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1.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(2): 172-177, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) represents 5-10% of urothelial carcinomas. It is managed with nephroureterectomy (NUR); however, kidney-sparing techniques are growingly used. AIM: To report the results of a 20-year series of NUR conducted in an academic center. Patients and Methods: Review of clinical and pathological characteristics of patients undergoing NUR between 1999 and 2020. Patients were followed for 63 months. Global survival curves (OS) and mortality predictors were established through Cox regression. RESULTS: We included 90 patients with a median age of 68 years undergoing NUR, of whom 68 (75%) had a pelvic tumor and 22 (25%) had a proximal ureteral tumor. A laparoscopic NUR was performed in 60 patients (66%). Thirty-three patients (37%) had tumors confined to the urothelium (pTa), penetrating the lamina propria (pT1) or carcinoma in situ (CIS), 10 patients (11%) had a tumor spreading to the muscle layer (pT2) and 47 (52%) had a tumor spreading to nearby organs (pT3 / T4). Average tumor size was 3.69 cm, nodal disease (pN) was present 12 patients (13%). Twelve patients (13%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. A higher mortality was observed among smokers (Hazard ratio (HR) 8.79, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.5-49.0, p = 0.01), patients with tumors classfied as pT≥ 2 (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.01-1.0, p = 0.04) and those with tumors larger than 2 cm (HR 14.79, CI 95% 1.5-272, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking patients, those with invasive tumors (T2-T4) and greater than 2 cm have higher mortality. Therefore, they should not be candidates for conservative management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery , Ureteral Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Nephroureterectomy
2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1277-1278, Nov.-Dec. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340016

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: High risk upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is typically managed with radical nephroureterectomy, however, renal preservation can be attempted when UTUC is localized to the distal ureter in the presence of chronic kidney disease (1-3). Distal ureterectomy is typically managed with a ureteral reimplantation and psoas hitch in order to maintain urothelial continuity, to avoid comprising the contralateral ureter, and reducing risk of chronic urinary tract infections and electrolyte abnormalities (4). We present our case of distal ureteral UTUC managed robotically with a distal ureterectomy with ureteral reimplantation. Technique and Follow-Up: Initially, an Orandi needle on a resectoscope circumscribed the left ureteral orifice. Next, robotically, the retroperitoneum was exposed and a left sided pelvic lymphadenectomy was completed. The left ureter was mobilized and the diseased ureteral segment was transected. The mobilized bladder was sutured to psoas fascia. After a cystotomy, the ureter was re-anastomosed to the bladder. The patient was discharged on postoperative day three and re-evaluated one week later with a cystogram. Final pathology was downgraded to non-invasive low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma with negative lymph nodes and margins. Conclusion: High risk UTUC localized to the distal ureter in the setting of chronic kidney disease can be managed with a distal ureterectomy (3). Robotic distal ureterectomy with ureteral reimplantation can be assisted by an Orandi needle to achieve negative margins. Utilizing a robotic technique can offer challenges with the ureteral spatulation and reanastomosis (5-7). By fixating the ureter to the bladder prior to reanastomosis, our technique offers a solution for these difficulties.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ureter/surgery , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery , Laparoscopy , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Replantation , Urologic Surgical Procedures , Treatment Outcome
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(6): 1129-1135, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828925

