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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 1069-1074, May-June, 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas), VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129781

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate the digestive tract characteristics, metabolizability and nutrient retention of broilers fed diets supplemented with enzyme complex (EC). To evaluate the characteristics of the digestive tract 600 female Cobb 500 birds were used, distributed in a completely randomized design, with 5 inclusion levels of the EC (0; 100, 200, 300 and 400 g/ton) and 6 replicates of 20 birds each. To evaluate the metabolizability and the retention of nutrients 200 female Cobb 500 birds at 15 days of age were used, distributed in a completely randomized design with 5 levels of supplementation of the EC and 4 replicates of 10 birds each. No significant effects (P>0.05) were observed for the supplementation of the EC in the intestinal pH, digestive organ weight, intestinal length and metabolizable coefficients of dry matter and crude protein. The metabolizable coefficient of ethereal extract was influenced in a quadratic decreasing form (P<0.01). The metabolizable coefficients of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) were influenced in a quadratic increase (P<0.01), resulting in increased Ca retention in 21.39% and P in 9.56%. Supplementation of the EC in broiler diets improves the metabolizability and retention of P and Ca, without affecting the other parameters evaluated.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Enzimas/administração & dosagem , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Celulases
2.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(4): 545-549, dic. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1124032

RESUMO

Los estreptococos del grupo Streptococcus anginosus (GSA) comprenden uno de los grupos que conforman el grupo viridans de estreptococos y son parte de la microbiota humana habitual de la cavidad oral, del tracto respiratorio superior y del tracto gastrointestinal. Pueden producir colecciones purulentas de órganos sólidos, abscesos cutáneos y celulitis, entre otras infecciones. Este grupo posee numerosos factores de virulencia como hialuronidasa, adhesinas, enzimas extracelulares y hemolisinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue presentar tres casos clínicos de infecciones asociadas a traumatismos vinculados con la cavidad oral como golpes de puño o mordeduras humanas. En todos ellos, los GSA desarrollaron como germen único, lo que pone de manifiesto su importante rol en este tipo de infecciones.


The Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG) is part of the viridans group streptococci and they belong to the normal human microbiota of the oral cavity, the upper respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract. It can produce purulent collections of solid organs, cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis, among other infections. This group has numerous virulence factors such as hyaluronidase, adhesins, extracellular enzymes and hemolysins. The objective of this work is to present three clinical cases of infections associated with trauma related to the oral cavity such as fist bumps or human bites. In all of them, the SAG developed as a single organism, which highlights its important role in this type of infection.


Os estreptococos do grupo do Streptococcus anginosus (GSA) são parte de um dos grupos que constituem o grupo viridans e fazem parte da microbiota normal da cavidade oral, do trato respiratório superior e do trato gastrointestinal dos seres humanos. Podem produzir coleções purulentas de órgãos sólidos, abscessos cutâneos e celulite, entre outras infecções. Este grupo possui numerosos fatores de virulência, como hialuronidases, adesinas, enzimas extracelulares e hemolisinas. O objetivo desse trabalho foi apresentar três casos clínicos de infecções associadas a traumatismos associados à cavidade oral, decorrentes de socos ou mordidas humanas. Em todos eles os GSA se desenvolveram como germe único, o que põe de manifesto seu papel importante nesse tipo de infecções.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ferimentos e Lesões , Mordeduras e Picadas , Mordeduras Humanas , Streptococcus anginosus , Boca , Pele , Celulite (Flegmão) , Streptococcus anginosus/classificação , Fatores de Virulência , Abscesso , Enzimas , Microbiota , Celulite , Hialuronoglucosaminidase , Infecções
3.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(4): 487-497, dic. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1124026

RESUMO

Equivalence of results among laboratories is a major mission for medical laboratories. In the Netherlands, medical laboratories only use homogenous, commercial for general chemistry analytes, whereas in Argentina heterogenous, home brew test applications are common. The effect of this practice difference on test accuracy is studied using key features of the accuracy-based EQA program of the Netherlands. Six frozen, human-based, commutable poolsera, covering the (patho) physiological measuring range for 17 general chemistry analytes, were assayed by ~75 Argentinian labs and ~200 Dutch laboratories in 2014. After removal of outliers, harmonization status among laboratories was evaluated by calculating overall mean interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVs, %) per analyte and per country for all 6 levels. Evenso, standardization status was evaluated after removal of outliers by calculating overall mean recoveries (%) as compared to the assigned target values per analyte per country for all 6 levels. Absolute median biases were compared to (minimal/desirable) biases derived from biological variation criteria. For serum enzymes interlaboratory CVs in the Argentinian laboratories ranged between 10 and 22%, as compared to 3-6% in the Netherlands. For serum uric acid, creatinine, glucose and total protein, interlaboratory CVs varied between 4.3 and 13.1% in Argentinian labs, as compared to <3.5% in the Netherlands. For serum electrolytes, interlaboratory CVs ranged between 1.8 and 3.8% for Na+; 2.9-5.8% for Cl-; 3.8-7.5% for K+; 9.4-10.4% for Ca2+ and 16.2-22.3% for Mg2+ as compared to ≤2% (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) and ≤3% (Mg2+) in the Netherlands. Mean recoveries in Argentinian laboratories for e.g. serum creatinine, glucose, CK, Ca2+ and Na+ were 95-119%; 95-104%; 98-102%; 98-102% and 96-100% respectively, whereas min-max recovery ranges were 65-155%; 58-126%; 47-132%; 66-132% and 85-115%. In the Netherlands, absolute mean recoveries were overall 98.9% with a SD of 2.0%. Median biases in Argentinian laboratories ranged from -2.9 to 18.2%; -3.1 - 2.6%; -3.3 - 0.5%; -1.1 - 3.8% and -4.3-0% for serum creatinine, glucose, CK, Ca2+ and Na+. In the Netherlands overall mean/median biases were 1.1% (SD=2.0%). Exchange of commutable, value- assigned EQA-materials was helpful for studying the harmonization and standardization status of medical tests in Argentina, and for revealing the future harmonization and standardization potential. The results clearly demonstrate that metrological traceability of test results in Argentina is on average in line with what is expected; yet, the spreading among laboratories is far too high and should be improved.


