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1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 220-243, March-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364966

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Bladder and urinary sphincter malfunctioning that results from some change in the central and/or peripheral nervous system is defined as neurogenic bladder. The urinary tract symptoms that can be related to its filling, emptying, or both have a significant impact on the quality of life of individuals. The present review was based on the document prepared for the public health system in Brazil as a treatment guidelines proposal. Material and Methods: Survey questions were structured as per PICO (Population, Intervention, Control, and Outcome). Search strategies were defined and performed in the MEDLINE/Pubmed, Embase, Epistemonikos and Google Scholar databases. The selection of articles followed the evidence hierarchy concept; evidence body was identified, and the quantitative study data were extracted. The quality of evidence and grade of recommendation were qualitatively assessed according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations). Results: A total of 2.707 articles were identified, with 49 of them being selected to compose the basis for this review. Neurogenic bladder treatments were classified according to their focus on filling or emptying symptoms and sub- classified in pharmacological and surgical treatments. Conclusion: Treatment guidelines are important tools for the public health system to promote the best practice when treating neurogenic bladder patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/therapy , Quality of Life , Urinary Bladder , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 371-372, March-Apr. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364945

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Tissue transfer has been used in urethral reconstruction for decades, and several grafts have been described (1, 2). The ideal graft would have optimal tissue characteristics and lead to minimal morbidity at the donor site. Urethroplasty using bladder mucosa was first described by Memmelaar in 1947 (3). The main limitation in using bladder mucosal grafts has been the invasiveness of open harvesting (4). We describe an endoscopic technique using Holmium: YAG laser to harvest bladder mucosal graft for substitution urethroplasty. Methodology: A 33-year-old male with no history of urethral instrumentation, trauma, or infection presented with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms. On retrograde urethrogram a 6cm bulbar urethral stricture was identified. Several options were discussed, and the patient opted for a one-sided onlay dorsal urethroplasty (5) using a bladder mucosal graft. Equipment used to harvest the graft included an 18.5Fr continuous flow laser endoscope with a Kuntz working element (RZ) and a 60W Holmium Laser (Quanta) with 550μm laser fiber. The procedure was started by making a perineal incision, urethral mobilization and incision of the stricture segment. The laser endoscope was then introduced via the perineum. Settings of 0.5J, 30 Hz, and long pulse were used and a 7 x 2.5cm graft was harvested from the posterior bladder wall. Hemostasis of the harvest site was performed. The bladder mucosal graft was thinned in similar fashion to a buccal mucosal graft and sutured as per previously described techniques. Conclusion: Endoscopic Holmium Laser harvesting of bladder mucosal graft is feasible and may allow this graft to become an alternative to buccal mucosa. Further studies are required to define its role in urethral reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Urethral Stricture/surgery , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Urethra/surgery , Urinary Bladder/surgery , Mouth Mucosa/transplantation
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 78-86, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356292