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the effect of diagnostic ureteroscopy on intravesical recurrence in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 664 patients who were treated with RNU for UTUC from June 2000 to December 2011, excluding those who had concomitant/prior bladder tumors. Of the 664 patients, 81 underwent diagnostic ureteroscopy (URS). We analyzed the impact of diagnostic ureteroscopy on intravesical recurrence (IVR) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the independent risk factors. Results: The median follow-up time was 48 months (interquartile range (IQR): 31-77 months). Patients who underwent ureteroscopy were more likely to have a small (p<0.01), early-staged (p=0.019), multifocality (p=0.035) and ureteral tumor (p<0.001). IVR occurred in 223 patients during follow-up within a median of 17 months (IQR: 7-33). Patients without preoperative ureteroscopy have a statistically significant better 2-year (79.3%±0.02 versus 71.4%±0.02, p<0.001) and 5-year intravesical recurrence-free survival rates (64.9%±0.05 versus 44.3%±0.06, p<0.001) than patients who underwent ureteroscopy. In multivariate analysis, the diagnostic ureteroscopy (p=0.006), multiple tumors (p=0.001), tumor size <3cm (p=0.008), low-grade (p=0.022) and pN0 stage tumor (p=0.045) were independent predictors of IVR. Conclusions: Diagnostic ureteroscopy is independently associated with intravesical recurrence after radical nephroureterectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Ureteral Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Urologic Neoplasms/pathology , Ureteroscopy/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Nephrectomy/methods , Ureter/pathology , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/secondary , Follow-Up Studies , Urologic Neoplasms/surgery , Disease-Free Survival , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(6): 1067-1079, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769747

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objective of this study was to update the long-term outcome in the treatment of locally advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) regarding the role of adjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and methods: Clinical data from 138 patients who underwent RNU for locally advanced UTUC (pT3/4 or pN+) were analyzed. Results: The adjuvant chemotherapy group comprised 66 patients, and other 72 patients did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was the most common regimen, depending on the patient's eligibility and renal function. The median follow-up period was 48.7 months (interquartile range: 29.2-96.9 months). The 3-and 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rates were 76.0% and 69.9% for the non-adjuvant chemotherapy group versus 74.6% and 54.5% for the adjuvant chemotherapy group (p=0.301, log-rank test). Overall survival (OS) rates for the same time period were 70.1% and 62.9% for the non-adjuvant chemotherapy group versus 73.8% and 53.2% for the adjuvant chemotherapy group (p=0.931, log-rank test). On multivariate analysis, adjuvant chemotherapy could not predict DSS and OS after surgery. When patients who received cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy (n=59) were compared to those who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy, similar results were found. Conclusions: There does not appear to be a significant DSS or OS benefit associated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Prospective randomized clinical trials are necessary to verify the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on locally advanced UTUC.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/drug therapy , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Ureteral Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/surgery , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Disease-Free Survival , Hospitals, University , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Multivariate Analysis , Nephrectomy/methods , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Time Factors , Ureteral Neoplasms/pathology , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(3): 246-256, 03/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741195

ABSTRACT

Neurodegenerative diseases represent a heterogeneous group of neurological conditions primarily involving dementia, motor neuron disease and movement disorders. They are mostly related to different pathophysiological processes, notably in family forms in which the clinical and genetic heterogeneity are lush. In the last decade, much knowledge has been acumulated about the genetics of neurodegenerative diseases, making it essential in cases of motor neuron disease and frontotemporal dementia the repeat expansions of C9orf72 gene. This review analyzes the main clinical, radiological and genetic aspects of the phenotypes related to the hexanucleotide repeat expansions (GGGGCC) of C9orf72 gene. Future studies will aim to further characterize the neuropsychological, imaging and pathological aspects of the extra-motor features of motor neuron disease, and will help to provide a new classification system that is both clinically and biologically relevant.


As doenças neurodegenerativas representam um grupo heterogêneo de condições neurológicas envolvendo fundamentalmente síndromes demenciais, doenças do neurônio motor e distúrbios de movimento. Relacionam-se, em sua maioria, a processos fisiopatológicos distintos, destacadamente nas formas familiares em que a heterogeneidade clínica e genética são exuberantes. Na última década, muito conhecimento se acumulou a respeito da genética das doenças neurodegenerativas, tornando-se bastante importante nos casos de doenças do neurônio motor e de demência frontotemporal as expansões de repetições do gene C9orf72. Esta revisão aborda os principais aspectos clínicos, radiológicos e genéticos relativos aos fenótipos relacionados à expansão de repetição do hexanucleotídeo (GGGGCC) no gene C9orf72. Estudos futuros vão objetivar a caracterização dos aspectos neuropsicológicos, de imagem e patológicos dos achados extra-motores da doença do neurônio motor e ajudarão a fornecer um novo sistema de classificação relevante em termos clínicos e biológicos.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/secondary , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/surgery , Kidney Pelvis , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Ureteral Neoplasms/secondary , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 375-381, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210028

