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1.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; 97(1), p.24-32, fig., tab, 2019
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-4

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate a project that integrated essential primary health-care services into the oral polio vaccine programme in hard-toreach, underserved communities in northern Nigeria.Methods In 2013, Nigeria’s polio emergency operation centre adopted a new approach to rapidly raise polio immunity and reduce newborn, child and maternal morbidity and mortality. We identified, trained and equipped eighty-four mobile health teams to provide free vaccination and primary-care services in 3176 hard-to-reach settlements. We conducted cross-sectional surveys of women of childbearing age in households with children younger than 5 years, in 317 randomly selected settlements, pre- and post-intervention (March 2014 and November 2015, respectively). Findings From June 2014 to September 2015 mobile health teams delivered 2 979 408 doses of oral polio vaccine and dewormed 1 562 640 children younger than 5 years old; performed 676 678 antenatal consultations and treated 1 682 671 illnesses in women and children, including pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria. The baseline survey found that 758 (19.6%) of 3872 children younger than5 years had routine immunization cards and 690/3872 (17.8%) were fully immunized for their age. The endline survey found 1757/3575 children (49.1%) with routine immunization cards and 1750 (49.0%) fully immunized. Children vaccinated with 3 or more doses of oral polio vaccine increased from 2133 (55.1%) to 2666 (74.6%). Households’ use of mobile health services in the previous 6 months increased from 509/1472 (34.6%) to 2060/2426(84.9%). Conclusion Integrating routine primary-care services into polio eradication activities in Nigeria resulted in increased coverage for supplemental oral polio vaccine doses and essential maternal, newborn and child health intervention


Subject(s)
Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus , Health , Programs , Nigeria
2.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; 97(1), p.10-23, fig., tab, 2019
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-6

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine how multimorbidity might affect progression along the continuum of care among older adults with hypertension,diabetes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in rural South Africa.Methods We analysed data from 4447 people aged 40 years or older who were enrolled in a longitudinal study in Agincourt sub-district. Household-based interviews were completed between November 2014 and November 2015. For hypertension and diabetes (2813 and 512 people, respectively), we defined concordant conditions as other cardiometabolic conditions, and discordant conditions as mental disorders or HIV infection. For HIV infection (1027 people) we defined any other conditions as discordant. Regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between the type of multimorbidity and progression along the care continuum and the likelihood of patients being in each stage of care for the index condition (four stages from testing to treatment).Findings People with hypertension or diabetes plus other cardio metabolic conditions were more like to progress through the care continuum for the index condition than those without cardiometabolic conditions (relative risk, RR: 1.14, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.09–1.20, and: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.52–3.26, respectively). Having discordant comorbidity was associated with greater progression in care for those with hypertension but not diabetes. Those with HIV infection plus cardiometabolic conditions had less progress in the stages of care compared with those without such conditions (RR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.80–0.92).Conclusion Patients with concordant conditions were more likely to progress further along the care continuum, while those with discordant multimorbidity tended not to progress beyond diagnosis


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Diabetes Mellitus , HIV Infections , Morbidity , Adult , Africa
3.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization; 97(1), 2019
in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-8

ABSTRACT

Objective To obtain an estimate of the size of, and human immunodeficiency (HIV) prevalence among, young people and children living on the streets of Eldoret, Kenya. Methods We counted young people and children using a point-in-time approach, ensuring we reached our target population by engaging relevant community leaders during the planning of the study. We acquired point-in-time count data over a period of 1 week betweethe hours of 08:00 and 23:00, from both a stationary site and by mobile teams. Participants provided demographic data and a finger print(to avoid double-counting) and were encouraged to speak with an HIV counsellor and undergo HIV testing. We used a logistic regression (model to test for an association between age or sex and uptake of HIV testing and seropositivity. Findings Of the 1419 eligible participants counted, 1049 (73.9%) were male with a median age of 18 years. Of the 1029 who spoke with a counsellor, 1004 individuals accepted HIV counselling and 947 agreed to undergo an HIV test. Combining those who were already aware of their HIV-positive status with those who were tested during our study resulted in an overall HIV seroprevalence of 4.1%. The seroprevalence was 2.7% (19/698) for males and 8.9% (23/259) for females. We observed an increase in seroprevalence with increasing age for both sexes, but of much greater magnitude for females. Conclusion By counting young people and children living on the streets and offering them HIV counselling and testing, we could obtain population-based estimates of HIV prevalence


