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Ann. Health Res. (Onabanjo Univ. Teach. Hosp.) ; 9(3): 199-207, 2023. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1512878


Evaluating bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in patients with prostatic enlargement may reflect the severity of the disease and aid in predicting the treatment outcome. Objectives: To determine the sonological correlation between intravesical prostatic protrusion and bladder outlet obstruction in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic enlargement. Methods: This prospective study was conducted over one year at the Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Ibadan. A transabdominal ultrasound scan of the urinary bladder and prostate gland was carried out on patients with prostatic enlargement and BOO. The intravesical prostatic protrusion, pre-and post-void urine volumes, prostate volume and bladder wall thickness were measured. Results: A total of 132 men aged 43 to 90 years (mean age: 63.8±8.64 years) were studied. The median size of the intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) was 7.25 mm (IQR: 0.00 mm; 14.9 mm). The mean prostate volume was 63.3ml±36.0ml. Most subjects (55; 41.7%) had a prostate volume above 60ml, and most patients (101, 77.2%) had bladder wall thickness less than 5mm. The mean bladder wall thickness was 4.26mm±1.54mm. There was a statistically significant correlation between IPP and pre-void urine volume and prostate volume (p = 0.002 and <0.001, respectively). Patients over 70 years had increasing IPP and post-void urine, which lacked statistical significance (p =0.15). Conclusion: The severity of bladder outlet obstruction was reflected in the pre-void urine volume, which correlated with the size of IPP

Humans , Prostatic Diseases , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction , Urine , Urinary Bladder , Treatment Outcome , Intervertebral Disc Displacement
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981287


Objective To investigate the clinicopathological features,immunohistochemical features,diagnosis,and relationship with sporadic prostate cancer in primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of 12 patients with primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder diagnosed at Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University from January 2013 to September 2022.The histological features of primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder were re-evaluated by two pathologists according to the 2022 revision of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs.Electronic medical records were retrieved,and telephone follow-up was conducted from the time of histopathological diagnosis to the death or the end of the last follow-up until January 31,2023. Results The 12 patients include 7 patients in pT3 stage and 1 patient in pT4 stage.Eight patients were complicated with other types of tumors,such as high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and squamous cell carcinoma.Five patients had sporadic prostate cancer.Immunohistochemical staining showed that 12 (100.0%),10 (83.3%),and 8 (66.7%) patients were tested positive for CD56,Syn,and CgA,respectively.The Ki67 proliferation index ranged from 80% to 90%.Five patients with urothelial carcinoma were tested positive for CK20,GATA3,and CK7.P504S was positive in all the 5 patients with prostate cancer,while P63 and 34βE12 were negative.The follow-up of the 12 patients lasted for 3-60 months.Eight of these patients died during follow-up,with the median survival of 15.5 months.Four patients survived. Conclusions Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder is a rare urological tumor with high aggressiveness and poor prognosis.In male patients with bladder prostatectomy,all prostate tissue should be sampled.If prostate cancer is detected,the prostate-specific antigen level should be monitored.

Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Prostatic Neoplasms , Biomarkers, Tumor
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 25-34, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971146


