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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879608

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a girl featuring bone and tooth mineralization disorder, premature deciduous teeth, rickets and short stature.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to high-throughput whole exome sequencing. Suspected variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Impact of potential variants was analyzed with bioinformatic software.@*RESULTS@#The child was found to carry compound heterozygous missense variants of the ALPL gene, including c.1130C>T (p.A377V), a known pathogenic mutation inherited from her father, and c.1300G>A (p.V434M) inherited from her mother, which was unreported previously and predicted to be likely pathogenic based on standards and guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (PM2+PM5+PP3+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The compound heterozygous variants of c.1130C>T (p.Ala377Val) and c.1300G>A (p.Val434Met) of the ALPL gene probably underlay the disease in this child. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of ALPL gene variants.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Child , Female , Genomics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Hypophosphatasia/genetics , Mutation , Whole Exome Sequencing
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a Chinese pedigree affected with non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL).@*METHODS@#Commercialized gene chip was applied to detect common mutations associated with congenital deafness. Whole exome sequencing was carried out for patients for whom gene chip yielded a negative result. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Two patients from the pedigree were discovered to carry compound heterozygous variants of the TRIOBP gene, namely c.3299C>A and c.5185-2A>G. Their parents had normal hearing and were both heterozygous carriers of the above variants. Both variants had co-segregated with the disease phenotype in the pedigree and were unreported previously.@*CONCLUSION@#Pathogenic variants of the TRIOBP gene comprise an important factor for NSHL. The novel c.5185-2A>G and c.3299C>A variants discovered in this study have enriched the mutational spectrum of the TRIOBP gene and enabled molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling for the family.


Subject(s)
Deafness/genetics , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/genetics , Heterozygote , Humans , Microfilament Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Pedigree , Whole Exome Sequencing
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879586

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a patient featuring Rotor syndrome.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the patient was collected. Whole exome sequencing (WES) based on high-throughput sequencing technology was carried out. Long-interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) insertion in intron 5 of the SLCO1B3 gene was detected by using tri-primer single tube PCR.@*RESULTS@#WES revealed that the patient has carried homozygous c.1738C>T nonsense variants of the SLCO1B1 gene. He was also found to harbor a homozygous insertion of LINE-1 in intron 5 of the SLCO1B3 gene, which has caused skipping of exon 5 or exons 5 to 7 and introduced a stop codon in the SLCO1B3 transcript.@*CONCLUSION@#The homozygous c.1738C>T variant of the SLCO1B1 gene and homozygous insertion of LINE-1 in intron 5 of the SLCO1B3 gene probably underlay the Rotor syndrome in this patient.


Subject(s)
Exons/genetics , Homozygote , Humans , Hyperbilirubinemia, Hereditary , Introns/genetics , Liver-Specific Organic Anion Transporter 1 , Male , Whole Exome Sequencing
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879585

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of a child with frontometaphyseal dysplasia 1 (FMD1) due to variant of FLNA gene.@*METHODS@#Clinical phenotype of the patient was analyzed. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out to detect pathogenic genetic variants. Sanger sequencing was used to verify the result in his parents.@*RESULTS@#The 2-year-and-9-month-old boy presented with facial dysmorphism (supraorbital hyperostosis, down-slanting palpebral fissure and ocular hypertelorism), skeletal deformities (bowed lower limbs, right genu valgum, left genu varus, slight deformity of index and middle fingers, and flexion contracture of little fingers). He also had limited left elbow movement. High-throughput sequencing revealed that he has carried a de novo heterogeneous c.3527G>A (p.Gly1176Glu) missense variant of the FLNA gene. The same variant was found in neither parent.@*CONCLUSION@#The clinical manifestations of FMD1 such as joint contracture and bone dysplasia can occur in infancy and deteriorate with age, and require long-term follow-up and treatment. Above finding has expanded the spectrum of FLNA gene variants.


