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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200443, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The coronaviruses (CoVs) called the attention of the world for causing outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV), in Asia in 2002-03, and respiratory disease in the Middle East (MERS-CoV), in 2012. In December 2019, yet again a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) first identified in Wuhan, China, was associated with a severe respiratory infection, known today as COVID-19. This new virus quickly spread throughout China and 30 additional countries. As result, the World Health Organization (WHO) elevated the status of the COVID-19 outbreak from emergency of international concern to pandemic on March 11, 2020. The impact of COVID-19 on public health and economy fueled a worldwide race to approve therapeutic and prophylactic agents, but so far, there are no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines available. In current scenario, the development of in vitro systems for viral mass production and for testing antiviral and vaccine candidates proves to be an urgent matter. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is study the biology of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero-E6 cells at the ultrastructural level. METHODS In this study, we documented, by transmission electron microscopy and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the infection of Vero-E6 cells with SARS-CoV-2 samples isolated from Brazilian patients. FINDINGS The infected cells presented cytopathic effects and SARS-CoV-2 particles were observed attached to the cell surface and inside cytoplasmic vesicles. The entry of the virus into cells occurred through the endocytic pathway or by fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane. Assembled nucleocapsids were verified inside rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns (RER). Viral maturation seemed to occur by budding of viral particles from the RER into smooth membrane vesicles. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Therefore, the susceptibility of Vero-E6 cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the viral pathway inside the cells were demonstrated by ultrastructural analysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Vero Cells/virology , Cytoplasmic Vesicles/virology , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Nucleocapsid , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Endocytosis , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Virus Internalization , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
2.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 44(2): 75-84, jun. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-657615

ABSTRACT

En la Argentina, la rabia está circunscripta a algunas provincias del norte. La disponibilidad de nuevas vacunas que eliminen la manipulación del virus rábico y que permitan el control de la enfermedad es de importancia estratégica nacional y regional. Las vacunas basadas en poxvirus recombinantes se han utilizado con éxito como vacunas antirrábicas a nivel mundial. SI bien estos sistemas no están disponibles comercialmente, la plataforma de obtención de virus canarypox (CNPV) recombinantes ya ha sido implementada en nuestro laboratorio. El objetivo de este trabajo fue obtener y evaluar un candidato a vacuna antirrábica basado en CNPV recombinantes que expresan la glicoproteína G (RG) del virus rábico (RV). Se construyó un virus recombinante que expresa la secuencia codificante de RG (CNPV-RG). La inoculación de ratones con este virus indujo altos títulos de anticuerpos seroneutralizantes de RV (3,58 y 9,76 Ul/ml después de una o dos inmunizaciones, respectivamente) y protegió al 78 % de los animales desafiados intracerebralmente con RV. Además, se determinó que el CNPV-RG posee una potencia relativa de 3,5 Ul/ml. Los resultados obtenidos constituyen la primera etapa en la evaluación del CNPV-RG como candidato a vacuna antirrábica. Se requerirán nuevos ensayos para confirmar su utilidad en especies de interés veterinario.


In Argentina, rabies is limited to some northern provinces. Availability of new vaccines abolishing the handling of the rabies virus and allowing disease control has regional and national strategic importance. Vaccines based on recombinant poxviruses have been successfully used as antirabic vaccines worldwide. Although these systems are not commercially available, the platform to obtain recombinant canarypox viruses (CNPV) has been previously set up in our laboratory. The aim of this work was the development and evaluation of an antirabic vaccine candidate based on recombinant CNPV expressing the rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein G (RG). A recombinant virus (CNPV-RG) expressing the RG coding sequence was designed. Inoculation of mice with this virus induced high RV seroneutralizing antibodies (3.58 and 9.76 lU/ml after 1 or 2 immunizations, respectively) and protected 78% of intracerebrally RV-challenged animals. In addition, it was determined that CNPV-RG has a relative potency of 3.5 lU/ml. The obtained results constituted the first stage of CNPV-RG evaluation as antirabic vaccine candidate. Further assays will be necessary to confirm its utility in species of veterinary Interest.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chick Embryo , Cricetinae , Mice , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Canarypox virus/immunology , Glycoproteins/immunology , Rabies Vaccines , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Canarypox virus/genetics , Canarypox virus/growth & development , Canarypox virus/isolation & purification , Cell Line/virology , Fibroblasts/virology , Glycoproteins/genetics , Kidney , Mesocricetus , Peptide Fragments/genetics , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Rabies Vaccines/immunology , Rabies/prevention & control , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Virus Cultivation , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vero Cells/virology , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(2): 203-208, Mar. 2007.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-447559

