classification seems to be useful for surgical planning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ureter , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Stents , Retrospective Studies , Device Removal
4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 64-70, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134304

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: We aimed to compare the success and complication rates of the anterograde and retrograde Ureterorenoscopy (URS) for impacted upper ureteral stones in patients > 65 years of age. Materials and Methods: Data of 146 patients >65 years of age and underwent anterograde URS (n=68) in supine position or retrograde URS (n=78) for upper ureteral impacted stones>10 mm between January 2014 and September 2018 were collected prospectively. The groups were compared for success and complication rates, duration of operation, hospital stay, and ancillary procedures. Results: Anterograde and retrograde URS groups were similar for demographic and stone related characteristics. The success rate of the anterograde URS group was significantly higher than the retrograde URS group (97.1% vs. 78.2%, p=0.0007). The complication rates were similar for the two groups (p=0.86). Clavien grade I and II complications were observed in 3 patients in each group. The mean hemoglobin drop was 0.5 g/dL in the anterograde URS group and blood transfusion was not performed in any of the patients. The mean duration of operation was 41.2±12.5 minutes in the mini-PNL group and 59.6±15.1 minutes in the RIRS group and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.02). The median duration of hospitalization was 1 day for both groups. Conclusions: Performing anterograde URS in supine position provided better success rates and similar complication rates compared to retrograde URS. Based on these results anterograde URS shall be considered as one of the primary treatment options for management of impacted upper ureteral stones in the elderly population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Lithotripsy , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ureteroscopy , Length of Stay
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1209-1214, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The optimal treatment for large impacted proximal ureteral stones remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and potential complications of mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) and retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (RPLU) in the treatment of impacted proximal ureteral stones with size greater than 15 mm.@*METHODS@#A total of 268 patients with impacted proximal ureteral stones greater than 15 mm who received MPCNL or RPLU procedures were enrolled consecutively between January 2014 and January 2019. Data on surgical outcomes and complications were collected and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Demographic and ureteral stone characteristics found between these two groups were not significantly different. The surgical success rate (139/142, 97.9% vs. 121/126, 96.0%, P = 0.595) and stone-free rate after 1 month (139/142, 97.9% vs. 119/126, 94.4%, P = 0.245) of RPLU group were marginally higher than that of the MPCNL group, but there was no significant difference. There was no significant difference in the drop of hemoglobin between the two groups (0.8 ± 0.6 vs. 0.4 ± 0. 2 g/dL, P = 0.621). The mean operative time (68.2 ± 12.5 vs. 87.2 ± 16.8 min, P = 0.041), post-operative analgesics usage (2/121, 1.7% vs. 13/139, 9.4%, P = 0.017), length of hospital stay after surgery (2.2 ± 0.6 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9 days, P < 0.001), double J stent time (3.2 ± 0.5 vs. 3.9 ± 0.8 days, P = 0.027), time of catheterization (1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 3.5 ± 0.5 days, P < 0.001), and time of drainage tube (2.3 ± 0.3 vs. 4.6 ± 0.6 days, P < 0.001) of MPCNL group were significantly shorter than that of the RPLU group. The complication rate was similar between the two groups (20/121, 16.5% vs. 31/139, 22.3%, P = 0.242).@*CONCLUSIONS@#MPCNL and RPLU have similar surgical success and stone clearance in treating impacted proximal ureteral stones greater than 15 mm, while patients undergoing MPCNL had a lower post-operative pain rate and a faster recovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laparoscopy , Length of Stay , Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous/adverse effects , Retroperitoneal Space/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Ureteral Calculi/surgery
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(6): 902-926, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134269

