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1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411691

ABSTRACT

Objective: This review determined and reports the prevalence of urinary tract infections and aetiological agents common in most sub-Saharan African countries. Methods: A literature search involved Springer, Hindawi, PubMed, Medcrave, Google Scholar, BioMed, and Elsevier databases to identify the urinary tract infection articles published between 2000 and 2021. Results: Of 111 articles obtained from databases, 22 met the qualities to be included in the study. Overall, the prevalence of UTI was 32.12% with Escherichia coli being the most commonly isolated bacteria accounting for 86.4%. Escherichia coli is found in the GIT thus, the proximity between the anus and urinary system makes the contamination easier. Conclusion: The findings of this study provide useful information for the effective intervention of urinary tract infections. Further, it is advised women wipe from front to back whenever they attend the call of nature and or during bathing.


Objetivo: Relatamos a prevalência de infecções do trato urinário e agentes etiológicos comuns na maioria dos países da África Subsaariana. Metodos: Uma pesquisa bibliográfica envolveu as bases de dados Springer, Hindawi, PubMed, Medcrave, Google Scholar, BioMed e Elsevier para identificar os artigos que abordavam infecção do trato urinário nos países da África Subsaariana, publicados entre 2000 e 2021. Resultados: Dos 111 artigos obtidos nas bases de dados, 22 atenderam aos criterios de inclusao e foram incluídos no estudo . No geral, a prevalência de UTI foi de 32,12%, sendo a Escherichia coli a bactéria mais comumente isolada, representando 86,4%. A Escherichia coli é encontrada no TGI, portanto, a proximidade entre o ânus e o sistema urinário facilita a contaminação. Conclusao: Os achados deste estudo fornecem informações úteis para a intervenção efetiva das infecções do trato urinário. Além disso, é aconselhável que as mulheres busquem fazer sua higiene intima sempre da parte da frente para trás.


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract , Prevalence , Africa South of the Sahara , PubMed , Infections
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1360-1375, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402290

ABSTRACT

A ocorrência das infecções do trato urinário (ITU) causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida estão aumentando consideravelmente nas últimas décadas, sendo a Candida albicans a mais comumente diagnosticada como causadora deste tipo de infecções. Contudo, outras espécies, como exemplo da Candida tropicalis, estão emergindo como preocupantes causadores da doença. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente trabalho é revisar os aspectos relacionados com as ITU causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida. Foi realizada uma pesquisa na base de dados PubMed, buscando artigos sobre a epidemiologia, patogenia e tratamento das ITU causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida. As espécies de Candida são os fungos patogênicos oportunistas mais relevantes causadores de infecções nosocomiais e podem causar infecção no trato urinário, tanto inferior (ureteres, bexiga e uretra) quanto superior (rins), principalmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Existem alguns fatores predisponentes, como gênero feminino, idade avançada, diabetes mellitus, hospitalização prolongada, imunossupressão, gravidez, hipertensão, neutropenia, cálculos renais, infecções nosocomiais, terapia antibiótica e procedimentos, como a cateterização, que atuam como facilitadores das ITU por Candida spp. A doença pode ocorrer de forma assintomática, porém, pode evoluir para casos mais graves com comprometimento sistêmico em situações de candidemia que pode causar a morte do paciente, principalmente se tratando de indivíduos imunocomprometidos. Sendo assim, devido ao risco existente, a doença não pode ser negligenciada e um diagnóstico preciso e um tratamento adequado devem ser estabelecidos.


The occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by yeasts of the genus Candida has increased considerably in recent decades, with Candida albicans being the most commonly diagnosed as causing this type of infections. However, other species, such as Candida tropicalis, are emerging as worrisome causes of the disease. In this sense, the objective of the present paper is to review the aspects related to the UTI caused by yeasts of the genus Candida. A search was carried out in the PubMed database, searching for articles on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of UTI caused by yeasts of the genus Candida. Candida species are the most relevant opportunistic pathogenic fungi that cause nosocomial infections and can cause both lower (ureters, bladder and urethra) and upper (kidneys) urinary tract infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There are some predisposing factors, such as female gender, advanced age, diabetes mellitus, prolonged hospitalization, immunosuppression, pregnancy, hypertension, neutropenia, kidney stones, nosocomial infections, antibiotic therapy and procedures, such as catheterization, that act as facilitators of UTI by Candida spp. The disease can occur asymptomatically, however, it can progress to more severe cases with systemic involvement in situations of candidemia that can cause the death of the patient, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, due to the existing risk, the disease cannot be neglected and an accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment must be established.


La aparición de infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) causadas por levaduras del género Candida ha aumentado considerablemente en las últimas décadas. Candida albicans es la infección por levaduras más comúnmente diagnosticada. Sin embargo, otras especies, como la Candida tropicalis, están surgiendo como causa preocupante de la enfermedad. En este sentido, el objetivo del presente trabajo es revisar los aspectos relacionados con la ITU causada por levaduras del género Candida. Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos PubMed, buscando artículos sobre la epidemiología, la patogénesis y el tratamiento de la ITU causada por levaduras del género Candida. Las especies de Candida son los hongos patógenos oportunistas más relevantes que causan infecciones nosocomiales y pueden provocar infecciones del tracto urinario inferior (uréteres, vejiga y uretra) y superior (riñones), especialmente en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Existen algunos factores predisponentes, como el sexo femenino, la edad avanzada, la diabetes mellitus, la hospitalización prolongada, la inmunosupresión, el embarazo, la hipertensión, la neutropenia, los cálculos renales, las infecciones nosocomiales, la terapia con antibióticos y los procedimientos como el cateterismo, que actúan como facilitadores de la ITU por Candida spp. La enfermedad puede presentarse de forma asintomática, pero puede evolucionar a casos más graves con afectación sistémica en situaciones de candidemia que pueden causar la muerte del paciente, especialmente en individuos inmunodeprimidos. Por lo tanto, debido al riesgo existente, no se puede descuidar la enfermedad y se debe establecer un diagnóstico preciso y un tratamiento adecuado.


