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1.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(1): e1965, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas), CUMED | ID: biblio-1126482

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: Algunos tipos de cáncer suelen ser tratados con fármacos quimioterapéuticos que afectan de forma indirecta la cavidad bucal, los cuales susceptibilizan al paciente a contraer infecciones bucales como candidiasis bucal. Se ha evidenciado que una condición oncológica facilita una infección bucal por Candida albicans, sin embargo, otras especies de Candida se les relaciona poco. Objetivo: Identificar especies de Candida spp. en cavidad bucal de pacientes sometidos a quimioterapia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Se tomaron 60 muestras de igual número de pacientes por conveniencia de un Instituto Oncológico en Barranquilla, Colombia. Previo a un examen clínico de diagnóstico de candidiasis bucal. Se tomaron hisopados en las superficies infectadas para realizar un examen directo -tinción de Gram y cultivo en agar dextrosa Sabouraud con cloranfenicol incubadas a 37 ºC durante 48 h y posteriormente cultivadas en medio CHROMagar® Candida- para identificación de diferentes especies. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva y de correlación. Resultados. El 55 por ciento de los pacientes correspondió al sexo femenino, con edades mayores a 60 años. El cáncer de mama fue el más frecuente en el 30 por ciento. La quimioterapia aplicada a todos fue el 5-fluorouracilo combinado con ciclofosfamida. El tipo clínico de candidiasis atrófica en lengua fue más frecuente en el 37 por ciento, seguida de candidiasis pseudomembranosa en lengua en el 33 por ciento. El 90 por ciento de muestras presentó algún tipo de Candida, crecimiento de una única especie y cultivos mixtos con más de una especie de Candida. Se evidenció el 13,3 por ciento de C. albicans y otro 13,3 por ciento de Candida spp. no albicans. Ninguno de los diagnósticos oncológicos tuvo una asociación estadísticamente significativa con las especies de Candida. Conclusiones: Se evidencia que la especie de C. albicans en candidiasis bucal en pacientes con cáncer, fue la más frecuente, con predominio en mayor proporción cultivos mixtos de Candida no albicans (C. glabrata, C. tropicalis) poco relacionados con este tipo de enfermedad(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Some types of cancer are often treated with chemotherapeutic drugs which indirectly affect the oral cavity, thus making the patient vulnerable to infections such as oral candidiasis. Oral infection by Candida albicans has been found to be fostered by oncological conditions, but other Candida species have not been sufficiently analyzed in such a context. Objective: Identify Candida spp. in the oral cavity of patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted of 60 samples of an equal number of patients selected by convenience sampling at an Oncological Institute in Barranquilla, Colombia, following diagnostic clinical examination for oral candidiasis. Swab samples were taken from the infected surfaces to perform direct examination - Gram staining and Sabouraud dextrose agar culture with chloramphenicol incubated at 37ºC for 48 h and then cultured in CHROMagar® Candida medium - for identification of various species. Analysis was based on correlation and descriptive statistics. Results: Of the total patients evaluated 55 percent were female and aged over 60 years. Breast cancer prevailed with 30%. The chemotherapy applied in all cases was 5-fluorouracil combined with cyclophosphamide. Atrophic candidiasis of the tongue was the most common clinical type with 37 percent, followed by pseudomembranous candidiasis of the tongue with 33 percent. Of the samples examined, 90 percent contained some sort of Candida, growth of a single species and mixed cultures with more than one Candida species. C. albicans represented 13.3 percent and non-albicans spp. another 13.3 percent. None of the oncological diagnostic analyses had a statistically significant association to Candida species. Conclusions: The species C. albicans was the most commonly found in oral candidiasis among cancer patients, with a predominance of non-albicans Candida spp. (C. glabrata, C. tropicalis) mixed cultures, a fact not generally related to this condition(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Candida albicans , Candidíase Bucal/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
2.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190039, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas), BBO | ID: biblio-1090769

RESUMO

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the physical properties and antifungal activities of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) acrylic resins after the incorporation of chlorhexidine diacetate salt (CDA). Methodology: First, acrylic resin specimens were fabricated with Vipi Cor® and DuraLay® resins with and without the incorporation of 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0% CDA. The residual monomer and CDA release were measured at intervals ranging from 2 hours to 28 days using ultraviolet spectrometry combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The antifungal activity against C. albicans was evaluated with the agar diffusion method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to analyze the degree of resin conversion. Finally, the water sorption values of the resins were also measured. Results: The incorporated CDA concentration significantly changed the rate of CDA release (p<0.0001); however, the brand of the material appeared to have no significant influence on drug release. Subsequently, the inhibition zones were compared between the tested groups and within the same brand, and only the comparisons between the CDA 2% and CDA 1% groups and between the CDA 1% and CDA 0.5% groups failed to yield significant differences. Regarding the degrees of conversion, the differences were not significant and were lower only in the CDA 2% groups. Water sorption was significantly increased at the 1.0% and 2.0% concentrations. Conclusions: We concluded that the incorporation of CDA into PMMA-based resins enabled the inhibition of C. albicans growth rate, did not alter the degrees of conversion of the tested resins and did not change the release of residual monomers.


