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1.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429004

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is still one of the leading causes of cancer and mortality in women, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Normally, the prevention of its occurrence is done through efficient screening and treatment programs for high-grade epithelial lesions, which are pre-malignant lesions. Cheaper diagnostic techniques ensure greater access to women, which can prevent a large number of cancer cases worldwide. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of visual inspection either with acetic acid or with Lugol's iodine, cervical cytology and colposcopy in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3. Methods: This is a study of diagnostic accuracy. We evaluated 115 women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion confirmed by biopsy, 54 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 61 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3, from January 2016 to December 2018 at the Lower Genital Tract Pathology and Colposcopy Service of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil. A comparative analysis of the visual inspection, Pap smear and colposcopy diagnostic methods was performed. Results: The average age was 33.1 years (standard deviation=9.83) for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 cases and 35.2 years (standard deviation=7.97) for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3. In the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 group, visual inspection tests were positive for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in 98.1% of the cases with acetic acid and 94.4% with Lugol's iodine. Colposcopy identified a probable high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in 94.4% of the cases, while cytology only in 42.6%. In the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 group, the visual inspection tests were positive for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in 91.8% of the cases with acetic acid and 95.1% with Lugol's iodine. Colposcopy identified a probable high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in 93.5% of the cases, while cytology in 65.6%. Conclusion: Visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol's iodine, and colposcopy test were more accurate for the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3 than through cytopathology. (AU)


Introdução: O câncer do colo de útero ainda é uma das principais causas de câncer e mortalidade em mulheres, especialmente em países de baixa e média renda. Normalmente, a prevenção de sua ocorrência é feita por meio de programas eficientes de triagem e tratamento de lesões epiteliais de alto grau, que são as lesões pré-malignas. Técnicas diagnósticas mais baratas garantem maior acesso às mulheres, podendo evitar um grande número de casos de câncer no mundo inteiro. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a acurácia da inspeção visual (com ácido acético e com solução de lugol), da citologia cervical e da colposcopia no diagnóstico de neoplasias intraepiteliais cervicais 2/3. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo de acurácia diagnóstica. Foram avaliadas 115 mulheres com lesão intraepitelial escamosa de alto grau confirmada por biópsia, 54 com neoplasias intraepiteliais cervicais 2 e 61 com neoplasias intraepiteliais cervicais 3, no período de janeiro de 2016 a dezembro de 2018 no Serviço de Patologia e Colposcopia do Trato Genital Inferior do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, em Porto Alegre, Brasil. Foi realizada análise comparativa dos métodos de diagnóstico Inspeção visual com ácido acético, Inspeção visual com Solução de Lugol, colpocitologia oncótica e colposcopia. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 33,11 anos (DP 9,83) para os casos de neoplasias intraepiteliais cervicais 2 e de 35,28 anos (DP 7,97) para neoplasias intraepiteliais cervicais 3. No grupo de neoplasias intraepiteliais cervicais 2, os testes de inspeção visual foram positivos para tratamento de lesões epiteliais de alto grau em 98,1% dos casos com Inspeção visual com ácido acético e em 94,4% daqueles com Inspeção visual com Solução de Lugol. A colposcopia identificou provável tratamento de lesões epiteliais de alto grau em 94,4% dos casos, enquanto a citologia apenas 42,6%. No grupo neoplasias intraepiteliais cervicais 3, os testes de inspeção visual foram positivos para tratamento de lesões epiteliais de alto grau em 91,8% dos casos com Inspeção visual com ácido acético e em 95,1% daqueles com Inspeção visual com Solução de Lugol. A colposcopia identificou provável tratamento de lesões epiteliais de alto grau em 93,5% dos casos, enquanto a citologia em 65,6%. Conclusão: A inspeção visual (com ácido acético e com Solução de Lugol) e a colposcopia foram mais precisas para o diagnóstico de neoplasias intraepiteliais cervicais 2/3 do que a citopatologia. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Colposcopy , Papanicolaou Test , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Early Detection of Cancer
2.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 73(2): 203-222, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL, BIGG | ID: biblio-1394964

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes A partir del 2014 en Colombia se incorporó la Tamización primaria con prueba de Virus del Papiloma Humano (VPH) desde los 30 hasta los 65 años, cuando la prueba es positiva se hace triage con citología para remisión a colposcopia. Actualmente se discute la conveniencia de iniciar la tamización con prueba de ADN de VPH a partir de los 25 años. De esta manera, el objetivo de esta evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias es analizar la evidencia disponible en torno a la seguridad, efectividad, costoefectividad, valores y preferencias, dilemas éticos y aspectos relacionados con la implementación para el contexto colombiano de la prueba ADN-VPH como estrategia de tamización cervical en mujeres menores de 30 años. Dominios a evaluar Eficacia clínica y seguridad 1. Tasa acumulada de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) grado 2 o más avanzado luego de 2 rondas de tamización. 2. Tasas acumuladas de cáncer invasor de cérvix luego de 2 rondas de tamización. 3. Seguridad: remisión a colposcopia. Costo-efectividad Costo efectividad para Colombia. Otros dominios considerados Aspectos éticos asociados a la tamización cervical en mujeres menores de 30 años. Aspectos organizacionales y del individuo. Barreras y facilitadores relacionados con la implementación en el contexto colombiano de la tamización cervical en mujeres menores de 30 años. Métodos Evaluación de efectividad y seguridad clínicas Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura en MEDLINE, Embase y CENTRAL de revisiones sistemáticas y ensayos clínicos. Se calificó el cuerpo de la evidencia con la aproximación GRADE. Posteriormente, se convocó a un grupo interdisciplinario a una mesa de trabajo en donde se presentó la evidencia recuperada, dando paso a la discusión y a la construcción de las conclusiones, siguiendo los lineamientos de un consenso formal acorde a la metodología RAND/UCLA. Estudio económico Se hizo una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura de estudios que hubieran evaluado el costo-efectividad para Colombia. Resultados De 7.659 referencias recuperadas se incluyeron 8 estudios. Resultados clínicos Se realizó un análisis integrativo de 5 ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que cumplieron con los citerios de inclusión. Cuando se compara frente a la citología, la tamización primaria con ADN-VPH en mujeres menores de 30 años, podría asociarse con una mayor frecuencia de detección de lesiones NIC2+ durante la primera ronda de cribado (RR: 1.57; IC: 1,20 a 2,04; certeza en la evidencia baja), con una menor incidencia de NIC2+ (RR:0,67; IC: 0,48 a 0,92; certeza en la evidencia baja) y se asocia con una menor frecuencia de carcinoma invasor al término del seguimiento (RR: 0,19; IC: 0,07 a 0,53; certeza en la evidencia alta). Resultados económicos Desde el punto de vista económico, la alternativa de ADN-VPH y triage con citología desde los 25 años quizás representa la alternativa más costo-efectiva para Colombia (razón costo-efectividad incremental $8.820.980 COP año 2013). Otras implicaciones Dos estudios sugieren que las barreras de implementación, atribuibles a circunstancias de intermediación, de orden público y de carácter geográfico, podrían ser solventadas por nuevas tecnologías o estrategias de cribado. Es importante considerar alternativas de forma de administración y de prestación de servicios para solventar algunas barreras de aceptabilidad y acceso. Todo programa de tamización cervical debe contemplar los principios éticos de no maleficencia, beneficencia, autonomía y equidad. Futuros estudios deben enfocarse en analizar nuevas tecnologías de cribado con énfasis en población menor de 30 años. Conclusiones El uso de la prueba ADN-VPH como estrategia de tamización en mujeres menores de 30 años es una intervención probablemente efectiva y costoefectiva para Colombia. Futuros estudios deben enfocarse en analizar nuevas tecnologías de cribado con énfasis en población menor de 30 años.