Objective: To explore the effects of porcine urinary bladder matrix (UBM) on the motility and polarization of bone marrow-derived macrophages in mice, so as to provide evidence for the rational selection of stent in clinical wound repair. Methods: The method of experimental research was used. The microstructure of porcine UBM and absorbable dressing was observed under scanning electron microscope. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to observe the protein distribution of the two stent extracts. The primary macrophages were induced from bone marrow-derived cells isolated from six 6-8-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (mouse age, sex, and strain, the same below) and identified. Three batches of macrophages were divided into porcine UBM extract group and absorbable dressing extract group. The cells in each group were cultured with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 medium containing the corresponding extracts. The cell migration rate was detected and calculated on 1, 3, and 7 d after scratching by scratch test. The number of migrated cells at 12 and 24 h of culture was detected by Transwell experiment. The percentages of CD206 and CD86 positive cells at 24 h of culture was detected by flow cytometer. The numbers of sample in the above cell experiments were all 3. An incision was prepared on the left and right back of twelve mice, respectively. The left incision of each mouse was included in porcine UBM group and the right incision was included in absorbable dressing group, and the corresponding stents were implanted into the incisions respectively. On post operation day (POD) 7 and 14, the number of inflammatory cells infiltrated in the stent was detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining; the number of F4/80, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9) positive cells and type Ⅰ collagen deposition in stents were observed by immunohistochemistry; the percentages of F4/80, CD86, and CD206 positive cells were observed by immunofluorescence staining. The numbers of sample in the above animal experiments were all 6. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for factorial design, analysis of variance for repeated measurement, and independent sample t test. Results: Porcine UBM has a dense basement membrane structure on one side and porous propria containing a fibrous structures on the other. Both sides of the absorbable dressing had three-dimensional porous structure. In the molecular weight range of (50-70)×103, multiple non-type Ⅰ collagen bands appeared in the lanes of porcine UBM extract, while no obvious bands appeared in the lanes of absorbable dressing extract. It had been identified that mouse bone marrow-derived cells had been successfully induced into macrophages. The cell migration rates in porcine UBM extract group were significantly higher than those in absorbable dressing extract group on 1, 3, and 7 d after scratching (with t values of 15.31, 19.76, and 20.58, respectively, P<0.05). The numbers of migrated cells in porcine UBM extract group were significantly more than those in absorbable dressing extract group at 12 and 24 h of culture (with t values of 12.20 and 33.26, respectively, P<0.05). At 24 h of culture, the percentage of CD86 positive cells in porcine UBM extract group ((1.27±0.19)%) was significantly lower than (7.34±0.14)% in absorbable dressing extract group (t=17.03, P<0.05);the percentage of CD206 positive cells in porcine UBM extract group was (73.4±0.7)%, significantly higher than (32.2±0.5)% in absorbable dressing extract group (t=119.10, P<0.05). On POD 7 and 14, the numbers of inflammatory cells infiltrated in the stents in porcine UBM group was significantly more than those in absorbable dressing group (with t values of 6.58 and 10.70, respectively, P<0.05). On POD 7 and 14, the numbers of F4/80, TGF-β1, VEGF, and MMP-9 positive cells in the stents in porcine UBM group were significantly more than those in absorbable dressing group (with t values of 46.11, 40.69, 13.90, 14.15, 19.79, 32.93, 12.16, and 13.21, respectively, P<0.05); type Ⅰ collagen deposition in the stents in porcine UBM group was more pronounced than that in absorbable dressing group; the percentages of CD206 positive cells in the stents in porcine UBM group were significantly higher than those in absorbable dressing group (with t values of 5.05 and 4.13, respectively, P<0.05), while the percentages of CD86 positive cells were significantly lower than those in absorbable dressing group (with t values of 20.90 and 19.64, respectively, P<0.05), and more M2-type macrophages were seen in the stents in porcine UBM group and more M1-type macrophages were seen in the stents in absorbable dressing group. Conclusions: Porcine UBM can enhance macrophage motility, induce M2 polarization and paracrine function, create a microenvironment containing growth factors such as TGF-β1 and MMP-9 tissue remodeling molecules, and promote tissue regeneration and extracellular matrix remodeling in mice.

Mice , Male , Animals , Swine , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Urinary Bladder , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Macrophages , Collagen
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969988


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupuncture at Weizhong (BL 40) with deqi on bladder urination function.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 healthy subjects were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 30 subjects in each group. Under the guidance of ultrasound, acupuncture was applied Weizhong (BL 40) on both sides. In the observation group, the needling depth was reached to the tibial nerve, and lifting-thrusting twirling method was used to induce deqi. In the control group, the needling depth was reached to the superficial fascia, and no manipulation was operated to induce deqi. The needles were retained for 10 min and acupuncture was given once in both groups. The bilateral ureteral ejection frequency and volume of the bladder were observed by ultrasound before and after acupuncture, and the score of clinical evaluation scale of deqi sensation was observed in both groups.@*RESULTS@#After acupuncture, the frequency of bilateral ureteral ejection in the observation group and the bladder volume in the two groups were increased compared before acupuncture (P<0.05), and the frequency of bilateral ureteral ejection, bladder volume and score of clinical evaluation scale of deqi sensation in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture at Weizhong (BL 40) with deqi improves the bladder urination function. Ultrasound visualization improves the standardization and safety of acupuncture, intuitively evaluates the acupuncture effect, and provides an objective basis for the correlation between meridian points specificity and zang-fu organs.

