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1.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 15(3): 90-104, 20210830.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337969

ABSTRACT

Hasta diciembre del 2019, seis tipos de coronavirus ya estaban identificados como generadores de enfermedad en humanos, destacándose dos brotes epidemiológicos anteriores: SARS-CoV en 2002 y MERS-CoV en 2012. El nuevo agente infeccioso que causó la pandemia de 2019 se denominó SARS-CoV-2, el que se manifiesta como un síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (CO-VID-19). Al respecto, el 30 de enero del 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) decretó la emergencia sanitaria. El propósito de esta revisión fue analizar el contexto epidemio-lógico alrededor del SARS-CoV-2, mediante una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos científicas como: PubMed Central, LILACS y Google académico. Se concluyó que el SARS-CoV-2 es altamente transmisible, con una tasa de letalidad en Ecuador del 8,59%.


Six types of coronaviruses were already identified as generators of disease in humans as of 2019, with two previous epidemiological outbreaks standing out: SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012. The new infectious agent that caused the 2019 pandemic was called SARS -CoV-2, which manifests as a severe acute respiratory syndrome (COVID-19). In this regard, on January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization decreed the health emergency. The purpose of this review was to analyze the epidemiological context around SARS-CoV-2 through a bibliographic review in scientific databases such as: PubMed Central, LILACS and Google Scholar. It was concluded that SARS-CoV-2 is highly transmissible, with a fatality rate in Ecuador of 8.59%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Virology , Epidemiology , COVID-19 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 495-500, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134526

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El virus SARS-CoV-2 ingresa al organismo de un individuo susceptible a través de la cavidad oral, nasal o de la mucosa conjuntival; busca ensamblarse por medio de su glicoproteína de superficie o espiga con los receptores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina 2 que en boca los encontramos con mayor expresión en las células escamosas que recubren el epitelio lingual y las glándulas salivales, una vez que ingresa por medio de la activación de proteasas ingresa a la célula huésped para denudar su RNA viral, a diferencia de otros virus no necesita ir hasta el núcleo de tal forma que en el citoplasma inicia su replicación y utiliza los ribosomas del huésped para formar una gran cantidad de proteínas virales tanto estructurales como accesorias que le permita formar nuevos viriones potencialmente infecciosos; los estomatólogos deben tomar en cuenta esta vía de infección y extremar las medidas para disminuir su carga viral local en la cavidad oral y las barreras físicas de protección para el operador, el paciente y la ergonomía del consultorio.


ABSTRACT: SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the body of a susceptible individual through oral, nasal or conjunctival mucosa, seeking to bind to the spike glycoprotein surface through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors. These are found in the mouth with a higher expression in oral squamous cells that cover the lingual epithelium and salivary glands. Once proteolytic activation begins, it enters the host cell to denudate its viral RNA. In contrast with other viruses, it does not require nucleus access, and therefore replicates in the cytoplasm using the host's ribosomes to produce great amounts of both structural and accessory viral proteins. Since this generates new and potentially infectious virions, dentists must consider this route of infection and take extreme measures to decrease their viral load in the oral cavity. Physical protection barriers for the operator, the patient and the health and safety of the work place are critical in these cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Salivary Glands/virology , Virology/methods , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Mouth
3.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 187-210, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134096

ABSTRACT

Abstract Within the framework of recent historiography about the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in modernizing public health and the multifaceted concept of global health, this study addresses the impact of the WHO's "country programs" in Spain from the time it was admitted to this organization in 1951 to 1975. This research adopts a transnational historical perspective and emphasizes attention to the circulation of health knowledge, practices, and people, and focuses on the Spain-0001 and Spain-0025programs, their role in the development of virology in Spain, and the transformation of public health. Sources include historical archives (WHO, the Spanish National Health School), various WHO publications, the contemporary medical press, and a selection of the Spanish general press.