Background Primary screening with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) testing was introduced in Colombia in 2014 for individuals between 30 and 65 years of age. When the result is positive, cytology triage is performed for colposcopy referral. The convenience of initiating HPV-DNA testing for screening at 25 years of age is currently a subject of discussion. Therefore, the objective of this health technology assessment (HTA) is to analyze the available evidence regarding safety, efficacy, cost-effectiveness, values and preferences, ethical dilemmas and considerations pertaining to the implementation of the HPV-DNA test as a cervical screening strategy in women under 30 years of age in the Colombian context. Domains to be assessed Clinical efficacy and safety 1. Cumulative rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or high-er after 2 screening rounds. 2. Cumulative rates of invasive cancer of the uterine cervix after 2 screening rounds. 3. Safety: referral to colposcopy Cost-effectiveness Cost-effectiveness for Colombia. Other domains considered Ethical considerations associated with cervical screening in women under 30 years of age. Organizational and individual considerations. Barriers and facilitators pertaining to the implementation of cervical screening in women under 30 years of age in the Colombian context. Methods Clinical efficacy and safety assessment A systematic literature search of systematic reviews and clinical trials was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL. The body of evidence was rated using the GRADE approach. An interdisciplinary team was then convened to create a working group to review the retrieved evidence. This led to the discussion and construction of the conclusions following the guidelines of a formal consensus in accordance with the RAND/UCLA methodology. Economic study Systematic literature research of studies that had assessed cost-effectiveness for Colombia. Results Out of the 7,659 references retrieved, 8 studies were included. Clinical outcomes An integrative analysis of 5 randomized clinical trials that met the inclusion critera was performed. Compared with cytology, primary HPV-DNA testing in women under 30 years of age could be associated with a lower frequency of CIN+2 lesions during the first screening round (RR: 1.57; CI: 1.20 to 2.04; low evidence certainty), and a lower incidence of CIN+2 (RR: 0.67; CI: 0.48 to 0.92; low evidence certainty). Moreover, it is associated with a lower frequency of invasive carcinoma at the end of follow-up (RR: 0.19; CI: 0.07 to 0.53; high evidence certainty). Economic results From the financial point of view, the use of HPVDNA testing plus cytology-based triage starting at 25 years of age is perhaps the most cost-effective option for Colombia (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, COP 8,820,980 in 2013). Other implications Two studies suggest that barriers to implementation attributable to intermediation, public unrest and geographic considerations could be overcome with the use of new screening technologies or strategies. It is important to consider administration and service provision alternatives in order to overcome some acceptability and access barriers. Any cervical screening program must take into consideration ethical principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy and equity. Future studies should focus on analyzing new screening techniques with emphasis on the population under 30 years of age. Conclusions The use of HPV-DNA testing as a screening strategy in women under 30 years of age is a potentially efficacious and cost-effective intervention for Colombia. Future studies should focus on analyzing new screening technologies, with emphasis on the population under 30 years of age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Human Papillomavirus DNA Tests , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Colombia , Colposcopy , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic , Costs and Cost Analysis , Early Detection of Cancer , Systematic Reviews as Topic
3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(4): 385-390, Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387892

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the role of cervical cytology (Pap smear) in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater (CIN2+), presented exclusively in the endocervical canal, the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of this lesion, the necessary length of canal to be removed to treat, and the rate of invasive lesion hidden in the endocervical canal. Methods Cross-sectional study, by database analysis, of patients with abnormal cytology (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL]), without visible colposcopy lesion, submitted to loop electrosurgical procedure (LEEP) to evaluate the association of cytology results with the histological product of the conization, to identify the epidemiological characteristics of endocervical lesion and clinical evolution, using a pvalue< 0.05 and 95% CI. Results In 444 cases, the Pap smear sensitivity for CIN2+ diagnosis was 75% (95% CI: 69.8-79.7), specificity was 40% (95% CI: 30.2-49.5), and the prevalence rate of histological lesion was 73% (95% CI: 70.1-78.7). There was a higher prevalence of CIN2+ in women over 42 years old and invasive cancer in those over 56 years old (p<0.001), and it was necessary to remove 2.6 cm in length of the canal to reduce the chance of recurrence (p<0.006). The rate of invasive cancer was 2.7%. Conclusion Cytology was related to a high prevalence to histological lesion (73%) in the diagnosis of CIN2+ in the endocervical disease; older patients presented a higher relationship with histological lesions in the canal disease, and it was necessary to remove an average of 2.6 cm in length of the endocervical canal to avoid the persistence and progression of CIN. The rate of occult neoplasia in the endocervical canal was 2.7%.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o papel da citologia oncótica (CO) no diagnóstico da neoplasia intraepitelial cervical 2 ou maior (NIC2+) presente exclusivamente no canal endocervical, as características clínico-epidemiológicas deste tipo de lesão, o comprimento necessário de canal a ser retirado na conização, e a taxa de lesão invasora oculta no canal endocervical. Métodos Estudo transversal, por análise de base de dados, de pacientes comcitologia alterada, sem lesão colposcópica visível, submetidas a conização por cirurgia de alta frequência (CAF), para avaliar a associação dos resultados citológicos com o produto histológico da conização, as características epidemiológicas da lesão endocervical, e evolução clínica, utilizando o valor de p<0.05 e intervalo de confiança (IC) de 95%. Resultados Nos 444 casos analisados, a sensibilidade da CO para o diagnóstico de NIC 2+ foi de 75% (IC 95%: 69.8-79.7), a especificidade foi de 40% (IC 95%: 30.2-49.5), e a taxa de prevalência de lesão histológica foi de 73% (IC 95%: 70.1-78.7). Houve maior prevalência de NIC2+ em pacientes com mais de 42 anos de idade e de neoplasia invasora naquelas commais de 56 anos (p<0.001), e foi necessário a retirada de 2.6 cm de comprimento de canal para diminuir a taxa de recidiva (p<0.006). Foi identificada uma taxa de 2.7% de neoplasia invasora. Conclusão A citologia esteve relacionada a uma alta prevalência de lesão (73%) no diagnóstico das NIC2+ na doença endocervical; quanto maior a idade, maior foi a relação da histologia com a citologia de canal, e se fez necessário retirar uma média de 2.6 cmde comprimento de canal para evitar a persistência e a progressão da NIC. A taxa de neoplasia oculta no canal endocervical foi 2.7%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis
4.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(1): 40-46, Jan. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365672