Humans , Urination , Urinary Bladder , Acupuncture Therapy , Acupuncture Points , Meridians
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982348


Leiomyosarcoma of urinary bladder (LMS-UB) is a highly malignant mesenchymal tumor, accounting for less than 0.5% of all bladder malignancies, with a predominant clinical presentation of hematuria. Here we report a case of low-grade LMS-UB. A 44-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with urodynia for 2 weeks. The patient's pelvis CT showed a mass on the right part of the bladder. For this reason, he was initially diagnosed with bladder cancer. We performed a robot-assisted laparoscopic enucleation of the bladder tumor and low-grade LMS-UB was diagnosed with the histopathological examination. He underwent 5 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery. At 19months postoperative follow-up, the patient had no symptoms, recurrence, or distant metastasis. There is no report on the treatment of LMS-UB with minimally invasive enucleation worldwide. This case provides a new comprehensive treatment method of enucleation combined with adjuvant chemotherapy for early low-grade LMS-UB to reduce complications and improve patients' quality of life after surgery.

Male , Humans , Adult , Urinary Bladder/surgery , Leiomyosarcoma/secondary , Robotics , Quality of Life , Pelvis/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Laparoscopy/methods
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982030


OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effect of progressive pre-disconnection of urethral mucosal flap during transurethral plasmakinetic enucleation of prostate (TUPEP) on early recovery of urinary continence.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) admitted in Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University during February and May 2022 were collected. All the patients underwent TUPEP, and the progressive pre-disconnection of urethral mucosal flap was performed in the procedure. The total operation time, enucleation time, postoperative bladder irrigation time and catheter indwelling time were recorded. Urinary continence was evaluated 24 h, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6 months after the removal of urinary catheter.@*RESULTS@#All surgeries were successfully completed at one time with less intraoperative bleeding, and there were no complications such as rectal injury, bladder injury or perforation of prostate capsule. The total operation time was (62.2±6.5) min, the enucleation time was (42.8±5.2) min, the postoperative hemoglobin decrease by (9.5±4.5) g/L, the postoperative bladder irrigation time was (7.9±1.4) h, and the postoperative catheter indwelling time was 10.0 (9.2, 11.4) h. Only 2 patients (3.6%) had transient urinary incontinence within 24 h after catheter removal. No urinary incontinence occurred at 1 week, and 1, 3, 6 months after operation, and no safety pad was needed. The Qmax at 1 month after operation was 22.3 (20.6, 24.4) mL/s, international prostate symptom scores were 8.0 (7.0, 9.0), 5.0 (4.0, 6.0) and 4.0 (3.0, 4.0) at 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery, and quality of life scores at 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery were 3.0 (2.0, 3.0), 2.0 (1.0, 2.0) and 1.0 (1.0, 2.0), all of these indicators were better than those before surgery (all P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In the treatment of BPH, the application of progressive pre-disconnection of urethral mucosal flap in TUPEP can completely remove the hyperplastic glands and promote early recovery of postoperative urinary continence with less perioperative bleeding and decreased surgical complications.

Male , Humans , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia/surgery , Transurethral Resection of Prostate/methods , Quality of Life , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Incontinence/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982028