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Candida tropicalis/pathogenicity , Pyelonephritis/complications , Urinary Tract/injuries , Cross Infection/complications , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Immunocompromised Host/physiology , Biofilms , Cystitis/complications , Candidemia/complications , Hospitalization
3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1325-1342, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402281

ABSTRACT

A infecção do trato urinário (ITU) nada mais é do que o acometimento das vias urinárias por microrganismo. Entre as infecções hospitalares de maior incidência está a infecção do trato urinário, acometendo mais mulheres do que homens. Uma das possíveis causas dessa infecção, em pacientes na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI), é o uso de cateter vesical. Seu tratamento inadequado pode ocasionar uma pielonefrite, podendo adentrar à circulação sanguínea, gerando uma infecção sistêmica e levar o paciente a óbito. A resistência antimicrobiana é uma das principais dificuldades encontrada em UTI sendo considerado um problema de saúde pública. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um breve relato, baseado na literatura, sobre a resistência antimicrobiana na infecção urinária em unidade de terapia intensiva adulta. Em ambientes hospitalares o principal microrganismo causador de ITU é Escherichia coli, sendo 55,5% das culturas positivas estão associadas a procedimentos invasivos, como as sondas vesicais de demora, como consequência este é o microrganismo que mais apresenta resistência aos antimicrobianos utilizados como a ampicilina, trimetoprima e ciprofloxacino. O uso indiscriminado de antibióticos deixa em evidência a necessidade de análise criteriosa da real necessidade de qual antimicrobianos usar, tempo de uso e forma correta de administração. Portanto é necessária a ação dos profissionais de saúde frente a atenção ao paciente, desde a higiene das mãos, uso do cateter, quando necessário observar a real necessidade do uso do antimicrobianos e que esse seja feito após cultura e antibiograma.


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is nothing more than the involvement of the urinary tract by a microorganism. Among the hospital infections with the highest incidence is urinary tract infections, affecting more women than men. One of the possible causes of this infection in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is the use of a bladder catheter. Its inadequate treatment can cause pyelonephritis, which can enter the bloodstream, generating a systemic infection and leading the patient to death. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the main difficulties encountered in ICUs and is considered a public health problem. The objective of this study was to present a brief report, based on the literature, on antimicrobial resistance in urinary tract infections in an adult intensive care unit. In hospital environments, the main microorganism that causes UTI is Escherichia coli, and 55.5% of positive cultures are associated with invasive procedures, such as indwelling urinary catheters, as a consequence, this is the microorganism that is most resistant to antimicrobials used, such as ampicillin, trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics highlights the need for a careful analysis of the real need for which antimicrobials to use, time of use, and correct form of administration. Therefore, it is necessary for the action of health professionals in the care of the patient, from the hygiene of the professional to, the use of the catheter, when necessary to observe the real need for the use of antimicrobials and that this is done after culture and antibiogram.


La infección del tracto urinario (ITU) no es más que la afectación de las vías urinarias por un microorganismo. Entre las infecciones hospitalarias con mayor incidencia se encuentra la infección del tracto urinario, que afecta más a mujeres que a hombres. Una de las posibles causas de esta infección en pacientes en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) es el uso de una sonda vesical. Su tratamiento inadecuado puede causar pielonefritis, la cual puede ingresar al torrente sanguíneo, generando una infección sistémica y llevando al paciente a la muerte. La resistencia a los antimicrobianos es una de las principales dificultades encontradas en las UCI y se considera un problema de salud pública. El objetivo de este estudio fue presentar un breve informe, basado en la literatura, sobre la resistencia antimicrobiana en infecciones del tracto urinario en una unidad de cuidados intensivos de adultos. En ambientes hospitalarios, el principal microorganismo causante de ITU es Escherichia coli, y el 55,5% de los cultivos positivos están asociados a procedimientos invasivos, como sondas vesicales permanentes, por lo que este es el microorganismo más resistente a los antimicrobianos utilizados, como la ampicilina. ., trimetoprima y ciprofloxacino. El uso indiscriminado de antibióticos pone de relieve la necesidad de un análisis cuidadoso de la necesidad real de qué antimicrobianos utilizar, el momento de uso y la forma correcta de administración. Por lo tanto, es necesaria la actuación de los profesionales de la salud en el cuidado del paciente, desde la higiene del profesional, uso del catéter, cuando sea necesario observar la necesidad real del uso de antimicrobianos y que este se realice previo cultivo y antibiograma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Urinary Tract Infections/mortality , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Urinary Tract , Women , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/complications , Cross Infection/transmission , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Catheters/microbiology , Hand Hygiene , Ampicillin/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 220-243, March-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364966

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Bladder and urinary sphincter malfunctioning that results from some change in the central and/or peripheral nervous system is defined as neurogenic bladder. The urinary tract symptoms that can be related to its filling, emptying, or both have a significant impact on the quality of life of individuals. The present review was based on the document prepared for the public health system in Brazil as a treatment guidelines proposal. Material and Methods: Survey questions were structured as per PICO (Population, Intervention, Control, and Outcome). Search strategies were defined and performed in the MEDLINE/Pubmed, Embase, Epistemonikos and Google Scholar databases. The selection of articles followed the evidence hierarchy concept; evidence body was identified, and the quantitative study data were extracted. The quality of evidence and grade of recommendation were qualitatively assessed according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations). Results: A total of 2.707 articles were identified, with 49 of them being selected to compose the basis for this review. Neurogenic bladder treatments were classified according to their focus on filling or emptying symptoms and sub- classified in pharmacological and surgical treatments. Conclusion: Treatment guidelines are important tools for the public health system to promote the best practice when treating neurogenic bladder patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/therapy , Quality of Life , Urinary Bladder , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 31(1): 21-27, 15/03/2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1368865

ABSTRACT

Introducción y Objetivo La cirugía de próstata es un procedimiento frecuente en varones mayores. Existen diferentes técnicas, cuya elección depende de la patología a tratar, de la experiencia del especialista, y de la disponibilidad técnica. Entre sus complicaciones se encuentra la infección del tracto urinario, que ocasiona incremento en morbimortalidad y costos para el sistema de salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue evaluar los factores relacionados con la aparición de infección urinaria luego de este tipo de cirugía. Materiales y Métodos Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en una población de pacientes sometidos a prostatectomía del 2018 hasta principios del 2020 en Medellín, Colombia. Los casos correspondieron a los pacientes que presentaron infección de vías urinarias hasta 30 días tras la prostatectomía. Se estimó la asociación entre casos y controles por medio del cálculo de la razón de disparidad (RD), la cual se ajustó con una regresión logística y con un modelo aditivo generalizado multivariado. Resultados Se identificaron 96 casos incidentes de infección del trato urinario luego de la prostatectomía, con una prevalencia de 8.99%. La frecuencia de solicitud de urocultivo preoperatorio fue de 52,92% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 48,34­ 57,44%). Las variables independientemente asociadas con la aparición de infección urinaria fueron: solicitud de urocultivo prequirúrgico, número de dosis, y tipo de antibiótico usado para la profilaxis. Particularmente, se encontró como factor protector el uso de aminoglucósidos. En los pacientes con infección urinaria, los principales gérmenes aislados fueron: Eschirichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klepsiella pneumoniae, Enterococos faecalis y Serratia marcescens.


