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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(2): 311-315, abr. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559674

ABSTRACT

El alelo HLA B*57:01 es un marcador genético asociado con la hipersensibilidad al fármaco anti-retroviral abacavir (ABC) y su frecuencia en la población peruana todavía es desconocida. El objetivo fue identificar el alelo HLA B*57:01 en una población militar de Lima, Perú. Se reclutaron 43 personas viviendo con VIH (PVV) quienes aceptaron participar a través de un consentimiento informado. La detección del alelo HLA B*57:01 se realizó mediante RPC en tiempo real (RT-PCR). Asimismo, se determinó la carga viral (CV), el recuento de linfocitos CD4 y la genotipificación del VIH. Se identificaron dos casos positivos al alelo HLA B*57:01 (4,7%). Además, uno de ellos presentó múltiples mutaciones de resistencia a los anti-retrovirales (ARV), incluyendo ABC. Se demostró por primera vez en el Perú la presencia del alelo HLA B*57:01.


The HLA B*57:01 allele is a genetic marker associated with hypersensitivity to the antiretroviral Abacavir (ABC) and its frequency in the Peruvian population is still unknown. The objective was to identify the HLA B*57:01 allele in a military population from Lima, Peru. Forty three people living with HIV (PLWH) were recruited, who agreed to participate through informed consent. Detection of the HLA B*57:01 allele was performed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Likewise, viral load (VL), CD4 lymphocyte count and HIV genotyping were determined. Two cases positive for the HLA B*57:01 allele (4.7%) were identified. In addition, one of them had multiple resistance mutations to antiretrovirals (ARVs), including ABC. The presence of the HLA B*57:01 allele was demonstrated for the first time in Peru.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/genetics , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity/genetics , Military Personnel , Peru , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , Genetic Markers , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV/genetics , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Cyclopropanes/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity/immunology , Alleles , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
2.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22 (2), 2023;22(2): 921, 16 octubre 2023. ilus., tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526591

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La nefropatía por poliomavirus BK resulta un problema emergente en el trasplante renal, pues contribuye a la pérdida temprana de los injertos renales. OBJETIVO. Caracterizar clínicamente a los pacientes trasplantados renales con nefropatía por poliomavirus BK. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio observacional, descriptivo, realizado en el Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín en el período 2013-2022, se obtuvo una base de datos anonimizada, 479 pacientes trasplantados renales, de estos se identificaron 37 pacientes que corresponde a un 7,7% con nefropatía por poliomavirus BK, se realizó un análisis con el programa estadístico SPSS v26®. RESULTADOS. La población estuvo caracterizada por pacientes del sexo masculino (56,8%), con una edad media de 48,2 años, el donante cadavérico fue el más frecuente (94,5%), la mayor parte del tratamiento de la nefropatía por poliomavirus BK consistió en cambio de micofenolato sódico a everolimus y se mantuvo con 50% de Tacrolimus y Prednisona (40,5%); al valorar el cambio de los valores de creatinina, los niveles más elevados fueros a los 12 meses cuando la pérdida renal fue temprana (p: 0,042), y de la misma manera a los 12 meses, fueron más elevados los niveles de creatinina cuando el diagnóstico histopatológico fue Nefropatía por Poliomavirus Clase 3 (p: 0,01). DISCUSIÓN. La prevalencia de la nefropatía se mantuvo por debajo del 10% reportado a nivel global, la creatinina empeoró en pacientes con pérdida temprana del injerto renal y con una clase patológica avanzada, hecho reportado en la fisiopatología de la enfermedad. CONCLUSIÓN. La pérdida del injerto renal temprano presentó una creatinina más alta que la tardía. Es recomendable un tamizaje adecuado para la detección temprana del virus BK siendo crucial para prevenir el deterioro de la función renal y limitar la posterior pérdida del injerto.


INTRODUCTION: BK polyomavirus nephropathy is emerging as a significant concern in kidney transplantation, as it contributes to the early loss of renal grafts. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clinically characterize renal transplant recipients with BK polyomavirus nephropathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational and descriptive study was conducted at Carlos Andrade Marín Specialties Hospital during the period of 2013 to 2022. An anonymized database comprising 479 renal transplant patients was utilized. Among these, 37 patients, constituting 7.7%, were identified with BK polyomavirus nephropathy. Data analysis was performed using the statistical program SPSS v26®. RESULTS: The study population was predominantly composed of male patients (56.8%) with a mean age of 48.2 years. Deceased donors accounted for the majority (94.5%) of cases. The primary approach for managing BK polyomavirus nephropathy involved transitioning from mycophenolate sodium to everolimus, alongside maintaining a regimen of 50% tacrolimus and 40.5% prednisone. When assessing changes in creatinine values, the highest levels were observed at 12 months, coinciding with early renal loss (p: 0.042). Similarly, at the 12-month mark, elevated creatinine levels were associated with a histopathological diagnosis of Polyomavirus nephropathy Class 3 (p: 0.01). DISCUSSION: The prevalence of nephropathy remained below the globally reported threshold of 10%. Creatinine levels worsened in patients experiencing early graft loss and an advanced pathological classification, aligning with established disease pathophysiology. CONCLUSION: Early renal graft loss was associated with higher creatinine levels compared to delayed loss. Adequate screening for early detection of BK virus is recommended, as it plays a crucial role in preventing renal function deterioration and limiting subsequent graft loss.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Kidney Transplantation , BK Virus , Viral Load , Creatinine , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Immunosuppressive Agents , Tissue Donors , Polyomavirus , Ecuador , Kidney Diseases
3.
Prensa méd. argent ; 109(2): 53-57, 20230000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1437022