La equivalencia de resultados entre laboratorios es una mision importante para los laboratorios medicos. En los Paises Bajos, los laboratorios medicos solo usan aplicaciones comerciales homogeneas, regulatoriamente aprobadas (CE-IVD) para analitos quimicos, mientras que en la Argentina son comunes las aplicaciones heterogeneas caseras. El efecto de esta diferencia practica en la precision de la prueba se estudia utilizando caracteristicas clave del programa EQA, basado en la precision, de los Paises Bajos. Se ensayaron seis pools de sueros, congelados, de origen humano, conmutables, que cubrian el rango de medidas (pato)fisiologicas para 17 analitos de quimica clinica. Estos analitos de quimica clinica fueron analizados por ~75 laboratorios argentinos y ~200 laboratorios holandeses en 2014. Despues de eliminar los valores atipicos, el estado de armonizacion entre los laboratorios fue evaluado calculando los coeficientes de variacion interlaboratorios medios globales (CV%) por analito y por pais para los 6 niveles. No obstante, el estado de estandarizacion se evaluo despues de la eliminacion de valores atipicos mediante el calculo de recuperaciones medias generales (%) en comparacion con los valores asignados por analito por pais para los 6 niveles. Los sesgos medios absolutos se compararon con los sesgos (minimos / deseables) derivados de los criterios de variacion biologica. Para enzimas sericas los CV interlaboratorio en los laboratorios argentinos oscilaron entre 10 y 22%, en comparacion con 3-6% en los Paises Bajos. Para el acido urico serico, creatinina, glucosa y proteinas totales, los CV entre laboratorios variaron entre 4,3 y 13,1% en los laboratorios argentinos, en comparacion con <3,5% en los Paises Bajos. Para los electrolitos sericos, los CV interlaboratorios oscilaron entre 1,8 y 3,8% para Na+; 2,9-5,8% para Cl-; 3,8-7,5% para K+; 9,4-10,4% para Ca2+ y 16,2-22,3% para Mg2+ en comparacion a ≤2% (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) y ≤3% (Mg2+) en los Paises Bajos. Las recuperaciones medias en laboratorios argentinos para, p.ej. la creatinina serica, glucosa, CK, Ca2+ y Na+ fueron 95-119%; 95-104%; 98-102%; 98-102% y 96-100% respectivamente, mientras que los rangos de recuperacion min-max fueron 65-155%; 58-126%; 47-132%; 66-132% y 85-115%. En los Paises Bajos, las recuperaciones medias absolutas fueron en general del 98,9% con una desviacion estandar (DE) del 2,0%. La mediana de los sesgos medios de los laboratorios argentinos oscilo entre -2,9 y 18,2%; -3,1 - 2,6%; -3,3 - 0,5%; -1,1 - 3,8% y -4,3-0% para creatinina serica, glucosa, CK, Ca2+ y Na+. En los Paises Bajos, las medias / medianas en general fueron de 1,1% (DE=2,0%). El intercambio de los valores asignados a los materiales EQA, conmutables fue de gran ayuda para la armonizacion y estandarizacion de los ensayos medicos en la Argentina y para revelar el potencial futuro de armonizacion y estandarizacion. Estos resultados claramente demuestran que la trazabilidad metrologica de los resultados de las pruebas en la Argentina esta, en promedio, de acuerdo con lo esperable; sin embargo, la dispersion entre laboratorios es muy grande y deberia ser mejorada.