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Kenya
4.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; 97(1), p.42-50, fig., tab, 2019
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-10

ABSTRACT

Objective To estimate the association between legal age of consent and coverage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing among adolescents in countries with high HIV-burden. Methods We analysed data from adolescents aged 15–18 years, who participated in Demographic and Health Surveys or AIDS Indicator Surveys between 2011 and 2016, in 15 sub-Saharan African countries. To improve balance in the distribution of measured individual- and country-level haracteristics, we used propensity score matching between adolescents in countries with more versus less restrictive ageof-consent laws (≤15 years versus ≥16 years). We estimated the percentage of individuals who self-reported that they have done an HIV test in the past 12 months and compared the differences in such testing rates among adolescents exposed to lower versus higher age-ofconsent laws. We also investigated effect modifications by sex and age. Findings Legal age of consent below 16 years was associated with an 11.0 percentage points higher coverage of HIV testing (95% confidence interval, CI: 7.2 to 14.8), corresponding to a rate ratio of 1.74 (95% CI: 1.35 to 2.13). HIV testing rate had a stronger association with lower age of consent among females than males. The testing rates differences were 14.0 percentage points (95% CI: 8.6 to 19.4) for females and 6.9 percentage points (95% CI: 1.6 to 12.2) for males (P-value for homogeneity=0.07). Conclusion This study provides evidence to support the recent World Health Organization’s recommendations that countries should examine current laws and address age-related barriers to uptake of sexual and reproductive health services


Subject(s)
HIV , Infection/diagnosis , Syndrome , Adolescent , Parents , Child , Africa , Africa, Northern
5.
Health Sciences and Diseases ; 20(1), p.46-49, tab, 2019
Article in French | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-17

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Les dépenses de santé ont considérablement augmenté dans le monde lors de la dernière décennie. Les hépatites virales chroniques B et C sont des affections chroniques nécessitant un traitement prolongé et qui est encore coûteux, le Congo ne disposant pas encore d’assistance maladie universelle. Le but de cette étude était d’évaluer le coût de la prise en charge des hépatites virales B et C au Congo. Matériels et Méthodes. Il s’agit d’une étude transversale rétrospective et descriptive, réalisée du 1er juin au 31 Décembre 2016 dans le service de Gastro-entérologie et médecine interne du CHU de Brazzaville. Nous avons colligé les dossiers des patients suivis pour hépatite B et C. Les variables d’étude ont été les coûts des examens paracliniques et les coûts des traitements. Résultats. les coûts des examens paracliniques étaient de 296 000 FCFA (451€) pour le coût maximum de l’hépatite B, celui de l’hépatite C était de 596 500 FCFA (910,6 €). Les coûts du traitement de l’hépatite virale C étaient de 1 050 000 FCFA (1603,05 €) pour trois mois. Pour l’hépatite B, ils étaient de 389 987 (595,4€) par semestre. Le coût global de la prise de l’hépatite virale C était de 1 345 313 FCFA (2053,9€) et de 535 569 (817,662 €) pour l’hépatite B. Conclusion. Les coûts de la prise en charge des hépatites B et C sont encore trop élevés au Congo. Une prise en charge globale s’avère nécessaire, similaire à celle de l’infection à VIH