ABSTRACT

Se acepta que los individuos infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV) son incapaces de transmitir la infección por vía sexual mientras sus niveles de carga viral plasmática se mantengan indetectables. Con el propósito de estudiar qué porcentaje de infectados por el HIV cumple esa condición estudiamos una población de pacientes asistidos regularmente en un hospital general de agudos de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Se incluyeron 298 individuos, 162 de ellos de sexo masculino (54.36%) con una edad (promedio ± desvío estándar) de 47.83 ± 11.69 años y un recuento de células CD4+ de 693.93 ± 363.87 x 106 células / mL de sangre periférica. La carga viral plasmática fue indetectable en 230 de los individuos estudiados (77.81%). Los 68 restantes (22.82%) mostraron en promedio 9856.67 ± 70922.11 copias / mL, siendo estos niveles mayores en hombres que en mujeres (17379.39 ± 95521.51 copias / mL vs 895.78 ± 5952.99 copias / mL, respectivamente; p=0.015, Student t test), lo que explicaría los recuentos de linfocitos CD4+ significativamente menores hallados en hombres.187 de 231 individuos que recibían su primer tratamiento antiretroviral (TARV) mostraron cargas virales indetectables (80,95%) versus 42 de 67 pacientes que habían recibido dos o más esquemas de tratamiento antirretroviral (61,69%; p= 0.002, prueba de 2 ). Estos resultados muestran que un porcentaje importante de infectados por el HIV continúan presentando cargas virales plasmáticas detectables a pesar del TARV, siendo capaces de transmitir la infección por vía sexual a sus parejas


It is widely accepted that HIV-infected subjects are incapable to transmit sexually the infection while their plasmatic viral load remains undetectable. In order to assess the percentage of HIV infected patients showing undetectable viral loads during their antiviral treatment we studied a population of patients regularly assisted at a general hospital. A total of 298 patients (162 men; 54.36%) were admitted to the study. The mean age was (mean ± standard deviation) 47.83 ± 11.69 years, and the mean CD4+ cell count was 693.93 ± 363.87 x 106 cells / mL. These variables did not showed statistically significative differences between men and women. Plasmatic viral load was undetectable in 230 patients (77.81%). The remaining 68 patients (22.82%) showed a mean of 9856.67 ± 70922 copies / mL. These values were higher in men than in women (17379.39 ± 95521.51 copies / mL vs 895.78 ± 5952.99 copies / mL, respectively; p=0.015, Student t test). In line with these findings, CD4+ cell count was significantly lower in men (575.10 ± 345.14 cells / L vs. 707.04 ± 373.46 cells / L, respectively; p=0.0019, Student t test). 187 out of 231 patients receiving their first antiretroviral treatment showed undetectable viral loads (80,95%), while only 42 out of 67 patients having previously received other antiretroviral schemes had undetectable levels of plasmatic viral load (61,69%; p= 0.002, 2 ). These findings show that an important number of patients may keep detectable levels of plasmatic viral load during antiretroviral treatment, being therefore capable to sexually transmit the infection to their couples.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , HIV/immunology , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
4.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 284-288, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984616

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the optimal cutoff value of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load that can assist in the diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) . Methods: The data of patients with EBV infection after haplo-HSCT from January to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Through constructing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculating the Youden index to determine the cutoff value of EBV-DNA load and its duration of diagnostic significance for PTLD. Results: A total of 94 patients were included, of whom 20 (21.3% ) developed PTLD, with a median onset time of 56 (40-309) d after transplantation. The median EBV value at the time of diagnosis of PTLD was 70,400 (1,710-1,370,000) copies/ml, and the median duration of EBV viremia was 23.5 (4-490) d. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the peak EBV-DNA load (the EBV-DNA load at the time of diagnosis in the PTLD group) and duration of EBV viremia between the PTLD and non-PTLD groups. The results showed that the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0.018 and P=0.001) . The ROC curve was constructed to calculate the Youden index, and it was concluded that the EBV-DNA load ≥ 41 850 copies/ml after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation had diagnostic significance for PTLD (AUC=0.847) , and the sensitivity and specificity were 0.611 and 0.932, respectively. The duration of EBV viremia of ≥20.5 d had diagnostic significance for PTLD (AUC=0.833) , with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.778 and 0.795, respectively. Conclusion: Dynamic monitoring of EBV load in high-risk patients with PTLD after haplo-HSCT and attention to its duration have important clinical significance, which can help clinically predict the occurrence of PTLD in advance and take early intervention measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Viremia , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/etiology , DNA, Viral , Viral Load
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2168-2177, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Women comprise more than half of people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) worldwide and incomplete immune recovery and metabolic abnormalities affect them deeply. Studies of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) have a low female representation in China. We aimed to investigate immune reconstitution and metabolic changes of female HIV-positive cohort in China longitudinally.@*METHODS@#HIV-positive women who initiated ART from January 2005 to June 2021 and were followed up regularly at least once a year were included in this study. Immunological indicators (cluster of differentiation 4 [CD4] counts and CD8 counts), viral load (VL), and metabolic indicators were collected at follow-up. All data were collected from the China Disease Prevention and Control Information System (CDPCIS). VL was tested half a year, 1 year after receiving ART, and every other year subsequently according to local policy. CD4/CD8 ratio normalization was considered as the primary outcome and defined as a value ≥1. Incidence rate and probability of CD4/CD8 ratio normalization were estimated through per 100 person-years follow-up (PYFU) and Kaplan-Meier curve, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression was used to identify independent risk factors associated with CD4/CD8 ratio normalization. We further studied the rate of dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes, liver injury, and renal injury after ART initiation with the chi-squared tests or Fisher's exact probability tests, and a generalized estimating equation model was used to analyze factors of dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia.@*RESULTS@#A total of 494 female patients with HIV/AIDS started ART within 16 years from January 2005 to June 2021, out of which 301 women were enrolled with a median duration of ART for 4.1 years (interquartile range, 2.3-7.0 years). The overall incidence rate of CD4/CD8 ratio normalization was 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.4-10.6) per 100 PYFU, and probabilities of CD4/CD8 normalization after initiating ART at 1 year, 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years follow-up were 11.7%, 23.2%, 44.0%, and 59.0%, respectively. Independent risk factors associated with CD4/CD8 normalization were baseline CD4 cell counts <200 cells/μL, CD8 counts >1000 cells/μL, and more than 6 months from the start of combined ART (cART) to first virological suppression. Longitudinally, the rate of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol [TC]) and high triglyceride (TG) showed an increasing trend, while the rate of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) showed a decreasing trend. The rate of hyperuricemia presented a downtrend at follow-up. Although liver and renal injury and diabetes persisted during ART, the rate was not statistically significant. Older age and protease inhibitors were independent risk factors for increase of TC and TG, and ART duration was an independent factor for elevation of TC and recovery of HDL-C.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study showed that women were more likely to normalize CD4/CD8 ratio in comparison with findings reported in the literature even though immune reconstruction was incomplete.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , CD4-CD8 Ratio , HIV , Immune Reconstitution , Hyperuricemia/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cholesterol , Viral Load , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1555088