Assuntos
Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Antifúngicos/química , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Tempo , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Teste de Materiais , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/química , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Polimetil Metacrilato/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190578, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas), BBO | ID: biblio-1101256

RESUMO

Abstract Objective This study sought to analyze the gene expression of Candida albicans in sound root surface and root caries lesions, exploring its role in root caries pathogenesis. Methodology The differential gene expression of C. albicans and the specific genes related to cariogenic traits were studied in association with samples of biofilm collected from exposed sound root surface (SRS, n=10) and from biofilm and carious dentin of active root carious lesions (RC, n=9). The total microbial RNA was extracted, and the cDNA libraries were prepared and sequenced on the Illumina Hi-Seq2500. Unique reads were mapped to 163 oral microbial reference genomes including two chromosomes of C. albicans SC5314 (14,217 genes). The putative presence of C. albicans was estimated (sum of reads/total number of genes≥1) in each sample. Count data were normalized (using the DESeq method package) to analyze differential gene expression (using the DESeq2R package) applying the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (FDR<0.05). Results Two genes (CaO19.610, FDR=0.009; CaO19.2506, FDR=0.018) were up-regulated on SRS, and their functions are related to biofilm formation. Seven genes ( UTP20 , FDR=0.018; ITR1 , FDR=0.036; DHN6 , FDR=0.046; CaO19.7197 , FDR=0.046; CaO19.7838 , FDR=0.046; STT4 , FDR=0.046; GUT1 , FDR=0.046) were up-regulated on RC and their functions are related to metabolic activity, sugar transport, stress tolerance, invasion and pH regulation. The use of alternative carbon sources, including lactate, and the ability to form hypha may be a unique trait of C. albicans influencing biofilm virulence. Conclusions C. albicans is metabolically active in SRS and RC biofilm, with different roles in health and disease.


Assuntos
Humanos , Raiz Dentária/microbiologia , Candida albicans/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Cárie Radicular/microbiologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação para Cima , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma , Morfogênese
4.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(5): 302-308, jun 2019. fig, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1024638

RESUMO

Aim: The current venture, were made to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Trigonella foenum seed Extract and ZiO2 Nanoparticles on some selected species of Fungi and Bacteria. Materials and Methods: two bacterial species included Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and three fungal species which is Cryptococcus neoformans, Candidda albicans and Chaetomium were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Trigonella foenum Extract and ZiO2 Nanoparticles. Results: This study showed that the Zirconium Oxide (ZiO2) nanoparticles have antifungal and antibacterial activities on the isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida alicans and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. While the antimicrobial activity of Zirconium Oxide nanoparticles on the Chaetomium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was negative. All tested fungi and bacterial isolates were found to be sensitive to Trigonella foenum seed extract, the results of the compination of the ZiO2 Nanoparticle and the Trigonella foenum seed extract were poisitive for all tested fungi isolates and bacterial isolates. The XRD analysis was done for Zirconium Oxide nanoparticles and the result showed that the biocrystallization on the surface of the Zirconium Oxide manoparticles. The average partides size was about (29.8) nm. Conclusions: This investigation conclude that the use of Trigonella foenum seed Extract has the effect of killing all bacteria and fungi under study, result indicate the Trigonella foenun seed Extract best antibacterial efficacy than the ZiO2 together (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Chaetomium/patogenicidade , Cryptococcus neoformans/patogenicidade , Trigonella/microbiologia , Nanopartículas/efeitos adversos , Fabaceae/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico
5.
Dent. press endod ; 9(1): 43-47, jan.-mar. 2019. Ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas), BBO | ID: biblio-1008596

RESUMO

Introdução: a frequência de micoses invasivas causadas por patógenos fúngicos oportunistas tem aumentado significativamente nas últimas décadas. Entre os principais agentes etiológicos de micoses oportunistas está a Candida albicans. Essa levedura apresenta vários fatores de virulência importantes para produção de doença. Alguns estudos têm demonstrado que C. albicans coloniza canais radiculares e túbulos dentinários. O espectro de atividade antimicrobiana do curativo de hidróxido de cálcio deve incluir essa levedura. Objetivos: o objetivo da presente pesquisa foi determinar a suscetibilidade in vitro de quatro linhagens de C. albicans coletadas da cavidade oral e uma estirpe padrão ATCC 10231 a pastas de hidróxido de cálcio associadas a drogas antifúngicas, antibióticas e anti-inflamatórias. A eficiência das pastas de Ca(OH)2 associadas às drogas sobre as leveduras foram analisadas pelo método da difusão radial e, também, pela técnica do contato direto com os medicamentos. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis e o pós-teste de Dunn, para indicar as diferenças entres os grupos, com um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: todas as medicações antifúngicas potencializaram a ação das pastas de hidróxido de cálcio contra a Candida albicans. Conclusões: a associação de medicações antifúngicas às pastas de Ca(OH)2 pode ser uma alternativa como medicação intracanal. (AU)