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the quantity of cervical smears, also designated Papanicolaou tests, between 2006 and 2015 in all the Federal units of Brazil, as well as to verify the quantity of exams collected outside the recommended age range and the economic impact of such excess. Methods The data was collected from the Ministry of Health's database called Sistema de Informação do Câncer do Colo de Útero (SISCOLO), which contains all the test results collected nationwide by the Unified Health System (SUS, in the Portuguese acronym). From that, the number of exams and the age range of thewomen who underwent them were analyzed; besides, these numbers were stratified according to the state of where the exam was performed. The quantity of exams collected outside the recommended age range was verified, and, so, the economic impact generated was noted. Results Between 2006and2015, 87,425,549Papanicolaoutestswere collected in Brazil. Of these, 20,215,052 testswere collected outside the age range recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health; this number corresponded to 23.12% of all exams. From such data, considering that each Pap smear collected by SUS generates a cost of BRL 7.30 to the government, according to the information in the Tabela SUS dated September 2018, there was a total charge of BRL 147,569,880 for tests collected outside the protocol. Conclusion In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Health's protocol about the recommended practices on collecting Pap smears, whose newest edition dates of 2016, it is recommended that Pap smears are collected inwomen from a specific age range, inwhom the potential diagnosing advantages overcome the onus of overdiagnosis or of a lesion with great regression potential. However, such protocols have not been correctly followed, promoting more than 20 million tests in excess, and an exorbitant cost for the Brazilian public health system. It is relevant to take measures to correctly use the official protocol, reducing the patients risks, as well as the economic impact for SUS.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar a quantidade de exames cérvico-vaginais, também chamados de Teste de Papanicolau, entre os anos de 2006 e 2015 em todos os estados brasileiros, bem como verificar o número de exames realizados fora da faixa etária indicada, e o impacto econômico desse excesso. Métodos Os dados foram coletados a partir da base de dados do Ministério da Saúde chamada Sistema de Informação do Câncer do Colo de Útero (SISCOLO), que reúne os resultados de exames realizados em todo o Brasil pelo sistema único de saúde (SUS). A partir disso, foi analisado o número de exames e a faixa-etária de realização dos mesmos; além disso, esses números foram estratificados de acordo com o estado brasileiro de origem do exame. Foi verificada a quantidade de exames fora da idade recomendada, e, assim, foi observado o impacto econômico gerado. Resultado Entre 2006 e 2015, 87.425.549 exames de Papanicolau foram realizados no Brasil. Deste montante, 20.215.052 testes foram realizados fora da faixa-etária preconizada pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, o que equivale a 23,12% do total. A partir desse número, considerando que cada exame cérvico -vaginal realizado pelo SUS gera um custo de R$ 7,30 para o governo, de acordo com informações na Tabela SUS datada de setembro de 2018, foram gastos R$ 147.569.880 em exames realizados sem indicação. Conclusão No Brasil, no protocolo do Ministério da Saúde sobre as práticas adequadas em coleta de exames cérvico-vaginais, sendo sua edição mais recente de 2016, a recomendação é realizar o teste de Papanicolau em mulheres dentro de uma faixaetária específica, na qual a chance de se diagnosticar uma lesão supera o ônus de um sobrediagnóstico ou uma lesão com grande potencial de regressão. Entretanto, essa recomendação não tem sido seguida corretamente, gerando mais de 20 milhões de exames excedentes e umcusto monetário exorbitante para o sistema público de saúde. É importante que medidas sejam tomadas para que o protocolo seja empregado corretamente a fim de reduzir riscos para a paciente, bem como a redução de gastos desnecessários para o SUS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Brazil/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Cervix Uteri/pathology
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935266

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the performance of point-of-care testing for cervical cancer and precancerous lesions screening. Methods: In September 2020, 197 and 273 women were selected by using simple random sampling method from "self-sampling" cohort and "physician-sampling" cohort established in Xiangyuan county, Shanxi Province, China, respectively. Cervical exfoliated cells were collected by women themselves or gynecologists. All samples were detected by POCT and women with positive result were directly referred for colposcopy. Subsequently, all the samples were detected by careHPV and PCR test. Colposcopy and punch biopsy were performed for women with POCT negative but careHPV or PCR test positive at another visit. Using histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard, we calculated sensitivity, specificity and drew the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The accuracy of POCT was analyzed and compared to that of careHPV and conventional PCR test in cervical cancer and precancerous lesions screening. Results: The median (Q1 , Q3) age of 470 women was 51 (45, 57) years old. Based on self-sampling, the sensitivity and specificity of POCT for CIN2+ were 100.00% (95%CI: 56.56%-100.00%) and 28.95% (95%CI: 22.97%-35.76%), respectively. Compared with POCT, POCT HPV16/18 test had similar sensitivity and higher specificity of 89.47% (95%CI: 84.30%-93.08%). Self-sampling POCT HPV16/18 test had an AUC of 0.947 (95%CI:0.910-0.985), which was higher than that of careHPV and PCR test. Physician-sampling POCT test had 100.00% sensitivity (95%CI: 64.57%-100.00%) and 55.85% specificity (95%CI: 49.83%-61.70%) for detecting CIN2+. POCT HPV16/18 test had lower sensitivity (71.43%, 95%CI: 35.90%-91.76%) and higher specificity (92.45%, 95%CI: 88.63%-95.06%). POCT HPV16/18 test generally showed similar AUC on both self-collected samples and clinician-collected samples (0.947 vs 0.819, P=0.217). Conclusion: POCT HPV16/18 test is an effective method with relatively high sensitivity and specificity for cervical cancer screening.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Colposcopy , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Human papillomavirus 18 , Mass Screening/methods , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Sensitivity and Specificity , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
6.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 31(2): e20211179, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394334

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a cobertura e a qualidade do rastreamento do Programa de Controle do Câncer do Colo do Útero (PCCCU) em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, 2006-2018. Métodos: Estudo descritivo da tendência da série histórica de exames citopatológicos para rastreamento do CCU em mulheres residentes em Campo Grande. Foram descritas características demográficas das mulheres avaliadas e a qualidade dos exames realizados nos cinco últimos anos do período. Analisou-se a tendência temporal por modelos de regressão polinomiais. Resultados: Foram registradas 578.417 citologias, das quais 1,8% apresentaram alterações citológicas pré-malignas/malignas. Na faixa etária-alvo do programa, verificou-se redução de 48,4% no número de exames realizados. A positividade dos exames variou entre 2,2% e 3,3% e aumentou o percentual de amostras insatisfatórias. Conclusão: O programa de rastreamento de CCU apresenta fragilidades que necessitam ser superadas, como baixa cobertura da população-alvo, crescimento do número de amostras insatisfatórias e baixo índice de positividade.


Objetivo: Evaluar la cobertura y calidad del tamizaje del programa de control de cáncer cervicouterino en Campo Grande, MS, Brasil, entre 2006-2018. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de la serie histórica de exámenes citopatológicos en mujeres de Campo Grande. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de las características demográficas de las mujeres y la calidad de los exámenes realizados en los últimos cinco años del período. La tendencia temporal se analizó mediante modelos de regresión polinómica. Resultados: Se registraron 578.417 citologías, de las cuales el 1,8% mostró alteraciones citológicas. En la población objetivo del programa, hubo reducción del 48,4% en el número de pruebas realizadas. La positividad de las pruebas varió entre 2,2% y 3,3% y aumentó el porcentaje de muestras no satisfactorias. Conclusión: El programa de cribado tiene debilidades que es necesario superar, como baja cobertura de la población objetivo, crecimiento del número de muestras insatisfactorias y baja tasa de positividad.


Objective: To assess the coverage and quality of screening by the Cervical Cancer Control Program in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, between 2006 and 2018. Methods: This was a descriptive study of the cytology screening time series among women living in Campo Grande. A descriptive analysis of the demographic characteristics of these women and the quality of the tests performed in the last five years of the period was carried out. Temporal trends were analyzed using polynomial regression models. Results: 578,417 cytology tests were recorded, of which 1.8% showed pre-malignant/malignant cytological changes. There was a 48.4% reduction in the number of tests performed in the Program's target age group. Test positivity varied between 2.2% and 3.3% and the percentage of unsatisfactory samples increased. Conclusion: The cervical cancer screening program has weaknesses that need to be overcome, such as low coverage of the target population, growth in the number of unsatisfactory samples and a low positivity rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Time Series Studies , Women's Health
7.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 31(2): e2022112, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394335

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a soroprevalência de SARS-CoV-2 e sua associação com aspectos sociodemográficos e clínicos, no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal seriado, realizado em quatro fases, no período de maio a junho de 2020, utilizando os domicílios como unidade de análise. Foram pesquisados 11 municípios, com amostra de 4.500 domicílios em cada fase. Resultados: A soroprevalência de SARS-CoV-2 variou de 2,1% (IC95% 1,7;2,5), em 10 de maio (primeira etapa), a 9,6% (IC95% 8,8;10,4) em 21 de junho (quarta etapa). Na Região Metropolitana da Grande Vitória, as prevalências foram de 2,7% (IC95% 2,2;3,3), na primeira, e de 11,5% (IC95% 10,5;12,6) na quarta etapa; no interior do estado, a prevalência variou de 0,4% (IC95% 0,1;0,9) a 4,4% (IC95% 3,2;5,5) entre a primeira e a quarta etapas. Conclusão: O aumento da soroprevalência de SARS-CoV-2 observado na quarta fase destacou a elevada transmissão do vírus, informação que pode subsidiar a gestão da pandemia.