A equivalencia de resultados entre laboratorios e uma missao importante para os laboratorios medicos. Nos Paises Baixos, os laboratorios medicos so utilizam aplicacoes comerciais homogeneas, aprovadas por regulacoes (CE-IVD) para analitos quimicos, ao passo que na Argentina sao comuns as aplicacoes heterogeneas caseiras. O efeito desta diferenca pratica na exatidao do teste e estudado utilizando caracteristicas essenciais do programa EQA, dos Paises Baixos, baseado na exatidao. Foram ensaiados seis pools de soros, congelados, de origem humana, comutaveis, que abrangiam a faixa de medidas (pato)fisiologicas para 17 analitos quimicos gerais. Esses analitos quimicos foram analisados por ~75 laboratorios argentinos e ~200 laboratorios holandeses em 2014. Apos eliminar os valores atipicos, o estado de harmonizacao entre os laboratorios foi avaliado atraves do calculo dos coeficientes de variacao interlaboratorio meios globais (CV%) por analito e por pais para os 6 niveis. Nao obstante, o estado de padronizacao foi avaliado depois da eliminacao de valores atipicos pelo calculo de recuperacoes medias gerais (%) se comparados com os valores atribuidos por analito por pais para os 6 niveis. Os vieses medios absolutos foram comparados com os vieses (minimos / desejaveis) decorrentes dos criterios de variacao biologica. Para enzimas sericas, os CV interlaboratorio nos laboratorios argentinos oscilaram entre 10 e 22%, em comparacao com 3-6% nos Paises Baixos. Para o acido urico serico, creatinina, glicose e proteinas totais, os CV entre laboratorios variaram entre 4,3 e 13,1% nos laboratorios argentinos, em comparacao com <3,5% nos Paises Baixos para os eletrolitos sericos, os CV interlaboratorios oscilaram entre 1,8 e 3,8% para Na+; 2,9-5,8% para Cl-; 3,8-7,5% para K+; 9,4-10,4% para Ca2+ e 16,2-22,3% para Mg2+ em comparacao com ≤2% (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) e ≤3% (Mg2+) nos Paises Baixos. As recuperacoes medias em laboratorios argentinos para, p.ex. a creatinina serica, glicose, CK, Ca2+ e Na+ foram 95-119%; 95-104%; 98-102%; 98-102% e 96-100% respectivamente, enquanto que os intervalos de recuperacao min-max. foram 65-155%; 58-126%; 47-132%; 66-132% e 85-115%. Nos Paises Baixos, as recuperacoes medias absolutas foram em geral de 98,9% com um desvio padrao (DE) de 2,0%. A mediana dos vieses medios dos laboratorios argentinos oscilou entre -2,9 e 18,2%; -3,1 - 2,6%; -3,3 - 0,5%; -1,1 - 3,8% e -4,3-0% para creatinina serica, glicose, CK, Ca2+ e Na+. Nos Paises Baixos, as medias / medianas em geral foram de 1,1% (DE=2,0%). O intercambio dos valores atribuidos aos materiais EQA, comutaveis, foi de grande ajuda para a harmonizacao e padronizacao dos ensaios medicos na Argentina e para revelar o potencial futuro de harmonizacao e padronizacao. Esses resultados demonstram as claras que a rastreabilidade metrologica dos resultados dos testes na Argentina esta de acordo com o esperavel; a dispersao entre laboratorios ainda e muito grande e deveria ser melhorada.


Assuntos
Humanos , Padrões de Referência , Testes de Química Clínica , Testes de Química Clínica/métodos , Laboratórios , Médicos , Ácido Úrico , Pesos e Medidas , Proteínas , Viés , Química Clínica , Creatinina , Estado , Eletrólitos , Enzimas , Metodologia , Glucose
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 1-8, sept. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1053552

RESUMO

Background: The bioethanol produced from biomass is a promising alternative fuel. The lignocellulose from marginal areas or wasteland could be a promising raw material for bioethanol production because it is present in large quantities, is cheap, renewable and has favorable environmental properties. Despite these advantages, lignocellulosic biomass is much more difficult to process than cereal grains, due to the need for intensive pretreatment and relatively large amounts of cellulases for efficient hydrolysis. Therefore, there is a need to develop an efficient and cost-effective method for the degradation and fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Results: The usefulness of lignocellulosic biomass from wasteland for the production of bioethanol using pretreatment with the aid of ionic liquids of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was evaluated in this study. The pretreatment process, enzymatic hydrolysis and alcoholic fermentation lasted a total of 10 d. The largest amounts of bioethanol were obtained from biomass originating from agricultural wasteland, in which the dominant plant was fireweed (Chamaenerion angustifolium) and from the field where the common broom (Cytisus scoparius) was the dominant. Conclusions: The plants such as fireweed, common broom, hay and goldenrod may be useful for the production of liquid biofuels and it would be necessary in the further stage of research to establish and optimize the conditions for the technology of ethyl alcohol producing from these plant species. Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass from agricultural wastelands results in a large increase in fermentable sugars, comparable to the enzymatic hydrolysis of rye, wheat, rice or maize straw.


Assuntos
Solo/química , Biomassa , Etanol/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Celulases/análise , Enzimas/metabolismo , Líquidos Iônicos , Biocombustíveis , Hidrólise , Lignina/análise
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 78-83, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1053493

RESUMO

Background: Mathematical modeling is useful in the analysis, prediction, and optimization of an enzymatic process. Unlike the conventional modeling methods, Monte Carlo method has special advantages in providing representations of the molecule's spatial distribution. However, thus far, Monte Carlo modeling of enzymatic system is namely based on unimolecular basis, not suitable for practical applications. In this research, Monte Carlo modeling is performed for enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose for the purpose of real-time applications. Results: The enzyme hydrolysis of lactose, which is conformed to Michaelis­Menten kinetics, is modeled using the Monte Carlo modeling method, and the simulation results prove that the model predicts the reaction kinetics very well. Conclusions: Monte Carlo modeling method can be used to model enzymatic reactions in a simple way for real-time applications.