Introduction: the frequency of invasive mycoses caused by opportunistic fungal pathogens has increased significantly in the last decades. Among the main etiological agents of opportunistic mycoses is Candida albicans. This yeast has several important virulence factors for producing disease. Some studies have demonstrated that C. albicans colonized root canals and dentinal tubules. The spectrum of antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide dressing should include this yeast. Objectives: the aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of four C. albicans strains collected from the oral cavity and a standard strain ATCC 10231 to calcium hydroxide paste associated with antifungal, antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs. The efficiency of the Ca(OH)2 paste associated with the drugs on the yeasts was analyzed by the radial diffusion method and also by the direct contact method. Data were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis test and the Dunn post-test were used to indicate the differences between the groups with a significance level of 5%. Results: all antifungal drugs increased the action of the calcium hydroxide pastes against Candida albicans. Conclusions: the association of antifungals with Ca(OH)2 may be considered for use as intracanal medicaments (AU).


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Cálcio , Candida albicans , Endodontia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular
6.
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 4(1): 87-91, Jan.-Apr. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas), BBO | ID: biblio-1024320

RESUMO

Introduction: Candida albicans is one of the microrganisms that most often colonizes the oral cavity of HIV-infected children. This fungus secretes organic acids, which decrease the pH of the oral cavity; an environment that is already particularly acidic in HIV-Infected children because of their hypercaloric diets, use of sugary medicines, and poor oral hygiene. Considering the large number of dental restorations and the high prevalence of caries in this population, these conditions, including the metabolism of C. Albicans , can potentially cause problems in terms of the surface of restorative materials. Objective : Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro , the potential of C. Albicans isolated from the dental biofilm of HIV-infected children to cause surface demineralization of the restorative materials used in pediatric dentistry. Material and method : Forty-four blocks of four different materials (2 resins, 1 compomer, and 1 glass ionomer cement) were made and separated into four groups (n = 11). All blocks were submitted to initial surface microhardness (ISM) analysis. Subsequently, each block was exposed to C. Albicans biofilm, formed from a 1 mL standard suspension containing 10 5 yeasts/mL, over seven days. The blocks were then cleaned and kept at 4 °C until being submitted for measurement of the final surface microhardness (FSM). The Mann-Whitney test was used for intragroup comparisons between ISM and FSM values. Results : The percentage of microhardness loss (% MHL) values between the four groups were compared using the Kruskall- Wallis test (95% CI). The ISM values ranged from 63.54 ± 11.41 to 77.92 ± 10.91, with no statistical differences being found (p = 0.76). After exposure to biofilm, no significant changes in surface microhardness were observed when comparing the values of ISM and FSM, except for group 3 (compomer Vitremer TM ), which had an FSM value of 40.45 ± 7.57 (p = 0.001). The % MHL of the compomer (group 3) was significantly higher (41.16%) than the other groups (5.35% group 1; 7.02% group 2; and 9.57% group 3) (p = 0.036). Conclusion : It can be concluded that, in vitro , C. albicans isolated from the dental biofilms of HIV-infected children can cause significant reduction in the surface microhardness of compomer compared with other materials.


Introdução: A Candida albicans é um dos microorganismos que mais frequentemente colonizam a cavidade bucal de crianças HIV+. Este fungo excreta ácidos, proporcionando uma diminuição do pH em um ambiente já altamente acidificado, como cavidade bucal dessas crianças devido sua dieta hipercalórica, uso de medicamentos açucarados e higiene oral deficiente. Considerando a elevada freqüência de restaurações dentárias em função da alta prevalência de cárie, todos esses fatores, incluindo o metabolismo da C. albicans, podem provocar alterações na superfície de materiais restauradores usados nesses pacientes. Objetivo : O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a ação da C. albicans, isolada de uma criança HIV+, sobre a superfície de materiais restauradores utlizados na prática odontopediátrica. Material e método : Confeccionou-se 44 blocos de diferentes materiais (2 resinas, 1 compômero e 1 cimento ionomérico de Vidro) separados em 4 grupos (n=11) Todos os blocos foram submetidos a microdureza superfícial inicial (MDI). Posteriormente, foram expostos ao biofilme de C. Albicans formado a partir de 1mL de uma suspensão padronizada contendo 10 5 cels/mL, durante 07 dias. Após, os blocos foram limpos e mantidos sob refrigeração (4ºC) e submetidos à mensuração da microdureza final (MDF). Foram utilizados o Teste de Mann-Whitney para comparação intra grupo entre os valores de MDI e MDF; os valores de perda percentual de microdureza (%PMD) foram comparados com o Teste de Kruskall-Wallis (95% IC). Resultados : Os valores de MDI variaram de 63,54±11,41 a 77,92±10,91, sem diferença entre os grupos (p=0,076). Após exposição ao biofilme, não foram observadas variações significativas na microdureza (MDI X MDF) exceto para o grupo 3 (compômero Vitremer TM ), cujo valor de MDF foi 40,45±7,57 (p=0,001) . O %PMD do compômero (grupo 3) foi significativamente maior (41,16%) que o dos outros materiais (5,35% grupo 1; 7,02% grupo 2; e 9,57% grupo 3) (p=0,036. Conclusão: Conclui-se que a C. Albicans isolada do biofilme dental de criança HIV+ pode causar, in vitro, diminuição significante na microdureza superficial do compômero em comparação aos demais.