Objetivo: Analizar la seroprevalencia del SARS-CoV-2 y la asociación de aspectos sociodemográficos y clínicos en el estado de Espírito Santo, Brasil. Métodos: Estudio transversal seriado realizado en cuatro fases, utilizando los hogares como unidad de análisis, de mayo a junio de 2020. Se encuestaron 11 municipios, con una muestra de 4.500 hogares en cada fase. Resultados: La prevalencia varió de 2,1% (IC95% 1,7;2,5) el 10 de mayo (primera etapa) a 9,6% (IC95% 8,8;10,4), el 21 de junio (cuarta etapa). En la Región Metropolitana de la Gran Vitória, las prevalencias fueron de 2,7% (IC95% 2,2;3,3), en la primera, y de 11,5% (IC95% 10,5;12,6) en la cuarta etapa; en el estado osciló entre 0,4% (IC95% 0,1;0,9) y 4,4% (IC95% 3,2;5,5). Conclusión: El aumento de la seroprevalencia del SARS-CoV-2 observado en la cuarta fase destacó la alta transmisión del virus, información que puede subsidiar el manejo de la pandemia.


Objective: To analyze SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and association of sociodemographic and clinical aspects in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Methods: This was a serial cross-sectional study carried out in four phases, using households as the unit of analysis, from May to June 2020. Eleven municipalities were surveyed, with a sample of 4,500 households in each phase. Results: Prevalence ranged from 2.1% (95%CI 1.7;2.5) on May 10 (first phase) to 9.6% (95%CI 8.8;10.4) on June 21 (fourth phase). In the Greater Vitória Metropolitan Region, the prevalence were 2.7% (95%CI 2.2;3.3) in the first phase, and 11.5% (95%CI 10.5;12.6) in the fourth phase; in the interior region of the state, prevalence ranged from 0.4% (95%CI 0.1;0.9) to 4.4% (95%CI 3.2;5.5) between the two phases. Conclusion: The increase in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence found in the fourth phase highlighted the high transmission of the virus, information that can support management of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Time Series Studies , Women's Health
8.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 38(4): e249, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093419

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El virus de papiloma humano per se no es capaz de desarrollar todas las transformaciones neoplásicas en el cérvix uterino, de manera que factores de riesgo como los genéticos, ambientales, estilo de vida sexual y el desbalance oxidativo podrían contribuir a la enfermedad. Objetivo: Determinar el comportamiento del sistema enzimático antioxidante en mujeres con atipia de células escamosas de significado indeterminado y neoplasia intraepitelial cervical grado I. Métodos: Se conformaron tres grupos de estudio: el primero incluyó 30 mujeres con diagnóstico de atipias, el segundo se constituyó con 40 mujeres con neoplasia intraepitelial grado I y el tercero consistió en 30 mujeres con citología negativa tomadas como control, provenientes de la consulta de Patología de Cuello del Agustín Gómez Lubián de Santa Clara. Mediante métodos espectrofotométricos se determinaron los niveles de actividad enzimática superóxido dismutasa y catalasa así, como las concentraciones de glutatión reducido. Las comparaciones se realizaron con el programa SPSS, versión 18. Resultados: En el grupo de atipias aunque los tres parámetros tuvieron una tendencia a la disminución no hubo diferencias significativas con respecto al control. Mientras que el grupo de neoplasia grado I evidenció disminución significativa de los tres indicadores estudiados al ser comparados con el grupo control. Conclusiones: Se constató afectación del sistema antioxidante enzimático en el grupo de neoplasia grado I, lo cual podría considerarse un cofactor importante en la progresión de las lesiones en el cérvix uterino(AU)


Introduction: Human papillomavirus per se can not carry out all the neoplastic transformations occurring in the uterine cervix. Genetic and environmental risk factors as well as sexual behavior and oxidative imbalance may also play a role. Objective: Determine the behavior of the enzymatic antioxidant system in women with squamous cell atypia of indeterminate significance and grade I cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Methods: Three study groups were formed. The first group included 30 women diagnosed with atypia, the second group was made up of 40 women with grade I intraepithelial neoplasia, and the third or control group consisted of 30 women with negative cytology from Agustín Gómez Lubián Cervical Pathology service in Santa Clara. Spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activity, as well as the concentrations of reduced glutathione. Comparisons were made with the SPSS software, version 18. Results: In the atypia group the three parameters showed a decreasing tendency, but differences with respect to the control group were not significant. In the grade I neoplasia group, however, a significant reduction was found of the three study indicators when compared with the control group. Conclusions: Damage to the enzymatic antioxidant system was observed in the grade I neoplasia group. This could be considered to be an important cofactor in the progress of uterine cervix lesions(AU)


Subject(s)
Female , Papilloma , Carcinoma in Situ/prevention & control , Cervix Uteri , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Cell Biology , Life Style , Antioxidants/analysis , Sexual Behavior , Case-Control Studies , Indicators and Reagents
9.
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 45(3): e478, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093653

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer cérvico uterino es la segunda neoplasia más común en mujeres en el mundo. Una buena correlación entre las pruebas de tamizaje, diagnóstico y tratamiento de las lesiones cervicales optimiza su manejo, evita procedimientos innecesarios y maximiza recursos disponibles. Objetivo: Identificar la relación entre los métodos diagnósticos de las patologías del cuello uterino. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo en el Hospital Provincial Camilo Cienfuegos de Sancti Spíritus, desde septiembre de 2015 a septiembre de 2017. Se tomó una población de 1172 pacientes de la consulta de patología de cuello uterino según los criterios de la investigación. Los métodos científicos fueron: de nivel teórico, empírico-experimental y matemático-estadístico. Se asumieron las variables: edad, factores de riesgo asociados, sintomatología, citología, colposcopia y biopsia. Resultados: El grupo de edad que con mayor frecuencia se presentó estuvo comprendido entre 26 y 35 años de edad. Los principales factores de riesgo asociados fueron: edad de inicio de las relaciones sexuales antes de los 18 años, virus del papiloma humano, paridad de más de dos hijos y antecedentes familiares de alguna patología de cuello. La sintomatología destacada fue el sangramiento poscoital e intermenstrual. Los resultados de los métodos diagnósticos fueron: virus del papiloma humano y displasia leve, tanto en la citología como en la biopsia, y lesiones de bajo grado en la colposcopia. Conclusiones: La asociación entre los métodos diagnósticos estudiados mostró una buena correlación citocolposcópica y colpohistológica, con diagnóstico de confirmación principalmente ante lesiones de alto grado(AU)


Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most common neoplasm in women in the world. Good correlation between screening tests, diagnosis and treatment of cervical lesions optimizes management, avoiding unnecessary procedures and maximizing available resources. Objective: To identify the relationship between the diagnostic methods of cervical pathologies. Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional and prospective study was conducted at Camilo Cienfuegos Provincial Hospital in Sancti Spíritus, from September 2015 to September 2017. A population of 1172 patients was taken from the cervical pathology clinic according to the research criteria. The scientific methods were theoretical, empirical-experimental and mathematical-statistical. The assumed variables were age, associated risk factors, symptomatology, cytology, colposcopy and biopsy. Results: The age group that most frequently appeared was ages between 26 and 35 years. The main associated risk factors were age of first sexual intercourse before 18 years old, human papillomavirus, parity of more than two children and family history of some cervix pathology. The outstanding symptomatology was postcoital and intermenstrual bleeding. The results of the diagnostic methods were human papillomavirus and mild dysplasia, both in cytology and biopsy, and low-grade colposcopy lesions. Conclusions: The association between the diagnostic methods studied showed good cytocolposcopic and colpohistological correlation, with confirmation diagnosis mainly in cases of high-grade lesions(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Uterine Cervical Diseases/pathology , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Colposcopy/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
10.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 8(3): e179, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1094822