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate oncological outcomes based on bladder cuff excision (BCE) during radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and to provide clinical evidence of tumor recurrence in patients without BCE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of 372 consecutive patients who underwent RNU at our institution from May 1989 through October 2010. After excluding some data, we reviewed 336 patients for the analysis. RESULTS: Of the patients who underwent RNU with BCE (n=279, 83.0%) and without BCE (n=57, 17.0%), patients without BCE had poorer cancer-specific and overall survival rates. Among 57 patients without BCE, 35 (61.4%) experienced tumor recurrence. Recurrence at the remnant ureter resulted in poor oncological outcomes compared to those in patients with bladder recurrence, but better outcomes were observed compared to recurrence at other sites. No significant predictors for tumor recurrence at the remnant ureter were identified. In patients without BCE, pathological T stage [hazard ratio (HR), 5.73] and lymphovascular invasion (HR, 3.65) were independent predictors of cancer-specific survival, whereas age (HR, 1.04), pathological T stage (HR, 5.11), and positive tumor margin (HR, 6.50) were independent predictors of overall survival. CONCLUSION: Patients without BCE had poorer overall and cancer-specific survival after RNU than those with BCE. Most of these patients experienced tumor recurrence at the remnant ureter and other sites. Patients with non-organ confined UTUC after RNU without BCE may be considered for adjuvant chemotherapy with careful follow-up.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/surgery , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Nephrectomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Ureter/surgery , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Urologic Neoplasms/pathology , Urologic Surgical Procedures , Urothelium/pathology
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 39(6): 895-896, Nov-Dec/2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699115

ABSTRACT

Since the first laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery report in urology in 2007 (1) (Rane A e Cadeddu JA), the few reports of LESS extraperitoneal access in the literature were mainly described for less complex cases. The aim of this video is to demonstrate the feasibility of LESS extraperitoneal access in a morbid obese patient presenting a malignant tumor in the renal pelvis. The patient is positioned in 90-degree lateral decubitus. An incision is made below the abdominal skin crease on the left side of the patient and the anterior rectus fascia is vertically incised with manual dissection of the extra/retroperitoneal space. We use an Alexis® retractor to retract the skin maximizing the incision orifice. Three trocars (12, 10 and 5 mm) are inserted through a sigle-port. The pedicle was controlled “en bloc” with a vascular stapler and the bladder cuff treated by the conventional open approach through the same incision. Operative time was 126 minutes with minimal blood loss. The pathology reported high grade papillary urothelial carcinoma in the pelvis (pT3N0M0) and in the ureter (pTa). LESS extraperitoneal nephroureterectomy is feasible and safe, even in more complex cases. It is a good alternative for morbid obese patients and for patients with synchronous distal ureteral tumors for whom an open approach to the bladder cuff is proposed to avoid incisions in two compartments of the abdominal wall.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery , Abdominal Wall/surgery , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Feasibility Studies , Nephrectomy/methods , Operative Time , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Ureteral Neoplasms/pathology
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 39(6): 817-822, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699116