Assuntos
Método de Monte Carlo , Enzimas/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Lactose/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Cinética , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Galactose/metabolismo
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 52-57, July. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1053462

RESUMO

Background: Plastic waste is a serious problem because it is difficult to degrade, thereby leading to global environment problems. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, and it can be degraded by various enzymes produced by microorganisms. This study focused on the scale-up and evaluated the bioprocess of PLA degradation by a crude microbial enzyme produced by Actinomadura keratinilytica strain T16-1 in a 5 L stirred tank bioreactor. Results: PLA degradation after 72 h in a 5 L bioreactor by using the enzyme of the strain T16-1 under controlled pH conditions resulted in lactic acid titers (mg/L) of 16,651 mg/L and a conversion efficiency of 89% at a controlled pH of 8.0. However, the PLA degradation process inadvertently produced lactic acid as a potential inhibitor, as shown in our experiments at various concentrations of lactic acid. Therefore, the dialysis method was performed to reduce the concentration of lactic acid. The experiment with a dialysis bag achieved PLA degradation by weight loss of 99.93%, whereas the one without dialysis achieved a degradation of less than approximately 14.75%. Therefore, the dialysis method was applied to degrade a commercial PLA material (tray) with a conversion efficiency of 32%, which was 6-fold more than that without dialysis. Conclusions: This is the first report demonstrating the scale-up of PLA degradation in a 5 L bioreactor and evaluating a potential method for enhancing PLA degradation efficiency.


Assuntos
Poliésteres/metabolismo , Actinomycetales/enzimologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Polímeros/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ácido Láctico/análise , Reatores Biológicos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 1015-1026, May-June 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas), VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011301

RESUMO

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a conversão alimentar, a digestibilidade do amido, o comportamento ingestivo e o escore de sobras da dieta e de fezes de novilhos confinados, suplementados com doses do complexo enzimático (0; 2,5; 5,0 e 7,5g animal-1 dia-1) e alimentados com dieta constituída por 85% de grão de milho e 15% de núcleo proteico, vitamínico e mineral, na base seca, isenta de forragem. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso contendo quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Trinta e dois novilhos inteiros, ½ sangue Angus Nelore, com idade média de 12 meses e peso vivo médio inicial de 422kg, foram confinados por um período de 77 dias. Cada grama de inclusão de complexo enzimático melhorou a conversão alimentar em 0,1652%, reduziu a matéria seca das fezes em 0,4648% e o tempo de ingestão de água em 0,0068 horas dia-1. A máxima digestibilidade do amido foi alcançada na dose de 5,08g animal-1 dia-1. A inclusão progressiva do complexo enzimático à dieta de alta densidade energética promoveu melhoria na conversão alimentar, redução na matéria seca das fezes e diminuição do tempo de ingestão de água. A dose de 5g animal-1 dia-1 do complexo enzimático aumentou a digestibilidade do amido.(AU)


The objective was to evaluate the feed conversion, starch digestibility, ingestive behavior, diet leftover score and feces score of steers supplemented with doses of enzyme complex (0; 2.5; 5.0 and 7 .5g animal -1 day -1 ) fed with roughage-free diet composed of a mixture of 85% whole corn grain and 15% protein-mineral-vitamin mix, on a dry matter basis. A completely randomized block design was adopted, consisting of four treatments and four replicates. Thirty-two ½ Angus ½ Nellore crossbred steers at an average age of 12 months, with an average initial weight of 422kg, were kept in a feedlot for 77 days. Each gram of enzyme complex inclusion improved feed conversion in 0.1652%, decreased feces dry matter in 0,4648% and time of water intake in 0.0068 hours day -1 . The maximum starch digestibility was reached in the dose of 5,08g animal -1 day -1 . The gradual inclusion of enzyme complex promoted improvement in feed conversion, reduction in the dry matter of feces and redution in the time of water intake. The enzyme complex dose of 5.0g animal -1 day -1 increased the starch digestibility.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Amido/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Enzimas/administração & dosagem , Amidos e Féculas
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 990-996, May-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS (Américas), VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011324