Assuntos
Odontopediatria , Candida albicans , Criança , HIV , Placa Dentária , Boca
7.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4296, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas), BBO | ID: biblio-997914

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate in the vitro effectiveness of three chemical agents for toothbrush disinfection. Material and Methods: Sixteen new toothbrushes were evaluated, previously sterilized and classified in five experimental groups (n=3) and one item as control. Three chemical agents were assessed: 0.12% Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), essential oil mouth rinse (Listerine) and 3.5% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The five selected strains were inoculated on toothbrushes and incubated for a 24 hours period and 37°C temperature in aerobic conditions. The incubated toothbrushes were immersed for a 15 min period into selected chemical agents and after drying in a controlled air stream, again re-cultured into enriched broth. A comparison was made between the initial and final microorganisms density recovered after chemical disinfection based on Mc Farland scale. The data obtained was compared by descriptive analysis and ANOVA methodology. Results: 3.5% NaOCl was the most effective chemical agent for toothbrush disinfection followed by CHX; Listerine was not effective to eliminate the inoculated bacteria in toothbrushes. Conclusion: 3.5% NaOCl and 0.12% CHX are the most effective chemical agents for toothbrush disinfection and Listerine was only effective against C. albicans.


Assuntos
Candida albicans , Clorexidina , Desinfecção/métodos , Compostos Químicos , Antissépticos Bucais/análise , Escovação Dentária/métodos , Venezuela , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Análise de Variância
8.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4802, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas), BBO | ID: biblio-998255

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the prevalence of Candida species in the saliva of patients with clinically suspected oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and healthy cohorts. Material and Methods: Unstimulated saliva was collected from patients with OPMD (n=100) and age and sex matched healthy subjects (n=170). The samples were inoculated onto Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated for a week. The colonies of the isolates were enumerated using a colony counter. The isolates were identified using standard phenotypic methods. The significance of oral candidal carriage was calculated using Independent T test. Odds and Risk ratio was calculated using Pearson's Chi-square test. Results: Oral candida carriage was present in 51% of patients with OPMD while healthy cohorts had a prevalence of 20.6%. A good statistical significance was observed for the prevalence of oral candidal carriage for patients with OPMD in comparison to healthy cohorts (p=0.013). Significant Odds and risk ratio was observed for the prevalence of Candida species among OPMD. Majority of the isolates in both groups were C. albicans. Colony forming units were high among patients with OPMD. Conclusion: A significant association of oral candidal carriage to oral potentially malignant disorders in comparison to healthy cohorts was observed. Candidal species may be potent risk factor for transition of OPMD to oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fenótipo , Candidíase Bucal/prevenção & controle , Leucoplasia Oral , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fibrose Oral Submucosa/patologia , Candida albicans , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Índia
9.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4886, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas), BBO | ID: biblio-998259