ABSTRACT

O Virus da Hepatite C (HCV) possui vasta diversidade. Com base nas variações genômicas, existem oito genótipos, designados de G1 a G8, com prevalências distintas de acordo com a região geográfica observada. Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o perfil epidemiológico, genotípico e carga viral (CV) do HCV. Métodos: Estudo observacional analítico do tipo transversal, com dados de janeiro de 2018 a dezembro de 2021. O estudo analisou dados referentes a genotipagem, CV e do Formulário de Solicitação de CV do HCV, obtidos no Laboratório Estadual de Saúde Pública do estado de Goiás. Resultados: A maioria dos casos de HCV, concentram-se nas macrorregiões de saúde Centro Sudeste (42,90%) e Centro Oeste (34,15%) do Estado, com maior frequência do G1, seguido do G3 e presença dos G2, G4 e G5. O G1 vem diminuindo a frequência no decorrer dos anos, enquanto o G3 aumenta. Em geral, 49,33% dos casos apresentam alta CV (> 1.000.000 UI/mL). Em relação ao sexo, 31,75% dos indivíduos do sexo masculino apresentaram CV nessa mesma faixa, e o sexo feminino com 17,58%. A CV foi consideravelmente alta entre os casos analisados, com o sexo feminino, apresentando CV significativamente menor que o sexo masculino. Foram identificados o subtipo 1d e o G5 incomuns na região Central do Brasil. Conclusão: Os dados apresentados demonstram que o HCV pode estar em expansão, com o aparecimento de novos genótipos, subtipos e demonstra uma mudança na distribuição genotípica, no estado de Goiás nos últimos anos


The Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) has vast diversity. Based on genomic variations, there are eight genotypes, designated from G1 to G8, with different prevalences according to the geographical region observed. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the epidemiological, genotypic and viral load (CV) profile of HCV. Methods: Cross-sectional analytical observational study, with data from January 2018 to December 2021. The study analyzed data relating to genotyping, CV and the HCV CV Request Form, obtained from the State Public Health Laboratory of the state of Goiás. Results: The majority of HCV cases are concentrated in the Central Southeast (42.90%) and Central West (34.15%) health macro-regions of the State, with a higher frequency in G1, followed by G3 and the presence of G2Genotype, G4 and G5. G1 has been decreasing in frequency over the years, while G3 is increasing. In general, 49.33% of cases have high CV (> 1,000,000 IU/mL). In relation to sex, 31.75% of males had CV in the same range, and females had 17.58%. The CV was considerably high among the cases analyzed, with females presenting a significantly lower CV than males. Subtype 1d and G5, uncommon in the Central region of Brazil, were identified. Conclusion: The data presented demonstrate that HCV may be expanding, with the emergence of new genotypes, subtypes and demonstrates a change in genotypic distribution in the state of Goiás in recent years


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Health Profile , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepacivirus , Viral Load , Brazil
7.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(3): 1123-1128, 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425442

ABSTRACT

An 81-year-old woman, long-term non-progressor HIV infected, asymptomatic, not using ART, with a seven-year clinical follow-up in a reference unit, TCD4+ cell count values ranged from 719 to 1151 cells/µl, TCD8+ from 579 to 897 cells/µl and a viral load with higher value of 51 viral copies/ml but with undetectable results in most of the tests performed. The report of the long-term non-progressor HIV carrier aged over 80 years is somewhat unusual, considering the physiological/immunological changes that occur with the aging process concomitantly with HIV infection.


Mulher de 81 anos, infectada pelo HIV há muito tempo, não progressor, assintomática, sem uso de TARV, com acompanhamento clínico de sete anos em unidade de referência, os valores de contagem de células TCD4+ variaram de 719 a 1151 células/ µl, TCD8+ de 579 a 897 células/µl e uma carga viral com maior valor de 51 cópias virais/ml, mas com resultados indetectáveis na maioria dos testes realizados. O relato do portador de HIV de longa data não progressor com idade superior a 80 anos é um tanto incomum, considerando as alterações fisiológicas/imunológicas que ocorrem com o processo de envelhecimento concomitante à infecção pelo HIV.