Introduction and Objective Prostate surgery is a common procedure among older men. There are different techniques, and the choice depends on the pathology to be treated, the experience of the specialist, and the technical availability. Among its complications is urinary tract infection, which causes increased morbidity and mortality and costs for the health system. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the factors related to the onset of urinary tract infection after prostate surgery. Materials and Methods A case-control study was conducted in a population of patients undergoing prostatectomy from 2018 to early 2020 in the city of Medellín, Colombia. The cases corresponded to patients who presented urinary tract infection up to 30 days after prostatectomy. The association between cases and controls was estimated by calculating the odds ratio (OR), which was adjusted with logistic regression and a multivariate generalized additive model. Results We identified 96 incident cases of urinary tract infection after prostatectomy, with a prevalence of 8.99%. The frequency of requests for preoperative urine culture was of 52.92% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 48.34 - 57.44). The independently associated variables were: request for preoperative urine culture, number of doses, and type of antibiotic used for prophylaxis. In particular, the use of aminoglycosides in prophylaxis schemes was found to be a protective factor. The main germs isolated were: Eschirichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klepsiella pneumoniae, Enterococos faecalis, and Serratia marcescens. Conclusion The present study shows that factors such as the preoperative request for urine culture and the use of aminoglycosides for surgical prophylaxis influence the probability of developing urinary tract infection after prostatectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatectomy , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Serratia marcescens , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Protective Factors , Aminoglycosides , Anti-Bacterial Agents
6.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 31(2): 63-67, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1411984

ABSTRACT

Objective Among regional blocks, the quadratus lumborum fascial plane block (QLB) has been well described, but the description of its use and efficacy for pediatric patients undergoing upper abdominal urologic surgery is limited. We present a case series examining the use of the QLB for postoperative pain management in children undergoing upper tract surgery. Methods From August 2019 to August 2020, through a chart review, we identified 5 patients who had undergone a QLB for upper urinary tract surgery via a flank incision. Posterior QLB was performed after induction of general anesthesia. A single injection of 0.5mL/kg of either 0.25% or 0.5% ropivacaine with 1mcg/kg of clonidine was administered. Patients received fentanyl IV (1 mcg/kg), and acetaminophen IV (15mg/kg) as adjuvants during the operation. Postoperative pain was managed with oral acetaminophen and ibuprofen. Results The average postoperative pain score during the entire admission was 1, with the lowest being 0 and highest, 3. No administration of rescue narcotics was required in the postanesthesia care unit or on the floor. The average length of stay ranged from 0 to 1 day. No complications associated with the regional QLB were identified. Conclusions Our series suggests the QLB may be considered as a regional anesthetic option to minimize narcotic requirements for children undergoing upper abdominal urological surgery via flank incision. Additional studies are needed to compare the efficacy of the QLB versus alternate regional anesthetic blocks for upper tract urological surgery via flank incision in children and to determine effective dosing and use of adjuvants


Objetivo Entre los bloqueos regionales, el bloqueo del plano fascial del cuadrado lumbar (BCL) ha sido bien descrito; sin embargo, tiene una descripción limitada de su uso y eficacia en pacientes pediátricos sometidos a cirugía urológica abdominal superior. Presentamos una serie de casos que examinan el uso del BCL en el manejo del dolor posoperatorio en niños sometidos a cirugía urológica del tracto superior. Métodos De agosto de 2019 a agosto de 2020, mediante revisión de historias clínicas, se identificaron 5 pacientes sometidos al BCL para cirugía del tracto urinario superior por incisión en el flanco. El BCL posterior se realizó después de la inducción de la anestesia general. Solo se administró una inyección de 0,5 ml/kg de ropivacaína al 0,25% o al 0,5% con 1 mcg/kg de clonidina. Los pacientes recibieron fentanilo IV (1 mcg/kg) y acetaminofén IV (15 mg/kg) como adyuvantes durante la operación. El dolor posoperatorio se manejó con acetaminofén e ibuprofeno oral. Resultados El puntaje promedio de dolor posoperatorio para todo el ingreso fue de 1, siendo el más bajo 0 y el más alto, 3. No se requirieron administraciones de narcóticos de rescate en la unidad de recuperación posanestésica ni en la planta de hospitalización. La estancia media fue de 0 a 1 día. No se identificaron complicaciones asociadas con el BCL regional. Conclusiones Nuestra revisión sugiere que el BCL puede ser considerado una opción anestésica regional para minimizar los requerimientos de narcóticos en niños sometidos a cirugía urológica abdominal superior por incisión en el flanco. Se necesitan estudios adicionales para comparar la eficacia de BCL en comparación con la de los bloqueos anestésicos regionales alternativos para la cirugía urológica del tracto superior por incisión en el flanco en niños y para determinar la efectividad de la dosificación y del uso de adyuvantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Lumbosacral Region , Urinary Tract , Fentanyl , Clonidine , Hospitalization , Anesthesia, General
7.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(4): 767-772, dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1353330

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Identificar, descrever e analisar a Infecção do Trato Urinário e sua recorrência em internação. Caracterizar os aspectos sociodemográficos, laboratoriais e clínicos dos idosos com ITU. Método: Estudo transversal com delineamento descritivo, abordagem quantitativa do tipo analítica, realizada nos prontuários eletrônicos dos idosos que foram internados no ano de 2017 e reinternaram em 2018, na unidade de Geriatria de um hospital de ensino. Na estatística foi usado Teste Exato de Fisher, considerado p<0,05. Resultados: Dos 1.835 prontuários, foram selecionados 550 (29,97%) idosos, destes, foram investigados 121 (22%) com ITU. A maioria foi do sexo masculino com idade entre 80 e 89 anos. Dentre eles, 51,2% usaram algum tipo de sonda vesical e 52,9% usaram frauda. Os exames alterados foram os de creatinina, Proteina-C-Reativa, urina I (proteínas e leucócitos), além de urocultura positiva para Escherichia Coli. Dos 121 pacientes investigados, 50,4% tiveram reinternação por Infecção urinária, destes, 42,6% morreram e, dos que não tiveram recorrência, foram 18,3% óbitos (p= 0,00054).Conclusão: O idoso tem predisposição maior para adquirir infeção urinária, além de apresentar recidivas, principalmente os que fazem uso de sonda vesical e fralda, o que ocasiona aumento da frequência de hospitalizações, do estadiamento no hospital e da mortalidade. (AU)