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de complexos enzimáticos sobre a energia metabolizável e o coeficiente de digestibilidade de nutrientes do milheto para frangos de corte. Quinhentos e setenta e seis frangos machos foram distribuídos em 36 gaiolas, com três tratamentos: T1 - composição de milheto sem complexo enzimático; T2 - composição de milheto com complexo enzimático (CES) e T3 - composição de milheto com complexo enzimático (CEV). Os tratamentos foram definidos com base em seis dietas (três dietas referências e três dietas testes). As dietas testes foram obtidas pela substituição de 40% da dieta referência por milheto inteiro, e a adição de enzimas consistiu de dois complexos enzimáticos: CES, constituído pelas enzimas fitase, protease, xilanase, ß-glucanase, celulase, amilase e pectinase; e CEV. constituído pelas enzimas protease, celulase e amilase. Na fase de 11 a 20 dias, a suplementação com o CEV reduziu os valores de EMA, EMAn e CDPB. A suplementação com CES melhorou o CDPB, e não houve efeito significativo para CDMS e CDEB. Na fase de 21 a 30 dias, houve menor aproveitamento da energia e dos nutrientes com as suplementações CES e CEV. Na fase de 31 a 40 dias, as suplementações reduziram os valores de EMA, EMAn, e o complexo CEV foi efetivo em aumentar o valor de CDPB. A inclusão dos complexos enzimáticos CES (fitase, protease, xilanase, ß-glucanase, celulase, amilase e pectinase) e CEV (protease, celulase e amilase) não favoreceu a utilização da energia do milheto, no entanto melhorou o coeficiente de digestibilidade da proteína do milheto nos períodos de 11 a 20 e de 31 a 40 dias de idade.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of enzymatic complexes on metabolizable energy and nutrient digestibility coefficient of millet for broilers chickens. 576 male chickens, were distributed in 36 cages with three treatments: T1 - millet composition without enzymatic complex; T2 - millet composition with enzymatic complex (ECS); and T3 - millet composition with enzymatic complex (ECV). The treatments were defined from six diets (3 reference diets and 3 test diets). The test diets were obtained from the substitution of 40% for reference diet by whole millet, and the enzyme addition consisted of two enzymatic complex, ECS constituted by phytase, protease, xylanase, ß-glucanase, cellulase, amylase and pectinase enzymes, and ECV constituted by protease, cellulase and amylase enzymes. In the 11 to 20 days phase, a supplementation with the ECV reduced the AME, AMEn and CDPB values, a ECS supplementation improved the CDPB, and there was no significant effect for CDMS and CDEB. In the 21 to 30 days phase, there were less profit of the energy and nutrients with ECS and ECV supplements. In the 31 to 40 days phase as supplements reduced the values of AME, AMEn, and the ECV complex was effective in increasing the value of CDPB. The inclusion of ECS enzymatic complexes, (phytase, protease, xylanase, ß-glucanase, cellulase, amylase and pectinase) and ECV (protease, cellulase and amylase), did not favor millet's energy utilization, however, favored the millet's protein digestibility coefficient on 11 to 20 and 31 to 40 periods.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Galinhas , Enzimas , Milhetes , Ração Animal/análise , Digestão
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 983-989, May-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas), VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011318

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to evaluate broiler chicken performance and carcass yield in response to carbohydrase supplementation (Xylanase and Betaglucanase; XB) and association of carbohydrase and phytase (PHY). A total of 1,920 day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were distributed in a completely randomized design with 8 treatments and 8 replicates each, allocated in 64 pens with 30 chicks each. The treatments were: Positive Control (PC); Negative Control (NC): reduced ME [-120kcal/kg (Starter) and -170kcal/kg (Finisher)]; NC + XB [50g/ton]; NC + XB [100g/ton]; NC + XB [150g/ton]; NC + XB [50g/ton] + PHY [100g/ton]; NC + XB [100g/ton] + PHY [100g/ton]; NC + XB [150g/ton] + PHY [100g/ton]. The inclusion of XB (150) and XB (50, 100, and 150) associated with phytase increased feed intake than positive control when considering the total rearing phase. The feed conversion ratio of all broilers fed diets with energy reduction were worse than positive control, even with the addition of enzymes, and did not differ between them. There was no significant effect of treatments on carcass parameters.(AU)


O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte em resposta à suplementação de carboidrase (Xilanase e Betaglucanase; XB) e à associação de carboidrase com fitase (PHY). Um total de 1.920 frangos de corte, machos, com 1 dia de idade (Cobb 500), foram distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e oito repetições, totalizando 64 unidades experimentais (boxes) com 30 aves cada. Os tratamentos foram: controle positivo (PC); controle negativo (NC): redução de EM [-120kcal/kg (fase inicial) e -170kcal/kg (fase final)]; NC + XB [50g/ton]; NC + XB [100g/ton]; NC + XB [150g/ton]; NC + XB [50g/ton] + PHY [100g/ton]; NC + XB [100g/ton] + PHY [100g/ton]; NC + XB [150g/ton] + PHY [100g/ton]. A inclusão de XB (150) e a associação de fitase com XB (50, 100 e 150) aumentaram o consumo de ração em relação ao tratamento controle positivo, considerando-se a fase total de criação. A conversão alimentar de todos os frangos que receberam dietas com redução de energia foi pior que o controle positivo, mesmo com a adição das enzimas, e não diferiu entre elas. Não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre os parâmetros de carcaça.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Enzimas , Ração Animal
10.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 892-902, may./jun. 2019. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1048698

RESUMO

The application of ligninolytic bacteria and enzymes is a green pre-treatment alternative in the production of paper and biofuel from oil palm residues. In this study we investigated the ability of Lysinibacillus pakistanensis isolated from termite gut in degrading the lignin component of oil palm residues. The residues were biotreated with the bacterial strain in an aerated submerged fermentation system for 7 days at 30 , pH 7 and compared with untreated control. Enzyme activities were determined using specific substrates. Peak lignin peroxidase (377.6 U/L), manganese peroxidase (218.19 U/L), and laccase (405.4 U/L) activity were recorded after 4,4, and 5 days of incubation respectively, using oil palm leaf as substrates. Lignin loss of 4.5%, 5.7% and 6.6% in oil palm leaf, oil palm trunk and empty fruit bunch respectively was achieved after treatment with the microorganism. SEM images revealed structural changes in the cell wall of the residues. Pre-treatment with this bacterial strain has promising prospects of improving the efficiency of the pulping process in an environmentally safe manner.