Subject(s)
Congo
6.
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-31

ABSTRACT

Introduction: there is a lack of longitudinal studies investigating daily tobacco use and problem drinking in Africa. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of daily tobacco use and problem drinking and to determine the factors associated with daily tobacco use and problem drinking among urban dwellers in a longitudinal study in South Africa.Methods: electronic interview data were collected from 2213 adults (mean age 45.7 years, SD=15.1; range 20-97) at time 1 (baseline assessment) and Time 2 (12 months follow-up assessment) from one urban centre in South Africa.Results: daily tobacco use only, was at time 1 24.0% and at time 2 23.4%, a decrease of 0.5%. Problem drinking only was at time 1 19.6% and at time 2 21.1%, an increase of 1.5%. Concurrent daily tobacco use and problem drinking increased from time 1 9.5% to 10.3% at time 2, an increase of 0.8%. In longitudinal regression analyses, being male and being born in current city were significantly associated with all three substance use indicators (daily tobacco use; problem drinking; and concurrent daily tobacco use and problem drinking). In addition, older age, not currently married, lower education, underweight and higher levels of perceived stress were associated with daily tobacco use and younger age was associated with problem drinking.Conclusion: high prevalence of daily tobacco use and problem drinking were found among urban dwellers and several socio-demographic (being male, being born in the city, not married and lower education) and health variables (being underweight and perceived stress) were identified which can guide substance use intervention programmes for this population


Subject(s)
Tobacco , /epidemiology , /adverse effects , Ethanol , Drinking/epidemiology , Population , Adult , Africa
7.
Article in French | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-32

ABSTRACT

Introduction: le surpoids et l’obésité au cours de l’adolescence constituent un problème préoccupant de santé publique à l’échelle mondiale en raison de leur retentissement potentiel sur la santé et de leur fréquence croissante. La présente étude avait pour objectif de déterminer la prévalence du surpoids et de l’obésité chez les adolescents scolarisés dans les établissements publics et privés à Lubumbashi, en République Démocratique du Congo. Méthodes: il s’agissait d’une étude transversale menée auprès de 5.341 adolescents âgés de 10 à 19 ans, dont 2.858 (53,5%) filles et 2.483 (46,5%) garçons ont constitué notre échantillon. Pour chacun d’eux, nous avons mesuré le poids et la taille puis calculé l’indice de masse corporelle (IMC). Résultats: la moyenne du poids était de 43,78 ± 11,62 kg (soit 42,39 ± 12,11 kg pour les garçons et 44,95 ± 11,04 kg pour les filles), celle de la taille était de 151,30 ± 13,09 cm (soit 151,20 ± 14,64 cm pour les garçons et 151,38 ± 11,58 cm pour les filles) et celle de l’IMC était de 18,82 ± 3,15 kg/m2 (soit 19,39 ± 3,39 kg/m2 pour les garçons et 18,17 ± 2,71 kg/m2 pour les filles). La prévalence du surpoids était de 8% et celle de l’obésité était de 1%. Les filles étaient significativement plus touchées par le surpoids (10,7% filles contre 5% garçons) et l’obésité (1,5 % filles contre 0,4% garçons) que les garçons. Conclusion: le surpoids et l’obésité chez les adolescents en milieu scolaire s’avèrent une réalité à Lubumbashi. La détermination de la prévalence du surpoids et de l’obésité pour cette catégorie d’âge au plan national est recommandable pour leurs préventions et prises en charges


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Congo
8.
Article in French | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-33