Objective: Analyze the Urinary Tract Infection and its recurrence in hospitalization in the elderly, characterizing the sociodemographic, laboratory and clinical aspects. Methods: Cross sectional study with descriptive design, quantitative approach of an analytical type, carried out on the electronic medical records of the elderly who were hospitalized in 2017 and readmitted in 2018, in the Geriatrics unit of a teaching hospital. Fisher's exact test was used in statistics, considered p <0.05. Results: Of the 1,835 records, 550 (29.97%) elderly were selected, of these, 121 (22%) with Urinary Tract Infection were investigated. The majority were male aged between 80 and 89 years. Among them, 51.2% used some type of bladder catheter and 52.9% used fraud. The altered tests were those of creatinine, C-Reactive Protein, urine I (proteins and leukocytes), in addition to positive urine culture for Escherichia Coli. Of the 121 patients investigated, 50.4% had readmission for urinary tract infection, of these, 42.6% died and, of those who did not have recurrence, 18.3% died (p = 0.00054). Conclusion: The elderly is predisposed greater to acquire urinary infection, in addition to relapses, especially those who use a bladder catheter and diaper, which causes an increase in the frequency of hospitalizations, hospital stay and mortality. (AU)


Objetivo: Analizar la Infección del Tracto Urinario y su recurrencia en la hospitalización del anciano, caracterizando los aspectos sociodemográficos, de laboratorio y clínicos. Métodos: Estudio transversal con diseño descriptivo, abordaje cuantitativo de tipo analítico, realizado sobre la historia clínica electrónica de los ancianos que fueron hospitalizados en 2017 y readmitidos en 2018, en la unidad de Geriatría de un hospital universitario. En estadística se utilizó la prueba exacta de Fisher, considerada p <0,05. Resultados: De las 1.835 historias clínicas, se seleccionaron 550 (29,97%) ancianos, de estos se investigaron 121 (22%) con Infección del Tracto Urinario. La mayoría eran hombres de entre 80 y 89 años. Entre ellos, el 51,2% utilizó algún tipo de sonda vesical y el 52,9% utilizó fraude. Las pruebas alteradas fueron las de creatinina, proteína C reactiva, orina I (proteínas y leucocitos), además de urocultivo positivo para Escherichia Coli. De los 121 pacientes investigados, el 50,4% tuvo reingreso por infección del tracto urinario, de estos, el 42,6% falleció y, de los que no presentaron recidiva, falleció el 18,3% (p = 0,00054). Conclusión: Los ancianos tienen mayor predisposición a adquirir urinaria infección, además de recaídas, especialmente en quienes utilizan sonda vesical y pañal, lo que provoca un aumento en la frecuencia de hospitalizaciones, estancia hospitalaria y mortalidad. (AU)


Subject(s)
Old Age Assistance , Recurrence , Urinary Tract , Cross Infection
8.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(4): 495-501, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350914

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Urinary tract symptoms and infection have been associated with occupational factors that impact hydration habits particularly in women. We compared self-reported urinary symptoms and infection and hydration habits between nurses and other occupations in dialysis units. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Participants worked in five nephrology centers in Brazil and answered an online questionnaire comprising questions regarding urinary tract symptoms and infection episodes in the preceding year; data on usual daily beverage intake, urine frequency, and urine color according to a urine color chart were also collected, as well as perceptions of water access and toilet adequacy at work. Results: We included 133 women (age=36.9±9.5 years). The self-reported usual daily beverage intake was 6.6±2.9 cups/day (~1320 mL), daily urine frequency was 5.4±2.1, and urine color chart score: 3.0±1.2. Nurses (N=66/49.6%) reported higher prevalence of burning sensation (50 versus 27%; P<0.001), urinary urgency (42 versus 21%; P<0.001), and infection (42% versus 25%; P=0.04) as well as lower liquid intake (6.0±2.6 versus 7.3±3.0 cups/day; P=0.01) than controls. Forty four percent of nurses reported being able to drink when thirsty "always" and "most of the time" versus 93% of the control group. Conclusion: Dialysis female nurses reported lower beverage intake and higher prevalence of symptoms and infection than other occupations in the same environment. Interventions to improve hydration can potentially decrease urinary problems in this population.


Resumo Introdução: Sintomas e infecções do trato urinário têm sido associados a fatores ocupacionais que afetam hábitos de hidratação, particularmente em mulheres. Comparamos sintomas e infecções urinárias autorrelatados e hábitos de hidratação entre técnicas de enfermagem e outras ocupações em unidades de diálise. Métodos: Estudo transversal. As participantes trabalhavam em cinco centros de nefrologia no Brasil e responderam um questionário online contendo perguntas sobre sintomas do trato urinário e episódios de infecção no ano anterior; também foram coletados dados sobre a ingestão diária habitual de bebidas, frequência e cor da urina de acordo com uma tabela de cores da urina, assim como percepções sobre o acesso à água e adequação das instalações sanitárias no trabalho. Resultados: Incluímos 133 mulheres (idade=36,9±9,5 anos). Em média, as participantes relataram ingestão de bebidas de 6,6±2,9 copos/dia (~1320 mL), frequência urinária de 5,4±2,1 vezes/dia e escore da tabela de cores da urina de 3,0±1,2. Técnicas de enfremagem (N=66/49,6%) relataram maior prevalência de sensação de ardor (50 versus 27%; P<0,001), urgência urinária (42 versus 21%; P<0,001), e infecção (42% versus 25%; P=0,04), bem como menor ingestão de líquidos (6,0±2,6 versus 7,3±3,0 copos/dia; P=0,01) do que controles. Quarenta e quatro por cento das técnicas de enfermagem relataram poder beber quando têm sede "sempre" e "na maioria das vezes" contra 93% do grupo controle. Conclusão: Técnicas de enfermagem de unidades de diálise relataram menor ingestão de bebidas e maior prevalência de sintomas e infecção do que outras ocupações no mesmo ambiente de trabalho. Intervenções para melhorar a hidratação podem diminuir problemas urinários nesta população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Urinary Tract , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Renal Dialysis , Occupations
9.
Vive (El Alto) ; 4(12): 521-533, dic. 2021. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390560

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son un problema de salud común, la morbilidad por infecciones del tracto urinario adquiridas en la comunidad es alta y el uropatógeno más frecuente en este estudio es Escherichia coli. OBJETIVO. Determinar la resistencia de antimicrobianos en E. coli aislada de urocultivos, durante Enero - Julio 2019, en pacientes que asistieron al laboratorio clínico Neolab. MATERIALES Y METODOS. La investigación es de tipo cuantitativa, documental, de corte longitudinal descriptiva. Se desarrolló en la ciudad de Cuenca, con un universo de 936 pacientes atendidos en el laboratorio clínico Neolab de Enero a Julio de 2019 con un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia con lo cual se obtuvo una muestra de 330 registros de datos, cuyos urocultivos presentaron E. coli. RESULTADOS. Se observó resistencia del 55,15% en Amoxicilina, Ácido Nalidíxico 50,91 % y Trimetoprim Sulfametoxazol 46,67%, Ciprofloxacino 26,67%, se evidencia mayor resistencia en mujeres tanto en ß-lactámicos, Quinolonas, Sulfas y Macrólidos, se encontró que el mayor número de pacientes se encuentran dentro del grupo de adultos que representa el 54,4 % y adulto mayor con 25,3%. CONCLUSIONES. La resistencia elevada a los antibióticos estudiados, podrían sugerir un uso empírico de los mismos, la detección de estas cifras representa una señal de alarma. La automedicación facilitada por la venta libre de antimicrobianos empeora el problema, por lo que se requiere control estricto y legislación oportuna.