A aplicação de bactérias e enzimas ligninolíticas é uma alternativa verde de pré-tratamento na produção de papel e biocombustível a partir de resíduos de óleo de palma. Neste estudo, investigamos a capacidade de Lysinibacillus pakistanensis isolado do intestino de cupins na degradação do componente de lignina dos resíduos de dendê. Os resíduos foram biotratados com a estirpe bacteriana num sistema de fermentação submersa arejado durante 7 dias a 30ºC, pH 7 e comparados com controle não tratado. As atividades enzimáticas foram determinadas usando substratos específicos. Pico de lignina peroxidase (377,6 U/L), peroxidase de manganês (218,19 U/L) e atividade de lacase (405,4 U/L) foram registradas após 4,4 e 5 dias de incubação, respectivamente, utilizando como substratos a folha da palmeira de dendê. A perda de lignina de 4,5%, 5,7% e 6,6% na folha da palmeira, no tronco do dendezeiro e cacho de frutas vazio, respectivamente, foi alcançada após o tratamento com o microorganismo. Imagens de MEV revelaram alterações estruturais na parede celular dos resíduos. O pré-tratamento com esta cepa bacteriana tem perspectivas promissoras de melhorar a eficiência do processo de polpação de maneira ambientalmente segura.


Assuntos
Óleo de Palmeira , Enzimas , Lignina , Bactérias
11.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 933-940, may./jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1048705

RESUMO

Endoglucanases are enzymes widely employed in different industrial fields, albeit with high production costs. Studies on new microbial sources and low-cost substrates are highly relevant, including those on agro-industrial. Current analysis evaluates peanut hull (PH) and sawdust (SD) as substrates for submerged cultures of 14 endophytic fungi isolated from grapevine (Vitis labrusca L.) cultivars Bordô and Concord. Endophytes were grown on a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) medium and the cup plate assay showed that eight strains (belonging to genera Cochliobolus, Diaporthe, Fusarium and Phoma) had positive results: enzymatic halos ranged from 10.8±0.02to 15.5±0.07 mm in diameter. Diaporthe sp. strains (GenBank accession codes KM362392, KM362368 and KM362378) and Fusariumculmorum KM362384 were highlighted as the most promising sources. Further, PH and SD as substrates for the fermentation of these fungi were evaluated by the cup plate assay and endoglucanase activity assay. Highest halo diameters were obtained for Diaporthe sp. KM362392: 16.1±0.01 mm (CMC), 14.5±0.01 mm (PH) and 14.7±0.03 mm (SD). The fungus also presented the highest levels of endoglucanase activity: analysis of variance revealed that CMC (3.52±0.98 µmol/min), PH (2.93±0.23 µmol/min) and SD (3.26±0.38 µmol/min) were similarly efficient as substrates. Results deepen knowledge on V. labrusca endophytes that may be endoglucanase sources, eventhough further optimizations in submerged cultures with PH and SD should be undertaken to increase theenzymatic production from these wastes.


Endoglucanases são enzimas amplamente empregadas em diferentes setores industriais; embora sua produção apresente custos elevados. Estudos sobre novas fontes microbianas e substratos mais baratos são de grande importância, incluindo os resíduos agroindustriais. Nesse estudo, casca de amendoim (CA) e serragem (SE) foram testadas como substratos para o cultivo submerso de 14 fungos endofíticos isolados das cultivares Bordô e Concord de videira (Vitis labrusca L.) Os endófitos foram crescidos em meio contendo carboximetilcelulose (CMC) e o ensaio cup plate mostrou resultados positivos para oito fungos (pertencentes aos gêneros Cochliobolus, Diaporthe, Fusarium and Phoma); os halos enzimáticos variaram entre 10,8±0,02 e 15,5±0,07 mm de diâmetro. Linhagens de Diaporthe sp. (códigos de acesso no GenBank KM362392, KM362368 e KM362378) e Fusariumculmorum KM362384 se destacaram como produtores mais promissores. Então, o uso de CA e SE como substratos para a fermentação desses fungos foi avaliado pelo ensaio cup plate e pela quantificação da atividade de endoglucanase. Os maiores halos enzimáticos foram obtidos para Diaporthe sp. KM362392: 16,1±0,01 mm (CMC), 14,5±0,01 mm (CA) e 14,7±0,03 mm (SE). Esse fungo também apresentou os maiores níveis de endoglucanase: a análise de variância revelou que CMC (3,52±0,98 µmol/min), CA (2,93±0,23 µmol/min) e SE (3,26±0,38 µmol/min) foram substratos similarmente eficientes. Esses resultados expandem o conhecimento sobre endófitos de V. labrusca que são fontes de endoglucanases; futuras otimizações quanto ao cultivo submerso com CA e SE podem ser utilizadas para aumentar a produção enzimática a partir do uso desses resíduos.