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose Various surgical options are available for large proximal ureteral stones, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (LU). However, the best option remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted a network meta-analysis comparing various surgical treatments for proximal ureteral stones ≥10mm to address current research deficiencies. Materials and methods We searched PubMed, Ovid, Scopus (up to June 2019), as well as citation lists to identify eligible comparative studies. All clinical studies including patients comparing surgical treatments for proximal ureteral stones ≥10mm were included. A standard network meta-analysis was performed with Stata SE 14 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) software to generate comparative statistics. The quality was assessed with level of evidence according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine and risk of bias with the Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 software. Results A total of 25 studies including 2.888 patients were included in this network meta-analysis. Network meta-analyses indicated that LU and PCNL had better stone-free rates and auxiliary procedures. PCNL could result in major complications and severe bleeding. In initial stone-free rate, final stone-free rate, and auxiliary procedures results, SUCRA ranking was: LU> PCNL> URSL> ESWL. In Clavien Dindo score ≥3 complications, SUCRA ranking was: LU> ESWL> URSL> PCNL. In fever, SUCRA ranking was: ESWL> LU> URSL> PCNL. In transfusion, SUCRA ranking was: LU> URSL> ESWL> PCNL. In Cluster analysis, LU had the highest advantages and acceptable side effects. Considering the traumatic nature of PCNL, it should not be an option over URSL. ESWL had the lowest advantages. Conclusions LU have the potential to be considered as the first treatment choice of proximal ureteral stone ≥10mm.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Lithotripsy , Treatment Outcome , Ureteroscopy , Network Meta-Analysis , Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous/adverse effects
8.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(5): 786-793, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134218

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study aims to design a novel semirigid ureterorenoscope with irrigation and vacuum suction system and a modified ureteral access sheath (UAS) named Sotn ureterorenoscope® (Sotn=ShuoTong Medical Company) to overcome the deficiencies of the current procedure and to improve the efficiency and safety of using Sotn ureterorenoscope® for treatment of upper urinary calculi. Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight patients, comprising 31 males and 27 females, were evaluated. The medical records of 58 patients with upper urinary calculi treated with Sotn ureterorenoscope® from March 2015 to June 2017 were retrospectively reviewed at the Second Affiliate Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine in China. The primary outcome was stone-free rate (SFR) assessed by computed tomography on the 1st day and one month after treatment. The secondary outcome was postoperative complication rate. Results: The mean and SD of operative duration was 48.5 (10.4) min, and the mean and SD of stone size was 15.6 (5.6) mm. The primary overall SFR was 89.7% (52/58) and 100% at 1 month follow-up. Complication, which was Clavien I (minor fever managed by antipyretic therapy), was detected in 1.7% (1/58) of the patients. Conclusions: Sotn ureterorenoscope® is technically feasible, efficacious and safe for treatment of upper urinary calculi because of its advantages of high SFR and low complication rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Ureteral Calculi/diagnostic imaging , Ureteroscopy/methods , Postoperative Complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Kidney Calculi , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , China , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ureteroscopes
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 406-407, Mar.-Apr. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040055

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In complicated urinary tract infection with ureteral calculi, urinary diversion is inevitable. So, stenting or percutaneous drainage can be an option. In hemodynamically unstable patients, percutaneous drainage is superior to ureteral stenting (1). Once acute infection is controlled, definite treatment of the stone is necessary. According to a guideline, semirigid ureteroscopy is recommended for lower and mid - ureter stone and flexible ureteroscopy for upper ureter stone (2). Semi - rigid ureteroscopy can migrate stone to kidney, especially in upper ureter stone, lowering stone free rate (3). Not only flexible ureteroscopy creates additional costs but also is barely available in developing countries (4, 5). So, the authors would like to introduce anterograde irrigation - assisted ureteroscopic lithotripsy in patients with percutaneous nephrostomy. Retrograde irrigation was connected and flowed minimally enough to secure visual field. Once stone is noted, another saline irrigation, which is placed above 40 cm over the patient is connected to nephrostomy. Retrograde irrigation is disconnected from ureteroscope and the previous connected channel on ureteroscope is opened. Actual pressure detected by barometer from the opened channel of ureteroscope is usually about 30 cmH2 O while anterograde irrigation is administered in maximal flow, which means fully opened anterograde irrigation is not hazardous to kidney. There was no complication in 17 patients submitted to this method. Video shows advantages of our practice: clear visual field; reduced risk of stone migration into kidney; induced spontaneous passage of fragments without using instrumentation; and decreased operation time. In short, most of surgeons, even unexperienced, can perform an excellent procedure with less time consuming using our method.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nephrostomy, Percutaneous/methods , Lithotripsy/methods , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Ureteroscopy/methods , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods , Lithotripsy/instrumentation
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 376-383, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002189