ABSTRACT

Objectives To evaluate the pathologic findings and outcomes after distal ureterectomy for a retained ureteral segment following incomplete nephroureterectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis or ureter. Materials and Methods After IRB approval, an institutional database identified patients who underwent distal ureterectomy for a retained ureteral segment after assumed complete nephroureterectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the upper ureter or renal pelvis. Clinical and pathologic variables were analyzed. Results From January 1993 to July 2007, 12 patients were identified with median age at the time of ureterectomy of 60.5 years (41-85 years). Initial approach to surgery was open in 9 patients and laparoscopic in 3 patients. The median time from nephroureterectomy to distal ureterectomy was 23.5 months (range 2-66). At the time of initial surgery, pathologic stage was Ta, T1, T2, and T3 in 3,4,1, and 4 patients respectively. Initial pathology was urothelial carcinoma; grade 2 in 6 patients and grade 3 in six patients. Pathology from the subsequent surgery demonstrated urothelial carcinoma in the retained ureteral segment in 8 patients, dysplasia or atypia in 3 patients, and 1 patient with chronic inflammation. Local recurrence in 2 patients was present in a segment of ureter discontinuous with the bladder after laparoscopic nephroureterectomy. Three patients (25%), all with initial grade 3 renal pelvis lesions, developed metastatic disease. Conclusions Tumor recurrence in a retained ureteral segment after incomplete nephroureterectomy is a significant problem and may contribute to intravesical recurrence or metastatic disease. Complete, en bloc resection is imperative to minimize these risks. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/surgery , Nephrectomy/methods , Ureteral Neoplasms/pathology , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Ureter/pathology , Ureter/surgery
12.
Rev. chil. cir ; 63(4): 411-414, ago. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597541

ABSTRACT

Objective: To report a case of distal ureterectomy with robotic-assisted laparoscopic reimplantation using a Boari flap technique. Material and Methods: We report a 55 year old man with a diagnosis of distal ureteral urothelial carcinoma without multifocality. Results: A radical distal ureterectomy and robotic-assisted laparoscopic vesicoureteral reimplantation using a Boari flap technique was performed with the da Vinci S-HD surgical system. The operative time was 210 minutes, the estimated blood loss was 200 mL. The hospital stay was 48 hours, without perioperative complications. The histopathological study showed a high grade non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma of the distal ureter (pT1NxMx) with negative margins. Conclusions: The distal radical ureterectomy with Boari replacement is feasible and more precise with robotic assistance. Its oncological role must be demostrated with a larger number of cases.


Objetivo: Comunicar un caso de tumor ureteral distal tratado con ureterectomía radical y neoimplante vesicoureteral con técnica de Flap Boari asistida por robot. Material y Métodos: Paciente hombre de 55 años, con diagnóstico de carcinoma urotelial de uréter distal sin compromiso multifocal. Resultados: Se realizó ureterectomía distal radical y neoimplante vesicoureteral con Flap Boari asistido por Robot da Vinci S-HD. El tiempo operatorio fue de 210 minutos, con un sangrado estimado de 200 ml. La estadía hospitalaria fue de 48 horas, sin complicaciones perioperatorias. El estudio histológico mostró un carcinoma urotelial de alto grado con infiltración de la lámina propia (pT1NxMx) y márgenes quirúrgicos negativos. Conclusiones: La ureterectomía radical distal con reconstrucción tipo Boari es técnicamente factible y más precisa con la asistencia robótica. Su rol oncológico requiere de validación con mayor número de casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma/surgery , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery , Urologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Robotics , Surgical Flaps , Urothelium/pathology , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Treatment Outcome
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 36(2): 141-150, Mar.-Apr. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-548373