OBJECTIVES@#To construct a prognosis risk model based on long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) related to cuproptosis and to evaluate its application in assessing prognosis risk of bladder cancer patients.@*METHODS@#RNA sequence data and clinical data of bladder cancer patients were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas database. The correlation between lncRNAs related to cuproptosis and bladder cancer prognosis was analyzed with Pearson correlation analysis, univariate Cox regression, Lasso regression, and multivariate Cox regression. Then a cuproptosis-related lncRNA prognostic risk scoring equation was constructed. Patients were divided into high-risk and low-risk groups based on the median risk score, and the immune cell abundance between the two groups were compared. The accuracy of the risk scoring equation was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the application of the risk scoring equation in predicting 1, 3 and 5-year survival rates was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression were used to screen for prognostic factors related to bladder cancer patients, and a prognostic risk assessment nomogram was constructed, the accuracy of which was evaluated with calibration curves.@*RESULTS@#A prognostic risk scoring equation for bladder cancer patients was constructed based on nine cuproptosis-related lncRNAs. Immune infiltration analysis showed that the abundances of M0 macrophages, M1 macrophages, M2 macrophages, resting mast cells and neutrophils in the high-risk group were significantly higher than those in the low-risk group, while the abundances of CD8+ T cells, helper T cells, regulatory T cells and plasma cells in the low-risk group were significantly higher than those in the high-risk group (all P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed that the total survival and progression-free survival of the low-risk group were longer than those of the high-risk group (both P<0.01). Univariate and multivariate Cox analysis showed that the risk score, age and tumor stage were independent factors for patient prognosis. The ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of the risk score in predicting 1, 3 and 5-year survival was 0.716, 0.697 and 0.717, respectively. When combined with age and tumor stage, the AUC for predicting 1-year prognosis increased to 0.725. The prognostic risk assessment nomogram for bladder cancer patients constructed based on patient age, tumor stage, and risk score had a prediction value that was consistent with the actual value.@*CONCLUSIONS@#A bladder cancer patient prognosis risk assessment model based on cuproptosis-related lncRNA has been successfully constructed in this study. The model can predict the prognosis of bladder cancer patients and their immune infiltration status, which may also provide a reference for tumor immunotherapy.

Humans , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Prognosis , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Copper , Apoptosis
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-5, 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468893


Morphophysiological species researches are fundamental, and diagnostic imaging is an excellent technique, already used in wild animals, with great application, not invasive and provide real-time information of each body. Amazonian manatees are on the list of endangered animals classified in the vulnerable category and knowledge of the normal pattern of ultrasound anatomy of organs and tissues is important for the maintenance and well-being of captive specimens contributing to reintroduction actions. The objective of the study was to standardize the examination technique and describe the ultrasound findings of the liver, gallbladder, stomach, urinary bladder and the subcutaneous tissue of the abdominal region in Trichechus inunguis, in order to contribute with the anatomical and sonographic knowledge and assist in the diagnosis and prognosis diseases. The study used 18 animals to describe the normal sonographic anatomy in the abdominal cavity of the Amazonian manatee. During abdominal scan, it was possible to visualize the features of the liver, gallbladder, stomach, urinary bladder obtained satisfactory results in this study. Therefore, other structures were not primarily identified by the reduced time, lots of fat and gases in intestines of animals.

Pesquisas morfofisiológicas em espécies selvagens são fundamentais, e o diagnóstico por imagem é uma excelente técnica, já usada e com grande aplicação, não invasiva e que fornece informações em tempo real de cada órgão. Peixes-boi-amazônico encontram-se na lista de animais ameaçados de extinção classificados na categoria vulnerável e o conhecimento do padrão normal da anatomia ultrassonográfica de órgãos e tecidos é importante para a manutenção e bem-estar de espécimes em cativeiro contribuindo para ações de reintrodução. O objetivo deste estudo foi padronizar a técnica de exame e descrever os achados ultrassonográficos do fígado, vesícula biliar, estômago, vesícula urinária e o tecido subcutâneo da região abdominal em Trichechus inunguis, de modo a contribuir com o conhecimento anátomo-sonográfico e auxiliar no diagnóstico e prognóstico de doenças. O estudo utilizou 18 animais para descrever a anatomia ultrassonográfica normal na cavidade abdominal de peixe-boi amazônico. Durante a varredura abdominal foi possível visualizar as características dos órgãos obtendo resultados satisfatórios neste estudo, concluindo ser uma técnica eficiente para avaliação de determinados órgãos abdominais em peixe-boi amazônico. Entretanto, outras estruturas não foram identificadas principalmente pelo tempo reduzido, muita gordura e gases nos intestinos dos animais.

Animals , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Urinary Bladder/anatomy & histology , Stomach/anatomy & histology , Liver/anatomy & histology , Subcutaneous Tissue/anatomy & histology , Trichechus , Ultrasonography/methods , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Gallbladder/anatomy & histology
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1412-1426, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414674