ABSTRACT

Determinar la prevalencia de las lesiones intraepiteliales cervicales de bajo y alto grado en pacientes de edad fértil en la consulta de ginecología del centro Materno pediatrico Zulia, en el período comprendido febrero 2016 -febrero 2018 Maracaibo, Estado Zulia. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo en el que se incluyeron mujeres entre los 15 y 44 años, que acudieron a la consulta de Ginecología obstetricia del centro materno pediátrico Zulia para el periodo comprendido febrero 2016 ­ febrero 2018. Se evaluó la normalidad de las variables cuantitativas, empleándose la mediana o el promedio con sus varianzas según su distribución, y frecuencias y proporciones para las variables categóricas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 150 pacientes. La mediana de la edad fue 29 años con rango (R: 15-43 años), la mediana del número de partos 1 (R: 0-3). Uso de métodos anticonceptivos, la mayoría utilizaba ACO. El 60% de las citologías se reportaron como negativas, 20 % lesión de bajo grado (LSIL), 10% células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado (ASC-US), 2% lesiones de alto grado (HSIL), 2,3% células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado de alto grado ASC-H, 3,3% células glandulares atípicas de significado incierto (ASGUS) y 2% carcinoma invasor. Conclusión: La prevalencia de las anormalidades citológicas fue alta en todos los grupos analizados, sin embargo, existe un mayor número de LSIL hacia la tercera década de la vida y en aquellas que iniciaron su vida sexual después de los 40 años. De igual manera se encontró una relación inversa entre el número de partos, planificación familiar hormonal y aparición de lesiones pre neoplásicas(AU)


To determine the prevalence of cervical intraepithelial lesions of low and high grade in patients of fertile age in the gynecology clinic of the Zulia maternity center, in the period February 2016-February 2018 Maracaibo, Zulia State. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was carried out that included women between 15 and 44 years old, who attended the obstetrics gynecology clinic of the Zulia pediatric maternity center for the period February 2016-February 2018. The normality of the quantitative variables, using the median or average with their variances according to their distribution, and frequencies and proportions for the categorical variables. Results: 150 patients were included. the median age was 29 years with range (R: 15-43 years), the median number of births 1 (R: 0-3). Using contraceptive methods, most used ACO. 60% of cytologies were reportedas negative, 20% low grade lesion (LSIL), 10% atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), 2% high grade lesions (HSIL), 2.3% cells Atypical squamous of indeterminate significance of high grade ASC-H, 3.3% atypical glandular cells of uncertain significance (ASGUS) and 2% invasive carcinoma. Conclusion: The prevalence of cytological abnormalities was high in all the groups analyzed, however, there is a greater number of LSIL in the third decade of life and in those who began their sexual life their 40 years. Likewise, an inverse relationship was found between the number of births, hormonal family planning and the appearance of pre-neoplastic lesions(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Biopsy/instrumentation , Biopsy/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Colposcopy/instrumentation , Papanicolaou Test/statistics & numerical data , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix/pathology
11.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047057

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer cervical é atribuído ao papilomavírus humano (HPV) cuja infecção, na maioria das vezes, sofre regressão espontânea. A menor porção de casos que evoluem para lesão precursora de baixo e alto graus e invasora pode ter relação com uma falha na atividade das células de Langerhans em eliminar o vírus. Objetivo: Determinar se há redução do número de células de Langerhans em colos uterinos acometidos por neoplasias intraepiteliais cervicais (NIC), graus I e III, comparado ao grupo controle (cervicites crônicas), por imuno-histoquímica, possibilitando correlacionar a ação do sistema imune com o desenvolvimento dessas lesões. Método: Foram analisados 40 casos de cervicite crônica, NIC I e III, com diagnóstico anatomopatológico entre janeiro de 2014 e dezembro de 2015, buscando-se comparar a quantidade de núcleos marcados positivamente como célula de Langerhans pela proteína S-100 por imuno-histoquímica, quantificando-os em áreas padronizadas. Resultados: Dos 40 casos avaliados, 17 foram cervicite crônica, 13 NIC I e 10 NIC III. Na análise comparativa do número de células em cada grupo a média, desvio-padrão e mediana foram maiores no grupo cervicite crônica e menores no grupo NIC III. O valor de p encontrado para a variação do número de células de Langerhans, entre os grupos, foi significativo (p=0,0442); mas, ao comparar os grupos de NIC com o controle, só o grupo NIC III teve variação significativa (p=0,0209). Conclusão:Há diminuição significativa do número de núcleos de células de Langerhans marcados em lesões do tipo NIC III em comparação a cervicites crônicas.


Introduction: Cervical cancer is attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV), whose infection mostly undergoes spontaneous regression. The smaller part of cases that evolve to low and high-grade lesions or invasive lesions may be related to failure of Langerhans cell activity to eliminate the virus. Objective: To determine if there is reduction of Langerhans' cells in cervix uterus affected by cervical intraepithelial neoplasms (CIN) grades I and III compared to control group (chronic cervicitis) by immunohistochemistry, granting the correlation of the immune system action with the development of these lesions. Method: It were analyzed 40 cases of chronic cervicitis, CIN I and III with anatomopathological diagnosis between January 2014 and December 2015, attempting to compare the amount of positively labeled Langerhans cells nuclei by S-100 protein by immunohistochemistry, quantifying them in standard areas. Results: Of the 40 evaluated cases, 17 were chronic cervicitis, 13 CIN I and 10 CIN III. The comparative analysis of the number of cells in each group showed that the mean, standard deviation and median number of Langerhans cells per area were higher in the chronic cervicitis group and lower in the CIN III group. The p value found in the variation of the Langerhans cells number among the groups was significant (p=0.0442). However, when comparing the CIN groups directly with the control group, only the CIN III group had a significant variation (p=0.0209). Conclusion: There is a significant decrease in the number of marked Langerhans cell nuclei in CIN III type lesions compared to chronic cervicitis.


Introducción: El cáncer cervical puede atribuirse al virus del papiloma humano (VPH) cuya infección a menudo sufre regresión espontánea. El menor número de casos que evolucionan a lesiones precursoras de bajo y alto grado o invasivas puede estar relacionado con una falla en la actividad de las células de Langerhans para eliminar el virus. Objetivo: Determinar si hay reducción del número de células de Langerhans en colos uterinos acometidos por neoplasias intraepiteliales cervicales (NIC) grados I y III comparado al grupo control (cervicitis crónicas), por medio de inmunohistoquímica, posibilitando correlacionar la acción del sistema inmune con estas lesiones. Método: Se analizaron 40 casos de cervicitis crónica, NIC I y III, con diagnóstico anatomopatológico entre enero de 2014 y diciembre de 2015, comparando la cantidad de núcleos marcados positivamente como célula de Langerhans por la proteína S-100 por inmuno-histoquímica, cuantificándolos. Resultados: De 40 casos, 17 fueron cervicitis crónica, 13 NIC I y 10 NIC III. En el análisis comparativo del número de células en cada grupo la media, desviación estándar y mediana fueron mayores en el grupo cervicite crónica y menores en el NIC III. El valor de p encontrado para la variación del número de células de Langerhans entre los grupos fue significativo (p=0,0442), pero al comparar los grupos de NIC con el control sólo el grupo NIC III tuvo variación significativa (p=0,0209). Conclusión: Hay disminución significativa del número de núcleos marcados de células de Langerhans en lesiones de tipo CIN III en comparación con cervicitis crónica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Langerhans Cells/pathology , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Papillomaviridae , Brazil , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma in Situ , Uterine Cervicitis/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 26: e2999, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-901942

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to develop and validate the content of a clinical protocol aimed at prevention of cervical cancer in primary care. Method: technological research according to the steps: (1) submission of the project to the research ethics committee; (2) bibliographic survey; (3) elaboration of the clinical protocol; and (4) content validation. In the third step, the information was collected through bibliographic research and gynecology specialists were consulted. For the final step, four judges were selected to evaluate the clinical protocol according to AGREE 2. Domains that reached the minimum level of agreement of 75% in the scores were considered validated. Results: the scores obtained in each domain of the instrument were as follows: domain 1 (scope and purpose) = 87.5%; domain 2 (stakeholder involvement) = 83.3%; domain 3 (development rigor) = 79.7%; domain 4 (clarity of presentation) = 76.3%; domain 5 (applicability) = 78.1%; and domain 6 (editorial independence) = 85.4. Conclusion: the clinical protocol proved to be a validated material with scores above the minimum required. The protocol obtained positive recommendations with modifications and went through adjustments in order to make it more effective.