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the potency of Javanese turmeric extract in inhibiting and eradicating the mature phase of C. albicans biofilm. Material and Methods: C. albicans ATCC 10231 was cultured in Sabouraud Dextrose Broth on a 96-well plate and was incubated at 37ºC. To analyze its inhibitory effect, C. albicans cultures were incubated for 1.5 hours before being exposed to various concentrations of Javanese turmeric extract, followed by a further 48-hour incubation to reach the maturation phase. To analyze the eradication effect, the 48-hour C. albicans cultures were exposed to the extract and incubated further for 24 hours. Nystatin (100,000 IU) was used as a positive control. The percentage of viable C. albicans cells on the 48-hour biofilm was determined by a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. This value was converted into the percentage of the extract's minimum inhibitory and eradication concentrations. Results: Against the mature phase C. albicans biofilm, the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration of the Javanese turmeric extract was 40%, while the minimum biofilm eradication concentration was 45%. There were significant differences between the inhibition percentage of the positive control and that of the solutions exposed to Javanese turmeric with all the tested concentrations (p<0.05). There was a strong positive correlation between the increase in extract concentration and the eradication percentage of the mature C. albicans biofilm (r=0.981). Conclusion: Javanese turmeric extract is potential for inhibiting and eradicating mature phase C. albicans biofilm. The extract is more effective in inhibiting than in eradicating the biofilm.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares , Candida albicans , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes , Curcuma , Placa Dentária , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Análise de Variância , Indonésia
10.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-786025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the antifungal effects of neutral electrolysis hydrogen water, an agent known for its oral anti-bacterial effects on the growth of C. albicans in vitro.METHODS: Hydrogen water, denture cleansing agent, and Listerine® were compared to a tap water control. We serially cultured C. albicans KCTC 27239 in SD media to analyze the inhibitory effect of each treatment on growth. We evaluated the data using repeated-measures ANOVA test and one-way ANOVA test, and a significant difference was defined as P < 0.05.RESULTS: Hydrogen water significantly inhibited the growth, but not the biofilm formation, of C. albicans compared to tap water control at 1-, 5-, and 10-minute time points (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: The growth of C. albicans was slower in hydrogen water than in tap water, thereby suggesting an inhibitory effect of hydrogen water. Hydrogen water may, therefore, be utilized as an antibacterial and preventive agent without any harmful effect on denture and oral tissues.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Candida albicans , Candida , Dentaduras , Detergentes , Eletrólise , Hidrogênio , Técnicas In Vitro , Água
11.
Annals of Dermatology ; : S22-S23, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-762416

RESUMO

No abstract available.


Assuntos
Candidíase Bucal , Candida , Candida albicans , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus , Antifúngicos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-760489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood culture is an important method for identifying infectious microorganisms and confirming that a selected antimicrobial treatment is appropriate. In this study, we investigated the annual changes in the frequencies of blood isolates and antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results. METHODS: We created a large database comprising data on all patient-unique blood cultures obtained from January 2007 through December 2016. Blood specimens were cultured using the BD BACTEC FX system, and species identification and AST were performed using the VITEK 2 system. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period, a total of 203,651 blood culture results were collected. Of these, gram-positive cocci, gram-negative rods, and fungi were isolated in 2.15%, 0.55%, and 0.12% of the blood cultures, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated species (22.8%), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (16.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.1%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8.0%). Fungal species were isolated in 3.0% of all positive blood cultures. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species (1.1%), followed by Candida parapsilosis (0.6%). Methicillin resistance was seen in 55.2% of S. aureus isolates. The frequencies of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) were 13.1% and 10.9%, respectively. The isolation rates of MRSA, VRE, and CRPA showed different patterns each year. CONCLUSIONS: Among the isolates, E. coli was the most common, followed by S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae. This study represents a long-term analysis of bloodstream infections, and the results can be used to identify trends in the microorganisms isolated and their drug resistance.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Candida , Candida albicans , Resistência a Medicamentos , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli , Fungos , Cocos Gram-Positivos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Coreia (Geográfico) , Resistência a Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Métodos , Pneumonia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis
13.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-774597

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction( BAEB) on Candida albicans biofilms based on pH signal pathway. The morphology of biofilms of the pH mutants was observed by scanning electron microscope. The biofilm thickness of the pH mutants was measured by CLSM. The biofilm activity of the pH mutants was analyzed by microplate reader.The biofilm damage of the pH mutants was detected by flow cytometry. The expression of pH mutant biofilm-related genes was detected by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the deletion of PHR1 gene resulted in the defect of biofilm,but there were more substrates for PHR1 complementation. BAEB had no significant effect on the two strains. RIM101 gene deletion or complementation did not cause significant structural damage,but after BAEB treatment,the biofilms of both strains were significantly inhibited. For the biofilm thickness,PHR1 deletion or complementation caused the thickness to decrease,after BAEB treatment,the thickness of the two strains did not change significantly. However,RIM101 gene deletion or complementation had little effect on the thickness,and the thickness of the two strains became thinner after adding BAEB. For biofilm activity,PHR1 deletion or complementation and RIM101 deletion resulted in decreased activity,RIM101 complementation did not change significantly; BAEB significantly inhibited biofilm activity of PHR1 deletion,PHR1 complemetation,RIM101 deletion and RIM101 complemetation strains. For the biofilm damage,PHR1 gene deletion or complementation,RIM101 gene deletion or complementation all showed different degrees of damage; after adding BAEB,the damage rate of PHR1 deletion or complementation was not significantly different,but the damage rate of RIM101 deletion or complementation was significantly increased. Except to the up-regulation of HSP90 gene expression,ALS3,SUN41,HWP1,UME6 and PGA10 genes of PHR1 deletion,PHR1 complementation,RIM101 deletion,and RIM101 complementation strains showed a downward expression trend. In a word,this study showed that mutations in PHR1 and RIM101 genes in the pH signaling pathway could enhance the sensitivity of the strains to the antifungal drug BAEB,thus inhibiting the biofilm formation and related genes expression in C. albicans.