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Retained or forgotten ureteral stents (FUS) have a potential to cause significant morbidity as well as medico-legal issues and increased cost. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and usefulness of smartphone-based Ureteral Stent Tracker (UST) application and compare the results with basic appointment card system to prevent FUS, prospectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients who underwent ureteroscopic stone treatment procedure with indwelling DJ stents were equally distributed into two groups. In group-1, patients were followed using UST application. In group-2, only appointment cards were given to the patients. Two groups were compared in terms of stent overdue times and complete lost to follow up rates. Results: Forty-four patients in group-1 and 43 patients in group-2 completed the study. Among patients, 22.7% in group-1 and 27.9% in group-2 did not return for the stent removal on the scheduled day. In group-1, these patients were identified using the UST and called for the stent removal on the same day. After 6 weeks of maximal waiting period, mean overdue times in group-1 and group-2 were 3.5 days and 20 days, respectively (p = 0.001). In group-2, 3 patients (6.9%) were lost to follow up, while in group-1, it was none (p = 0.001). Conclusions: We found that the patients who were followed by the smartphone-based UST application has less overdue times and lost to follow up cases compared to the basic appointment card system. The UST application easily follows patients with indwelling ureteral stents and can identify patients when overdue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stents/adverse effects , Stents/standards , Ureteroscopy/methods , Smartphone , Foreign Bodies/prevention & control , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Ureteral Calculi/etiology , Prospective Studies , Device Removal/methods , Foreign Bodies/surgery , Foreign Bodies/complications , Middle Aged
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1262-1262, Nov.-Dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040043

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The Lithocatch™ basket is a immobilization device commercialized by Boston Scientific. It allows to collect multiple stone fragments from the ureter. The ability of the basket to capture a large number of stone fragments, is however responsible for a problem connected to its usage: the entrapment of the basket inside the ureter. In this video we explain how to use it and how to solve this problem. Material and Methods: After positioning the Lithocatch™ over the fragments, the basket is opened and it is rotated through a special handle to collect stones. One frequent problem occurs when too many fragments are collected at once, preventing the extraction of the device. We research our archives to extrapolate the total number of procedures carried out with the Lithocatch™ in the last two years and the total number of complications occurred. Results: We experienced the above mentioned complication in 16 procedures (14% of the total) of 114 surgeries performed. The way described to solve this complication was efficient and did not produce any damage to the ureter or to the basket. Conclusion: The Lithocatch™ has an excellent ability to capture small stones so it allows to reduce the length of the procedure. Paying attention to limit the amount of fragments collected, it is possible to avoid the entrapment of the basket. If this complication occurs, the problem can be solved by reducing the size of the stone fragments. The preferable type of energy is the ballistic one.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lithotripsy/methods , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Equipment Design
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1224-1233, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975671

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate a method to determine the appropriate length of ureteral stents, given that the stent length may lead to exacerbation of urinary symptoms if the stent crosses the bladder midline. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the position of the distal curl of the ureteral stent using kidney/ureter/bladder (KUB) radiographs after ureteroscopic lithotripsy in 165 patients who underwent placement of 24- or 26-cm ureteral stents. According to the KUB findings, we categorized the position of the distal curl of the ureteral stent into two groups. In Group 1, the stents did not cross the midline (appropriate length); in Group 2, the stents crossed the midline (inappropriate length). We assessed several patient parameters (sex, height, body mass index, and stone side) and the index of ureteral length using KUB radiographs ("C-P") and computed tomography (CT, "P-V"). Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the most significant factors affecting the position of ureteral stents. We also calculated the cutoff points of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of C-P and P-V for the position of ureteral stents. Results: The multivariate analysis showed that C-P was the most significant factor affecting the position of ureteral stents (p < 0.001) in patients with 24- and 26-cm ureteral stents. Comparison of the ROC curves of C-P and P-V showed that C-P was superior to P-V (p < 0.01) in patients with 24- and 26-cm stents. Conclusion: The use of KUB radiographs was effective and simple in determining the appropriate length of ureteral stents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ureter/diagnostic imaging , Urinary Bladder/diagnostic imaging , Lithotripsy/methods , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Stents , Ureteroscopy/methods , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Quality of Life , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Equipment Design , Middle Aged
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(5): 887-895, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892897