cistite hemorrágica e a cistite intersticial expressam uma etiologia variável, desde idiopática à provocada por fármacos, dentre eles a ciclofosfamida. A cistite apresenta tratamento multifatorial, e o potencial efeito satisfatório do uso da medicina complementar, vem ganhando espaço na prática médica. Assim o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito protetivo do extrato bruto de Echinodorus grandiflorus sobre a bexiga de ratos induzidos a cistite por ciclofosfamida. Utilizou-se neste estudo, 35 ratos, machos, Wistar, com peso médio de 321g, que foram submetidos a indução de cistite com uso de ciclofosfamida por via intraperitoneal e tratados com diferentes doses de extrato de Echinodorus grandiflorus (30, 100, 300mg) e o grupo controle com o fármaco Mesna. Todos os animais foram mortos no décimo sétimo dia e suas bexigas urinarias foram ressecadas para avaliação macro e microscópica, além da análise de hemograma e leucograma. A análise do sangue mostrou leucopenia com diferença significativa em todos os animais que receberam a ciclofosfamida. Observou-se que a dose de 300mg/kg do extrato bruto da planta, apresentou efeito protetivo no urotélio vesical, porém, inferior ao uso de Mesna. Diante dos resultados apresentados neste estudo sugere-se que o extrato de Echinodorus grandiflorus apresenta efeito protetivo no urotélio vesical na dose de 300mg/kg, porém estudos futuros quanto a dose e também a uma possível associação terapêutica ao Mesna devam ser realizados. Por se tratar de uma patologia com prevalência importante e ser muitas vezes desagradável e limitante à vida, faz-se necessário o empenho em métodos terapêuticos alternativos aos atuais, afim de, diminuírem os custos e efeitos colaterais dos métodos já documentados.

Hemorrhagic cystitis and interstitial cystitis have a variable etiology, from idiopathic to drug-induced, including cyclophosphamide. Cystitis has a multifactorial treatment, and the potential satisfactory effect of the use of complementary medicine has been gaining ground in medical practice. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of the crude extract of Echinodorus grandiflorus on the bladder of rats induced to cystitis by cyclophosphamide. In this study, 35 male Wistar rats, with an average weight of 321g, were submitted to cystitis induction with intraperitoneal use of cyclophosphamide and treated with different doses of Echinodorus grandiflorus extract (30, 100, 300mg) and the control group with the drug Mesna. All animals were killed on the seventeenth day and their urinary bladders were resected for macro and microscopic evaluation, in addition to the analysis of blood count and leukogram. Blood analysis showed leukopenia with a significant difference in all animals that received cyclophosphamide. It was observed that the dose of 300mg/kg of the crude extract of the plant had a protective effect on the vesical urothelium, however, it was inferior to the use of Mesna. In view of the results presented in this study, it is suggested that the Echinodorus grandiflorus extract has a protective effect on the vesical urothelium at a dose of 300mg/kg, but future studies regarding the dose and also a possible therapeutic association with Mesna should be carried out. Because it is a pathology with significant prevalence and is often unpleasant and life-limiting, it is necessary to commit to alternative therapeutic methods to the current ones, in order to reduce the costs and side effects of the methods already documented.

cistitis hemorrágica y la cistitis intersticial tienen una etiología variable, desde idiopática hasta inducida por fármacos, incluida la ciclofosfamida. La cistitis tiene un tratamiento multifactorial, y el potencial efecto satisfactorio del uso de la medicina complementaria ha ido ganando terreno en la práctica médica. Así, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto protector del extracto crudo de Echinodorus grandiflorus sobre la vejiga de ratas inducidas a cistitis por ciclofosfamida. En este estudio, 35 ratas Wistar macho, con un peso promedio de 321g, fueron sometidas a inducción de cistitis con uso intraperitoneal de ciclofosfamida y tratadas con diferentes dosis de extracto de Echinodorus grandiflorus (30, 100, 300mg) y el grupo control con el fármaco Mesna. Todos los animales fueron sacrificados al decimoséptimo día y sus vejigas urinarias fueron resecadas para evaluación macro y microscópica, además del análisis de hemograma y leucograma. El análisis de sangre mostró leucopenia con una diferencia significativa en todos los animales que recibieron ciclofosfamida. Se observó que la dosis de 300 mg/kg del extracto crudo de la planta tuvo un efecto protector sobre el urotelio vesical, sin embargo, fue inferior al uso de Mesna. En vista de los resultados presentados en este estudio, se sugiere que el extracto de Echinodorus grandiflorus tiene un efecto protector sobre el urotelio vesical a una dosis de 300 mg/kg, pero se deben realizar estudios futuros sobre la dosis y también una posible asociación terapéutica con Mesna. llevado a cabo. Por tratarse de una patología con una prevalencia importante y muchas veces desagradable y