Assuntos
1-Butanol , Biofilmes , Candida albicans , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais , Farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 121-123, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-785573

RESUMO

Urinary tract infection is common in the pediatric population. The most common causative agents are bacteria, among which Escherichia coli is the most frequent uropathogen. Although fungal urinary tract infection is rare in the healthy pediatric population, it is relatively common among hospitalized patients. Fungus may be isolated from the urine of immunocompromised patients or that of patients with indwelling catheters. The most common cause of funguria is Candida albicans. Although more than 50% of Candida isolates belong to non-albicans Candida , the prevalence of non-albicans candiduria is increasing. Herein, we report a case of community-acquired candiduria in a 4-month-old immunocompetent male infant who had bilateral vesicoureteral reflux and was administered antibiotic prophylaxis. He was diagnosed with urinary tract infection caused by Candida lusitaniae and was managed with fluconazole.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Bactérias , Candida , Candida albicans , Cateteres de Demora , Escherichia coli , Fluconazol , Fungos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Infecções Urinárias , Sistema Urinário , Refluxo Vesicoureteral
15.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-773417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the synergy of the Burkholderia signaling molecule cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) and fluconazole (FLU) or itraconazole (ITRA) against two azole-resistant C. albicans clinical isolates in vitro and in vivo.@*METHODS@#Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics against two azole-resistant C. albicans were measured by the checkerboard technique, E-test, and time-kill assay. In vivo antifungal synergy testing was performed on mice. Analysis of the relative gene expression levels of the strains was conducted by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).@*RESULTS@#BDSF showed highly synergistic effects in combination with FLU or ITRA with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of ⪕ 0.08. BDSF was not cytotoxic to normal human foreskin fibroblast cells at concentrations of up to 300 μg/mL. The qRT-PCR results showed that the combination of BDSF and FLU/ITRA significantly inhibits the expression of the efflux pump genes CDR1 and MDR1 via suppression of the transcription factors TAC1 and MRR1, respectively, when compared with FLU or ITRA alone. No dramatic difference in the mRNA expression levels of ERG1, ERG11, and UPC2 was found, which indicates that the drug combinations do not significantly interfere with UPC2-mediated ergosterol levels. In vivo experiments revealed that combination therapy can be an effective therapeutic approach to treat candidiasis.@*CONCLUSION@#The synergistic effects of BDSF and azoles may be useful as an alternative approach to control azole-resistant Candida infections.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Farmacologia , Burkholderia cenocepacia , Química , Candida albicans , Fisiologia , Candidíase , Tratamento Farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Fluconazol , Farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Triazóis , Metabolismo
16.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-771507

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to investigate the inhibitory effect of extract of Coptidis Rhizoma(ECR) on invasion of Candida albicans hyphae in vitro.XTT reduction method was used to evaluate the metabolic activity of C.albicans.The colony edge growth of C.albicans was observed by solid medium.The growth of C.albicans hyphae was determined on semi-solid medium.The morphology and viability changes of C.albicans hyphae were assessed by scanning electron microscope and fluorescence microscope.qRT-PCR method was used to detect the ALS3 and SSA1 expression of C.albicans invasin genes.The results showed that the metabolic viability by XTT method detected that the activity of C.albicans was gradually decreased under the intervention of 64,128 and 256 mg·L-1 of ECR respectively.128,256 mg·L-1 of ECR significantly inhibited colony folds and wrinkles on solid medium and the hyphal invasion in semi-solid medium.Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy showed that 128,256 mg·L-1 of ECR could inhibit the formation of C.albicans hyphae.qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of invasin gene ALS3 and SSA1 was down-regulated,and especially 256 mg·L-1 of ECR could down-regulate the two genes expression by 4.8,1.68 times respectively.This study showed that ECR can affect the invasiveness of C.albicans by inhibiting the growth of hyphae and the expression of invasin.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases , Genética , Candida albicans , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas , Genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70 , Genética , Hifas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
17.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-776892