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aim: URS is a very commonly used procedure for treatment of ureter stones. Increased hydrostatic pressure in the collecting system linked to fluids used during the procedure may cause harmful effects on the kidney. The aim of this study is to determine whether the URS procedure has a negative effect on the kidney by investigating NGAL, KIM-1, FABP and Cys C levels in urine. Material and Methods: This study included 30 patients undergoing ureterorenoscopy (URS) for ureter stones. Urine samples were collected 5 times; before the URS procedure (control) and at 1, 3, 5 and 12 hours following the procedure. NGAL, KIM-1, FBAP and Cys C levels were measured in urine and compared with the control values. Results: The NGAL levels in urine before the procedure and at 1, 3, 5 and 12 hours after the procedure were 34.59±35.34; 62.72±142.32; 47.15±104.48; 45.23±163.16 and 44.99±60.79ng/mL, respectively (p=0.001). Similarly, the urinary KIM-1, FABP and Cys C levels were found to increase compared to control values; however this increase did not reach statistical significance (p >0.05). Conclusions: After the URS procedure, there were important changes in NGAL, FABP, KIM-1 and Cys C levels. These changes reached statistical significance for NGAL, but did not reach significance for the other parameters. In conclusion, the URS procedure significantly affects the kidney; however, this effect disappears over time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/urine , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Ureteroscopy/methods , Middle Aged , Ureteral Calculi/urine , Cystatins/urine , Ureteroscopy/adverse effects , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/urine , Lipocalin-2/urine , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1/analysis
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 63(8): 717-721, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896384

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: It is generally advised to have a safety guidewire (SGW) present during ureteroscopy (URS) to manage possible complications. However, it increases the strenght needed to insert and retract the endoscope during the procedure, and, currently, there is a lack of solid data supporting the need for SGW in all procedures. We reviewed the literature about SGW utilization during URS. Method: A review of the literature was conducted through April 2017 using PubMed, Ovid, and The Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant studies. The primary outcome was to report stone-free rates, feasibility, contraindications to and complications of performing intrarenal retrograde flexible and semi-rigid URS without the use of a SGW. Results: Six studies were identified and selected for this review, and overall they included 1,886 patients where either semi-rigid or flexible URS was performed without the use of a SGW for the treatment of urinary calculi disease. Only one study reported stone-free rates with or without SGW at 77.1 and 85.9%, respectively (p=0.001). None of the studies showed increased rates of complications in the absence of SGW and one of them showed more post-endoscopic ureteral stenosis whenever SGW was routinely used. All studies recommended utilization of SGW in complicated cases, such as ureteral stones associated with significant edema, ureteral stricture, abnormal anatomy or difficult visualization. Conclusion: Our review showed a lack of relevant data supporting the use of SGW during retrograde URS. A well-designed prospective randomized trial is in order.