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Posterior urethral valves (PUVs) are the most common cause of congenital bladder obstruction in boys. Our aim was to assess the impact of early diagnosis and fulguration of PUVs on bladder function and compare their functional and urodynamic outcome with children who underwent delayed intervention. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 153 patients who underwent primary valve ablation from two tertiary hospitals between 2001 and 2018. Patients have been divided into 2 groups, group 1 included 69 patients who were detected antenatally and underwent early fulguration of PUVs while group 2 included 84 children presented postnatally and underwent delayed valve ablation. The recorded data throughout follow-up in renal function tests, urodynamics and changes in the upper urinary tracts were evaluated and compared. Results: Median age at time of valve ablation was 10 days in group 1 and 7 months in group 2. The median follow-up period was 6.5 and 7 years in group 1 and 2, respectively. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) developed in 15 (22%) boys in group 1 while in group 2 it was observed in 31 (37%), p=0.04. While Q-max, mean bladder capacity and post-void residual (PVR) volumes were comparable in both groups, percent PVR was significantly higher in group 2 (3.27 vs. 1.44, p=0.002). Detrusor overactivity was slightly different in both groups (p = 0.07). Conclusions: Compared to delayed intervention, primary ablation of PUVs during the early neonatal life possibly provides the optimum chance to have optimum renal function without impact on bladder function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Child , Urinary Bladder/surgery , Urinary Bladder Diseases , Urethra/surgery , Urodynamics , Retrospective Studies
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Bladder cancer is one of the most common urothelial tumors with high incidence and mortality rates. Although it has been reported that microRNA (miR)-133b can regulate tumorigenesis of bladder cancer, the mechanism remains unclear. Sex-determining region Y-box transcription factor 4 (SOX4) exhibits an important role in tumorigenesis, but it is unclear whether SOX4 and miR-133b are associated with regulation of pathogenesis of bladder cancer. This study aims to determine the expressions of SOX4 and miR-133b in bladder cancer tissues and cells, investigate their effects on the proliferation, colony formation, and invasion of bladder cancer cells, and to explore the association between miR-133b and SOX4 in regulating biological featurss of bladder cancer cells.@*METHODS@#The bladder cancer and adjacent tissue samples of 10 patients who underwent surgical resection in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South Universty from Januray to June 2015 were obtained. The levels of miR-133b were tested by real-time PCR, and the protein levels of SOX4 were evaluated using Western blotting in bladder cancer tissues, matched adjacent tissues, and cell lines. The correlation between miR-133b expression and SOX4 expression in bladder cancer tissues was analyzed. Using the online database TargetScan, the relationship between SOX4 and miR-133b was predicted. MiR-133b mimics, miR-133b inhibitor, and short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-SOX4 were transfected into T24 cells by Lipofectamine 2000. The relationship between miR-133b and SOX4 was also verified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. The proliferation of T24 cells cultured for 0, 12, 48, 72, and 96 h was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The colony formation capacity of bladder cancer cells was tested after 14-day culture, and cell invasion capacity was evaluated with Transwell invasion assay.@*RESULTS@#Bladder cancer tissue and bladder cancer cells had low level of miR-133b but high level of SOX4, compared with matched adjacent tissues and normal bladder epithelial cells. A negative correlation between miR-133b mRNA and SOX4 protein levels in bladder cancer tissues was also found (r=-0.84). The results of online database TargetScan showed that miR-133b targets at SOX4, and overexpression of miR-133b significantly attenuated the expression of SOX4 in T24 cells. Both overexpression of miR-133b and knockdown of SOX4 significantly inhibited the proliferation, colony formation, and invasion capacity of bladder cancer cells in vitro. SOX4 down-regulation restored the effects of miR-133b inhibitor on the proliferation, colony formation, and invasion capacity of T24 cells.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The up-regulation of SOX4 contributes to the progression of bladder cancer, and miR-133b can regulate the proliferation, colony formation, and invasion of bladder cancer cells via inhibiting SOX4.


Subject(s)
Carcinogenesis/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , SOXC Transcription Factors/genetics , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927376

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of moxibustion at "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Shenque" (CV 8) on acetylcholine (Ach), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and muscarinic-type choline receptor (M2) and purine receptor P2X3 in bladder tissue in the rats with neurogenic bladder (NB) of detrusor areflexia after lumbar-sacral spinal cord injury and explore the underlying mechanism of moxibustion for promoting detrusor contraction.@*METHODS@#Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into a model preparation group (n=45) and a sham-operation group (n=15). In the model preparation group, the modified Hassan Shaker spinal cord transection method was used to prepare the model of NB. In the sham-operation group, the spinal cord transection was not exerted except laminectomy and spinal cord exposure. Among the rats with successfully modeled, 30 rats were selected and divided randomly into a model group and a moxibustion group, with 15 rats in each one. On the 15th day after the operation, moxibustion was applied at "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Shenque" (CV 8) in the moxibustion group, 10 min at each acupoint, once a day. The consecutive 7-day treatment was as one course and the intervention for 2 courses was required. Urodynamic test was adopted to evaluate bladder function in rats. Using HE staining, the morphological changes in bladder tissue were observed. The content of Ach and ATP in bladder tissue was measured with biochemical method, and the protein and mRNA expression levels of M2 and P2X3 receptors in bladder tissue were detected with Western blot and real-time fluorescence quantification PCR method.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, the maximum bladder capacity, leakage point pressure and bladder compliance were increased in the rats of the model group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the maximum bladder capacity, the leakage point pressure and bladder compliance were decreased in the rats of the moxibustion group (P<0.05). In the model group, the detrusor fibres were arranged irregularly, bladder epithelial tissues were not tightly connected and cell arrangement was disordered, combined with a large number of vacuolar cells. In the moxibustion group, compared with the model group, the detrusor fibres were arranged regularly, bladder epithelial cells were well distributed and vacuolar cells were reduced. Compared with the sham-operation group, the content of Ach and ATP in bladder tissue was decreased (P<0.05), the protein and mRNA expression levels of M2 and P2X3 receptors were reduced (P<0.05) in the model group. In the moxibustion group, the content of Ach and ATP in bladder tissue was increased (P<0.05) and the protein and mRNA expression levels of M2 and P2X3 receptors were increased (P<0.05) as compared with the model group.@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion at "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Shenque" (CV 8) may effectively improve bladder function in the rats with NB of detrusor areflexia after lumbar-sacral spinal cord injury and its underlying mechanism is related to promoting the release of Ach and up-regulating the expression of M2 receptor, thereby enhancing the release of ATP and increasing the expression of P2X3 receptor. Eventually, detrusor contraction is improved.