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to discover if elderly patients exhibit comparable outcomes and survival benefits to those achieved in younger patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed 35 patients over 80 years old treated by radical nephrectomy or nephroureterectomy for malignant and inflammatory conditions within the previous 4 years. A multivariate analysis regarding survival and recovery was conducted and included various preoperative parameters. The subjective opinion of patients or patient's relatives (in cases where the patient had past away) was estimated by answering the following questions: (a) are you satisfied with your decision to undergo the operation? (b) would you undergo it once more if needed? (c) would you advise it to a patient your age? RESULTS: The median age was 83.5 years. Radical nephrectomy with a flank approach was performed in 65.7 percent of cases and nephroureterectomy with a transabdominal approach in 34.3 percent of cases. The median recovery was 13 weeks. During a median follow-up of 31 months (range 12 to 53), 80 percent of patients were disease free. The remaining 20 percent passed away demonstrating a median survival of 25 months (range 13-38). Eighty-eight percent of patients were satisfied with their decision to undergo the operation, 91.4 percent would undergo it once more if needed and 91.4 percent would advise it to a patient their age. CONCLUSIONS: Radical nephrectomy and nephroureterectomy are safe and effective in well-selected patients over 80 years old. Elderly patients exhibit comparable preoperative outcomes and survival benefits to those achieved in younger patients. Various preoperative clinical variables that effect the survival of patients but not their recovery could be identified.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Nephrectomy/methods , Ureter/surgery , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery , Age Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/epidemiology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Laparoscopy/mortality , Nephrectomy/mortality , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Ureteral Neoplasms/epidemiology , Ureteral Neoplasms/pathology
14.
São Paulo med. j ; 127(4): 238-240, July 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-533448

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Ureteral fibroepithelial polyps are rare benign nonepithelial tumors, and less than 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We report on a pregnant patient with ureteral fibroepithelial polyps that were successfully treated with laparotomy. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old pregnant woman presented with a three-month history of intermittent lumbar pain of low intensity. Abdominal ultrasonography showed that she was 13 weeks pregnant and found severe left-side ureterohydronephrosis and a heterogeneous solid mass measuring 11 x 8 x 7 centimeters in the middle portion of the ureteral topography. The investigation was complemented with magnetic resonance imaging, which confirmed the previous findings. Nephroureterectomy was performed without complications. The specimen revealed three solid tumors in the ureter, of which the largest was around eight centimeters in length. The anatomopathological report confirmed that they were fibroepithelial tumors without malignant components.


CONTEXTO: Pólipos fibroepiteliais de ureter são tumores não-epiteliais benignos raros, e menos de 200 casos foram relatados na literatura. Nós reportamos o caso de uma mulher grávida com pólipos fibroelitelial ureteral que foram tratados com sucesso por laparotomia. RELATO DE CASO: Mulher de 23 anos de idade, grávida, apresentava história de dor lombar intermitente de baixa intensidade há três meses. Ultra-sonografia abdominal revelou gravidez de 13 semanas, ureterohidronefrose grave à esquerda e massa sólida heterogênea medindo 11 x 8 x 7 cm na porção média da topografia ureteral. A investigação foi complementada com ressonância magnética, que confirmou os achados. Foi realizada nefroureterectomia sem complicações. A peça revelou três tumores sólidos em ureter, o maior apresentando aproximadamente oito centímetros longitudinalmente. O relatório anatomopatológico confirmou tumor fibroepitelial sem componentes de malignidade.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Polyps/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic/pathology , Ureteral Neoplasms/pathology , Polyps/surgery , Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic/surgery , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery , Young Adult
15.
Rev. chil. urol ; 74(3): 217-222, 2009. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-551917

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de vía urinaria alta (pelvis renal y/o uréter) es una neoplasia rara. Generalmente es del tipo células de transición. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer los aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y de manejo de los pacientes institucionales con esta patología que han consultado en el Hospital Nacional “Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen”en Lima - Perú. Se revisaron retrospectivamente los ingresos al Servicio de Urología entre los años 1999 al 2005. Se recuperaron 26 ingresos con este diagnóstico. Se analizan sexo, edad, antecedentes clínicos, síntomas, exámenes de laboratorio, tipo histológico, tratamientos, complicaciones y seguimiento. Las edades fluctuaron entre los 47 y 82 años (promedio de 64,8 años). El 53,8 por ciento fueron mujeres. El tabaquismo lamentablemente no se consigna en los ingresos. La hematuria fue el principal síntoma. El 100 por ciento presentaba hematuria en el examen de orina. El 19,2 por ciento estaban con metástasis al momento del diagnóstico. Casi todos los pacientes tuvieron manejo quirúrgico clásico de forma convencional o laparoscópica. El 100 por ciento tenían carcinoma de células transicionales. Las complicaciones perioperatorias fueron mínimas. No se registra mortalidad operatoria. Esta patología es un cáncer poco frecuente, que debe sospecharse ante toda hematuria, que es el principal motivo de consulta. Idealmente el diagnóstico debe ser precoz. Su manejo debe ser esencialmente quirúrgico.