Mujer de 81 años, infectada por VIH no progresor de larga evolución, asintomática, no usuaria de TAR, con seguimiento clínico de siete años en una unidad de referencia, los valores de recuento de células TCD4+ oscilaron entre 719 y 1151 células/ µl, TCD8+ de 579 a 897 células/µl y una carga viral con mayor valor de 51 copias virales/ml pero con resultados indetectables en la mayoría de las pruebas realizadas. El reporte de portadores de VIH no progresores a largo plazo mayores de 80 años es algo inusual, considerando los cambios fisiológicos/inmunitarios que ocurren con el proceso de envejecimiento concomitante con la infección por VIH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/physiology , HIV Non-Progressors , Aged/physiology , HIV Infections/immunology , Viral Load/physiology
8.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1517950

ABSTRACT

Background Optimal viral load suppression results from good adherence to treatment. The viral load suppression advantages include the reduction of virus transmission. In Rwanda, however, viral load suppression among adolescents and young adults has been proven relatively low than in other age groups. Objectives To assess the factors associated with viral load suppression among adolescent and young adults in Ngororero district, Rwanda. Methods A cross sectional study that included 151 adolescents and young adults aged from 15 to 24 years was conducted in Ngororero district. Data were entered in Epi-Info version 7 software and analyzed using STATA15. Results Females and males were 68% and 32% respectively. Sixty percent of the participants were aged20-24 years. Multivariable analysis revealed the factors associated with viral load suppression: Ubudehe category 2, P= 0.016, AOR = 6.6, CI [1.4, 31.1]; ubudehe category 3, P= 0.004, AOR = 8.9, CI [2.01,39.8]; spending between 5 to 9 years on ART, P= 0.022, AOR = 0.16 [CI0.03, 0.89;) and often forget to take medication, P= 0.011, AOR = 0.35, CI [0.13, 0.97.] Conclusion Viral load suppression among adolescents and young adults was low. Improving socio-economic conditions of adolescents and young adults, as well as provision of continuous counselling to them during their whole treatment life can improve significantly their adherence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , HIV Infections , Viral Load , Therapeutics
9.
Ethiop. med. j. (Online) ; 61(1): 61-69, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1416232

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the COVID-19 disease course in terms of viral shedding is important to assist in providing a tailored isolation and treatment practice. Therefore, the current study aimed to estimate time to viral clearance and identify determinants among SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals admitted to Millennium COVID-19 Care Center in Ethiopia. Methods: A Prospective observational study was conducted among 360 randomly selected SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals who were on follow up from 2nd June to 5th July 2020. Kaplan Meier plots, median survival times, and Log-rank test were used to describe the data and compare survival distribution between groups. Association between time to viral clearance and determinants was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard survival model, where hazard ratio, P-value, and 95% CI for hazard ratio were used for testing significance Results: The Median time to viral clearance was 16 days. The log-rank test shows that having moderate and severe disease, one or more symptoms at presentation, and presenting with respiratory and constitutional symptoms seems to extend the time needed to achieve viral clearance. The Final Cox regression result shows that the rate of achieving viral clearance among symptomatic patients was 44% lower than patients who were asymptomatic (AHR=0.560, 95% CI=0.322-0.975, p-value=0.040). Conclusions: Presence of symptoms was found to be associated with delayed viral clearance implying that symptomatic patients are more likely to be infectious and therefore, attention should be paid to the practices regarding isolation and treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Safety Management , Coronavirus Infections , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Viral Load
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(6): 690-698, dic. 2022. tab, graf, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431718

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La cuantificación de SARS-CoV-2 en aguas residuales es una herramienta que permite determinar la tendencia de la circulación viral en un área geográfica determinada. OBJETIVO: Cuantificar el virus SARS-CoV-2 en 15 plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales en diferentes ciudades de Chile para establecer una comparación con las variables de: i) casos activos por cada 100.000 habs.; ii) positividad diaria (casos nuevos); y iii) fases del plan de confinamiento. METODOLOGÍA: SARS-CoV-2 se concentró a partir de muestras de aguas residuales. Para obtener el número de genomas del virus por litro se realizó una cuantificación absoluta utilizando qRT-PCR. RESULTADOS: Entre enero y junio de 2021 se procesaron 253 muestras, siendo todas positivas para la presencia del virus. Asimismo, se logró determinar que la tasa de casos activos por cada 100.000 habs. es la variable que mejor se ajusta a las tendencias obtenidas con la cuantificación de la carga viral en las aguas residuales. CONCLUSIONES: La cuantificación de SARS-CoV-2 en las aguas residuales de manera permanente es una herramienta eficiente para determinar la tendencia del virus en un área geográfica determinada y, en conjunto con una vigilancia genómica, puede constituirse en una vigilancia centinela ideal generando alertas sobre futuros brotes.