Subject(s)
Animals , Moxibustion/methods , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Purinergic P2X3/metabolism , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/therapy
11.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 209-218, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927318

ABSTRACT

Objective: Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in urology. Urothelial carcinoma accounts for about 90% of all bladder malignancies. According to whether the tumor invades the bladder muscle, it can be divided into non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and muscle invasive bladder cancer. Radical cystectomy is the standard treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer patients and high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients who have failed Bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment. Due to the comorbidity of bladder cancer and the potential deterioration of the quality of life after surgery, many patients were not suitable or refused for radical cystectomy. Therefore, it is vital to find a bladder-preserving treatment that can achieve cure other than radical cystectomy. Bladder-preserving therapy that balances tumor control and quality of life serves as an alternative and supplement to radical cystectomy. This consensus is based on contemporary evidence-based medicine, combined with the native clinical practice of bladder preservation in a multidisciplinary treatment manner. To some extent, this consensus serves as a guidance for bladder-preservation therapy of bladder cancer in China. Several issues are extensively discussed here, including organizational structure and workflow of multidisciplinary treatment, the selection of patients for bladder-preserving therapy, treatment options and regimens, follow-up, as well as regimen choices of recurrence after bladder-preserving therapy.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/surgery , Combined Modality Therapy , Consensus , Humans , Neoplasm Invasiveness/pathology , Quality of Life , Urinary Bladder/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery
12.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAE5680, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360400

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução A terminologia para disfunção neurogênica do trato urinário inferior em adultos (DNTUIA) deve ser definida e organizada com base clínica em um relatório de consenso. Métodos Este relatório foi criado por um Grupo de Trabalho sob o endosso e diretrizes do Standardization Steering Committee (SSC) da International Continence Society (ICS), auxiliado em intervalos por julgadores externos. Todas as definições relevantes para DNTUIA foram atualizadas com base em pesquisas nos últimos 14 anos. Um extenso processo de 18 rodadas de revisão interna e externa foi realizado para examinar exaustivamente cada definição, com tomada de decisão pela opinião coletiva (consenso). Resultados O Relatório de Terminologia para a DNTUIA, englobando 97 definições (42 novas e oito modificadas), foi desenvolvido. Este relatório é clinicamente baseado nos diagnósticos definidos mais comuns. Clareza e facilidade de uso têm sido os principais objetivos para torná-lo interpretável por profissionais e pessoas em treinamento em todos os diferentes grupos envolvidos não só na disfunção do trato urinário inferior, mas também em muitas outras especialidades médicas. Conclusão Baseado no consenso, o Relatório de Terminologia para a DNTUIA foi produzido para auxiliar na pesquisa e na prática clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Translations , Urinary Bladder , Portugal
13.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eRC5743, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360396

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Migration of foreign bodies into the urinary tract is a rare event. In certain instances, to unravel the way that objects arrived in the urinary tract is not easy. We report the case of an accidentally swallowed wooden toothpick that migrated and was found in the left ureterovesical junction, protruding into the bladder. Even though the computed tomography scan is widely employed to evaluate the urinary tract, this resource does not have a good sensitivity for detecting foreign bodies. Our report presents an insight into the best imaging approach if wooden toothpicks are suspected. In the present case, the endoscopic treatment was possible with an uneventful outcome and a complete resolution of symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ureter/surgery , Ureter/diagnostic imaging , Foreign Bodies/surgery , Foreign Bodies/complications , Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Intestinal Perforation , Urinary Bladder/surgery , Urinary Bladder/diagnostic imaging
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1160-1161, Nov.-Dec. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340042
15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1189-1194, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340022

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The 24-hour bladder diary is considered to be the gold standard for evaluating maximum voided volume (MVV). However, we observed that patients often have a greater MVV during office uroflowmetry than that seen in the bladder diary. The purpose of this study is to compare these two non-invasive methods by which MVV can be determined - at the time of uroflowmetry (Q-MVV), or by 24hour bladder diary (BD-MVV). Materials and Methods: This was an Institutional Review Board approved retrospective study of patients evaluated for LUTS who completed a 24hour bladder diary and contemporaneous uroflowmetry. For Q-MVV, the patient was instructed to wait to void until their bladder felt full. Sample means were compared, and Pearson's correlations were calculated between the Q-MVV and BD-MVV data across the total sample, women, and men. Results: Seven hundred seventy one patients with LUTS completed bladder diaries. Of these, 400 patients, 205 women and 195 men, had contemporaneous Q-MVV. Mean BD-MVV was greater than mean Q-MVV. However, Q-MVV was larger in a sizable minority of patients. There was a weak correlation between BD-MVV and Q-MVV. Furthermore, there was a difference ≥50% between Q-MVV and BD-MVV in 165 patients (41%). Conclusions: The data suggest that there is a difference between the two measurement tools, and that the BD-MVV was greater than Q-MVV. For a more reliable assessment of MVV, this study suggests that both Q-MVV and BD-MVV should be assessed and that the larger of the two values is a more reliable assessment of MVV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Urodynamics , Urinary Bladder , Urologic Surgical Procedures , Urination , Retrospective Studies
17.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(5): 540-545, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340154