Subject(s)
Child , Filamins/genetics , Forehead/abnormalities , Humans , Infant , Male , Osteochondrodysplasias/genetics , Phenotype , Whole Exome Sequencing
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child affected with Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral venous blood samples from the patient and his parents. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out to detect genetic variant of the proband. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The 3-year-old boy presented with psychomotor retardation, linguistic difficulties, mental retardation and peculiar craniofacial phenotype. A de novo heterozygous nonsense variant of the ASXL3 gene, c.3106C>T, was identified by WES in the proband, and the same mutation was not found among his parents. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards and guidelines, the c.3106C>T variant was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PS2+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous variant c.3106C>T of the ASXL3 gene probably underlies the Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome in the patient. Above result has enabled the clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling for the family.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Heterozygote , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Male , Mutation , Phenotype , Transcription Factors/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child with mental and motor retardation, language impairment, facial dysmorphism and epilepsy.@*METHODS@#Whole exome sequencing was carried out to detect pathogenic variant in the proband, and candidate variant was selected based on his phenotype. Sanger sequencing was used to verify the variant in the proband, his parents and other family members.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to carry a frameshifting mutation of MBD5 gene, namely c.2217delT (p.F739Lfs*6), which was inherited from his mother and unreported previously. Sanger sequencing confirmed that his brother carried the same mutation with a similar phenotype. His mother also had poor language expression when she was young, in addition with poor academic performance, though she could do some housework and had no history of convulsion.@*CONCLUSION@#A novel pathogenic variant of the MBD5 gene was discovered, which has enriched the mutational spectrum of the MBD5 gene. Above discovery has enabled genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for the family.


Subject(s)
Child , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Female , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Male , Mutation , Pedigree , Phenotype , Pregnancy , Whole Exome Sequencing
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879551

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis of a pedigree affected with peroneal muscular atrophy.@*METHODS@#Neuroelectrophysiological examination and whole exome sequencing were carried out for the proband, a six-year-and-ten-month-old boy. Suspected variant was verified in his family members through Sanger sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis was carried to predict the conservation of amino acid sequence and impact of the variant on the protein structure and function.@*RESULTS@#Electrophysiological examination showed demyelination and axonal changes of motor and sensory nerve fibers. A heterozygous missense c.1066A>G (p. Thr356Ala) variant was found in exon 11 of the MFN2 gene in the proband and his mother, but not in his sister and father. Bioinformatic analysis using PolyPhen-2 and Mutation Taster software predicted the variant to be pathogenic, and that the sequence of variation site was highly conserved among various species. Based no the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards and guidelines, the c.1066A>G (p. Thr356Ala) variant of MFN2 gene was predicted to be likely pathogenic (PS1+ PM2+ PP3+ PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous missense c.1066A>G (p.Thr356Ala) variant of the MFN2 gene probably underlay the disease in the proband, and the results have enabled genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for this family.


Subject(s)
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease/genetics , Child , China , Drosophila Proteins/genetics , Exons , Female , Heterozygote , Humans , Male , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Pedigree , Pregnancy , Whole Exome Sequencing
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879548

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child with ocular anomaly, microcephaly, growth retardation and intrauterine growth restriction.@*METHODS@#The patient underwent ophthalmologic examinations including anterior segment photography, fundus color photography, and fundus fluorescein angiography. The patient and her parents were subjected to whole exome sequencing. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatic analysis.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to have bilateral persistent pupillary membrane and coloboma of inferior iris, in addition with macular dysplasia and radial pigmentation near the hemal arch of the temporal retina. She was found to have carried compound heterozygous missense variants of the PHGDH gene, namely c.196G>A and c.1177G>A, which were respectively inherited from her father and mother. Bioinformatic analysis suggested both variants to be pathogenic.@*CONCLUSION@#The patient was diagnosed with phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency. Above finding has enriched the phenotypic spectrum of the disease with ocular manifestations.