BACKGROUND: The quantification of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater is a tool that allows determining the trend of viral circulation in a particular geographical area. AIM: To quantify the SARS-CoV-2 virus in 15 wastewater treatment plants in different Chilean cities to establish a comparison with the variables of: i) Active cases per 100,000 inhabitants; ii) daily positivity (novel cases); and iii) phases of the lockdown strategy. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 was concentrated from wastewater samples. To obtain the number of virus genomes per liter, absolute quantification was performed using qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Between January and June 2021, 253 samples were processed, all of which were positive for the presence of the virus. Likewise, it will be determined that the rate of active cases per 100,000 inhabitants is the variable that best fits the trends obtained with the quantification of the viral load in wastewater. CONCLUSIONS: The quantification of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater as a continuous strategy is an efficient tool to determine the trend of the viral circulation in a delimited geographical area and, combined with genomic surveillance, it can constitute an ideal sentinel surveillance alert on future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wastewater/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Chile/epidemiology , Viral Load , Genomics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
11.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 470-785, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399132

ABSTRACT

: O estado do Pará, de 2009 a 2019, apresentou um aumento de 46,5% na taxa de detecção de aids. O que destaca a importância de estudos para a avaliação e acompanhamento deste público. Objetivo: Analisar as infecções que acometem os usuários de um centro de referência no momento de seu diagnóstico para a infecção pelo HIV. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, realizado em um centro de referência da cidade de Santarém, Pará. A amostra foi de 332 prontuários de pacientes diagnosticados para o HIV nos anos de 2016 e 2017. A coleta de dados buscou informações sociodemográficas, clínicas e imunológicas dos pacientes no momento do diagnóstico para a infecção pelo HIV. Os dados foram organizados e analisados por estatística descritiva e inferencial, adotando- se p<0,05. Resultados: Observou-se prevalência do sexo masculino (67%), faixa etária de 15-24 anos (32,2%), solteiros (59%), com vínculo empregatício (64,5%), contagem de linfócitos T CD4+ ≥200 céls/mm3 (54,8%) e carga viral detectável (75,3%). A Candidíase (25%) e a Tuberculose (25%) predominaram como infecções oportunistas (IO), e a Sífilis (67,5%) como outras infecções. Conclusão: Conforme método proposto e os dados já informados, conclui-se que o diagnóstico para a Sífilis se associou ao sexo masculino, bem como a situação de contagem de linfócitos T CD4+ <200 céls/mm3 se associou com a presença de alguma infecção oportunista, da instalação da Candidíase e da Tuberculose.


Introduction: The state of Pará, from 2009 to 2019, showed a 46.5% increase in the AIDS detection rate. What stands out the importance of studies for the evaluation and monitoring of this public. Objective: Analyze the infections that affect the users of a reference center at the moment of diagnosis for HIV infection. Methods: Descriptive study, carried out in a reference center in the city of Santarém, Pará. The sample consisted of 332 records of patients diagnosed with HIV in the years 2016 and 2017. The data collection sought sociodemographic, clinical and immunological information of the patients at the moment diagnosis for HIV infection. The data were organized and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, adopting p <0.05. Results: There was a prevalence of males (67%), aged 15-24 years (32.2%), single (59%), with employment (64.5%), CD4 + T lymphocyte count ≥200 cells/mm3 (54.8%) and detectable viral load (75.3%). Candidiasis (25%) and Tuberculosis (25%) predominated as opportunistic infections (IO), and Syphilis (67.5%) as other infections. Conclusion: According to the proposed method and the data already reported, it is concluded that the diagnosis for Syphilis was associated with the male gender, as well as the situation of CD4 + T lymphocyte count <200 cells/mm3 was associated with the presence of some opportunistic infection, of the installation of Candidiasis and Tuberculosis.


Introducción: El estado de Pará, de 2009 a 2019, presentó un aumento del 46,5% en la tasa de detección del SIDA. Lo que pone de manifiesto la importancia de los estudios para la evaluación y el seguimiento de este público. Objetivo: Analizar las infecciones que sufren los usuarios de un centro de referencia en el momento de su diagnóstico de infección por VIH. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, realizado em um centro de referência da cidade de Santarém, Pará. La muestra fue de 332 historias clínicas de pacientes diagnosticados de VIH en los años 2016 y 2017. La recogida de datos buscaba información sociodemográfica, clínica e inmunológica de los pacientes en el momento del diagnóstico de la infección por VIH. Los datos se organizaron y analizaron mediante estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales, adoptando p<0,05. Resultados: Se observó la prevalencia del sexo masculino (67%), el grupo de edad de 15 a 24 años (32,2%), la soltería (59%), el empleo (64,5%), el recuento de linfocitos T CD4+ ≥200 células/mm3 (54,8%) y la carga viral detectable (75,3%). La candidiasis (25%) y la tuberculosis (25%) predominaron como infecciones oportunistas (IO), y la sífilis (67,5%) como otras infecciones. Conclusión: De acuerdo con el método propuesto y los datos ya informados, se concluye que el diagnóstico de Sífilis se asocia al sexo masculino, así como la situación de contagio de linfocitos T CD4+ <200 células/mm3 se asocia a la presencia de alguna infección oportunista, a la instauración de la Candidiasis y a la Tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Profile , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/diagnosis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Tuberculosis , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Candidiasis/complications , T-Lymphocytes , Syphilis , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Viral Load/statistics & numerical data , Sociodemographic Factors
12.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(3): 352-356, jul.-sep. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1410012

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El sarcoma de Kaposi (SK) es el cáncer más frecuente en las personas que viven con VIH. Las investigaciones sobre esta condición son escasas en la región, por lo que, el objetivo de este artículo fue describir las características demográficas, clínicas y terapéuticas de los pacientes con VIH que desarrollaron SK en el Hospital Cayetano Heredia entre el 2000 y 2018. Se identificaron 129 casos de SK, con una mediana de edad de 33 años, con predominio en varones con el 92% (119/129), y en su mayoría hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH). La mediana de tiempo desde el diagnóstico de VIH hasta el del SK fue de cinco meses, asociado con un recuento de linfocitos CD4 de 64 células/µL (RIC: 33-185) al momento del diagnóstico de SK. El compromiso cutáneo fue el más común; sin embargo, al menos la mitad de ellos también tuvo la forma visceral.