RESUMO

Antifungal drug resistance is a significant clinical problem, and antifungal agents that can evade resistance are urgently needed. In infective niches, resistant organisms often co-existed with sensitive ones, or a subpopulation of antibiotic-susceptible organisms may evolve into resistant ones during antibiotic treatment and eventually dominate the whole population. In this study, we established a co-culture assay in which an azole-resistant Candida albicans strain was mixed with a susceptible strain labeled with green fluorescent protein to mimic in vivo conditions and screen for antifungal drugs. Fluconazole was used as a positive control to verify the validity of this co-culture assay. Five natural molecules exhibited antifungal activity against both susceptible and resistant C. albicans. Two of these compounds, retigeric acid B (RAB) and riccardin D (RD), preferentially inhibited C. albicans strains in which the efflux pump MDR1 was activated. This selectivity was attributed to greater intracellular accumulation of the drugs in the resistant strains. Changes in sterol and lipid compositions were observed in the resistant strains compared to the susceptible strain, and might increase cell permeability to RAB and RD. In addition, RAB and RD interfered with the sterol pathway, further aggregating the decrease in ergosterol in the sterol synthesis pathway in the MDR1-activated strains. Our findings here provide an alternative for combating resistant pathogenic fungi.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Genética , Metabolismo , Antifúngicos , Química , Metabolismo , Farmacologia , Azóis , Farmacologia , Vias Biossintéticas , Genética , Candida albicans , Química , Metabolismo , Membrana Celular , Química , Metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Ergosterol , Metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas , Genética , Metabolismo , Lipídeos , Química , Estrutura Molecular , Permeabilidade , Éteres Fenílicos , Química , Metabolismo , Farmacologia , Esteróis , Química , Metabolismo , Estilbenos , Química , Metabolismo , Farmacologia , Triterpenos , Química , Metabolismo , Farmacologia
18.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-781358

RESUMO

Increasing numbers of microbiome studies have enabled the development of a greater understanding of how antagonistic and synergetic microbial interactions influence disease outcomes. Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that is commonly found in human oral microflora. In a healthy oral environment, Candida albicans may potentially but sig-nificantly influence the balance between the oral bacterial ecosystem and the host, leading tooral diseases. The aim of this study is to review the correlation between Candida albicans and oral pathogens and provide a deeper understanding of the nature of oral infec-tious diseases.


Assuntos
Candida albicans , Humanos , Microbiota
19.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-816602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida auris was first isolated from the ears of Japanese and Korean patients. However, the prevalence of yeast isolates from ear cultures and their antifungal susceptibility profiles in these nations remain unclear.METHODS: We assessed yeast isolates recovered from ear cultures from a university hospital in Korea over a 4-year period from January 2014 to December 2017. Species identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and/or sequence analysis. Antifungal minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the broth microdilution method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.RESULTS: Among 81 non-duplicate isolates from ear cultures, Cadida parapsilosis was the most frequently detected yeast species (34.6%), followed by C. auris (28.4%), Candida metapsilosis (9.9%), Candida orthopsilosis (8.6%), Candida albicans (7.4%), and others (11.1%). The MICs of the isolates were 0.125 to > 64 µg/mL, ≤0.03 to 4 µg/mL, 0.25 to 1 µg/mL, 0.125 to 1 µg/mL, and ≤0.03 to 2 µg/mL for fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, and micafungin, respectively. Of the 81 isolates, 44.4% (36/81) showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole (MIC ≥4 µg/mL). Of the 23 C. auris isolates, 19 (82.6%) had a fluconazole MIC of ≥32 µg/mL. None of the isolates showed resistance to amphotericin B or echinocandins. Most of these patients suffered from chronic otitis media (84%).CONCLUSION: Candida parapsilosis complex and C. auris were the yeast species identified most frequently from ear cultures and they exhibited a high rate of fluconazole non-susceptibility, particularly C. auris.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Candida , Candida albicans , Orelha , Equinocandinas , Fluconazol , Humanos , Coreia (Geográfico) , Espectrometria de Massas , Métodos , Otite Média , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência , Voriconazol , Leveduras
20.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2019. 97 p.
Tese em Português | LILACS (Américas), BBO | ID: biblio-994874