Animals , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Urothelium , Cyclophosphamide , Cystitis , Alismataceae , Urinary Bladder , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Leukopenia
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(4): 189-193, out./dez. 2022. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1427143


O linfoma é uma neoplasia de alta recorrência na rotina oncológica de medicina veterinária. Pode ser classificado em linfoma Hodgking-liked, com raros casos descritos somente em felinos,e não Hodgking, sendo este segundo o mais comum, subdividido em linfomas B ou T. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a conduta clínica, diagnóstica e terapêutica do caso de uma cadela, de 12 anos, sem raça definida, que manifestava disúria, prostração, dor abdominal e ao exame físico a presença de uma massa na região hipogástrica. Esta foi diagnosticada com linfoma de grandes células por meio de exames de citologia e biópsia, com solicitação do exame de imunoistoquímica que confirmou linfoma difuso de grandes células de imunofenótipo B. Sem o envolvimento de nenhum outro sistema, classificou-se como linfoma primário de bexiga extranodal. O animal passou pelo tratamento quimioterápico realizando nove sessões de quimioterapia pelo protocolo de CHOP, contudo devido ao agravamento do caso a paciente veio a óbito cerca de sete meses após o diagnóstico da doença. O caso estudado foi de extrema importância para a compreensão de linfomas primários de bexiga em razão da escassez de informações relacionadas na literatura. Ainda, o cão é um excelente modelo experimental de linfomas não Hodgking em humanos, consequentemente compreender essa doença em cães promove a evolução conjunta da medicina humana.

Lymphoma is a highly recurrent rate neoplasm in the oncology routine of veterinary medicine. It can be classified into Hodgking-like, rarely described just in felines, and non-Hodgking lymphoma, the latter being the most commun, subdivided into B-cell lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma. The objective of this study was to report the clinical and therapeutic conduct within the diagnosis procedures of a 12-years-old female dog, mixed breed, who manifested dysuria, prostation, abdominal pain and on the physical examination a mass in the hypogastric region was noticed. This was diagnosed as a large cell lymphoma by means cytology and biopsy, also immunohistochemistry was required which confirmed the diffuse large cell lymphoma of immunophenotyping B. Without any other sistem envolved, the neoplasm was classified as primary urinary bladder lymphoma extranodal. The animal underwent chemotherapy, performing nine sessions according to the Madison protocol, however, due to the worsening of the case, the patient died about seven months after the diagnosis of the disease. This case was extremely importante for the understanding of primary urinary bladder lymphomas due to the scarcity of informations in the literature. Also, dog is an excellent experi,emtal model of non Hodgking lymphomas in humans, thus understandig this disease in dogs promotes the joint evolution of human medicine.

Animals , Dogs , Urinary Bladder/abnormalities , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/veterinary , Dogs/abnormalities , Drug Therapy/veterinary , Extranodal Extension/diagnosis
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 371-372, March-Apr. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364945


ABSTRACT Introduction: Tissue transfer has been used in urethral reconstruction for decades, and several grafts have been described (1, 2). The ideal graft would have optimal tissue characteristics and lead to minimal morbidity at the donor site. Urethroplasty using bladder mucosa was first described by Memmelaar in 1947 (3). The main limitation in using bladder mucosal grafts has been the invasiveness of open harvesting (4). We describe an endoscopic technique using Holmium: YAG laser to harvest bladder mucosal graft for substitution urethroplasty. Methodology: A 33-year-old male with no history of urethral instrumentation, trauma, or infection presented with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms. On retrograde urethrogram a 6cm bulbar urethral stricture was identified. Several options were discussed, and the patient opted for a one-sided onlay dorsal urethroplasty (5) using a bladder mucosal graft. Equipment used to harvest the graft included an 18.5Fr continuous flow laser endoscope with a Kuntz working element (RZ) and a 60W Holmium Laser (Quanta) with 550μm laser fiber. The procedure was started by making a perineal incision, urethral mobilization and incision of the stricture segment. The laser endoscope was then introduced via the perineum. Settings of 0.5J, 30 Hz, and long pulse were used and a 7 x 2.5cm graft was harvested from the posterior bladder wall. Hemostasis of the harvest site was performed. The bladder mucosal graft was thinned in similar fashion to a buccal mucosal graft and sutured as per previously described techniques. Conclusion: Endoscopic Holmium Laser harvesting of bladder mucosal graft is feasible and may allow this graft to become an alternative to buccal mucosa. Further studies are required to define its role in urethral reconstruction.