Resumo Introdução: O uso de fio guia de segurança (FGS) costuma ser recomendado para a realização de ureteroscopia para prevenir e solucionar complicações durante o procedimento. Seu uso, porém, aumenta a força necessária para manipular o aparelho endoscópico dentro da luz ureteral e, atualmente, existe uma carência de dados consistentes que indiquem o uso do FGS em todos os procedimentos. Método: Uma revisão da literatura foi realizada em abril de 2017 utilizando as ferramentas PubMed, Ovid e The Cochrane Library para identificar estudos relevantes. O desfecho primário da análise foi reportar taxas de resolução dos cálculos, viabilidade, contraindicações e complicações relacionadas ao não uso do FGS. Resultados: Seis estudos foram incluídos na análise, totalizando 1.886 pacientes, nos quais foi realizada ureteroscopia semirrígida ou flexível sem o uso do FGS no tratamento de cálculos renais ou ureterais. Somente um estudo relatou taxa livre de cálculos com ou sem FGS, sendo 77,1 e 85,9%, respectivamente (p=0.001). Todos os estudos mostraram não haver aumento da taxa de complicação na ausência do FGS e um deles relatou aumento de estenose ureteral pós-endoscopia no grupo que utilizou o FGS. Todos os estudos recomendam o uso do FGS em casos complicados, como cálculos ureterais associados a edema de mucosa, estenose ureteral, anomalias anatômicas ou dificuldade de visualização do cálculo. Conclusão: Nossa revisão mostrou que faltam dados relevantes para justificar o uso do FGS durante a ureteroscopia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Ureteroscopy/instrumentation , Ureteroscopy/adverse effects , Ureteroscopy/methods
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(4): 734-739, July-Aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794690

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify perioperative predictors of immediate pain after ureteroscopy, specifically evaluating the impact of hydrodistention from irrigation on pain. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified patients who underwent ureteroscopy for the treatment of calculi. Data recorded for these patients included their maximum pain score in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), average flow rate of irrigant used during the procedure, patient and stone characteristics, operative procedure, and details of patients' immediate, post-operative course. Spearman's rho was used to determine the relationship between non-parametric, continuous variables. Then, a linear regression was performed to assess which variables could predict the peak pain score. Results: A total of 131 patients were included in the study. A non-parametric correlation analysis revealed that maximum pain score was negatively correlated with being male (r = −0.18, p=0.04), age (r = −0.34, p<0.001), and post-op foley placement (r = −0.20, p=0.02) but positively correlated with the preoperative pain score (r = 0.41, p<0.001), time in the PACU (r = 0.19, p = 0.03), and the morphine equivalent dose (MED) of narcotics administered in the PACU (r = 0.67, p<0.001). On linear regression, the significant variables were age, preoperative pain score, and stent placement. For every ten-year increase in age post-operative pain score decreased by 4/10 of a point (p = 0.03). For every 1 point increase in preoperative pain score there was a 3/10 of a point increase in the maximum pain score (p = 0.01), and leaving a stent in place post-operatively was associated with a 1.6 point increase in the maximum pain score. Conclusions: Hydrodistention does not play a role in post-ureteroscopy pain. Patients who are younger, have higher preoperative pain scores, or who are stented will experience more post-operative pain after ureteroscopy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Ureteroscopy/adverse effects , Linear Models , Retrospective Studies , Postanesthesia Nursing , Preoperative Period , Therapeutic Irrigation , Middle Aged
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(4): 645-654, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794680

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: To provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing semi-rigid ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS) with laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (LU) for the treatment of the large proximal ureteral stone. Materials and methods: A systematic literature review was performed in June 2015 using the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases to identify relevant studies. Article selection proceeded according to the search strategy based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis criteria. Results: Six RCT including 646 patients were analyzed, 325 URS cases (50.3%) and 321 LU cases (49.7%). URS provided a significantly shorter operative time (weighted mean difference [WMD] = −31.26 min; 95%CI −46.88 to −15.64; p<0.0001) and length of hospital stay (WMD = −1.48 days; 95%CI −2.78 to −0.18; p=0.03) than LU. There were no significant differences in terms of overall complications (OR = 0.78; 95%CI 0.21-2.92; p=0.71) and major complications – Clavien ≥3 – (OR = 1.79; 95%CI 0.59-5.42; p=0.30). LU led to a significantly higher initial stone-free rate (OR = 8.65; 95%CI 4.18-17.91; p<0.00001) and final stone-free rate (OR = 6.41; 95%CI 2.24-18.32; p=0.0005) than URS. There was a significantly higher need for auxiliary procedures in URS cases (OR = 6.58; 95%CI 3.42-12.68; p<0.00001). Conclusions: Outcomes with LU for larger proximal ureteral calculi are favorable compared to semi-rigid URS and should be considered as a first-line alternative if flexible ureteroscopy is not available. Utilization of flexible ureteroscopy in conjunction with semi-rigid ureteroscopy may impact these outcomes, and deserves further systematic evaluation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lithotripsy/methods , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Ureteroscopy/methods , Time Factors , Ureter/surgery , Ureteral Calculi/pathology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Evidence-Based Medicine/classification
18.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(1): 101-106, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777316