RESUMO

RESUMO A formação de biofilmes e produção de hifas por Candida albicans são importantes fatores de virulência, principalmente, para a aderência à mucosa e invasão tecidual. A busca por metabólitos secundários produzidos por S. mutans é de suma importância, pois poderá fornecer novas estratégias terapêuticas no combate às infecções por Candida, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de medicamentos capazes de inibir os mecanismos de patogenicidade das espécies desse gênero. Desse modo, o objetivo desse estudo foi obter o extrato bruto e frações a partir do sobrenadante da cultura de 4 h de S. mutans (UA159) e avaliar seus efeitos sobre os mecanismos de patogenicidade de C. albicans (ATCC18804) por meio de estudos in vitro. Após o cultivo de S. mutans, o extrato bruto foi obtido via partição líquido-líquido com acetato de etila (3x) e posteriormente fracionado em coluna de sílica derivatizada C-18 eluída com gradiente MeOH:H2O, fornecendo cinco frações (SM-F1, SM-F2, SM-F3, SM-F4 e SM-F5). A identificação das substâncias contidas no extrato bruto e frações foi realizada utilizando cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (CGEM), sendo encontradas as seguintes substâncias: ácido octanóico e uridina no extrato bruto, ácido propanóico, (3R)-3-Methyl-1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)piperazine-2,5- dione, pirimidina, gulose e oleamida na SM-F1 e ácido nicotínico e triptofano na SM- F2. O extrato bruto e as frações foram submetidos aos ensaios de bioatividade sobre a formação de hifas de C. albicans e analisados por microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). O extrato bruto e a fração SM-F2, que resultou em maior inibição das hifas, foram investigados na expressão de genes de C. albicans envolvidos no mecanismo de filamentação (CPH1, EFG1, HWP1, UME6 e YWP1) por PCR quantitativo em tempo real (RT-qPCR). Além disso, o potencial de inibição do extrato bruto, frações SM-F1 e SM-F2 foi avaliado sobre a formação de biofilmes de C. albicans, analisados pela quantificação de células viáveis (UFC/mL) e MEV Os resultados demonstraram inibição significativa na formação de hifas de C. albicans pelo extrato bruto e principalmente, pela SM-F2, com alterações significativas na expressão de todos os genes analisados. O extrato bruto e SM-F2 regularam negativamente a expressão dos genes CPH1, EFG1, HWP1 e UME6, em contrapartida, regularam positivamente a expressão do gene YWP1, envolvido no mecanismo de dispersão das leveduras. Nas análises de UFC/mL, os resultados demonstraram redução nas contagens de C. albicans nos biofilmes formados quando em contato com o extrato bruto, frações SM-F1 e SM-F2 em todas as concentrações testadas, sendo que o extrato bruto reduziu totalmente as células de C. albicans na concentração 15 mg/mL. Os resultados do nosso estudo demonstraram que o extrato bruto e frações de S. mutans apresentaram efeitos inibitórios sobre importantes mecanismos de virulência de C. albicans, fornecendo evidências que S. mutans produz substâncias com ação antifúngica, tornando-o promissor na busca de novos compostos antimicrobianos para prevenção e tratamento das candidoses humanas(AU)


The biofilm formation and hyphae production by Candida albicans are important virulence factors, mainly for mucosal adhesion and tissue invasion. The search for secondary metabolites produced by S. mutans is of great importance, since it may provide new therapeutic strategies against Candida infections, enabling the development of drugs that inhibit the mechanisms of pathogenicity of the species of this genus. Thus, the objective of this study was to obtain the crude extract and fractions from the supernatant of the 4 h culture of S. mutans (UA159) and evaluate their effects on the mechanisms of pathogenicity of C. albicans (ATCC18804) through in vitro studies. After culture of S. mutans, the crude extract was obtained via liquid-liquid partition with ethyl acetate (3x) and then fractionated on a C-18 derivatized silica column eluted with MeOH:H2O gradient, providing five fractions (SM-F1, SM-F2, SM-F3, SM-F4 and SM-F5). The identification of the substances contained in the crude extract and fractions was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The following substances were found: octanoic acid and uridine in crude extract, propanoic acid, (3R) -3-methyl -1,4-bis (trimethylsilyl) piperazine-2,5-dione, pyrimidine, gulose and oleamide in SM-F1 and nicotinic acid and tryptophan in SM-F2. The crude extract and fractions were submitted to bioactivity assays on hyphae formation by C. albicans and analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crude extract and SM-F2 fraction, which resulted in highest inhibition of hyphae, were investigated in the expression of C. albicans genes involved in the filamentation mechanism (CPH1, EFG1, HWP1, UME6 and YWP1) by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). In addition, the potential of inhibition of the crude extract, SM-F1 and SM-F2 fractions in biofilms of C. albicans were evaluated by the quantification of viable cells (CFU/mL) and SEM. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by Graph Pad Prism 5.0, with a significance level of 5%. The results demonstrated a significant inhibition on C. albicans hyphae formation by the crude extract and mainly by SMF2, with significant alterations in the expression of all genes analyzed. The crude extract and SM-F2 negatively regulated the expression of the CPH1, EFG1, HWP1 and UME6 genes, in contrast, positively regulated the expression of the YWP1 gene, involved in the mechanism of yeast dispersion. In the CFU/mL analyzes, the results showed a reduction in the counts of C. albicans in the biofilms formed when in contact with the crude extract, SM-F1 and SM-F2 fractions in all tested concentrations and the crude extract totally reduced C. albicans cells at 15 mg/mL concentration. The results of our study demonstrated that the crude extract and fractions of S. mutans presented inhibitory effects on important mechanisms of virulence of C. albicans, providing evidence that S. mutans produces substances with antifungal action, making it promising in the search for new compounds antimicrobials for the prevention and treatment of human candidoses(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Candida albicans/classificação , Streptococcus mutans/imunologia , Bioprospecção/classificação
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