ABSTRACT

Among the flaviviruses, dengue, with its four serotypes, has spread throughout the tropics. The most advanced vaccines developed so far include live attenuated viruses, which have been tested in humans but none has been licensed. Preclinical testing of dengue vaccine candidates is performed initially in mice and in nonhuman primates. In the latter the main criteria used to assay protection are neutralizing antibodies elicited by the vaccine candidate and the magnitude and duration of peripheral viremia upon challenge of previously immunized animals. Towards the identification of wild-type viruses that could be used in challenge experiments a total of 31 rhesus monkeys were inoculated subcutaneously of wild dengue types 1, 2, and 3 viruses. The viremia caused by the different viruses was variable but it was possible to identify dengue viruses useful as challenge strains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Viremia/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Macaca mulatta/virology , Vero Cells/virology
4.
J. bras. patol. med. lab ; 40(3): 147-151, maio-jun. 2004. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-362181

ABSTRACT

Foi realizado estudo comparativo na produção de diferentes antígenos virais usando sistema de microcarregador e sistema tradicional. Células Vero, BHK e MA-104 foram cultivadas em microcarregadores (2mg/ml) utilizando-se biorreatores com capacidade de 3,7 litros e, em paralelo, no sistema convencional com garrafas Roux. Após quatro dias de cultura para as células BHK e sete dias para as células Vero e MA-104, as células foram infectadas com 0,1 MOI (multiplicidade de infecção) de vírus da raiva, vírus do sarampo, poliovírus e rotavírus. Foi determinado o rendimento das células e dos vírus em microcarregadores e sistema convencional. Foi observado no sistema de microcarregador um aumento médio obtido de vinte vezes mais células/ml em relação à cultura convencional em monocamadas, usando garrafas Roux. Por outro lado, as células que cresceram em garrafas Roux apresentaram 1,6 a 6,7 mais vírus/ml em culturas do que no sistema de microcarregador. Contudo o total das amostras em termos de vírus por grupo foi estatisticamente similar para ambos os sistemas (p > 0,05). O rendimento na produção de antígeno viral pode depender não somente da concentração das células, mas também de outros fatores da cultura, como características do suporte no crescimento. Assim, o estudo deste parâmetro pode proporcionar uma linha de base para um futuro melhoramento e estratégias para se estabelecer um aumento em escala na produção de vírus, já que, dependendo do tipo de vírus, a ótima condição encontrada para uma produção de vírus em pequena escala pode não ser adequada para a produção em grande escala, requerendo novas padronização e avaliação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents , Vero Cells/virology , Poliovirus , Cell Culture Techniques , Rabies virus , Measles virus
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128642