Urinary tract infections (UTI) are a common health problem, morbidity from community-acquired urinary tract infections is high, and the most common uropathogen in this study is Escherichia coli. OBJECTIVE. To determine the antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from urine cultures, during January - July 2019, in patients who attended the Neolab clinical laboratory. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The research is quantitative, documentary, descriptive longitudinal cut. It was developed in the city of Cuenca, with a universe of 936 patients treated in the Neolab clinical laboratory from January to July 2019 with a non-probabilistic convenience sampling with which a sample of 330 data records was obtained, whose urine cultures presented E coli. RESULTS. Resistance of 55.15% was observed in Amoxicillin, Nalidixic Acid 50.91% and Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole 46.67%, Ciprofloxacin 26.67%, greater resistance is evidenced in women both in ß-lactams, Quinolones, Sulfas and Macrolides It was found that the largest number of patients are within the group of adults that represents 54.4% and the elderly with 25.3%. COCLUSIONS. The high resistance to the studied antibiotics could suggest an empirical use of them, the detection of these figures represents an alarm signal. Self-medication facilitated by the over-the-counter sale of antimicrobials worsens the problem, requiring strict control and timely legislation.


As infecções do trato urinário (IU) são um problema de saúde comum, a morbidade das infecções do trato urinário adquiridas na comunidade é alta e o uropógeno mais frequente neste estudo é a Escherichia coli. OBJETIVO. Para determinar a resistência antimicrobiana em E. coli isolada de culturas de urina, durante janeiro - julho de 2019, em pacientes que freqüentam o laboratório clínico Neolab. MATERIALS E MÈTODOS. Esta é uma pesquisa longitudinal quantitativa, documental e descritiva. Foi desenvolvido na cidade de Cuenca, com um universo de 936 pacientes atendidos no laboratório clínico do Neolab de janeiro a julho de 2019 com uma amostragem não-probabilística por conveniência, com a qual foi obtida uma amostra de 330 registros de dados, cujas culturas de urina apresentaram E. coli. RESULTADOS. Foi observada uma resistência de 55,15% em Amoxicilina, Ácido Nalidíxico 50,91% e Trimethoprim Sulfametoxazol 46,67%, Ciprofloxacina 26,67%, maior resistência é evidenciada nas mulheres tanto em ß-lactams, Quinolones, Sulfas e Macrolides, verificou-se que o maior número de pacientes está dentro do grupo adulto representando 54,4% e adulto mais velho com 25,3%. CONCLUSÕES. A alta resistência aos antibióticos estudados poderia sugerir um uso empírico de antibióticos, e a detecção destes números representa um sinal de alarme. A automedicação facilitada pela venda sem prescrição de antimicrobianos agrava o problema, de modo que é necessário um controle rigoroso e legislação oportuna.


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract , Patients , Ciprofloxacin , Itu
11.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 29(3): 150-159, 04-oct-2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1357925

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las infecciones de las vías urinarias relacionadas con la instalación de catéter vesical son de las infecciones asociadas a la atención sanitaria más comunes en México y el mundo. Representan un riesgo latente para el desarrollo de complicaciones y pueden ocasionar la muerte. Objetivo: analizar los factores de riesgo que se asocian directamente a la infección del tracto urinario en la instalación del catéter vesical. Metodología: estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, con muestra de 90 pacientes de un hospital de segundo nivel de atención en el que se identificaron los factores de riesgo de infección de vías urinarias asociadas a la instalación de sonda vesical. Resultados: se observó un tipo de cumplimiento de los indicadores de calidad durante la instalación de sonda vesical con frecuencia en el 52.22% de los participantes. Un tipo de cumplimiento con frecuencia en el 48.90% de los participantes durante el mantenimiento de la sonda vesical, y un tipo de cumplimiento con frecuencia del 47.78% al momento del retiro de la sonda. Los principales factores de riesgo identificados asociados a la infección del tracto urinario fueron: a) que la sonda sea instalada por un médico interno, b) una estancia mayor a 3 días en urgencias y c) que la sonda sea instalada por una enfermera general. Conclusiones: se encontraron indicadores de cumplimiento cercano al 50%, lo que se considera muy bajo en la medición de los indicadores de calidad durante la instalación, mantenimiento y retiro de la sonda vesical, incluso estos están por debajo del porcentaje nacional.


Introduction: Urinary tract infections related to the installation of a bladder catheter are the most common infections associated with health care in Mexico and the world. They represent a latent risk for the development of complications and can cause death. Objective: To analyze the risk factors that are directly associated with urinary tract infection in the installation of the bladder catheter. Methods: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study; with a sample of 90 patients from a second-level care hospital in which the risk factors for urinary tract infection associated with the installation of a urinary catheter were identified. Results: A type of compliance with the quality indicators was observed during the urinary catheter installation with a frequency of 52.22% of the participants. A type of compliance with a frequency of 48.90% of the participants during the maintenance of the urinary catheter, and a type of compli- ance with a frequency of 47.78% at the time of catheter removal. The main risk factors identified associated with urinary tract infection were: a) that the catheter is installed by an intern, b) a stay of more than 3 days in the emergency room, and c) that the catheter is installed by a general nurse. Conclusions: Compliance indicators were found close to 50%, which is considered very low in the measurement of quality indicators during the installation, maintenance and removal of the urinary catheter, even these are below the national percentage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Cross-Sectional Studies , Urinary Catheters , Secondary Care , Mexico
12.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(3): 442-455, Jul 15, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290536