Subject(s)
Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Child , Coloboma , Female , Humans , Microcephaly/genetics , Mutation , Phenotype , Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase/genetics , Psychomotor Disorders/genetics , Seizures/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879546

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child featuring unexplained rapid growth and heart malformation.@*METHODS@#Whole exome sequencing (WES)was carried out for the patient. Suspected variant was verified by Sanger sequencing and subjected to bioinformatic analysis.@*RESULTS@#The child was found to harbor a novel de novo c.5846_5848delATA (p. N1949del) variant in exon 48 of the FBN1 gene, which was predicted to be pathogenic by Mutation Taster. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with Marfan syndrome.@*CONCLUSION@#Above finding has enriched the spectrum of genetic variants associated with Marfan syndrome. WES has provided a powerful tool for the diagnosis of rare diseases.


Subject(s)
Child , Exons , Fibrillin-1/genetics , Heart Defects, Congenital , Humans , Marfan Syndrome/genetics , Mutation , Sequence Deletion , Whole Exome Sequencing
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879538

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a patient with intellectual disability.@*METHODS@#Whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were carried out for the patient. The result was verified in her family.@*RESULTS@#DNA sequencing revealed that the patient has carried a heterozygous nonsense c.40C>T (p.Arg14X) variant of the TRIP12 gene, which was de novo in origin. The variant was unrecorded in the Human Gene Mutation Database. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards and guidelines, the variant was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+ PS2+ PP3).@*CONCLUSION@#The patient was diagnosed with autosomal dominant intellectual disability due to heterozygous c.40C>T variant of the TRIP12 gene.


Subject(s)
Carrier Proteins/genetics , Codon, Nonsense , Female , Heterozygote , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879537

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical phenotype and genetic characterization of a child with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy.@*METHODS@#The proband was subjected to history taking and was diagnosed based on his clinical manifestation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and whole exome sequencing (WES). Sanger sequencing was carried out to determine the origin of pathogenic variant.@*RESULTS@#The proband unconsciously tilts his head to one side with squint, which revealed an abnormal discharge. MRI indicated suspicious abnormal signal shadow in the left posterior frontal cortex in addition with inflammation signs in the right maxillary sinus and ethmoid sinus. WES revealed that the proband has carried a heterozygous c.5789G>A variant in the CACNAIA gene. The result of Sanger sequencing was in keeping with that of WES. Neither of his parents has carried the same variant.@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous c.5789G>A variant of the CACNAIA gene probably underlay the early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 42 in the proband, which has a de novo origin.


Subject(s)
Calcium Channels/genetics , Genetic Testing , Heterozygote , Humans , Infant , Mutation , Spasms, Infantile/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879534

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for 7 patients with Alström syndrome.@*METHODS@#DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the patients and their parents. Whole exome sequencing was carried out for the patients. Suspected variant was verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatic analysis.@*RESULTS@#Genetic testing revealed 12 variants of the ALMS1 gene among the 7 patients, including 7 nonsense and 5 frameshift variants, which included c.5418delC (p.Tyr1807Thrfs*23), c.10549C>T (p.Gln3517*), c.9145dupC (p.Thr3049Asnfs*12), c.10819C>T (p.Arg3607*), c.5701_5704delGAGA (p.Glu1901Argfs*18), c.9154_9155delCT (p.Cys3053Serfs*9), c.9460delG (p.Val3154*), c.9379C>T (p.Gln3127*), c.12115C>T (p.Gln4039*), c.1468dupA (p.Thr490Asnfs*15), c.10825C>T (p.Arg3609*) and c.3902C>A (p.Ser1301*). Among these, c.9154_ 9155delCT, c.9460delG, c.9379C>T, and c.1468dupA were unreported previously. Based on the standards and guidelines of American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the c.9379C>T and c.12115C>T variants of the ALMS1 gene were predicted to be likely pathogenic (PVS1+PM2), whilst the other 10 variants were predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+ PM2+ PP3+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#ALMS1 variants probably underlay the Alström syndrome in the 7 patients, and genetic testing can provide a basis for the clinical diagnosis of this syndrome. The discovery of four novel variants has expanded the mutational spectrum of Alström syndrome.