Resumen En el marco de la reciente historiografía sobre el papel de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en la modernización de la salud pública y el concepto multifacético de salud global, se estudia el papel de los llamados "programas país" de la OMS en España desde su admisión en 1951 hasta 1975. Adoptando perspectiva histórica transnacional y enfatizando el estudio de la circulación de personas, conocimientos y prácticas científico-sanitarias, nuestro análisis se centra en los programas España-0001 y España-0025, en evaluar su papel en el desarrollo de la virología en España y en la transformación de la salud pública. Nuestras fuentes vienen de archivos históricos (OMS, Escuela Nacional de Sanidad), publicaciones de la OMS, revistas médicas contemporáneas, y una selección de prensa general española.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spain , Virology , World Health Organization/history , Biomedical Research , Public Health Practice/history
4.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827018

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 571-592, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827010

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as named by the World Health Organization has millions of confirmed cases around the world and has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. The virus was named SARS-CoV-2 in February by International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. COVID-19 presents as fever, dry cough, dyspnea, headache and pneumonia. In a small subset of severe cases, the disease quickly progresses to respiratory failure and even death. Since the 21st century, there have been three major outbreaks caused by human coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that broke out in 2003, the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012, and the recent pandemic of COVID-19. Since 2003, significant progress has been made in the study of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV concerning their natural origins, pathogenesis, antiviral development and vaccine design. Since SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV are closely related, previous findings on SARS-CoV are highly relevant to a better understanding as well as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we highlight recent progresses in the field; compare the biological characteristics of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2; summarize the urgently-needed diagnostic, treatment, prevention and control options; and provide future perspectives for the outcome of the outbreak and research questions to be answered, including some of the difficulties in vaccine development. Hopefully, our comments and suggestions would prove useful for the control of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in China and the world.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Allergy and Immunology , Virulence , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Allergy and Immunology , Virulence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Virology , SARS Virus , Allergy and Immunology , Virulence , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Virology , Viral Vaccines
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 593-604, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827009

ABSTRACT

An epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans, which appeared in Wuhan, China in December 2019, was caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). This disease was named as "Coronavirus Disease 2019" (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 was first identified as an etiological pathogen of COVID-19, belonging to the species of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV). The speed of both the geographical transmission and the sudden increase in numbers of cases is much faster than SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). COVID-19 is the first global pandemic caused by a coronavirus, which outbreaks in 211 countries/territories/areas. The vaccine against COVID-19, regarded as an effective prophylactic strategy for control and prevention, is being developed in about 90 institutions worldwide. The experiences and lessons encountered in the previous SARS and MERS vaccine research can be used for reference in the development of COVID-19 vaccine. The present paper hopes to provide some insights for COVID-19 vaccines researchers.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Allergy and Immunology , Biomedical Research , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Humans , Internationality , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Allergy and Immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , SARS Virus , Allergy and Immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Viral Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 605-611, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827008