ABSTRACT Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent cancer in people living with HIV. Research on this condition is scarce in the region, therefore, this article aimed to describe the demographic, clinical and therapeutic characteristics of patients with HIV who developed KS at the Cayetano Heredia Hospital between 2000 and 2018. A total of 129 KS cases were identified, with a median age of 33 years, predominantly males with 92% (119/129), and mostly men who have sex with men (MSM). The median time from HIV diagnosis to KS diagnosis was five months, associated with a CD4 lymphocyte count of 64 cells/μL (IQR: 33-185) at KS diagnosis. Cutaneous involvement was the most common presentation; however, at least half also had the visceral form.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Sarcoma, Kaposi/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/virology , Cohort Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/virology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Age and Sex Distribution
13.
Int. j interdiscip. dent. (Print) ; 15(2): 143-147, ago. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448444

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El propósito del presente es sistematizar y analizar artículos científicos, acerca de la efectividad de ciertos enjuagues bucales para reducir la carga viral contra SARS-COV-2. Metodología: Las búsquedas se realizaron en las bases de datos científicas como PubMed y SciELO, entre otros, utilizando algoritmos de búsqueda, términos MeSH y booleanos. También se aplicaron criterios de inclusión/exclusión, seleccionando artículos provenientes de estudios primarios, publicados entre los meses de enero a septiembre de 2020, en idiomas inglés y español. Se utilizó un diseño metodológico mixto mediante el uso de los criterios de calidad PRISMA y de la Teoría Fundamentada (codificación abierta y central). Resultados: Se encontraron 144 artículos que coincidían con los algoritmos de búsqueda y criterios de calidad, de los cuales sólo ocho fueron analizados en la etapa de elegibilidad. Conclusiones: Se pudo determinar que los enjuagues más frecuentemente investigados en el último tiempo, para la desinfección oral inicial preoperatoria y/o de uso rutinario como enjuague oral contra SARS-COV-2 fueron la povidona yodada 0.2%; clorhexidina 0.12% y 0.2%, aceites esenciales con etanol al 21.6% y peróxido de hidrógeno 1.5% y 3.0%. La clorhexidina 0.2% temperada a 47°C demostró mayor efectividad que clorhexidina 0.12% a temperatura normal y que povidona yodada.


Introduction: The purpose of this research was systematize and analyze scientific articles, about the effectiveness of certain mouthwashes to reduce the viral load against SARS-COV-2. Methodology: The searches were performed in the PubMed and SciElo scientific databases, among others, using search algorithms, MeSH and Boolean terms. Certain criteria of inclusion/exclusion were also applied, selecting articles from primary studies, published between the months of January and September of 2020, in both English and Spanish. A mixed methodological design was used through the employment of quality criteria such as PRISMA and the Grounded Theory (open and central coding). Software based on texts and numbers were used for the data analysis plan. Results: 144 articles matching the search algorithms and quality criteria were found, of which only eight were analyzed in the eligibility stage. Conclusions: It was determined that the most frequently investigated mouthwashes in recent times, for preoperative initial oral disinfection and/or for a daily basis use as an oral rinse were the povidone iodine 0.2%; chlorhexidine 0.12% and 0.2%; essential oils with ethanol 21.6% and hydrogen peroxide 1.5% and 3.0%. The chlorhexidine 0.2% tempered at 47°C proved to be more effective than the chlorhexidine 0.12% at normal temperature and the povidone iodine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Viral Load , Dentistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Mouthwashes
14.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(2): 187-192, maio-ago. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372977

ABSTRACT

O vírus da imunodeficiência humana é o agente etiológico da AIDS, doença crônica que destrói o sistema imunológico e é caracterizada pela baixa contagem de células TCD4, alta contagem de partículas virais no sangue e manifestações clínicas da doença. O diagnóstico se dá com o aparecimento de infecções oportunistas, que levam a contagem de TCD4 a níveis menores que 200 céls/mm³. Os exames laboratoriais para o diagnóstico do HIV foram os principais avanços para o início do tratamento, reduzindo a transmissão. Detecção de anticorpos, detecção de antígenos e amplificação do genoma do vírus são alguns dos exames laboratoriais utilizados para diagnóstico. Os dois principais biomarcadores são os exames de contagem de células TCD4, que verifica o sistema imune, e a quantificação de carga viral, que informa a quantidade de partículas virais, mostrando a progressão da infecção. Quanto maior a carga viral, maior o dano ao sistema imune. Uma carga viral indetectável é inferior a 50 cópias/mL, mas valores menores ou iguais a 200 cópias/mL também impedem a transmissão. Uma declaração de consenso afirma que Indetectável é igual a Intransmissível. Portanto, quando indetectável, a transmissão inexiste. O presente estudo relata e discute o caso clínico de uma paciente diagnosticada com HIV/AIDS aos 28 anos, que sobreviveu, apesar do diagnóstico tardio, e sob presença de doença oportunista com um grave grau de diminuição de células TCD4 (22 cél/mm³). Por meio do diagnóstico, introdução e adesão correta da terapia antirretroviral e monitorização de exames laboratoriais, conseguiu evitar a morte e ter uma vida semelhante à de um HIV negativo. Ultrapassou a expectativa de vida que na descoberta era de 10 anos, com uma qualidade de vida considerável, não sendo transmissora do vírus, diminuindo assim o estigma e preconceito. O biomédico é peça fundamental nesse contexto, considerando que deve fornecer informações precisas e fidedignas, tão necessárias ao acompanhamento de pessoas vivendo com HIV, para que autoridades e profissionais de saúde adotem medidas adequadas, tanto na prevenção, quanto no diagnóstico e monitoramento da doença.