ABSTRACT

Introduction: le cancer colorectal constitue un problème majeur de santé publique. L’objectif de notre étude est d’analyser le profil épidémiologique, nutritionnel, clinique et anatomo-pathologique des cancers colorectaux recrutés au CHU de Casablanca.Méthodes: notre étude cas-témoins a porté sur les patients pris en charge pour un cancer colorectal durant l’année 2015, comparés à des témoins non suivi pour un cancer. Résultats: l’âge moyen des patients était de 56,65 ans avec un écart type de 14,64. Le type histologique le plus fréquent chez nos patients était représenté par l’adénocarcinome Lieberkhünien avec une proportion de 82 %. L’analyse de l’indice de masse corporelle a permis de retrouver une obésité chez 50% des patients contre 20% des témoins et un diabète chez 19% des patients versus 8% des témoins (p < 0,019). Par ailleurs, l’étude du régime alimentaire des patients comparé à celui des témoins semble montrer que la moyenne de la fréquence de consommation hebdomadaire de viandes rouges est plus élevée chez les patients que chez les témoins (4,24 vs 3,26; p = 0,009) et inversement pour la consommation du poissons (0,97 contre 1,76; p = 0,0001). En revanche, la moyenne de consommation des légumes et des fruits est plus faible chez les patients que chez les témoins (5,00 vs 9,50; p = 0,0001). Concernant les habitudes toxiques de nos patients, 32% des patients étaient fumeurs vs 13 % des témoins.Conclusion: nos résultats montrent que la prise de conscience à propos du régime alimentaire et des changements dans nos habitudes de vie pourrait réduire l’incidence du cancer colorectal et par conséquent la mortalité et la morbidité.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis
9.
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-34

ABSTRACT

Introduction: low and middle income countries are disproportionately affected with road traffic injuries and the lower extremity is one of the most affected anatomical body parts. There exist very limited data on the pattern of lower extremity injuries in the Cameroon especially in the South West Region. We therefore, hypothesized that lower limb injuries are common in road traffic crashes and motorized two wheelers are the commonest cause.Methods: this was a hospital based prospective, cross sectional study. It involved four hospitals (Limbe and Buea Regional Hospitals, Baptist hospital Mutengene and Tiko District Hospital) in the Fako Division. It was carried out for three months. Victims of road traffic crashes received at emergency department of these hospitals during this period were assessed. Crash characteristics and injury characteristics were assessed and recorded.Results: we analyzed 411 crash victims, 197(47.93%) had lower extremity injuries. The male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Majority of crash victims were in their 3rd and 4th decades of life. The mean age of patients who had lower limb injuries was 33.30(±16.04). The most vulnerable road users were pedestrians (26.52%) and passengers on motor bikes (38.44%) and the commonest mechanism by which crash victims sustained injuries were: bike-car collisions (22.84%), and bike-pedestrian collisions (19.29%). Commercial motor bikes (62.77%) and taxis (22.38%) were the road users most involved in road traffic collisions. The leg 98(49.75%), thigh 23(11.68%), and knee 20(10.15%) were the most injured anatomical parts of the lower extremity. Fractures 68 (34.52%), lacerations 53(26.90%), and bruises 49(24.87%) were the most recurrent pattern of lower extremity injuries.Conclusion: in view of our findings we conclude therefore as follows: The prevalence of lower extremity injuries from Road Traffic Crashes in our study area was 47.93%. Associated risk factors to the road traffic crashes as identified by the victims were bad roads (10.15%) and bad weather (5.05%). The safety gargets were not adequately utilized by our victims, with 87.72% confirming that they did not wear the helmet and 87.50% affirming that they did not wear the seat belt at the time of the crash. The occupations mostly affected in our series were pupils and students (20.3%) and business people (19.2%), then the bike riders (15.23%). We thus recommend that the laws on the use of road safety gargets, especially helmets and seatbelts, be enforced, with riding and driving speeds reduced to below 60km/hour. Road usage should be avoided in bad weather and pedestrians lanes and zebra crossings be provided to minimize pedestrian-car or -bike collision


Subject(s)
Wounds and Injuries , Extremities , Accidents , Prevalence , Cameroon
10.
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-35