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A fibromialgia é uma síndrome crônica, com etiologia desconhecida, frequente em mulheres e com sintomas que afetam a qualidade de vida. Tem se discutido que essa condição afete inclusive a musculatura do assoalho pélvico. Objetivo: Verificar o conhecimento a respeito do períneo, a presença de sintomas de perdas urinárias e o nível de satisfação sexual em mulheres fibromiálgicas. Métodos: Participaram dessa abordagem 7 fibromiálgicas atendidas semanalmente pela fisioterapia. Para avaliação inicial, utilizamos um Questionário de Consciência Perineal e o Índice de Satisfação Sexual Feminina (FSFI). Durante os dois meses de intervenção, foram realizadas 2 palestras educativas e 8 encontros para a realização de exercícios perineais. Depois da intervenção, o FSFI foi aplicado novamente e os dados foram analisados por estatística simples. Resultados: As participantes demonstraram conhecer a localização das estruturas do sistema urinário, porém 4 das mulheres (57,1%) relataram não saber contrair a musculatura do assoalho pélvico. Todas relataram urgência miccional, raras perdas urinárias ao esforço e insatisfação sexual, antes da intervenção melhorando na reavaliação. Conclusão: As participantes pouco conhecem sobre a musculatura do assoalho pélvico, sua contração adequada e a atuação da fisioterapia nessa condição. A satisfação sexual encontrou-se prejudicada inicialmente apresentando melhora após as intervenções. (AU)


Introduction: Fibromyalgia is a chronic syndrome, with unknown etiology, common in women and with symptoms that affect quality of life. It has been argued that this condition affects even the pelvic floor musculature. Objective: To verify the knowledge about the perineum, the presence of symptoms of urinary loss and the level of sexual satisfaction in fibromyalgia women. Methods: Seven fibromyalgia patients attended weekly by physical therapy participated in this approach. For initial assessment, we used Perineal Awareness Questionnaire and Female Sexual Satisfaction Index (FSFI). During two months of intervention, 2 educational lectures and 8 meetings were held to perform perineal exercises. After intervention, FSFI was applied again, and the data were analyzed using simple statistics. Results: The participants demonstrated to know the location of the structures of the urinary system, however 4 of the women (57.1%) reported not knowing how to contract the pelvic floor muscles. All of them reported urinary urgency, rare urinary losses on exertion and sexual dissatisfaction, before the intervention, improving the reassessment. Conclusion: The participants know little about the musculature of the pelvic floor, its adequate contraction, and the role of physical therapy in this condition. Sexual satisfaction was initially impaired, showing improvement after the interventions. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Fibromyalgia , Physical Therapy Modalities , Orgasm , Quality of Life , Urinary Tract , Pelvic Floor , Consciousness
13.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 10-14, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292684

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Las infecciones del tracto urinario son causa de mayor morbilidad en la población adulta y afectan con frecuencia a la mujer. Al ser un problema prevalente, fue fundamental realizar estudios sobre perfiles de susceptibilidad locales para establecer medidas de vigilancia y control de uso de antibióticos. OBJETIVO. Determinar el perfil de farmacorresistencia microbiana en adultos con infección del tracto urinario. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio descriptivo, transversal. La población fue de 437 urocultivos y una muestra de 176 positivos con su antibiograma, realizados en el laboratorio del Hospital Básico de Sangolquí entre enero de 2017 hasta abril de 2018. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: pacientes mayores de 15 años de edad de ambos sexos, ambulatorios y hospitalizados, que presentaron urocultivos positivos definidos por una cuenta mayor a 100 000 Unidades Formadoras de Colonia. RESULTADOS. Del 40,27% (176; 437) de urocultivos positivos, la bacteria aislada con frecuencia fue Escherichia coli. 69,31% (122; 176), con resistencia a ampicilina 77,97% (92; 118), trimetropim-sulfametoxazole 62,26% (66; 106), norfloxacino 37,50% (42; 112), ciprofloxacino 35,65 % (41; 115), ampicilina/sulbactam 32,20% (38; 118) y con susceptibilidad a: fosfomicina, ceftriaxona, amikacina y nitrofurantoina. CONCLUSIÓN. Se determinó el perfil de farmacorresistencia microbiana en adultos con infección del tracto urinario; donde Escherichia coli. fue aislada con frecuencia, con susceptibilidad favorable para nitrofurantoína y fosfomicina.


INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infections are the cause of greater morbidity in the adult population and it often affects women. As it is a prevalent problem, it was essential to carry out studies on local susceptibility profiles to establish surveillance measures and control of antibiotic use. OBJECTIVE. To determine the microbial drug resistance profile in adults with urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The population was 437 urine cultures and a sample of 176 positive with their antibiogram, carried out in the laboratory of the Hospital Básico de Sangolquí between january 2017 and april 2018. Inclusion criteria were: patients older than 15 years of age of both sexes, ambulatory and hospitalized, who presented positive urine cultures defined by a count greater than 100 000 Colony Forming Units. RESULTS. Of the 40,27% (176; 437) of positive urine cultures, the bacterium frequently isolated was Escherichia coli. 69,31% (122; 176), with resistance to ampicillin 77,97% (92; 118), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 62,26% (66; 106), norfloxacin 37,50% (42; 112), ciprofloxacin 35,65% (41; 115), ampicillin / sulbactam 32,20% (38; 118) and with susceptibility to: fosfomycin, ceftriaxone, amikacin and nitrofurantoin. CONCLUSION. The microbial drug resistance profile was determined in adults with urinary tract infection; where Escherichia coli. was frequently isolated, with favorable susceptibility to nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Staphylococcus , Bacteriuria , Ampicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli
14.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(2): e1236, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341429

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección del tracto urinario se considera, en el mundo desarrollado, la enfermedad bacteriana grave más común durante la lactancia y la niñez temprana. Constituye el motivo de consulta pediátrica más frecuente en relación con el aparato urinario. Objetivo: Caracterizar los aspectos clínicos y microbiológicos de los pacientes con infección del tracto urinario, ingresados en el servicio de Pediatría. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal de 85 pacientes ingresados, con diagnóstico de infección del tracto urinario, desde septiembre de 2017 a septiembre 2019. Las variables utilizadas fueron: edad, sexo, factores de riesgo, manifestaciones clínicas y germen aislado. Los datos se obtuvieron de las historias clínicas. Se realizaron resúmenes porcentuales para las variables cualitativas y media y desviación estándar para variables cuantitativas. Resultados: La infección urinaria predominó en pacientes menores de un año (58,8 por ciento) del sexo femenino (83,5 por ciento). Los factores de riesgo identificados fueron el uso de culeros desechables (40 por ciento) y la no lactancia materna exclusiva (36,5 por ciento). La fiebre fue el signo que predominó (56,5 por ciento) y la Escherichia coli el germen más aislado en los urocultivos (76,4 por ciento). Conclusiones: La infección del tracto urinario se presenta con mayor frecuencia en los menores de un año, del sexo femenino. Predomina el uso incorrecto de culeros desechables y el destete precoz como factores de riesgo. El germen más frecuente fue Escherichia coli(AU)