ABSTRACT

A virus strain, showing cytopathic effect in Vero cell, was isolated from plasma of a fattening pig in Gyeonggi province, Korea in October 1999. The evaluation of physicochemical/biological properties of the isolate showed that the virus, KV1899, inoculated suckling mouse showed paralysis and died within 7 days post-inoculation, the mouse brain suspension had hemagglutinating activity with goose RBC. Pathogenicity of isolate was carried out by intracranial and intraperitoneal inoculation of 3-4 weeks mice. The mice inoculated with isolate showed 10 4.5 LD50/ 0.03 ml and 10 3.0 LD50/0.5 ml according to the inoculation route. The isolate was identified as RNA and enveloped virus using IUDR and chloroform sensitivity test. The virus particles within the infected Vero cell were measured to be 40-50 nm in size by electron microscopy. The isolate was further characterized by immuno-fluorescence assay using Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) specific monoclonal antibodies. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of JE specific conserved sequences in this isolate. The artificially inoculated pigs had HI titer of 320 to 2,560 against JEV at 14 to 42 days post inoculation. We confirmed this isolate as Japanese encephalitis virus. It was the second isolation of JEV in pigs in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese/classification , Encephalitis, Japanese/pathology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/veterinary , Hemagglutination Tests/veterinary , Korea , Microscopy, Electron/veterinary , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Swine , Swine Diseases/pathology , Vero Cells/virology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79777

ABSTRACT

A few members of coronavirus group I which includes porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) use porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) as a cellular receptor. Cellular receptors play an important role in virus attachment and entry. However, the low permissiveness of PEDV to APN-expressing porcine cell lines has made it difficult to elucidate the role of pAPN in vitro. The purpose of this study was to prove whether the treatment of soluble pAPN could enhance the antibody production against PEDV in guinea pigs, rabbits and sows. The animals (20 guinea pigs, 8 rabbits and 20 sows) were divided into 4 groups. Group A was injected intramuscularly (IM) with soluble pAPN at one hour before intramuscular infection of PEDV on the same site, group B for IM simultaneous injection of pAPN and PEDV, and group C for IM injection of PEDV only. Group D served as a control of pAPN treatment or PEDV infection. Antibody production against PEDV was compared among groups at regular intervals. The results suggested that pAPN could enhance the antibody production against PEDV in guinea pigs and rabbits which are free of pAPN, however, the effect of pAPN treatment in sows was not clearly elucidated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rabbits , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , CD13 Antigens , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Guinea Pigs , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes , Injections, Intramuscular , Solubility , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Vero Cells/virology
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 95(4): 483-9, July-Aug. 2000.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-264228

ABSTRACT

Fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis is useful for the detection of cellular surface antigens and intracellular proteins. We used this methodology in order to detect and quantify dengue antigens in highly susceptible cells such as clone C6/36 (Aedes albopictus) and Vero cells (green monkey kidney). Additionally, we analyzed the infection in vitro of human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML). FACS analysis turned out to be a reliable technique to quantify virus growth in traditional cell cultures of C6/36 as well as Vero cells. High rates of infection were achieved with a good statistical correlation between the virus amount used in infection and the percentage of dengue antigen containing cells detected in infected cultures. We also showed that human monocytes (CD14+) are preferred target cells for in vitro dengue infection among PBML. Monocytes were much less susceptible to virus infection than cell lines but they displayed dengue antigens detected by FACS five days after infection. In contrast, lymphocytes showed no differences in their profile for dengue specific immunofluorescence. Without an animal model to reproduce dengue disease, alternative assays have been sought to correlate viral virulence with clinical manifestations and disease severity. Study of in vitro interaction of virus and host cells may highlight this relationship.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/analysis , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/immunology , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Cell Line/virology , Cell Separation , Cells, Cultured , Clone Cells/immunology , Dengue Virus/growth & development , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Vero Cells/cytology , Vero Cells/virology
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 17(3): 211-5, 2000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-277171

ABSTRACT

Los hantavirus son virus envueltos, de genoma ARN trisegmentado. Los hantavirus americanos provienen de la subfamilia de roedores Sigmodontinae y pueden causar el síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavirus (SCPH) mientras que los hantavirus europeos y asiáticos provienen de las subfamilias Murinae y Arvicolinae que pueden producir la fiebre hemorrágica con síndrome renal. En este artículo se describen las técnicas de laboratorio desarrolladas al momento actual para certificar la infección por hantavirus en humanos


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Orthohantavirus/isolation & purification , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/diagnosis , Vero Cells/virology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Orthohantavirus/pathogenicity , Immunoglobulin M , RNA , Rodentia/virology
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