ABSTRACT

Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a widely distributed and highly conserved protein in organisms. It has peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity and is a receptor for cyclosporin A (CsA). Coronaviruses are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses. Seven types of coronaviruses are currently known to infect humans, among which SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 are fatal for humans. It is well established that CypA is essential for the replication of various coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV, CoV-229E, CoV-NL63, and FCoV. Additionally, CsA and its derivatives (ALV, NIM811, etc.) have obvious inhibitory effects on a variety of coronaviruses. These results suggest that CypA is a potential antiviral target and the existing drug CsA might be used as an anti-coronavirus drug. At the end of 2019, SARS-CoV-2 raged in China, which seriously theatern human health and causes huge economic lases. In view of this, we describe the effects of CypA on the replication of coronaviruses and the antiviral activities of its inhibitors, which will provide the scientific basis and ideas for the development of antiviral drugs for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Virology , Cyclophilin A , Cyclosporine , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Virology , SARS Virus , Virus Replication
8.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 247-254, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#With the rapid spread of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) worldwide and the escalation of prevention and control efforts, the routine medical needs of patients have been restricted. The aims were to investigate medical needs of lung cancer patients and their mental health status during the epidemic periods, so as to provide rational recommendations for subsequent diagnosis and treatment.@*METHODS@#The questionnaire was sent in the form of an electronic questionnaire at 7am on 4th, March, 2020, until 7am 6th, March, 2020, 368 questionnaires were recollected from 25 provinces (autonomous regions/municipalities) in 48 h.@*RESULTS@#Of the 368 patients, 18 patients were excluded as they didn't receive anti-tumor treatment, and 350 patients were included in the final analysis. 229 cases were treated with oral targeted drugs, and 121 cases were treated with chemotherapy or immunotherapy. 41.3% of patients treated with intravenous chemotherapy or immunotherapy experienced treatment discontinuation, and the proportion of treatment discontinuation in chemotherapy or immunotherapy was higher than those treated with oral targeted drugs (21.0%). Whether oral targeted drugs or intravenous chemotherapy or immunotherapy, more than 60% of patients experienced delays in imaging examinations. Nearly one third of patients developed new symptoms or exacerbation of existing symptoms. 26.6%-28.9% of patients have changed their treatment plans through online consultation. During novel coronavirus pneumonia, 40%-75% of lung cancer patients have mental health problems, and more than 95% of patients support government's prevention and control measures.@*CONCLUSIONS@#During the emergence of NCP, the medical needs of patients with lung cancer have not been enough, especially those who discontinued chemotherapy or immunotherapy. When medical institution resumes work, priority should be given to them. At the same time, mental health problems of patients should be valued and resolved timely.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , China , Epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemiology , Virology , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia , Epidemiology , Virology , Pneumonia, Viral , Epidemiology , Virology , Retrospective Studies
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 732-739, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826903

ABSTRACT

We optimized a fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay system for rapid and real time detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The results show that the lowest dilution of RNA samples used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA could reach 1/10 000 (the initial value is set as 10 ng/μL). Moreover, the cycle threshold (Ct) for samples of clinically diagnosed COVID-19 was lower than 35 or 40. The sensitivity of this method was satisfactory. The results were consistent with those of the COVID-19 detection kit on the market under the same conditions, but the number of cycles required was shortened by about 2. Therefore, the optimized assay developed in this study can be used in screening and early clinical diagnosis. Our work provides a tool to facilitate rapid clinical diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Genetics , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Virology , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods , Reference Standards , RNA, Viral , Genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 879-890, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826888

ABSTRACT

Human parvovirus B19 (B19 virus) is one of the two parvoviruses that cause human diseases. As an important pathogen to humans, it causes infectious erythema in children, acute aplastic anemia, fetal edema and death. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the molecular virology of B19V, such as viral genotypes, viral receptor, genomic features and viral replication, viral transcription and post-transcription regulation, viral nonstructural and structural protein features and functions, viral diagnosis and antiviral agents, to provide reference for further study of B19 pathogenesis mechanisms, treatment and diagnostic strategies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , DNA, Viral , Genetics , Erythema Infectiosum , Diagnosis , Virology , Genotype , Humans , Parvovirus B19, Human , Genetics , Virology , Virus Replication
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 949-958, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826881

ABSTRACT

Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), one of the major viral diseases of Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit., has had a serious impact on its yield and quality. The construction of viral infectious clones is a powerful tool for reverse genetics research on viral gene function and interaction between virus and host. To clarify the molecular mechanism of SMV infection in Pinellia ternata, it is particularly important to construct the SMV full-length cDNA infectious clone. Therefore, the infectious clone of Soybean mosaic virus Shanxi Pinellia ternata isolate (SMV-SXBX) was constructed in this study by Gibson in vitro recombination system, and the healthy Pinellia ternata leaves were inoculated by Agrobacterium infiltration, further through mechanical passage and RT-PCR, confirming that the 3' end of the SMV-SXBX infectious clone had a stable infectivity when it contained 56-nt of poly(A) tail. This method is not only convenient and efficient, but also avoids the instability of SMV infectious clones in Escherichia coli. The construction of SMV full-length infectious cDNA clones laid the foundation for further study on the molecular mechanism of SMV replication and pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
DNA, Complementary , Pinellia , Virology , Plant Diseases , Virology , Potyvirus , Metabolism
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1113-1125, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826866