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Childhood Bladder and Bowel Dysfunction Questionnaire (CBBDQ) for use in Brazilian Portuguese. The CBBDQ is an 18-item tool covering 10 bladder and 8 bowel symptoms that was developed for use with children of 5 to 12 years of age with bowel and bladder dysfunction (BBD). The instrument has already been validated for use in Dutch and English. Method: In the process of translation and cultural adaptation from English to Portuguese, the CBBDQ was submitted to undergo the required steps as established by the international methodological criteria: forward translation, synthesis, back-translation, expert panel review and pre-testing. Results: Ninety-three parents of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction answered the questionnaire. The mean age of the children was 7.6 ± 2.1 years and 54 were female. Internal consistency was excellent, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.91 to 0.96. Additionally, reliability was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.94 (95%CI: 0.85-0.93; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The translation and cultural adaptation of the CBBDQ enabled a quantitative evaluation of bladder and bowel symptoms to be performed in Brazilian children. The scores achieved allow the severity of BBD to be evaluated, as well as the patient's progress during treatment. The use of this questionnaire in clinical practice and research will allow more consistent data on BBD to be obtained.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Urinary Bladder , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Psychometrics , Translations , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(2): 322-332, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154465

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: We assessed the efficacy and safety of a single injection of three bulking agents over the short- and long-term follow-ups in rabbits. Dermal and preputial matrices were compared with Deflux (DxHA) injection. Material and methods: Twenty-four rabbits were divided into three groups. Group I (n=8) underwent the injection of a lyophilized dermal matrix (LDM) beneath the seromuscular layer of the bladder wall. Rabbits in group II (n=8) were injected with lyophilized preputial matrix (LPM). Rabbits of group III (n=8) were injected with DxHA as the control group. They were followed up for 1 and 6 months after the injection. Subcutaneous injection of all bulking agents was also performed in nude mice. Biopsies were stained with LCA (leukocyte common antibody), CD68, CD31, and CD34. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and MTT assay were also performed. Results: Immunohistochemistry staining with CD68 and LCA revealed higher inflammation grade in LDM as compared with LPM and DxHA. Fibrosis grade was also higher in LDM both in short- and long-term follow-ups. However, no significant difference was detected in CD31 and CD34 staining between control and experimental groups. SEM analysis showed that the particle size of LPM was more similar to DxHA. MTT assay revealed that cell proliferation was similar in DxHA, LDM, and LPM. In-vivo assay in nude mice model showed more promising results in LPM as compared with LDM. Conclusion: The long-term results demonstrated that LPM was more similar to Deflux with the least local tissue reaction, inflammation, and fibrosis grade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dextrans , Hyaluronic Acid , Rabbits , Urinary Bladder , Injections , Mice , Mice, Nude
20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(1): 93-99, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134320

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Hypothesis: Endoclip can be used as fiducial marker in urology. Objective: To assess the feasibility, cost effectiveness and reliability of endoclips as novel fiducial markers in precision radiotherapy, as part of a trimodality bladder-preserving treatment (TBPT) of muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed at Weifang People's Hospital (Weifang, China) from January 2015 to June 2018. A total of 15 patients underwent TBPT. Endoclips were applied to healthy edges of the resected bladder wall as novel fiducial markers. Radio-sensitizing chemotherapy and routine precision radiotherapy were given. The number and position of the endoclips during radiotherapy sessions were monitored. Complications and tumor recurrence were analyzed. Results: The mean age (±standard deviation) of the patients was 67±10 years (range 46-79). There were 3 females and 12 males. Forty-nine endoclips were applied in all patients (3.3±0.8). The tumor was completely visibly resected in all patients. The number of endoclips remained the same through the planned last radiotherapy session (3.3±0.8), i.e., none were lost. All endoclips were removed after the last radiotherapy session. The average number of follow-up months was 38.9±13.2 (range 11-52). There were no procedure-related complications at discharge or follow-up. At one-year, overall recurrence-free survival was 93.3%. Two patients had recurrences at 18 months and 10 months after TBPT, respectively, and salvage radical cystectomy was performed with no further recurrences. Another patient died due to metastasis 9 months after the completion of therapy. Conclusions: Endoclips are reliable, safe and cost-effective as novel fiducial markers in precision-radiotherapy post-TBPT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Carcinoma , Urinary Bladder , Cystectomy , China , Feasibility Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Combined Modality Therapy , Fiducial Markers , Middle Aged , Muscles , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
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