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the protracted war in South Sudan has led to severe humanitarian crisis with high level of malnutrition and disruption of the health systems with continuous displacement of the population and low immunization coverage predisposing the population to vaccine preventable diseases. The study aimed at evaluating the effect of integrating immunization services with already established nutrition services on immunization coverage in resource-constrained humanitarian response.Methods: a community and health facility based interventional study involving integration of immunization into nutrition services in two Outpatient Therapeutic Program(OTP)centers in Bentiu PoC between January-December 2017. The main hypothesis was that inclusion of immunization services during nutrition services both at the OTP and community outreaches be an effective strategy for reducing missed opportunity for immunizing all eligible children accessing nutrition services. Data analyzed using STATA version 15 and bivariate analysis using logistic regression was conducted to identify predictor of missed vaccinations.Results: integration of immunization into the nutrition services through the OTP centres increased the number of children immunized with various antigens and the dropout rate was much lower and statistically significant among children who received immunization at the OTP centers than those in the Primary Health Care Centers (PHC Centers) in the study sites. Children who were vaccinated at the OTP centre in sector 2 were 45% less likely to miss vaccination than those vaccinated at the PHCC (OR: 0.45; 95%CI:0.36- 0.55), p<0.05 while those vaccinated at the OTP sector in sector 5 were 27% less likely to miss vaccination than those vaccinated at the PHCC (OR: 0.27; 95%CI: 0.20 -0.35) p<0.05).Conclusion: this study indicated that immunization coverage improved effectively with integration with nutrition services as a model of an integrated immunization programme for child health in line with the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) and the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIV)


Subject(s)
Immunization , Nutrition, Public Health , Therapeutics , Population , Child , Sudan
11.
Article in French | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-36

ABSTRACT

Introduction: le but de cette étude est de déterminer le taux de couverture vaccinale anti-virus de l'hépatite B (anti-VHB) et la prévalence de l'AgHBs chez les soldats béninois en mission extérieure en Côte d'Ivoire. Méthodes: cette étude transversale était réalisée au sein du bataillon béninois basé à Anankouakouté en Côte d'Ivoire. Les soldats de cette compagnie au décours d'une séance d'éducation sanitaire étaient soumis à un questionnaire sous forme d'interview. Il portait sur les données sociodémographiques, les facteurs de risques d'infection et les antécédents de vaccination contre l'hépatite B. Des prélèvements étaient faits à la recherche de l'Ag HBs et des anticorps antiHBs. En cas de positivité de l'Ag HBs, un complément de bilan était fait (alanines aminotransférase(ALAT), Ag HBe, AcantiHBe, AcAntiHBcIgM et ADN HBV par PCR). Résultats: cent soixante-quinze militaires ont participé à cette étude (âge médian 31ans avec des extrêmes entre 23 et 52 ans; sex-ratio 5,73). Des taux protecteurs d'Ac Anti HBs étaient notés chez 41 militaires (23,4%). Cette immunité était post hépatitique B (25 cas/41) et post vaccinale (16 cas/41). Dix-huit militaires (10,3%) avaient une infection en cours par le VHB (Ag HBs+). L'infection était chronique (IgM anti HBc-et anticorps anti-HBc totaux + dans 18cas/18). Parmi les militaires infectés, 4 avaient une élévation des aminotransferases, 4 un Ag HBe positif et 4 une virémie élevée (ADN VHB >2000UI/L). Conclusion: le portage de l'AgHBs chez les militaires Béninois en mission est élevé. La couverture vaccinale est faible. Des stratégies d'intervention sont préconisées pour traiter ceux qui répondent aux critères et vacciner les non immunisés

12.
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management; 23(1), p.5-11, fig., tab, 2019
in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-58

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The present study investigates impact of burial practices on water quality in Benin City, Nigeria by collecting groundwater samples from boreholes located by the peripheral area of Third Cemetery in Benin City and a reference site approximately 4 km away using standard methods. With the exception of SO4, CaCO3, Fe and DO, the concentrations of other parameters were higher in water samples obtained from the peripheral area of Third Cemetery than that from the reference site. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that pH, Fe, and CaCO3 were differentiating parameters related to reference site, similar condition was attributed to SO4 and Mg for site 2 and Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn and DO for sites 1 & 3. Cluster analysis (CA) placed the reference site as outlier to other sites. Higher concentrations of Cl, NO3, Na, K and BOD5 in samples obtained by cemetery peripheral when compared to reference site and positive correlations among these parameters are indications of impacts of decomposing activities in cemetery upon water quality in underlying aquifer. Limiting water quality index (WQI) computation to pH, EC, Cl, NO3, SO4, Na and BOD5 showed that quality of groundwater obtained from cemetery peripheral is not good for domestic uses