ABSTRACT

ORF3 protein, the single accessory protein encoded by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), is related to viral pathogenicity. In order to determine the cytoplasmic location signal of PEDV ORF3, we constructed a series of recombinant plasmids carrying full-length or truncated segments of PEDV DR13 ORF3 protein. When the acquired plasmids were transfected into Vero cells, expression and distribution of the EGFP-fused full-length ORF3 protein and its truncated forms in the cells were observed by laser confocal microscopy. The results showed that ORF3 protein or their truncated forms containing 40-91 aa segment including two transmembrane domains were localized in the cytoplasm, whereas ORF3 truncated peptides without the 40-91 aa segment were distributed in the whole cell (in both cytoplasm and nucleus). This suggests that the 40-91 aa is the key structural domain determining cytoplasmic location of PEDV ORF3 protein. The discovery provides reference for further clarifying intracellular transport and biological function of PEDV ORF3 protein.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections , Virology , Cytoplasm , Virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Genetics , Protein Domains , Swine , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins , Chemistry , Metabolism
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1269-1276, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826850

ABSTRACT

Human adenoviruses are widespread causative agent that induces respiratory diseases, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and other related diseases. Adenoviruses are commonly used in experimental and clinical areas. It is one of the most commonly used virus vectors in gene therapy, and it has attracted a lot of attention and has a high research potential in tumor gene therapy and virus oncolytic. Here, we summarize the biological characteristics, epidemiology and current application of adenovirus, in order to provide reference for engineering application of adenovirus.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , Epidemiology , Virology , Adenoviruses, Human , Genetics , Genetic Engineering , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Oncolytic Virotherapy , Oncolytic Viruses , Genetics , Virus Replication
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1305-1313, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826846

ABSTRACT

To improve the specific recognition and presentation of virus-like particle (VLPs), and to develop immune-targeted VLPs vaccine, the gene fragment encoding OVA₂₅₇₋₂₆₄ peptide was inserted into the VP3 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) between the 171th and 172th amino acids (aa) or 173th and 174th aa by reverse PCR. The recombinant proteins were expressed by using Escherichia coli and assembled into chimeric VLP (VLP(OVA)) in vitro after purification. The VLP(OVA) was measured by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The recombinant protein and the assembled VLPs were evaluated by Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and laser scanning confocal microscopy to confirm the insertion of OVA₂₅₇₋₂₆₄ peptide into VP3 and its location. The results show that insertion of OVA₂₅₇₋₂₆₄ into the 173th and 174th aa of FMDV VP3 did not affect the assembly of VLPs. The VLP(OVA) in size was larger than VLPs, and the OVA₂₅₇₋₂₆₄ peptide was located on the surface of VLP(OVA).


Subject(s)
Animals , Escherichia coli , Genetics , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Virology , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Genetics , Recombinant Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study summarizes and compares clinical and laboratory characteristics of 34 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for complications from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China from Jan. 22 to Mar. 5, 2020.@*METHODS@#A total of 34 patients were divided into two groups, including those who required noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) with additional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in 11 patients. Clinical features of COVID-19 patients were described and the parameters of clinical characteristics between the two groups were compared.@*RESULTS@#The rates of the acute cardiac and kidney complications were higher in IMV cases than those in NIV cases. Most patients had lymphocytopenia on admission, with lymphocyte levels dropping progressively on the following days, and the more severe lymphopenia developed in the IMV group. In both groups, T lymphocyte counts were below typical lower limit norms compared to B lymphocytes. On admission, both groups had higher than expected amounts of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), which over time declined more in NIV patients. The prothrombin time was increased and the levels of platelet, hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and IL-6 were higher in IMV cases compared with NIV cases during hospitalization.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Data showed that the rates of complications, dynamics of lymphocytopenia, and changes in levels of platelet, hemoglobin, BUN, D-dimer, LDH and IL-6, and prothrombin time in these ICU patients were significantly different between IMV and NIV cases.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Blood Urea Nitrogen , China , Coronavirus Infections , Therapeutics , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Heart Diseases , Virology , Hemoglobins , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6 , Blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Blood , Lymphopenia , Virology , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Therapeutics , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Prothrombin Time , Retrospective Studies
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826624