Introduction: Urinary tract infection is considered, in the developed world, the most common serious bacterial disease during infancy and early childhood. It is the most frequent reason for pediatric consultation in relation to the urinary system. Objective: To characterize the clinical and microbiological aspects of patients with urinary tract infection admitted to the Pediatric service. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study of 85 admitted patients with a diagnosis of urinary tract infection, from September 2017 to September 2019. The variables used were: age, sex, risk factors, clinical manifestations and isolated germ. Data were obtained from medical records. Percentage summaries were performed for qualitative variables and mean and standard deviation for quantitative variables. Results: Urinary infection predominated in patients under a year (58.8 percent) of the female sex (83.5 percent). The risk factors identified were the use of disposable buttocks (40 percent) and not exclusive breastfeeding (36.5 percent). Fever was the predominant sign (56.5 percent) and Escherichia coli the most isolated germ in urine cultures (76.4 percent). Conclusions: Urinary tract infection occurs more frequently in children under one year of age, female. The incorrect use of disposable calves and early weaning predominate as risk factors. The most frequent germ was Escherichia coli(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Pediatrics , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control , Referral and Consultation , Urinary Tract , Breast Feeding , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
15.
Infectio ; 25(1): 71-74, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154407

ABSTRACT

Resumen La bacteremia por Streptococcus gordonii es infrecuente. Su aislamiento en hemocultivo traduce alta significancia clínica y debe dirigir el abordaje diagnóstico hacia la búsqueda de entidades subyacentes como neoplasias hematológicas, cardiopatías valvulares, neumonía, alteraciones estructurales de cabeza y cuello, inmunosupresión, y otras condiciones asociadas. No se han identificado reportes en pacientes con neoplasia de vías urinarias como posible condicionante de bacteremia por este agente. Se describe el caso de un paciente que, durante el estudio de bacteremia por este microorganismo, fue diagnosticado de carcinoma urotelial de alto grado.


Abstract Streptococcus gordonii bacteremia is rare. Its isolation in blood culture translates into high clinical significance and the diagnostic approach should be directed towards the search for underlying entities such as hematologic malignancies, valvular heart disease, pneumonia, structural changes of the head and neck, immunosuppression and other related conditions. No reports have been identified in patients with urinary tract neoplasia as a possible condition of bacteremia by this agent. The case of a patient who was diagnosed with high-grade urothelial carcinoma during the study of bacteremia by this microorganism is described.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma , Bacteremia , Streptococcus gordonii , Urinary Tract , Immunosuppression Therapy , Sepsis , Hematologic Neoplasms , Neoplasms
16.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e599, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289439

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones de tracto urinario se encuentran entre las infecciones de mayor prevalencia en la parte clínica. Son un problema de salud global y se pueden presentar con o sin síntomas. Los agentes bacterianos aislados en mayor frecuencia son Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp y Proteus spp. Objetivo: Caracterizar las infecciones de tracto urinario producidas por enterobacterias productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en pacientes hospitalizados, Lima 2016-2018. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 2 instituciones prestadoras de salud, en Lima, Perú, durante el periodo 2016-2018, a partir de los aislamientos de patógenos blee asociados a infecciones de tracto urinario. Se tuvieron en cuenta variables sociodemográficas, enfermedades asociadas, agentes aislados, tratamiento y respuesta clínica. Resultados: Se obtuvo un registro de 117 pacientes, con edad promedio de 58,18 ± 11,8 años; 65,0 por ciento fueron mujeres y 89,74 por ciento provenían del área urbana de Lima. Las enfermedades asociadas más frecuentes fueron diabetes (39,3 por ciento) y enfermedad renal moderada o grave (12,8 por ciento), con índice de Charlson medio de 2,70 ± 1,21. Los agentes aislados más comunes fueron Escherichia coli (92,3 por ciento), Klebsiella spp (6,0 por ciento) y Proteus spp (1,7 por ciento). Los tratamientos empíricos usados fueron ampicilina/sulbactam (18,9 por ciento), ciprofloxacino (49,6 por ciento) y nitrofurantoína (16,7 por ciento). El 49,2 por ciento de los pacientes recibió tratamiento dirigido, 22,8 por ciento ertapenem y 13,9 por ciento piperacilina/tazobactam. Conclusiones: Las personas con diabetes y enfermedad renal son un grupo vulnerable a las infecciones de tracto urinario. El agente causal aislado en mayor frecuencia fue Escherichia coli blee+. Los tratamientos de inicio luego de la identificación clínica de la infección urinaria fueron ciprofloxacino y cefalosporinas. Una vez obtenidos los resultados microbiológicos se modificó el tratamiento antibiótico a carbapenémicos y penicilinas. La revaloración de los antibióticos usados en pacientes con enfermedades asociadas es importante para el éxito del tratamiento(AU)


Introduction: Urinary tract infections are among the most prevalent infections in clinical practice. They are a global health problem and may present with or without symptoms. The bacterial agents most commonly isolated are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus spp. Objective: Characterize urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum betalactamase producing enterobacteria in hospitalized patients from Lima in the period 2016-2018. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted at two health institutions from Lima, Peru, in the period 2016-2018, based on isolation of ESBL pathogens associated to urinary tract infections. Attention was paid to sociodemographic variables, associated conditions, agents isolated, treatment and clinical response. Results: A sample was selected of 117 patients; mean age was 58.18 ± 11.8 years; 65.0 percent were women and 89.74 percent came from the urban area of Lima. The most common associated conditions were diabetes (39.3 percent) and moderate or serious kidney disease (12.8 percent), with a mean Charlson index of 2.70 ± 1.21. The most common isolated agents were Escherichia coli (92.3 percent), Klebsiella spp. (6.0 percent and Proteus spp. (1.7 percent). The empirical treatments used were ampicillin/sulbactam (18.9 percent), ciprofloxacin (49.6 percent) and nitrofurantoin (16.7 percent). 49.2 percent of the patients received targeted treatment, 22.8 percent ertapenem and 13.9 percent piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusions: People with diabetes and kidney disease are vulnerable to urinary tract infections. The causative agent most commonly isolated was ESBL Escherichia coli. The initial treatments indicated after clinical identification of urinary infection were ciprofloxacin and cephalosporins. When microbiological results were obtained, antibiotic therapy was changed to carbapenems and penicillins. Reassessment of the antibiotics used in patients with associated conditions is important for the success of the treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Urinary Tract , Carbapenems , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents
18.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 30(1): 66-73, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1411108