Subject(s)
Cemeteries , Groundwater , Absorption , Nigeria , Benin
13.
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management; 23(1), p.14-19, fig., tab, 2019
in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-59

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The dominant bacteriological and archaeal phyla of compounded soils sourced from a commercial farm estate located in Amukpe town and a nearby control in Adavware community both in Delta State, were evaluated with the aid of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) protocols. The residual herbicide and pesticide composition of the bulked soils were also determined using gas chromatography (GC) and electron capture detector (ECD). Total concentrations of the extracted DNA were 6.83 and 6.65 ng/μl for the control and experimental soils. Nine (9) bacterial phyla; Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes Acidobacteria, and Elusimicrobia were observed in the control soil. Thirteen (13) bacterial phyla; Elusimicrobia, Fibrobacteres Lentisphaerae, Armatimonadetes, Cyanobacteria/Chloroplast, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia were detected in the experimental soil. Two (2) archaeal phyla; Euryarchaeota, and Diapherotrites were detected both the experimental and control soil, whilst an additional archaeal phylum; Woesearchaeota was present in only the experimental soil. The total organochloride phosphate component of the experimental soil was 1.4μg/Kg and 0.4μg/Kg for the control soil respectively


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria , Chloroflexi , Firmicutes , Verrucomicrobia , Bacteroidetes , Acidobacteria , Nigeria , Delta , State
14.
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management; 23(1), p.21-28, fig., tab, 2019
in French | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-61

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Lignin and hemicelluloses are the major impurities to be removed in natural fibers for it to be suitable in composite application and other uses. This research is based on evaluating the influence of soaking time and sodium hydroxide concentration on the chemical composition of treated mango seed shell (MSSF) by immersing the MSSF in NaOH solution at concentration of 2.5 - 7.5 wt % and soaking time of 2-6 hr, in order to decrease the lignin and hemicellulose content while increasing its cellulose content. The optimum conditions obtained for concentration and soaking time of NaOH were 6.09 % and 5.22 hr, respectively. At these conditions, cellulose content was increased to 94.8002%, while the hemicelluloses and lignin content were reduced to 2.2779% and 0.508502%, respectively. The process parameter of MSSF was optimized using central composite design (CCD) to predict the cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin content. The quadratic model of response surface model (RSM) was adopted for the prediction of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin content. The maximum error between the predicted using CCD and experimental results was less 0.38%. These errors in variation for both the predicted by the RSM and the actual gave good alignment with both results. Therefore, at these treatment conditions, MSSF can be utilized for composite application and other industrial purpose


Subject(s)
Lignin , Chemistry , Mangifera
15.
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management; 23(1), p.29-34, fig., tab, 2019
in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-63

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli is the most prevalent organism responsible for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in hospital and community sources. The present study was carried out to detect multi drug resistant (MDR) E coli from urine samples and the role of plasmids in drug resistance. One hundred urine samples were collected from the hospital and community within the University of Port Harcourt. Microscopic and chemical examination was carried out on the urine samples. E coli were isolated and antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out on the isolates, the resistant E. coli were cured by acridine orange and further subjected susceptibility testing. Result obtained from the study showed 35% E. coli recovered from community samples and 65% from hospital samples. Antibiotic sensitivity testing before plasmid curing showed high level of resistance to Augmentin (99%), Cefuroxime (92%), Ceftazidime (78%) and Cefixime (71%). The lowest level of resistance was reported in Gentamicin (15%) and Nitrofurantoin (19%). All the isolates were resistant to Augmentin but upon plasmid curing the resistant rate of isolates to eight antibiotics reduced. Our findings showed that Augmentin and Cefuroxime (62 and 31%) were still resistant after the plasmids of the isolates were cured. For hospital and community sources Nitrofurantoin (1; 0%), Ceftazidime (3; 8%), Ciprofloxacin (1%), Gentamicin (10%) and Ofloxacin (10%). Sixty-two (62) percent of the hospital isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics while 60% of the community isolates were multidrug resistant. Our study thus concludes that plasmids alone are not responsible for the resistance to antibiotics exhibited by E,coli from urine samples. Antibiotics should be produced to target genes that are responsible for resistance to prevent the spread of drug resistant organisms