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the clinical efficiency of alpha1-adrenergic antagonists on stentless ureteroscopic lithotripsy treating uncomplicated lower ureteral stones. Materials and Methods From January 2007 to January 2013, 84 patients who have uncomplicated lower ureteral stones treated by ureteroscopic intracorporeal lithotripsy with the holmium laser were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups, group A (44 patients received indwelled double-J stents) and group B (40 patients were treated by alpha1-adrenergic antagonists without stents). All cases of group B were treated with alpha1 blocker for 1 week. Results The mean operative time of group A was significantly longer than group B. The incidences of hematuria, flank/abdominal pain, frequency/urgency after surgery were statistically different between both groups. The stone-free rate of each group was 100%. Conclusions The effect of alpha1-adrenergic antagonists is more significant than indwelling stent after ureteroscopic lithotripsy in treating uncomplicated lower ureteral stones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Lithotripsy/methods , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Ureteroscopy/methods , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Postoperative Complications , Postoperative Period , Pain Measurement , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Operative Time , Tamsulosin , Length of Stay , Middle Aged
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(1): 00703, 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-765007

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of preoperative imaging techniques on the success and complication rates of ureteroscopy. We performed a retrospective analysis of 736 patients (455 males and 281 females), with a mean age of 45.5±15.2 years (range, 1-88 years), who underwent rigid ureteroscopic procedures for removal of ureteral stones. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the type of imaging modality used: group I, intravenous urography (n=116); group II, computed tomography (n=381); group III, computed tomography and intravenous urography (n=91), and group IV, ultrasonography and abdominal plain film (n=148). Patients’ demographics, stone size and location, prior shock wave lithotripsy, lithotripsy technique, operation time, success rate, and rate of intraoperative complications were compared among the groups. There were no significant differences in success and complication rates among the groups. The stone-free rate after primary ureteroscopy was 87.1% in group I, 88.2% in group II, 96.7% in group III, and 89.9% in group IV (P=0.093). The overall incidence of intraoperative complications was 11.8%. According to the modified Satava classification system, 6.1% of patients had grade 1, 5.1% had grade 2, and 0.54% had grade 3 complications. Intraoperative complications developed in 12.1% of patients in group I, 12.6% of patients in group II, 7.7% of patients in group III, and 12.2% of patients in group IV (P=0.625). Our findings clearly demonstrate that ureteroscopic treatment of ureteral stones can be safely and effectively performed with no use of contrast study imaging, except in doubtful cases of anatomical abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Contrast Media , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology , Ureteral Calculi/diagnosis , Ureteroscopy/methods , Incidence , Lithotripsy/adverse effects , Lithotripsy/methods , Preoperative Period , Retrospective Studies , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Ureteroscopy/adverse effects , Urography/methods
20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(3): 602-603, May-June 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755857

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT

Objective : Ureteral stents are widely used in endo-urological procedures. However, ureteral stents can be forgotten and cause serious complications, including fragmentation, migration and urosepsis.

There are few reports about forgotten and fragmented ureteral stents with stone formation. We aimed to present this rare case with successful combined endo-urological management.

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Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Device Removal/methods , Foreign Bodies/surgery , Lithotripsy/methods , Stents/adverse effects , Ureteral Calculi/surgery , Cystoscopy/methods , Foreign Bodies/complications , Operative Time , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Ureteroscopy/methods
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