ABSTRACT

The recently emerged novel coronavirus pneumonia, named the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), shares several clinical characteristics with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and spread rapidly throughout China in December of 2019 (Huang et al., 2020). The pathogen 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is now named SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is highly infectious. As of Apr. 9, 2020, over 80 000 confirmed cases had been reported, with an estimated mortality rate of 4.0% (Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). Person-to-person transmission and familial clustering have been reported (Chan et al., 2020; Nishiura et al., 2020; Phan et al., 2020). However, there is no evidence of fetal intrauterine infection in pregnant women who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 in their third trimester (Chen et al., 2020). It is unclear whether breastfeeding transmits the virus from previously infected and recovered mothers to their babies. Here we report the clinical course of a pregnant woman with COVID-19. In order to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted to newborns through breastfeeding, we measured viral RNA in the patient's breastmilk samples at different time points after delivery.


Subject(s)
Adult , Betacoronavirus , Breast Feeding , China , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Milk, Human , Virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Virology , RNA, Viral
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826623

ABSTRACT

As of Apr. 22, 2020, the World Health Organization (2020) has reported over 2.4 million confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 169 151 deaths. Recent articles have uncovered genomic characteristics and clinical features of COVID-19 (Chan et al., 2020; Chang et al., 2020; Guan et al., 2020; Zhu et al., 2020), while our understanding of COVID-19 is still limited. As suggested by guidelines promoted by the General Office of National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China (2020) (from Versions 1 to 6), discharged standards for COVID-19 were still dependent on viral real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests of respiratory specimens, showing that recovered COVID-19 patients with twice negative RT-PCR could meet discharge criteria. Here, we examined two cases in which nucleic acid test results were inconsistent with clinical and radiological findings, leading to suboptimal care.


Subject(s)
Adult , Betacoronavirus , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sputum , Virology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826622

ABSTRACT

We present an unusual case of a patient with bilateral-lung transplantation due to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who subsequently suffered complications with acute myocardial infarction and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).


Subject(s)
Aged , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Lung Diseases , General Surgery , Virology , Lung Transplantation , Male , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Pneumonia, Viral , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , General Surgery , Virology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826621

ABSTRACT

Severe cases infected with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), named by the World Health Organization (WHO) on Feb. 11, 2020, tend to present a hypercatabolic state because of severe systemic consumption, and are susceptible to stress ulcers and even life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment constitute an irreplaceable part in the handling of severe COVID-19 cases. Endoscopes, as reusable precision instruments with complicated structures, require more techniques than other medical devices in cleaning, disinfection, sterilization, and other reprocessing procedures. From 2016 to 2019, health care-acquired infection caused by improper endoscope reprocessing has always been among the top 5 on the list of top 10 health technology hazards issued by the Emergency Care Research Institute. Considering the highly infective nature of COVID-19 and the potential aerosol contamination therefrom, it is of pivotal significance to ensure that endoscopes are strictly reprocessed between uses. In accordance with the national standard "Regulation for Cleaning and Disinfection Technique of Flexible Endoscope (WS507-2016)," we improved the workflow of endoscope reprocessing including the selection of chemicals in an effort to ensure quality control throughout the clinical management towards COVID-19 patients. Based on the experience we attained from the 12 severe COVID-19 cases in our hospital who underwent endoscopy 23 times in total, the article provides an improved version of endoscopic reprocessing guidelines for bedside endoscopic diagnosis and treatment on COVID-19 patients for reference.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Cross Infection , Disinfection , Methods , Endoscopes , Virology , Equipment Contamination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peracetic Acid , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Sterilization , Methods , Workflow
20.
Rev. Hosp. Niños B.Aires ; 62(276): 43-48, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099990

Subject(s)
Humans , Dengue , Pediatrics , Virology
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