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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194081

ABSTRACT

The integrity of blood vessels controls vascular permeability and extravasation of blood cells, across the endothelium. Thus, the impairment of endothelial integrity leads to hemorrhage, edema, and inflammatory infiltration. However, the molecular mechanism underlying vascular integrity has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity during vascular development. Zebrafish embryos depleted of akap12 (akap12 morphants) exhibited severe hemorrhages. In vivo time-lapse analyses suggested that disorganized interendothelial cell-cell adhesions in akap12 morphants might be the cause of hemorrhage. To clarify the molecular mechanism by which the cell-cell adhesions are impaired, we examined the cell-cell adhesion molecules and their regulators using cultured endothelial cells. The expression of PAK2, an actin cytoskeletal regulator, and AF6, a connector of intercellular adhesion molecules and actin cytoskeleton, was reduced in AKAP12-depleted cells. Depletion of either PAK2 or AF6 phenocopied AKAP12-depleted cells, suggesting the reduction of PAK2 and AF6 results in the loosening of intercellular junctions. Consistent with this, overexpression of PAK2 and AF6 rescued the abnormal hemorrhage in akap12 morphants. We conclude that AKAP12 is essential for integrity of endothelium by maintaining the expression of PAK2 and AF6 during vascular development.


Subject(s)
A Kinase Anchor Proteins/genetics , Animals , Blood Vessels/abnormalities , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Down-Regulation , Embryo, Nonmammalian/abnormalities , Gene Deletion , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Hemorrhage/embryology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Intercellular Junctions/genetics , Kinesins/genetics , Myosins/genetics , Zebrafish/embryology , p21-Activated Kinases/genetics
2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 3q29 microdeletion syndrome is a genomic disorder characterized by mental retardation, developmental delay, microcephaly, and slight facial dysmorphism. In most cases, the microdeletion spans a 1.6-Mb region between low-copy repeats (LCRs). We identified a novel 4.0- Mb deletion using oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in monozygotic twin sisters. METHODS: G-banded chromosome analysis was performed in the twins and their parents. Highresolution oligonucleotide array CGH was performed using the human whole genome 244K CGH microarray (Agilent Technologies, USA) followed by validation using FISH, and the obtained results were analyzed using the genome database resources. RESULTS: G-banding revealed that the twins had de novo 46,XX,del(3)(q29) karyotype. Array CGH showed a 4.0-Mb interstitial deletion on 3q29, which contained 39 genes and no breakpoints flanked by LCRs. In addition to the typical characteristics of the 3q29 microdeletion syndrome, the twins had attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, strabismus, congenital heart defect, and gray hair. Besides the p21-activated protein kinase (PAK2) and discs large homolog 1 (DLG1) genes, which are known to play a critical role in mental retardation, the hairy and enhancer of split 1 (HES1) and antigen p97 (melanoma associated; MFI2) genes might be possible candidate genes associated with strabismus, congenital heart defect, and gray hair. CONCLUSIONS: The novel 4.0-Mb 3q29 microdeletion found in the twins suggested the occurrence of genomic rearrangement mediated by mechanisms other than nonallelic homologous recombination. Molecular genetic and functional studies are required to elucidate the contribution of each gene to a specific phenotype.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/genetics , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 , Comparative Genomic Hybridization/methods , Diseases in Twins/genetics , Female , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Melanoma-Specific Antigens/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Syndrome , Twins , p21-Activated Kinases/genetics
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