Assuntos
Resíduos , Celulase , Substratos , Enzimas , Agroindústria , Endófitos
12.
CorSalud ; 11(2): 139-145, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1089725

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: Breves períodos de isquemia a distancia pueden limitar el daño miocárdico producido por la isquemia/reperfusión. Objetivos: Identificar el efecto del condicionamiento isquémico a distancia con fines de protección renal y hepática, relacionado al comportamiento postoperatorio de los niveles de creatinina y transaminasas glutámico-purúvica y glutámico-oxalacética en la revascularización miocárdica quirúrgica. Método: Se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental, explicativo, comparativo con control histórico, en dos grupos de 247 pacientes cada uno, propuestos para revascularización miocárdica quirúrgica. Se colocó un torniquete en el brazo derecho, en el grupo estudio, alternando 3 insuflaciones (con una presión de 200 mmHg) con 3 desinsuflaciones, durante cinco minutos cada una. Este procedimiento se realizó previo, durante y después de la mayor isquemia inducida, provocada por el pinzamiento de la arteria coronaria. Resultados: Se logró una disminución significativa en los valores de creatinina (p<0,001), transaminasa glutámico-purúvica (p<0,001) y transaminasa glutámico-oxalacética (p<0,05). Conclusiones: El condicionamiento isquémico a distancia es una importante herramienta a tener en cuenta para la protección renal y hepática en la revascularización miocárdica quirúrgica.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Short periods of distant ischemia can limit myocardial damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion. Objective: To identify the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning in relation to the postoperative behavior of creatinine, glutamic transaminase, puruvic and oxalacetic levels. Method: A quasi-experimental, explanatory, comparative study with historical control was carried out in two groups of 247 patients each; all candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting. A blood-pressure cuff was placed on the right arm in the study group alternating three inflations with three deflations of five minutes at 200 mmHg. This procedure was performed prior to during and after the major ischemic episode caused by the coronary artery impingement. Results: A significant decrease in the values ​​of creatinine, puruvic glutamic transaminase and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase was achieved. Conclusions: Remote ischemic conditioning is an important tool to take into account for renal and hepatic protection in coronary artery bypass grafting.


Assuntos
Precondicionamento Isquêmico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Creatinina , Enzimas , Transaminases , Revascularização Miocárdica
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 323-330, jan.-fev. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS (Américas), VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989385

RESUMO

In fish farming, the use of alternative ingredients has been studied, so that alternative sources can be used to minimize feed costs. This study evaluated the incorporation of grape, orange, guava, and fig residues in diets for silver catfish and its effects on growth, digestive enzymes and body composition. A total of 180 fish (initial mean weight = 22.93±0.75 g) were reared in a recirculation aquaculture system. There was no difference (P>0.05) in the parameters of growth, dry matter, mineral matter, plasma protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipase, and trypsin of fish. Glucose levels were higher in fish fed diets containing fig, orange, and grape residue (P<0.05). Lipase activity was higher in fish fed orange residue, compared to guava (P<0.05). Diets containing guava and fig provided more body protein in silver catfish. The fish fed with diet containing orange residue had a higher content of body lipids. It can be concluded that the tested fruit residues can be used in silver catfish feeding.(AU)


Na piscicultura, o uso de ingredientes alternativos vem sendo estudado, de modo que seja possível utilizar fontes alternativas para minimizar custos com a alimentação. Neste estudo, foi avaliada a incorporação de resíduos de uva, laranja, goiaba e figo em rações para jundiá e seus efeitos no crescimento, em enzimas digestivas e na composição corporal. Foram utilizados 180 peixes (peso médio inicial = 22,93±0,75 g), criados em sistema de recirculação. Não houve diferença (P>0,05) nos parâmetros de crescimento, matéria seca, matéria mineral, proteína plasmática, colesterol, triglicerídeos, lipase e tripsina dos peixes. Os níveis de glicose foram maiores nos peixes alimentados com dietas contendo figo, laranja e uva (P<0,05). A atividade de lipase foi maior nos peixes alimentados com resíduo de laranja, comparado com o de goiaba (P<0,05). As dietas contendo goiaba e figo proporcionaram mais proteína corporal nos jundiás. Os jundiás alimentados com dieta contendo resíduo de laranja apresentaram maior teor de lipídeos corporal. Conclui-se que os resíduos de frutas testados podem ser usados na alimentação do jundiá.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Enzimas , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pesqueiros/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição
14.
Actual. nutr ; 20(1): [2-6], Enero-Marzo 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS (Américas) | ID: biblio-1087488

RESUMO

Introducción: la α-amilasa es una enzima que tiene la capacidad de digerir uniones α (1,4). En la leche sus funciones son poco conocidas. Objetivos: determinar la actividad de la α-amilasa en el suero lácteo humano. Materiales y métodos: la medición se realizó con un kit comercial para determinación de amilasa sérica y se utilizaron muestras de leche humana. Resultados: se encontró una actividad promedio de 2.000 U/l. La comparación de las medias de los valores de actividad desde el segundo al quinto día (1,372±0,796) con los correspondientes al lapso desde el sexto día al cuadragésimo séptimo (0,412±0,250) demostró que los valores eran significativamente diferentes (p<0,0025). Los coeficientes de variación de los dos grupos mencionados (1-5 días y 6-47 días) fueron 58 y 61% respectivamente. De manera adicional, la expresión de la amilasa mostró una gran variación entre madres. Conclusiones: a partir de esta información y de los antecedentes bibliográficos, la α-amilasa láctea tendría una función de defensa en el organismo del recién nacido lactante, y recién al iniciar la alimentación suplementada cumpliría el rol conocido. Aún así el significado biológico de su función en la leche es un problema abierto.