Subject(s)
Alstrom Syndrome/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Pedigree , Whole Exome Sequencing
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a fetus with hydrocephalus.@*METHODS@#The fetus was found to have hydrocephalus upon ultrasonography duringthe second trimester. Following induced abortion, fetal tissue was collected for the extraction of DNA and whole exome sequencing.Sanger sequencing was used to verify the suspected variants in the family.@*RESULTS@#The fetus was found to harbor a hemizygous c.620A>G (p.Tyr207Cys) variant of the L1CAM gene (OMIM 308840),for which his mother and sister were heterozygous carriers. The same variant was not found in his father, uncle and grandparents.Based on the standards and guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the variant was predicted to be likely pathogenic (PM1+PM2+PP3+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The hemizygous c.620A>G (p.Tyr207Cys) variant of the L1CAM gene probably underlay the hydrocephalus in this fetus.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Heterozygote , Humans , Hydrocephalus/genetics , Male , Mutation , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1/genetics , Pedigree , Pregnancy , Whole Exome Sequencing
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879525

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out genetic testing for an abortus suspected with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS).@*METHODS@#History of gestation and the family was taken. Combined with prenatal ultrasonography and the phenotype of the abortus, a diagnosis was made for the proband. Fetal tissue and peripheral blood samples of its parents were collected for the extraction of genomic DNA. Whole exome sequencing was carried out to detect mutations related to the phenotype. Suspected mutations were verified in the parents through Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Prenatal ultrasound found that the forearms and hands of the fetus were anomalous, in addition with poorly formed vermis cerebellum, slight micrognathia, and increased echo of bilateral renal parenchyma. Examination of the abortus has noted upper limb and facial malformations. Whole exome sequencing revealed that the fetus carried a heterozygous c.2118delG (p.Lys706fs) frameshift mutation of the NIPBL gene. The same mutation was not found in either parent.@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous c.2118delG (p.Lys706fs) frameshift mutation of the NIPBL gene probably underlies the CdLS in the fetus. Above finding has provided a basis for the genetic counseling for the family.


Subject(s)
Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , DNA Mutational Analysis , De Lange Syndrome/pathology , Female , Fetus , Humans , Male , Mutation , Phenotype , Pregnancy , Whole Exome Sequencing
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genotype-phenotype correlation of a case with Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome (SIHIWES) caused by a novel CHD4 gene variant.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the patient and her parents. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was carried out for the patient.Suspected variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The proband, a 2-year-old Chinese girl, presented with global developmental delay, intellectual disability, distinctive facial features and multiple congenital anomalies. Her prenatal manifestations included increased nuchal thickness, cranial and facial anomalies, and decreased fetal movement. WES has identified a novel variant in the CHD4 gene, namely NM_001273:c.2989C>G (p.Leu997Val) (GRCh37/hg19).Comparison of her phenotype with previously reported SIHIWES cases suggested that our patient's prenatal presentations were unreported before, with novel features including funduscopic anomaly, facial dysmorphisms such as asymmetrical ears, drooping eyelid, long philtrum and downturned mouth.@*CONCLUSION@#Above findings have expanded the mutational spectrum of the CHD4 gene and revealed novel phenotypes in Chinese patients with SIHIWES.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , China , Congenital Abnormalities/genetics , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Testing , Humans , Mi-2 Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase Complex/genetics , Phenotype , Pregnancy , Syndrome , Whole Exome Sequencing
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze clinical features and genetic cause for a Chinese pedigree affected with microphthalmia.@*METHODS@#The proband and his parents were subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify potential pathogenic variants. Sanger sequencing was carried out to confirm the result of WES in available members from the pedigree. Prenatal diagnosis was provided to the proband's mother by genetic testing of amnionic DNA.@*RESULTS@#A heterozygous nonsense mutation c.289C>T (p.R97*) was identified in the OTX2 gene among three patients from the pedigree by WES. The result was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The proband's mother has carried the same mutation but did not have microphthalmia. The proband's father, aunt and the mother's fetus did not carry the mutation.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.289C>T (p.R97*) mutation probably underlies the microphthalmia in this pedigree. Above result has facilitated genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
China , Female , Humans , Male , Microphthalmos/genetics , Mutation , Pedigree , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Whole Exome Sequencing
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a Chinese pedigree affected with non-syndromic cleft lip and cleft palate (NSCLP).@*METHODS@#With informed consent obtained, members of the pedigree were subjected to clinical examination and history taking to exclude syndromic cleft lip and palate. One affected member was subjected to whole-exome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing and co-segregation analysis of her family members and 100 unrelated healthy individuals.@*RESULTS@#Whole-exome sequencing and co-segregation analysis showed that all affected members of this pedigree have carried a heterozygous missense c.253A>G (p.Cys85Arg) variant in exon 4 of the IRF6 gene, which has co-segregated with the phenotype and was not found among the 100 unrelated healthy individuals.@*CONCLUSION@#The missense c.253A>G variant in exon 4 of the IRF6 gene probably underlay the NSCLP in this pedigree.