RESUMO Objetivos: desenvolver e validar o conteúdo de um protocolo clínico direcionado à prevenção do câncer cervical na atenção primária. Método: Trata-se de uma pesquisa de desenvolvimento tecnológico em saúde(8) realizada em quatro etapas: (1) submissão do projeto ao comitê de ética em pesquisa; (2) levantamento bibliográfico; (3) elaboração do protocolo clínico; e (4) validação de conteúdo. Na terceira etapa, as informações foram levantadas mediante pesquisa bibliográfica e consultados especialistas em ginecologia. Para a etapa final, foram selecionados quatro juízes que avaliaram o protocolo clínico segundo o AGREE 2. Foram considerados validados os domínios que obtiveram nível de concordância mínimo de 75% nas pontuações. Resultados: as pontuações obtidas, em cada domínio do instrumento, foram as seguintes: domínio 1 (escopo e finalidade)=87,5%; domínio 2 (envolvimento das partes interessadas)=83,3%; domínio 3 (rigor do desenvolvimento)=79,7%; domínio 4 (clareza da apresentação)=76,3%; domínio 5 (aplicabilidade)=78,1%; e domínio 6 (independência editorial)=85,4. Conclusão: o protocolo clínico mostrou-se um material validado com pontuações superiores ao mínimo exigido. Obteve recomendações positivas com modificações e passou por ajustes a fim de torná-lo mais efetivo.


RESUMEN Objetivos: desarrollar y validar el contenido de un protocolo clínico dirigido a la prevención del cáncer cervical en atención primaria. Método: investigación tecnológica conforme a las etapas: (1) sujeción del proyecto al comité de ética en investigación; (2) levantamiento bibliográfico; (3) elaboración del protocolo clínico; y (4) validación de contenido. En la tercera etapa, las informaciones fueron levantadas mediante investigación bibliográfica y consultados especialistas en ginecología. Para la etapa final, fueron seleccionados cuatro jueces que evaluaron el protocolo clínico según el AGREE 2. Fueron considerados válidos los dominios que obtuvieron nivel de concordancia mínimo de 75% en las puntuaciones. Resultados: las puntuaciones obtenidas, en cada dominio del instrumento, fueron las siguientes: dominio 1 (alcance y finalidad) = 87,5%; dominio 2 (implicación de las partes interesadas) - 83,3%; dominio 3 (rigor del desarrollo) = 79,7%; dominio 4 (claridad de la presentación) = 76,3%; dominio 5 (aplicabilidad) = 78,1% y dominio 6 (independencia editorial) = 85,4. Conclusión: el protocolo clínico se mostró como un material válido con puntuaciones superiores al mínimo exigido. Obtuvo recomendaciones positivas con modificaciones y pasó por ajustes a fin de hacerlo más efectivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Women's Health , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Clinical Protocols/standards , Validation Studies as Topic
13.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 83(4): 338-351, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978105

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Antecedentes: Un algoritmo puede definirse como un conjunto de operaciones y procedimientos que se deben seguir con el fin de resolver un problema. Objetivo: Conocer el cumplimiento del flujo de decisiones clínicas del protocolo preconizado en los algoritmos de derivación y de confirmación diagnóstica para la citología cervical atípica de significado indeterminado - H1, estipulados en el Programa Nacional de Búsqueda y Control del Cáncer Cervical de Chile. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico de tipo descriptivo, observacional, cuantitativo y de seguimiento de una cohorte de mujeres portadoras de un primer informe de citología cervical atípica de significado indeterminado - H1, pertenecientes a los consultorios de Atención Primaria de Salud del área Metropolitana Sur de Santiago, Chile. El seguimiento fue a través de la aplicación de los "Algoritmo de derivación a especialista o U.P.C. del primer PAP atípico según la clasificación Bethesda 2001" y "Algoritmos para confirmación diagnóstica". Resultados: Se seleccionaron 446 mujeres con un primer informe H1. El cumplimiento de conductas de acuerdo al algoritmo de derivación fue de 42.4% y las conductas alternativas fue de 5.8%. La adherencia de conducta en los algoritmos para confirmación diagnóstica fue cumplida en un 89.6%. Conclusiones: El cumplimiento de las conductas ajustadas a algoritmo de derivación del primer Pap atípico fue realizado por la mitad de las mujeres y el cumplimiento del algoritmo de confirmación diagnóstica fue realizado por la gran mayoría.


SUMMARY Background: An algorithm can be defined as a set of operations and procedures that must be followed in order to solve a problem. Objective: Determine the compliance of the clinical decisions flow and procedures recommended by the ASCUS results derivation and diagnostic confirmation algorithms established in the National Program of Search and Control of Cervical Cancer of Chile. Methods: An epidemiological, descriptive, observational and quantitative study of a follow up investigation of a cohort of women with ASCUS cytological reports. These women belonging in the health care centers in the South Metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile. The algorithms "The Specialist Derivation Algorithm or UPC for the first atypical Pap according to the Bethesda 2001 classification" and "Diagnosis Confirmation Algorithm" were used for the follow-up process of these patients. Results: Women with a first ASCUS report were selected (n = 446). The compliance of the clinical decisions flow to derivation algorithm was 42.4% and alternative behaviors were 5.8%. In the diagnosis confirmation algorithm was 89.6% the compliance the recommended procedures. Conclusion: Half ASCUS carrier women followed the procedures recommended by the derivation algorithm. In the algorithms of diagnostic confirmation it is met mostly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Papanicolaou Test/statistics & numerical data , Atypical Squamous Cells of the Cervix/pathology , Primary Health Care , Logistic Models , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cytological Techniques , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/epidemiology , Colposcopy , Guideline Adherence , Early Detection of Cancer , Observational Study
14.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 82(5): 539-553, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899940

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: En la actualidad, existe una alta tasa de sobre-tratamiento de lesiones precursoras cervicales, la cual, en su causalidad, depende de la inexperiencia del operador que toma las decisiones. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue desarrollar un método estandarizado de ponderación/juicio de variables diagnósticas y tratamiento útiles de ser usadas por especialistas jóvenes a fin de minimizar el riesgo de manejo inadecuado. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 471 pacientes referidos por citología anormal y tratados mediante asa de LEEP. Se calcularon la sensibilidad, la especificidad, los valores predictivos y las relaciones de probabilidad para el diagnóstico de NIE2+ para cada uno de los métodos de diagnóstico. A cada residente se le enseñó un protocolo estandarizado de tratamiento mediante asa. Una vez identificados los mejores predictores, se construyó una escala de puntaje que ponderaba las variables y se definió mediante curva ROC el major punto de corte para la predicción de NIE2+. Las diferencias entre los grupos se compararon mediante Chi-cuadrado, ANOVA o t-test. Se construyó curva de fallas mediante el método de 1-Kaplan Meier. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de NIE2+ en esta cohorte fue 66%. La concordancia entre las pruebas diagnósticas fue baja, teniendo la colposcopia el peor valor predictivo positivo y el mayor riesgo de sobre-tratamiento. Para la escala de puntaje se incluyeron la edad, la citología, la colposcopia (estratificación basada en la extensión de compromiso por cuadrantes), la biopsia por mascada y la concordancia entre pruebas diagnósticas. Un puntaje≥ 9 asociado al uso de un protocolo estandarizado, obtuvo tasas de sobre-tratamiento <15%, de recurrencias de NIE2+ <5% a 5 años y una baja tasa de procedimientos sub-óptimos o con complicaciones (<2 %). CONCLUSIONES: El método CONO-UC al combinar un sistema de puntaje integrado (punto de corte) con un protocolo estandarizado de excisión, permite minimizar el riesgo de sobretratamiento o tratamiento inadecuado, por parte de especialistas jóvenes, de lesiones preinvasoras del cuello uterino, reduciendo además el número de procedimientos indicados innecesariamente y manteniendo una alta tasa de éxito terapéutico.