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli , Plasmids , Nigeria
16.
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management; 23(1), p.35-40, fig., tab, 2019
in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-64

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: As water is a major life sustainer, hence its portability is of great importance in performing that role well. In this study, various water samples were collected within Efon-Alaaye for both physicochemical and bacteriological tests. A total of nine (9) water samples were taken for analysis with six (6) from various surface sources and three (3) from groundwater sources in the study area. The mean turbidity value, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration, hardness and EC are 2.92 NTU, 23°C, 447.8 mg/l, 48.1 mg/l and 138.4 μS/cm respectively. Manganese has mean value of 0.27 mg/l. The concentration of both copper and zinc ranges from 0.07 – 0.13 mg/l and 0.16 – 0.55 mg/l with an average value of 0.04 mg/l and 0.28 mg/l respectively. Water samples collected were also analyzed for total coliform bacteria and ranged from 1 to 4.6/100 ml with an average value of 3.29 colony/100 ml. On the basis of findings, the physico-chemical analysis reveals that some of the water samples were above the WHO standards for parameters like turbidity and TDS while the bacteriological test reveals that seven (7) of the water samples considered met the WHO requirement of portability while the other two samples contain faecal contaminant as E.coli was discovered, though at reasonable rate


Subject(s)
Absorption , Techniques , Groundwater , Nigeria , State
17.
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management; 23(1), p.41-46, fig., tab, 2019
in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-65

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Several items containing residual antimicrobial agents are disposed of in dumpsites, placing a pressure on the microbial flora and a potential for development of resistance in these microorganisms. Multidrug resistance patterns and multiple antibiotic resistance index of Salmonella spp. isolated from waste dumps in Zaria Metropolis were thus assayed in this study using one hundred and twelve (112) soil samples collected from four waste dumpsites located in Sabon-Gari, Samaru, Tudun-Wada and Zaria City. Salmonella spp. were isolated by culture methods on selective media and characterized using a series of biochemical tests. The isolates were confirmed using microgen identification kits. Results were statistically analysed using percentages. The antibiotic resistance patterns were determined, using the disc-diffusion method. Ten antibiotics belonging to eight different classes, namely B-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone, Nitrofurantoins, sulphonamides, and phenicols were tested. The result of the study revealed that 57.2% of the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR) taken as resistance to four or more antibiotics tested. On the other hand, all the isolates showed 100% susceptibility to Chloramphenicol (30μg) and Gentamicin (30μg) while 76.2% had Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) Index of 0.2 and above. The isolates showing resistance to the highest number of antibiotics were obtained from refuse dumpsites in Zaria City while an isolate from Sabon-Gari was found to be resistant to six antibiotics. These results could be indicative of possible disposal of these drug residues in the waste dump locations making them hot spots for development of resistance


Subject(s)
Salmonella , Nigeria , Cities
18.
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management; 23(1), p.47-50, fig., tab, 2019
in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-66