Humans , Male , Adult , Urethral Stricture/surgery , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Urethra/surgery , Urinary Bladder/surgery , Mouth Mucosa/transplantation
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 220-243, March-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BIGG | ID: biblio-1364966


Bladder and urinary sphincter malfunctioning that results from some change in the central and/or peripheral nervous system is defined as neurogenic bladder. The urinary tract symptoms that can be related to its filling, emptying, or both have a significant impact on the quality of life of individuals. The present review was based on the document prepared for the public health system in Brazil as a treatment guidelines proposal. Material and Methods: Survey questions were structured as per PICO (Population, Intervention, Control, and Outcome). Search strategies were defined and performed in the MEDLINE/Pubmed, Embase, Epistemonikos and Google Scholar databases. The selection of articles followed the evidence hierarchy concept; evidence body was identified, and the quantitative study data were extracted. The quality of evidence and grade of recommendation were qualitatively assessed according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations). Results: A total of 2.707 articles were identified, with 49 of them being selected to compose the basis for this review. Neurogenic bladder treatments were classified according to their focus on filling or emptying symptoms and sub- classified in pharmacological and surgical treatments. Conclusion: Treatment guidelines are important tools for the public health system to promote the best practice when treating neurogenic bladder patients.

Humans , Urinary Tract , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/therapy , Quality of Life , Urinary Bladder , Surveys and Questionnaires
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 78-86, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356292


ABSTRACT Purpose: Posterior urethral valves (PUVs) are the most common cause of congenital bladder obstruction in boys. Our aim was to assess the impact of early diagnosis and fulguration of PUVs on bladder function and compare their functional and urodynamic outcome with children who underwent delayed intervention. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 153 patients who underwent primary valve ablation from two tertiary hospitals between 2001 and 2018. Patients have been divided into 2 groups, group 1 included 69 patients who were detected antenatally and underwent early fulguration of PUVs while group 2 included 84 children presented postnatally and underwent delayed valve ablation. The recorded data throughout follow-up in renal function tests, urodynamics and changes in the upper urinary tracts were evaluated and compared. Results: Median age at time of valve ablation was 10 days in group 1 and 7 months in group 2. The median follow-up period was 6.5 and 7 years in group 1 and 2, respectively. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) developed in 15 (22%) boys in group 1 while in group 2 it was observed in 31 (37%), p=0.04. While Q-max, mean bladder capacity and post-void residual (PVR) volumes were comparable in both groups, percent PVR was significantly higher in group 2 (3.27 vs. 1.44, p=0.002). Detrusor overactivity was slightly different in both groups (p = 0.07). Conclusions: Compared to delayed intervention, primary ablation of PUVs during the early neonatal life possibly provides the optimum chance to have optimum renal function without impact on bladder function.

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Child , Urinary Bladder/surgery , Urinary Bladder Diseases , Urethra/surgery , Urodynamics , Retrospective Studies
African Health Sciences ; 22(1): 88-91, March 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400435


in the ten (10) regions of Ghana. The findings showed that most girls in Public Senior High Schools in Ghana had prior knowledge about menstruation from their mothers and sisters prior to menarche. It was revealed that majority of the girls mentioned hormones as the cause of menstruation, whilst others mentioned the uterus, bladder, vagina, and other parts of the female reproductive system. A few of them had no idea what causes menstruation. The findings again revealed that most girls use sanitary pads, while some use other materials during menstruation. Less than half of the sample of girls in this study were able to change their pads twice daily or more. About half of the girls cleansed their genital parts only when bathing during menstruation using soup and water mostly. Half of the schools used public tap/standpipe as their main source of water and the rest used other sources of water. Also, most schools have toilet facilities. Some useful recommendations are proffered with the aim of improving MHM in public high schools in Ghana

Uterus , Vagina , Urinary Bladder , Fear , Hormones , Menstruation , Anxiety , Education, Primary and Secondary , Cisgender Persons , Ghana