ABSTRACT

La estrechez uretral constituye una patología con morbilidad importante en el sexo masculino. Se evidencia en la actualidad un cambio en la frecuencia de las etiologías, con la disminución de causas inflamatorias y una transición hacia la iatrogenia como la más común. Mediante la búsqueda del estado del arte en cuanto a los procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos conocidos como factores asociados a la estrechez uretral iatrogénica, se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura con el fin de describir y generar estrategias para su prevención. De los procedimientos terapéuticos que originan la estrechez uretral como complicación, el sondaje vesical es la mayor causa (hasta 34,3%), seguido de la prostatectomía radical (29,9%). Una buena técnica de sondaje vesical orientada desde el adecuado entrenamiento del personal disminuye de forma considerable su incidencia. Por otra parte, la adecuada selección de tratamientos y aspectos técnicos en pacientes que requieren el manejo de patologías obstructivas del tracto urinario como la hiperplasia prostática y litiasis u oncológicas como el cáncer de próstata, son unas de las recomendaciones para la prevención de ese trastorno. El entendimiento de los factores de riesgo y la adherencia a las estr


Urethral stricture is a pathology with significant morbidity in men. There is current evidence of a change in the prevalence of etiologies, with a decrease in inflammatory causes and a transition towards iatrogenesis as the most frequent. Through the search for the state of art in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures known as associated factors to iatrogenic urethral stricture, a narrative review has been performed, in order to describe and recommend strategies for its prevention. Of the therapeutic procedures that cause urethral stricture as a complication, bladder catheterization is the main (up to 34.3%), followed by radical prostatectomy (29.9%). A good bladder catheterization technique guided by adequate training of personnel considerably reduces its incidence. On the other hand, the proper selection of treatments and technical aspects in patients who require the management of obstructive pathologies of the urinary tract such as prostatic hyperplasia and lithiasis or oncological diseases such as prostate cancer, are some of the recommendations for the prevention of this disorder. Understanding risk factors and adherence to the prevention strategies described seek to reduce the incidence of iatrogenic urethral stricture


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatectomy , Urethral Stricture , Urologists , Iatrogenic Disease , Prostatic Neoplasms , Urinary Tract , Catheterization , Risk Factors
19.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 30(2): 123-134, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1411927

ABSTRACT

La infección de vías urinarias (IVU) es una patología común, que afecta a gran parte de la población y que generalmente se resuelve con manejo antibiótico. Se compone de una amplia variedad de entidades clínicas que pueden variar desde una cistitis no complicada hasta un shock séptico de origen urinario. Los patógenos etiológicos de la IVU no complicada están ampliamente establecidos y se han mantenido de forma consistente a lo largo del tiempo, siendo la Escherichia coli el microorganismo más predominante. En la actualidad, la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos es de gran preocupación y por esa razón, se busca optimizar la terapia antimicrobiana con el fin de disminuir la estancia hospitalaria, la severidad clínica de la infección y los costos a los sistemas de salud. La presente revisión, tiene como objetivo servir como guía para la correcta definición, clasificación, diagnóstico, tratamiento y prevención de la IVU no complicada.


A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common pathology, that affects a large part of the population and generally resolves with antibiotic treatment. It embraces a variety of clinical entities that can vary from uncomplicated cystitis to septic shock. The etiological pathogens of uncomplicated UTI are widely established and have been consistent over time, with Escherichia coli being the most predominant microorganism. Currently, bacterial resistance to antibiotics is of great concern and for this reason we seek to optimize antimicrobial therapy in order to decrease hospital stay, clinical severity of the infection and costs to the health systems. The purpose of this review is to serve as a guide for the correct definition, classification, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of uncomplicated UTI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urinary Tract Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Shock, Septic , Urinary Tract , Cystitis , Escherichia coli
20.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359846

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in women and can cause systemic repercussions. In pregnant women, for example, the occurrence of UTI or asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) can lead to premature birth and fetal death. The generalized immune depletion caused by HIV is related to the exacerbation of infections, and may be related to UTI. Objective: The objective of this review was to evaluate the characteristics of UTI in pregnant and non-pregnant HIV-positive women as well as the factors that interfere in its occurrence. Methods: By searching the databases PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo and Lilacs, we selected eleven articles that correlated UTI and HIV infection in women. Results: Our analysis showed that HIV-positive pregnant women have a higher predisposition to UTI than HIV-negative ones. The Viral Load (VL) is directly related to UTI and AB in HIV-positive nonpregnant women. TCD4 lymphocyte levels (TCD4) lower than 200 cells/mL and VL over 10,000 copies/mL are correlated with higher UTI and AB rates in HIV-positive pregnant women. There is a tendency for greater variability of pathogens in HIV-positive women and a predisposition to higher rates of antibiotic resistance in HIV-positive pregnant women. Conclusion: HIV-positive pregnant women have higher predisposition to urinary tract infection and its incidence is correlated with a high viral load and a low TCD4 count.


Introdução: As infecções do trato urinário (ITU) são comuns em mulheres e podem causar repercussões sistêmicas. Em mulheres grávidas, por exemplo, a ocorrência de ITU ou bacteriúria assintomática (BA) pode levar ao nascimento prematuro e à morte fetal. A depleção imunológica generalizada causada pelo HIV está relacionada à exacerbação de infecções e pode estar relacionada à ITU. Objetivo: O objetivo desta revisão foi avaliar as características da ITU em gestantes e não gestantes HIV-positivas, bem como os fatores que interferem na sua ocorrência. Métodos: Por meio de busca nas bases de dados PubMed, Web of Science, SciELO e LILACS, foram selecionados 11 artigos que correlacionavam ITU a infecção pelo HIV em mulheres. Resultados: Nossa análise mostrou que gestantes soropositivas têm maior predisposição à ITU do que gestantes soronegativas. A carga viral está diretamente relacionada a ITU e BA em mulheres não grávidas HIV-positivas. Os níveis de linfócitos TCD4 (TCD4) abaixo de 200 células/mL e a carga viral acima de 10.000 cópias/mL estão correlacionados a maiores taxas de ITU e BA em mulheres grávidas HIV-positivas. Há uma tendência para maior variabilidade de patógenos em mulheres HIV-positivas e uma predisposição para maiores taxas de resistência a antibióticos em mulheres grávidas HIV-positivas. Conclusão: Gestantes HIVpositivas apresentam maior predisposição à infecção do trato urinário e sua incidência está correlacionada com alta carga viral e baixa contagem de TCD4.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections , Women , Pregnant Women , Urinary Tract , HIV , HIV Seropositivity
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