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The health hazards posed by heavy metals in water and the need to mitigate the hazards have attracted a flurry of research interests on the technologies and methods of removing them from water. The industrial waste water from a gutter within the neighbourhood of the Delta Shopping Mall in Effurun was used to test the heavy metal sorption capacity of the waste high density polythene and biowaste composites compounded by the author using a locally constructed extruder. Some of the physico – chemical properties of the waste water determined with PH Kent meter (model 7020) and Hach conductivity meter (C0150) where within WHO acceptable limits while some were not. The metal concentrations were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer(Perkin Elmer Absorption Analyst 400 model) The Composite of 2:1.5:0.5 (HDPE: saw dust: egg shell) sorbed the highest concentration of the metals ( 0.168mg/L, Fe; 0.072mg/L, Ni and 0.082mg/L, Cr than the other composites of 1.5: 1: 1.5 and 2:1:1 except Cd while the composite, 2:1:1 sorbed the least concentration of metals( 0.061mg/L, Fe; 0.044mg/L, Ni; 0.071mg/L, Cr and 0.002mg/L, Cd during the first 24 hours of sorption exposure. Chromium was the most sorbed metal, 97.6% while cadmium was the least, 20.0%. There was no systematic pattern of variation for metal absorption in the next 24 hours due probably to the blocking of the pore sites during the first twenty four hours of sorption exposure. The composite, 2:1.5:0.5 exhibited a good potential as an economic heavy metal sorbent


Subject(s)
Metals , Water , Nigeria , Delta , State
19.
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management; 23(1), p.47-52, tab, 2019
in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-67

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In many parts of the world, HIV/AIDS has gained pandemic dimension covering large areas and continues to spread. There are reports that worldwide, 45% of people contracting HIV/AIDS are adolescents aged between 15 and 24 years. The presence of HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria elicited similar response to that experienced by many countries in Africa, and indeed, the world: denial, acceptance and finally actions to fight the scourge. Since adolescents appear to be vulnerable to HIV/AIDS infection, this study ascertained the knowledge of HIV/AIDS infection among secondary school students in Abuja. A descriptive survey design was employed. Using multistage sampling technique, 602 senior secondary school students in Abuja were selected to participate in the study. A self-developed validated questionnaire was used to collect data and data was analysed using mean, frequency counts, percentages to describe the data and ANOVA, t-test and regression were used to analyse hypotheses and question set at 0.05 significant level. The major findings were that the students of older age group had knowledge of HIV/AIDS (p < 0.05) and the younger age group did not have knowledge; Male students appear more knowledgeable than the female students (p < 0.05); gender, class and religion had influence on the knowledge of the students on HIV/AIDS (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Gender and Demographic Variables continue to limit the awareness of secondary school students on HIV/AIDS infection. Stakeholders must be involved in the proactive advocy and education of secondary school students on HIV/AIDS in order to gain adequate knowledge


Subject(s)
Knowledge , HIV , Infection , Syndrome , Schools , Nigeria
20.
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management; 23(1), p.53-57, 2019
in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-68

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Carpolobia lutea is a medicinal plant commonly utilized in Nigeria to boost libido. The ethnomedicinal importance of any plant lies in some secondary metabolites. Hence, the present study was carried out to investigate the proximate and phytochemical composition of roots and leaves of this plant using standard methods. The proximate composition of leaves and roots showed moisture, ash, fibre, protein, fat and carbohydrate contents with values that ranged between 8.84-9.55, 3.48-3.65, 1.10-1.06, 6.64-8.39, 1.80-1.80 and 76.16-77.47% respectively. The leaves contained higher amount of ash, crude protein and fat than the roots. The results of ethanolic extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, steroids, saponins, tannins, phenols, terpenoids, anthocyanin, carotenoids and flavonoids in both the leaves and roots. These phytochemicals were found to be significantly higher in roots except for anthraquinones, flavonoids and steroids which were significantly higher in the leaves. Among the phytochemicals, alkaloids were found to be highest in concentration followed in decreasing order by saponins, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, anthocyanin, terpenoids, phenols and carotenoids. The results indicated that, C. lutea leaf and root have high nutritive and medicinal values and this could be explored for pharmaceutical purposes


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Steroids , Carbohydrates , Nigeria
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