Introduction: Upper urinary tract tumors are infrequent. However when present, they are usually related to transitional cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to analyze epidemiologic, clinic and therapeutic aspects of this disease in the Hospital Nacional “Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen” in Lima - Perú. Material and Methods: A Retrospective review of all our admissions between 1999 and 2005 was performed. A total of 26 patients were admitted with this diagnosis. Gender, age, clinical findings, pathology, treatment and follow-up are analyzed.Results: Mean age was 64,8 years (47-82 years), 53,8 percent were women. Tobacco consumption did not appear in the admission data. The chief complaint was hematuria and 100 percent had microscopic hematuria in the lab tests. Almost all the patients underwent surgery (mainly nephroureterectomy with partial cistectomy). All cases had transitional cell cancer. There were minimal complications and no surgical mortality. Conclusions: Carcinoma of the upper urinary tract is infrequent, must be suspected in the event of hematuria. Ideally diagnosis should be preoperative with histological confirmation. Most of the cases are transitional cell cancer, and management must be essentially surgical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/epidemiology , Kidney Neoplasms/epidemiology , Ureteral Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Postoperative Complications , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery , Ureteral Neoplasms/pathology , Peru/epidemiology , Prognosis , Recurrence
16.
Clinics ; 63(2): 223-228, 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-481052

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinomas who are treated surgically and to analyze the occurrence of bladder tumors as well as the development of metastases outside the urinary tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised a retrospective analysis of 25 patients treated between February 1994 and August 2006. The variables analyzed were: patient age, gender, and clinical presentation; diagnostic methods; pathologic characteristics at the primary site of the tumor (pelvis or ureter); tumor stage and grade; and presence of carcinoma in situ, microvascular invasion and squamous differentiation. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Log-Rank test were used for statistical analysis of bladder recurrence-free survival. RESULTS: Eighty-four percent of patients were male, and macroscopic hematuria was the most common clinical presentation. The majority of cases (56 percent) were infiltrative (T2-T3) and high-grade (76 percent) tumors. Synchronous or metachronous bladder tumors were found in 72 percent of cases. Five (20 percent) patients had a history of bladder tumor before the diagnosis of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinomas. The mean follow-up period was 36 months (range: 1.5 to 156). During the follow-up period, eleven (44 percent) patients developed bladder tumors. After five years, the probability of being free of bladder tumor recurrence was 40 percent. No pathological variable was predictive for bladder tumor recurrence. Four patients presented disease recurrence outside the urinary tract. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of metachronous bladder tumors is more often observed after the diagnosis of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinomas. All of these patients should undergo rigorous follow-up during the postoperative period. Only patients with infiltrative and high-grade tumors developed metastases outside the urinary tract.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Ureteral Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/secondary , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Kidney Pelvis/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/pathology , Pelvic Neoplasms/secondary , Retrospective Studies , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 32(6): 648-655, Nov.-Dec. 2006. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-441364