GOALS: Currently, there is a high rate of over-treatment of precursor cervical lesions, which, in their causality, depends on the inexperience of the decision-making operator. The objective of the present study was to develop a standardized method of weighting / judgment of diagnostic variables and treatment useful to be used by young specialists in order to minimize the risk of improper handling. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 471 patients referred by abnormal cytology and treated by LEEP. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios for the diagnosis of CIN2+ were calculated for each of the diagnostic methods. Each resident was taught a standardized protocol to carry out a LEEP procedure. Once the best predictors were identified, a scoring scale was constructed that weighted the variables and the best cut-off point for the prediction of CIN2+ was defined by ROC curve. Differences between groups were compared using Chi-square, ANOVA or t-test. Failure curves were built up using the 1-Kaplan Meier method. RESULTS: The prevalence of CIN2+ in this cohort was 66%. The agreement between the diagnostic tests was low, with colposcopy having the worst positive predictive value and the highest risk of over-treatment. Age, cytology, colposcopy (stratification based on the extent of compromise by quadrants), punch biopsy, and agreement between diagnostic tests were included for building the scoring scale. A score ≥ 9 in association with the use of a standardized protocol obtained rates of over-treatment <15%, recurrences of CIN2+ <5% at 5-year follow-up and a low rate of suboptimal procedures or complications (<2%). CONCLUSIONS: The UC-CONE method, by combining an integrated scoring system with a standardized excision protocol, minimizes the risk of over-treatment or inadequate treatment of pre-invasive cervical lesions by young specialists, reducing the number of procedures indicated unnecessarily and maintaining a high rate of therapeutic success.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/surgery , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/pathology , Colposcopy/methods , Electrosurgery/methods , Biopsy , Logistic Models , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Analysis of Variance , Sensitivity and Specificity , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Conization , Decision Making
15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(2): 155-161, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891380

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To translate and perform the cultural adaptation of the tool Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD) to the Portuguese language. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study, with translation and cultural adaptation of the assessment tool performed according to international guidelines and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) protocol group. It involved eight experts, six from Brazil, one from Portugal and one from the United States. After translation and back-translation of the tool, the semantic analysis process was carried out. We randomly included 20 women aged between 18 and 70 years with altered cervical cytology exam, seen at the Department of Prevention and Gynecologic Oncology - Hospital de Câncer de Barretos. Results The sample consisted of women with low education level. In the first pre-test, ten women participated and half of them considered the questions CD1, CD2 and CD3 as difficult, because they did not understand the meaning of the term "pelvic area". The question CD5, "I worry about spreading the infection", was also considered difficult to understand by five women. After the reconsideration of the expert committee and FACIT group, the second pre-test was performed. At this stage, we concluded that the previously raised understanding problems had been solved. Conclusion The translated version of FACIT-CD in universal Portuguese language is equivalent to the original version in English and was easily understood by patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.


RESUMO Objetivo Traduzir e adaptar o instrumento Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD), para a língua portuguesa. Métodos Estudo descritivo, transversal, com metodologia de tradução e adaptação cultural de instrumento de avaliação, realizado por meio de diretrizes internacionais e seguindo o protocolo do grupo Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT). Envolveu oito especialistas, sendo seis nativos do Brasil, um de Portugal e um dos Estados Unidos. Ao término do processo de tradução e retrotradução, deu-se início ao processo de análise semântica. Foram incluídas aleatoriamente 20 mulheres entre 18 e 70 anos com exame de citologia cervical alterado, atendidas no Departamento de Prevenção e Ginecologia Oncológica do Hospital de Câncer de Barretos. Resultados A amostra foi composta por mulheres com baixa escolaridade. No primeiro pré-teste participaram dez mulheres, sendo que a metade considerou as questões CD1, CD2 e CD3 difíceis por não compreenderem o significado do termo "região pélvica". A questão CD5, "Estou preocupada em disseminar a infecção", também foi considerada de difícil entendimento por cinco mulheres. Após as reconsiderações do comitê de especialistas e do grupo FACIT, foi realizado o segundo pré-teste. Nesta fase, pode-se concluir que os problemas de entendimento anteriores foram resolvidos. Conclusão A versão traduzida do FACIT-CD é equivalente à versão original em inglês e em língua portuguesa universal, sendo facilmente compreendida pelas pacientes com neoplasia intraepitelial cervical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Quality of Life/psychology , Translations , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Brazil , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status
16.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 24(4): e18737, jul./ago. 2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-947757

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: identificar as expectativas dos enfermeiros em ensinar e aprender na consulta de enfermagem em braquiterapia ginecológica e discutir os nexos entre as intencionalidades expressas por estes profissionais. Método: estudo descritivo, embasado na Fenomenologia Sociológica e realizado no período de janeiro a maio de 2012. Os participantes foram seis enfermeiros que atuam em dois serviços de referência em radioterapia. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas fenomenológicas. Resultados: da análise dos depoimentos emergiram duas categorias concretas do vivido: Atender à singularidade dos sujeitos no tratamento e Valorizar o cuidado técnico. Conclusão: o tipo vivido dos enfermeiros é o de profissionais com sensibilidade para adaptar o cuidado individual à tecnologia, em que o ensinar e aprender na consulta de enfermagem subsidiam o enfermeiro a compreender cada cliente com seu grau de entendimento, o que exige personalizar o atendimento, a fim de que haja qualidade de vida no tratamento.


Objectives: to identify nurses' expectations in teaching and learning in the gynecological brachytherapy nursing appointment and to discuss the links between the intentionalities expressed by these professionals. Method: this descriptive study, based on Sociological Phenomenology, was conducted from January to May 2012. The participants were six nurses working in two radiotherapy referral services. Data were obtained by phenomenological interview. Results: analysis of the declarations yielded two concrete categories of lived experience: Contemplating the uniqueness of each subject in treatment; and Giving due value to the technical care. Conclusion: the lived experience of nurses is that of professionals with the sensitivity to adapt individual care to the technology, where teaching and learning in the nursing appointment provides nurses with input to understanding each client with their own degree of understanding, which is what demands personalized care, so that there is quality of life in the treatment.