The human immunodeficiency virus is the etiological agent of AIDS, a chronic disease that destroys the immune system and is characterized by low TCD4 cell count, high viral particle count in blood and clinical manifestations of the disease. The diagnosis is due to the appearance of opportunistic infections, which lead to TCD4 counts below 200 cells / mm³. Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of HIV were the main advances in starting treatment, reducing transmission. Antibody detection, antigen detection and virus genome amplification are some of the laboratory tests used for diagnosis. The two main biomarkers are the TCD4 cell count tests, which checks the immune system, and viral load quantification, which reports the number of viral particles, showing the progression of infection. The higher the viral load, the greater the damage to the immune system. An undetectable viral load is less than 50 copies / mL, but values less than or equal to 200 copies / mL also prevent transmission. A consensus statement states that Undetectable equals Non-Transmissible. Therefore, when undetectable, transmission does not exist. The present study reports and discusses the clinical case of a patient diagnosed with HIV / AIDS at age 28, who survived despite late diagnosis and under the presence of opportunistic disease with a severe degree of TCD4 cell reduction (22 cells / mm³). Through the diagnosis, introduction and correct adherence of antiretroviral therapy and monitoring of laboratory tests, she was able to avoid death and have a life similar to that of an HIV negative. Exceeded the life expectancy that in the discovery was 10 years, with a considerable quality of life, not transmitting the virus, thus reducing the stigma and prejudice. The biomedical is a key player in this context, considering that he must provide accurate and reliable information, which is so necessary for the monitoring of people living with HIV, so that authorities and health professionals adopt appropriate measures, both in prevention, diagnosis and monitoring of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV , Toxoplasmosis/virology , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/virology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Viral Load , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Fever/virology , Headache/virology , Anemia/virology , Meningitis/virology
15.
Rev. cient. Esc. Univ. Cienc. Salud ; 9(1): 16-27, ene.- jun. 2022. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1551960

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Las infecciones oportunistas son la principal causa de morbilidad, discapaci- dad y mortalidad en pacientes con VIH, aumentando el número de hospitalizaciones y costos en la atención. Objetivo: Estimar la proporción de infecciones oportunistas e identificar los factores asociados a su aparición en pacientes con VIH atendidos en el Servicio de Atención Integral del Hospital Nacional Dr. Mario Catarino Rivas, San Pedro Sula, 2019-2020. Métodos: Estudio no experimental, analítico de casos (infección oportunista presente) y controles. Se evaluaron 40 casos y 120 controles, con un nivel de confianza de 95%, poder estadístico de 80%, con muestreo tipo aleatorio simple. Se utilizó la distribución de variables entre casos y controles para la obtención de Odds Ratio. Resultados: Las infecciones oportunistas incluyeron: 52.5% (21) tuberculosis, 15.0% (6) histoplasmosis, 12.5% (5) citomegalovirus, 10.0% (4) toxoplasmosis, 10.0% (4) candidiasis, 7.5% (3) criptococosis. El conteo de linfocitos T CD4 fue <200 cel/mm3 en 60.0% (24) de grupo casos y 10.8% (13) de grupo control. La carga viral ˃1000 copias/ml (OR 14.500 IC95% 6.109-34.415), el antecedente de abandono (OR 4.363 IC95% 1.928-9.872) y el no tomar tratamiento antirretroviral (OR 64.076 IC95% 8.063-509.165) se asociaron a infecciones oportunistas. La carga viral mayor de 1000 copias/mL predominó en el grupo de casos, y se encontró asociación de esta con la presencia de infecciones oportunistas con OR 14.500 (IC 95% 6.109-34.415, p=.0001). Conclusión: El no tomar ARV aumenta 64 veces más el riesgo de desarrollar infecciones oportunistas y el haber abandonado el tratamiento antirretroviral aumenta 4 veces más la probabilidad de desarrollar una infección oportunista. El tratamiento antirretroviral de gran actividad y el apego al mismo es la mejor estrategia para prevenir las infecciones oportunistas en pacientes infectados por el VIH...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Viral Load , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage
16.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e56764, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367790

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate possible factors related to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that contribute to the understanding of the highest rate of Aids detection on the coast of the state of Paraná, a port region identified administratively as the 1stRegional Health Division (1stHD) in the state of Paraná. Data on the sociodemographic profile of the population undergoing antiretroviral treatment (ART), medication changes, dropout of therapy, proportion of the population undergoing treatment and viral load were obtained through computerized systems. Between July 1, 2018 and June 31, 2019, 1,393 people were on ART in the 1stRS. Of these, 57.6% were male. During this period, 110 people started ART with a predominance of the age group between 30 and 39 years old. ART was switched for169 people and 211 patient dropouts were detected. The proportion of people diagnosed with HIV without treatment (gap) is still high, however 92.7% people on ART have suppressed viral load. It can be concluded that the lower educational level of the population undergoing treatment, the late diagnosis of those infected and the treatment gapprobably contribute to the highest rate of Aids detection in the 1stRS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Pharmacoepidemiology/methods , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Sociodemographic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Health Strategies , Viral Load
17.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 692-695, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935445