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of upper urinary tract urothelial tumors (UUTT) in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a clinical and histopathologic study of 33 patients who were diagnosed with a malignant neoplasm in the renal pelvis or ureter in the period of 1994 to 2004, in a single institution. RESULTS: Among the patients with upper urinary tract carcinoma, 70 percent were males and 30 percent females, with mean age of 65 ± 16 years (ranging from 31 to 91 years). Nineteen patients presented renal pelvis tumor (58 percent), 9 ureteral tumor (27 percent) and 5 synchronic pelvic and ureteral tumors (15 percent). Renal pelvis tumors represented 2.8 percent of all the urothelial neoplasms, and 11.4 percent of all renal neoplasms treated in the same period. Ureteral tumors represented 1.6 percent of all the urothelial malignancies surgically managed in these 11 years. Tobacco smoking was the most common risk factor, and analgesic abuse was not reported by those patients. Most carcinomas were high-grade and muscle-invasive. Mean time to diagnosis was 7 months, being hematuria the most common symptom. CONCLUSIONS: A high association was also found between UUTT and bladder urothelial carcinoma. UUTT were mostly seen in men in their seventies and related to a high overall and cancer-related mortality rate. The overall disease-specific survival was 40 percent, much lower than found in most of the reported series.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Kidney Pelvis/surgery , Ureter/surgery , Ureteral Neoplasms/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/mortality , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/surgery , Follow-Up Studies , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Neoplasms/mortality , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies , Ureteral Neoplasms/mortality , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery
18.
Afr. j. urol. (Online) ; 10(4): 252-256, 2004.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257962

ABSTRACT

Objective: We report six cases of primitive cancer of the urethra out of a total of 1109 cases of urologic cancers hospitalized during a period of 12 years. Patients and Methods: From 1990 to 2001 six patients (four males; two females) were hospitalized for cancer of the urethra. The tumors were analyzed according to the classification of Grabstald. All the patients were explored by retrograde urethrocystography showing an irregular image of the urethra and at times opacifying the sinus ways. Urethrocystoscopy showed the site of the tumor and its aspect and allowed for diagnostic biopsies. In five cases it revealed an epidermoid cancer and an adenocarcinoma in one case. The treatment used depended on the stage of the disease and the general condition of the patients. Two patients underwent radical pelvectomy without any adjuvant treatment. Two patients with disseminated disease received palliative treatment by radiotherapy. The two remaining patients having refused surgical treatment were also treated by radiotherapy alone. Results: Overall; the average rate of survival was 17.5 months (3 to 60 months). The best results were achieved with surgical treatment. Two of the patients referred to the oncologist for palliative radiotherapy died within 3 and 6 months; respectively. One patient treated by radiotherapy alone after having refused surgical treatment presented 6 months later with a long post-radiation stenosis of the urethra. Since the patient still refused surgical treatment; he was treated by final cystostomy. The last patient also treated by exclusive radiotherapy is being followed up by the radiologists. Conclusion: Primitive cancer of the urethra is rare. Its semiology is not very specific which explains the frequently delayed diagnosis. It is the meticulous examination of the urethra which allows the diagnosis. The treatment of choice is surgery and/or radiotherapy


Subject(s)
Case Reports , Ureteral Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery
19.
Rev. argent. cir ; 78(3/4): 61-4, mar.-abr. 2000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-260774

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La indicación de nefroureterectomía laparoscópica en pacientes con cáncer transicional de vía urinaria alta es controvertida. Objetivo: Se realiza la presentación preliminar de nuestra experiencia en el tratamiento del carcinoma transicional de la vía urinaria alta mediante técnica laparoscópica. Diseño: Estudio prospectivo. Población: Se operaron dos pacientes, mujeres de 71 y 74 años, con estadios clínicos radiológicos localizados, superficiales, independientemente de la edad y sexo. Método: Se realizó el acceso por vía transperitoneal, utilizando en total cuatro trocares, procediéndose a la extracción de la pieza quirúrgica por una incisión en fosa ilíaca de 5 cm de longitud. Resultados: El tiempo quirúrgico promedio fue de 3 horas 25 minutos, el promedio de estadía hospitalaria fue de 5 días, sin complicaciones intra o postoperatorias; no se evidenciaron recurrencias tumorales durante el período de seguimiento, de 6 meses. Conclusiones: En nuestra opinión, la nefroureterectomía laparoscópica es una opción de tratamiento factible en pacientes que presentan carcinomas transicionales de la vía urinaria superior, en estadios localizados


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Bronchoscopy , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Ureteral Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Nephrectomy , Ureteral Neoplasms/pathology , Ureter/surgery
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