Objetivos: identificar las expectativas de los enfermeros en enseñar y aprender durante la consulta de enfermería en braquiterapia ginecológica y discutir los nexos entre las intenciones expresadas por estos profesionales. Método: estudio descriptivo, basado en la Fenomenología Sociológica y llevado a cabo de enero a mayo de 2012. Los participantes fueron seis enfermeros que trabajan en dos servicios de referencia en radioterapia. Los datos se obtuvieron a través de entrevistas fenomenológicas. Resultados: del análisis de las declaraciones emergieron dos categorías concretas de experiencias: Atender a la singularidad de los sujetos en el tratamiento y valorar el cuidado técnico. Conclusión: los enfermeros se mostraron profesionales con sensibilidad para adaptar el cuidado individual a la tecnología, en la cual el enseñar y el aprender en la consulta de enfermería subsidian al enfermero a comprender a cada cliente con su nivel de entendimiento, lo que requiere personalizar la atención para que haya calidad de vida en el tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Radiotherapy , Brachytherapy/nursing , Office Nursing , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Nurse's Role , Nursing Care , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Nursing , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/nursing , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/drug therapy , Qualitative Research , Humanization of Assistance
18.
Rev. centroam. obstet. ginecol ; 21(1): 4-7, ene.-mar. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-835854

ABSTRACT

Ojetivo: Describir las técnicas de crioterapia de simple y doble congelación, determinar la eficacia complicaciones del tratamiento en las mujeres que asisten a la consulta externa. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal, seleccionando 120 mujeres a conveniencia que asistieron a la consulta externa del Instituto Hondureño de Seguridad Social con diagnóstico de neoplasia intraepitelial de bajo grado. Resultados: de las 120 pacientes tratadas con crioterapia, 25 pacientes persistieron con NIC 7 de ellas tratadas con doble congelación y 16 con una sola congelación. 4 pacientes presentaron complicaciones las cuales fueron tratadas con la técnica doble...


Objective: Describe cryotherapy techniques and double freezing, determine the efficacy of treatment complications in women attending outpatient. Methods: cross-sectional study, 120 women choosing to convenience attending the outpatient Social Security Institute diagnosed with low-grade intraepithelial neoplasica. Results: Of the 120 patients treated with cryotherapy, 25 patients persisted with CIN 7 were treated with double freeze and 16 with a single freeze. 4 patients had complications which were treated with the technique with double freeze...


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryotherapy , Cryotherapy/methods , Efficacy , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis
19.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 38(3): 147-153, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781448

ABSTRACT

Purpose To compare the predictive capability of HPV and Pap smear tests for screening pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix over a three-year follow-up, in a population of users of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 2,032 women with satisfactory results for Pap smear and HPV tests using second-generation hybrid capture,made in a previous study. We followed them for 36 months with data obtained from medical records, the Cervix Cancer Information System (SISCOLO), and the Mortality Information System (SIM). The outcome was a histological diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more advanced lesions (CIN2ş). We constructed progression curves of the baseline test results for the period, using the Kaplan-Meier method, and estimated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratios for each test. Results A total of 1,440 women had at least one test during follow-up. Progression curves of the baseline test results indicated differences in capability to detect CIN2ş (p < 0.001) with significantly greater capability when both tests were abnormal, followed by only a positive HPV test. The HPV test was more sensitive than the Pap smear (88.7% and 73.6%, respectively; p < 0.05) and had a better negative likelihood ratio (0.13 and 0.30, respectively). Specificity and positive likelihood ratio of the tests were similar. Conclusions These findings corroborate the importance of HPV test as a primary cervical cancer screening.


Objetivo Comparar a capacidade preditiva dotesteHPVcomoexame de Papanicolau para a detecção de lesões precursoras do câncer do colo do útero, em três anos de seguimento, numa população de usuárias do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Métodos Estudo de coorte retrospectiva de 2.032 mulheres com resultados satisfatórios para exame de Papanicolaou e teste HPV, por captura híbrida de segunda geração, realizados em estudo prévio. Foi realizado seguimento durante 36 meses por meio da busca em prontuários, Sistema de Informação do Câncer do Colo do Útero (SISCOLO) e Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM). O desfecho foi o diagnóstico histopatológico de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical grau 2 ou lesão mais grave (NIC2ş). Curvas de progressão foram construídas, para o período, utilizando o método de Kaplan-Meier, com base nos resultados dos exames na entrada do estudo; e estimadas a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e negativo, e a razão de verossimilhança positiva e negativa, para cada teste. Resultados Um total de 1.440 mulheres foram submetidas a pelo menos um exame no período de seguimento. As curvas de progressão demonstraram diferenças na capacidade de predição para NIC2ş conforme os resultados dos testes (p < 0,001), sendo expressivamente maior quando ambos os exames estavam alterados, seguido de ter apenas o teste HPV positivo. O teste HPV apresentou maior sensibilidade do que o exame de Papanicolau (88,7% e 73,6%, respectivamente; p < 0,05) emelhor razão de verossimilhança negativa (0,13 e 0,30, respectivamente). Já a especificidade e a razão de verossimilhança positiva foram semelhantes. Conclusões Os resultados sinalizam a importância da inclusão do teste HPV no rastreamento primário do câncer do colo do útero.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Papanicolaou Test , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Brazil , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Mass Screening , Papillomaviridae , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Vaginal Smears
20.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 38(2): 82-87, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775631

ABSTRACT

Objective The aim of this study was to determine the expression of the immunohistochemical markers p16 and Ki-67 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasms and their influence on the level of agreement among different observers and for the same observer. Methods The study included 184 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasms previously confirmed through biopsies performed between 2005 and 2006. Three pathologists reviewed the biopsies by using hematoxylin-eosin staining to reach a consensus on the diagnosis. Subsequently, an immunohistochemical study analyzed the expression of p16 and Ki-67 in such cases. Results The comparison among the reviewing pathologists revealed only moderate agreement (kappa = 0.44). The agreement improved when the differentiation of highgrade lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasm - CIN - 3) was analyzed (kappa = 0.59). p16 staining exhibited a high negative predictive value and sensitivity; however, the specificity was low. Overall, both qualitative and quantitative analyses of p16 and a quantitative analysis Ki-67 exhibited low accuracy. The agreement among diagnoses before immunohistochemistry was 0.47. The use of immunohistochemistry increased the agreement to 0.68. Conclusion Our study showed that the agreement among observers using traditional diagnostic criteria of cervical intraepithelial lesions can improve with the use of immunohistochemistry.


Objetivo Observar a expressão dos marcadores imuno-histoquímicos p16 e Ki-67 em neoplasias intraepiteliais cervicais e sua influência na concordância entre observadores diferentes e, entre o mesmo observador. Métodos Foram incluídas no estudo 184 pacientes com neoplasias cervicais intraepiteliais confirmadas por biópsia realizadas durante os anos de 2005 e 2006. As biópsias foram revistas, primeiramente, por três patologistas utilizando-se apenas a coloração de Hematoxilina-Eosina. Foi realizado um consenso acerca do diagnóstico. Posteriormente, foi realizado o estudo imuno-histoquímico e analisada a expressão de p16 e Ki- 67 nesses casos. Resultados A comparação entre os patologistas revisoresmostrou uma concordância apenas regular (k = 0,44. A concordância foi melhor quando analisada apenas a capacidade de diferenciar lesões de alto grau (NIC 3) (k = 0,59). A marcação de p16 mostrou alto valor preditivo negativo e sensibilidade, porém baixa especificidade. Em geral, tanto p16 qualitativo, quanto p16 quantitativo e Ki-67 quantitativo mostraram baixa acurácia geral. A concordância entre os diagnósticos antes da imuno-histoquímica obteve k = 0,47, e após o auxílio da imuno-histoquímica houve um aumento do Kappa para 0,68. A marcação de p16 mostrou alto valor preditivo negativo e sensibilidade, porém baixa especificidade. Em geral, tanto p16 qualitativo, quanto p16 quantitativo e Ki-67 quantitativo mostraram baixa acurácia geral. Conclusão Nosso estudo mostrou que a concordância no diagnóstico tradicional de lesões intraepiteliais cervicais é regular e que pode ser melhorada como o auxílio da imuno-histoquímica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Ki-67 Antigen , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 , Immunohistochemistry , Papillomavirus Infections , Sensitivity and Specificity
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