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the dynamic changes and influencing factors of HIV-1 DNA load in HIV-1 infected individuals under antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefecture, Yunnan province, and provide information support for the clinical use of HIV-1 DNA quantitative detection. Methods: The HIV infection cases in recent infection cohort from Dehong Center for Disease Control and Prevention during 2009-2018 were selected as study subjects. The dynamic curve of HIV-1 DNA load varrying with time was generated and logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the risk factors for HIV-1 load in the recent follow up after ART and statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 17.0. Results: Among the 113 HIV infection cases detected from the recent infection cohort, the recent HIV infection rate were 49.6%(56/113) males, sexual transmission cases and drug injection transmission cases accounted for 53.1% (60/113), 80.5% (91/113) and 19.5% (22/113), respectively. The dynamic changes curve showed that HIV-1 DNA load was relatively high (>800 copies /106 PBMCs) before ART, and droped rapidly (<400 copies /106 PBMCs) after ART for 1 year. However, HIV-1 DNA load decreased insignificantly from the second year of ART, and remained to be 269 copies/106 PBMCs after ART for 6 years. Univariable logistic regression analysis indicated that OR (95%CI) of CD8, CD4/CD8 and HIV-1 DNA load were 1.00 (1.00-1.00), 0.30 (0.09-1.05) and 1.01 (1.00-1.01), respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that OR value of HIV-1 DNA load base was 1.00 (1.00-1.01). Conclusions: HIV-1 DNA load decreased significantly in the first year of ART, then remained stable for years. HIV-1 DNA load base was the key factor associated with the decrease of HIV-1 DNA load, the lower the HIV-1 DNA load base, the lower HIV-1 DNA load. Therefore, earlier ART can contribute to the decrease of HIV-1 DNA load.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , China/epidemiology , DNA/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1/genetics , Viral Load
19.
BioSC. (Curitiba, Impresso) ; 80(Supl.1): 2-4, 20220000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417613

ABSTRACT

Em razão da implantação da cascata de cuidado contínuo do HIV/AIDS, o estado do Paraná apresentou um declínio do número de casos de AIDS a partir do ano de 2012. Entretanto, na 1ª Regional de Paranaguá concentram-se as maiores taxas de incidência de casos de HIV no ano de 2014, além de possuir também o maior coeficiente de mortalidade por AIDS. Objetivos: Investigar a evolução de alguns parâmetros da cascata de cuidado das pessoas com HIV no município de Paranaguá, no Paraná. Método: Estudo observacional, descritivo, retrospectivo e de caráter quantitativo, realizado com dados secundários sobre indicadores clínicos de HIV/AIDS fornecidos pela Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde do Ministério da Saúde, no período de 2015 a 2021. Resultados: Obteve-se uma redução progressiva da detecção de AIDS no município de Paranaguá. Entretanto, ainda com as maiores taxas de detecção do estado, além de uma proporção de pessoas com carga viral suprimida abaixo dos 90% propostos como meta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Conclusão: Reforça-se a necessidade de persistir e intensificar as ações voltadas ao diagnóstico, vinculação e tratamento correto das pessoas com HIV nos serviços de saúde de Paranaguá


Due to the implementation of the HIV/AIDS continuous care cascade, the state of Paraná showed a decline in the number of AIDS cases from the year 2012. However, the 1st Regional of Paranaguá concentrates the highest rates of infection cases in 2014, in addition to having the highest AIDS mortality rate. Objective: To investigate the evolution of some parameters of the cascade of care for people with HIV in the municipality of Paranaguá, Paraná.Methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective and quantitative study, carried out with secondary data on clinical indicators of HIV/AIDS provided by the Health Surveillance Department of the Ministry of Health, from 2015 to 2021. Results: There was a progressive reduction in the detection of AIDS in the city of Paranaguá. However, still with the highest detection rates in the state, in addition to a proportion of people with suppressed viral load below the 90% proposed as a goal by the World Health Organization. Conclusion: The need to persist and intensify actions aimed at diagnosis, linking and correct treatment of people with HIV in the health services of Paranaguá is reinforced


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Viral Load , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
20.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1-10, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377225

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Recognize incident infection to better characterize the groups that fuel HIV epidemic. We propose a simple score to identify recent infections among newly diagnosed patients as a HIV surveillance tool. METHODS Newly diagnosed patients were defined as recent infections when a negative serological test in the previous year was available. Laboratory tests, such as the avidity index (Bio-Rad, according to the CEPHIA protocol), chemiluminescent intensity (CMIA, architect, Abbott), and the nucleotide ambiguity index of partial pol sequences were used as proxies of recency. A simple score based on clinical symptoms of acute retroviral syndrome during the previous year, CD4+ T cell count, and viral load at admission was tested to assess the predictive power, using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, to identify recent cases of infection. RESULTS We evaluated 204 recently diagnosed patients who were admitted to the Ambulatório de Referência em Moléstias Infecciosas de Santo André (Santo André Reference Infectious Diseases Outpatient Clinic), in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, recruited between 2011 and 2018. An HIV-negative test in the year prior to enrollment was documented in 37% of participants. The proportion of cases classified as recent infections (less than one year), according to the laboratory proxies were: 37% (67/181) for an avidity index < 40%, 22% (30/137) for a CMIA < 200, and 68% (124/181) for an ambiguity index < 0.5%. Using different combinations of recency definitions, our score showed an area under the ROC curve from 0.66 to 0.87 to predict recency. CONCLUSIONS Using data from patients' interviews and routine laboratory tests at admission, a simple score may provide information on HIV recency and thus, a proxy for HIV incidence to guide public policies. This simple for the Brazilian public health system and other low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load
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