Assuntos
Colostro , Enzimas , alfa-Amilases , Leite Humano
15.
Artigo em Inglês | AIM (África) | ID: afr-201646

RESUMO

Background and study aim: Liver enzymes are important markers for hepatocyte damage. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a combination of metabolic abnormalities including high blood glucose, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The incidence of MS is believed to be increasing in Egypt. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between elevated liver enzymes and MS among Egyptian adults. Patients and Methods: A total 138 apparently healthy subjects were randomly included (99 females and 39 males). Demographic, clinical (blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference) and biochemical (measurements of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lipid profile, blood glucose and viral markers) were collected from every subject. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to a well-known criteria and subjects in the final analysis were divided into group I; metabolic syndrome and group II; non-metabolic syndrome subjects. Results: In this study, 92 persons fulfilled three of the five criteria of metabolic syndrome (group I) with prevalence of 66.7% while group II (non-metabolic syndrome) represented 33.3%. Patients with MS were older and less physically active in comparison with group II. There were an association between elevations in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) and MS. ALT, AST and ALP were elevated in 42.4%, 17.2% and 20.7% of patients with MS respectively. ALT and AST showed positive correlation with elevated blood glucose and triglycerides levels while AST/ALT ratio showed negative correlation with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides level and waist circumference. The more items of MS the patient have the higher the level of liver enzymes. Conclusion: Among Egyptian adults elevated levels of liver enzymes were associated with MS and a correlation was noticed with its components


Assuntos
Fígado , Enzimas , Síndrome , Adulto , Egito
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1806-1818, 2019.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-771751

RESUMO

Industrial enzymes are the "chip" of modern bio-industries, supporting tens- and hundreds-fold of downstream industries development. Elucidating the relationships between enzyme structures and functions is fundamental for industrial applications. Recently, with the advanced developments of protein crystallization and computational simulation technologies, the structure-function relationships have been extensively studied, making the rational design and de novo design become possible. This paper reviews the progress of structure-function relationships of industrial enzymes and applications, and address future developments.


Assuntos
Biocatálise , Biotecnologia , Enzimas , Química , Genética , Metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Engenharia de Proteínas , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1819-1828, 2019.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-771750

RESUMO

We review major computational chemistry techniques applied in industrial enzyme studies, especially approaches intended for guiding enzyme engineering. These include molecular mechanics force field and molecular dynamics simulation, quantum mechanical and combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical approaches, electrostatic continuum models, molecular docking, etc. These approaches are essentially introduced from the following two angles for viewing: one is about the methods themselves, including the basic concepts, the primary computational results, and potential advantages and limitations; the other is about obtaining valuable information from the respective calculations to guide the design of mutants and mutant libraries.


Assuntos
Enzimas , Química , Genética , Metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas Mutantes , Química , Genética , Metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas , Teoria Quântica , Eletricidade Estática
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1829-1842, 2019.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-771749

RESUMO

Industrial enzymes have become the core "chip" for bio-manufacturing technology. Design and development of novel and efficient enzymes is the key to the development of industrial biotechnology. The scientific basis for the innovative design of industrial catalysts is an in-depth analysis of the structure-activity relationship between enzymes and substrates, as well as their regulatory mechanisms. With the development of bioinformatics and computational technology, the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme can be solved by various calculation methods. Subsequently, the specific regions of the structure can be rationally reconstructed to improve the catalytic performance, which will further promote the industrial application of the target enzyme. Computational simulation and rational design based on the analysis of the structure-activity relationship have become the crucial technology for the preparation of high-efficiency industrial enzymes. This review provides a brief introduction and discussion on various calculation methods and design strategies as well as future trends.


Assuntos
Biocatálise , Biotecnologia , Enzimas , Química , Metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Engenharia de Proteínas , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1857-1869, 2019.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-771747

RESUMO

Enzymes have a wide range of applications and great industrial potential. However, large-scale applications of enzymes are restricted by the harsh industrial environment, such as high temperature, strong acid/alkali, high salt, organic solvents, and high substrate concentration. Adaptive modification (such as rational or semi-rational design, directed evolution and immobilization) is the most common strategy to improve the catalysis of enzymes under industrial conditions. Here, we review the catalysis of enzymes in the industrial environment and various methods adopted for the adaptive modifications in recent years, to provide reference for the adaptive modifications of enzymes.


Assuntos
Biocatálise , Biotecnologia , Enzimas , Química , Metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Engenharia de Proteínas , Solventes , Química , Farmacologia
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1870-1888, 2019.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-771746

RESUMO

In vitro multi-enzyme molecular machines that follow the designed multi-enzyme pathways, require the rational optimization and adaptation of several purified or partially purified enzyme components, in order to convert certain substrates into target compounds in vitro in an efficient manner. This type of molecular machine is component-based and modularized, so that its design, assembly, and regulation processes are highly flexible. Recently, the advantages of in vitro multi-enzyme molecular machines on the precise control of reaction process and the enhancement of product yield have suggested their great application potential in biomanufacturing. Studies on in vitro multi-enzyme molecular machines have become an important branch of synthetic biology, and are gaining increasing attentions. This article systematically reviews the enzyme component-/module-based construction strategy of in vitro multi-enzyme molecular machines, as well as the research progress on the improvement of compatibility among enzyme components/modules. The current challenges and future prospects of in vitro multi-enzyme molecular machines are also discussed.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Enzimas , Química , Metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos , Química , Metabolismo , Biologia Sintética
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