Subject(s)
Brain/abnormalities , China , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Female , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Pedigree , Whole Exome Sequencing
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879520

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect the mutation site in a pedigree affected with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and verify its impact on the protein function.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples were collected from the proband and his pedigree members for the extraction of genomic DNA. Mutational analysis was performed on the proband through whole-exome sequencing. Suspected variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. A series of molecular methods including PCR amplification, restriction enzyme digestion, ligation and transformation were also used to construct wild-type and mutant eukaryotic expression vectors of the PKD2 gene, which were transfected into HEK293T and HeLa cells for the observation of protein expression and cell localization.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to harbor a c.2051dupA (p. Tyr684Ter) frame shift mutation of the PKD2 gene, which caused repeat of the 2051st nucleotide of its cDNA sequence and a truncated protein. Immunofluorescence experiment showed that the localization of the mutant protein within the cell was altered compared with the wild-type, which may be due to deletion of the C-terminus of the PKD2 gene.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.2051dupA (p. Tyr684Ter) mutation of the PKD2 gene probably underlay the pathogenesis of ADPKD in this pedigree.


Subject(s)
DNA Mutational Analysis , Female , Frameshift Mutation , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Male , Pedigree , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant/physiopathology , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Transport/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922464

ABSTRACT

RNA sequencing (RNAseq) can reveal gene fusions, splicing variants, mutations/indels in addition to differential gene expression, thus providing a more complete genetic picture than DNA sequencing. This most widely used technology in genomics tool box has evolved from classic bulk RNA sequencing (RNAseq), popular single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) to newly emerged spatial RNA sequencing (spRNAseq). Bulk RNAseq studies average global gene expression, scRNAseq investigates single cell RNA biology up to 20,000 individual cells simultaneously, while spRNAseq has ability to dissect RNA activities spatially, representing next generation of RNA sequencing. This article highlights these technologies, characteristic features and suitable applications in precision oncology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms , Precision Medicine , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Whole Exome Sequencing
20.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 899-903, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922173

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the efficiency of the target gene panel method and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in detecting idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), and select a more suitable gene detection method.@*METHODS@#We selected 24 genes closely related to the molecular pathogenesis of IHH to make up the gene panel, detected the mutation sites in 73 patients with IHH using the panel method, and verified the results of sequencing with the Sanger method. Using the key words "idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism", we searched databases for relevant literature, calculated the positive rate of IHH detected by WES and compared it with that detected with the panel method.@*RESULTS@#Of the 73 cases of IHH detected with the panel method, 7 were found with pathogenic mutations, including 2 cases of FGFR1, 2 cases of CHD7, 2 cases of KISS1R, and 1 case of NR5A1 mutation. Sanger sequencing showed that the positive rate of the panel method was 9.7%. Of the 1 336 articles retrieved, 5 met the inclusion criteria and were included, in which WES revealed a positive rate of about 30%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#For detection of the diseases with clear mutated genes, the panel method is relatively inexpensive and has a high sequencing depth, while for detection of the diseases with complicated genetic patterns and unclear mutated genes, WES is more efficient. Further studies are needed for choice of the two methods for different purpose of detection./.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypogonadism/genetics , Male , Whole Exome Sequencing
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